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1.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 51(4): 334-338, dic. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057397

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los objetivos de este trabajo fueron estudiar la sensibilidad antibiótica de aislamientos de Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis procedentes de pequeños rumiantes e investigar la presencia de integrones que contienen genes de resistencia. Se estudiaron 15 aislamientos de diferentes fuentes por los métodos de difusión y dilución. Por el método de difusión, amoxicilina-clavulánico, ampicilina, cefotaxima, cefoxitina, ciprofloxacina, cloranfenicol, eritromicina, estreptomicina, gentamicina, imipenem, kanamicina, norfloxacina, penicilina, rifampicina, tetraciclina, trimetroprima-sulfametoxazol y vancomicina fueron activos frente al 100% de los aislamientos, mientras que amicacina presentó resultados variables. En los aislamientos que desarrollaron frente a amicacina se investigó la presencia de integrones de clase 1. El resultado fue negativo, sugiriendo la ausencia del integrón. Utilizando el método de dilución, los antibióticos más activos correspondieron a los grupos de cefalosporinas, gluco-péptidos, macrólidos, quinolonas y tetraciclinas. Se demostró menor actividad de p-lactámicos y aminoglucósidos. No se registró variabilidad en los perfiles antibióticos en los aislamientos procedentes de diferentes fuentes.


Abstract The aims of this work were to study the antibiotic susceptibility in Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis isolated from small ruminants and to determine the presence of integrons that contain resistance genes. Fifteen isolates of different sources were analysed using the diffusion and the dilution methods. When the diffusion method was performed, amoxicillin-clavulanic, ampicillin, cefotaxime, cefoxitin, ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin, streptomycin, gentamicin, imipenem, kanamycin, norfloxacin, penicillin, rifampicin, tetracycline, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and vancomycin were effective against the 100% of isolates, while amikacin showed variable results. The isolates that were able to grow with amikacin, were studied in relation to the presence of integron class 1. The result was negative, suggesting the absence of integron. Using dilution method, the antibiotics belonging to the cephalosporin, glycopeptide, macrolide, quinolone, and tetracycline groups were the most active ones for the C. pseudotuberculosis biovar ovis isolates. Less activity of p-lactam and aminoglycosides were observed. There was no observation of variability in the antibiotic patterns in the strains coming from different sources.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/microbiology , Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis/drug effects , Integrons/drug effects , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , In Vitro Techniques/methods , Ruminants/microbiology , Dilution/analysis , Diffusion/drug effects , Lymphadenitis/prevention & control
2.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785901

ABSTRACT

Antibacterial drugs are one of the most important therapeutic agents of bacterial infections but multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (MDREC) is an increasing problem worldwide. Major resistance mechanism of MDREC is horizontal gene transfer of R plasmids harboring integrons, which the integron integrase (IntI) catalyzes gene cassette insertion and excision through site specific recombination. In this study, resistance profiles of integron harboring E. coli isolated in Korea and the genetic environments of integron gene cassettes were analyzed by PCR and direct sequencing to clarify the mechanisms of spread of integron harboring E. coli. Resistance rates of integron harboring E. coli, including β-lactams, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones and MDR frequencies were significantly higher than that of E. coli without integron (p < 0.01). Majority (80%) of integron harboring E. coli showed resistance transfer by conjugation. Most (80%) of E. coli had dfrA17-aadA5 cassette array and PcH1 hybrid promoter; 16.7% of E. coli had dfrA12-orfF-aadA2 cassette array and PcW promoter. The higher prevalence of weak Pc variants among most (96.7%) of integron harboring MDREC suggests that a flexible cassette array is more important than enhanced expression. All the integrons had LexA binding motif suggests that SOS responses control the expression of these integrons. In conclusion, the genetic bases of integrons were diverse, and the spread and the expression of prevalent gene cassette arrays may be deeply related with strengths of Pc promoters in integrons. These informations will provide important knowledge to control the increase of integron harboring MDREC.


Subject(s)
Aminoglycosides , Bacterial Infections , Escherichia coli , Escherichia , Fluoroquinolones , Gene Transfer, Horizontal , Integrases , Integrons , Korea , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , R Factors , Recombination, Genetic , SOS Response, Genetics
3.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-721504

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, shigellosis is endemic and also occurs in epidemics and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are important. The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons and the clonal relatedness of isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing technique was employed for detection and characterization of integrons. The genetic relatedness was evaluated by using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR. RESULTS: There was a high percentage of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (93.7%), ampicillin (AMP) (87.3%), streptomycin (STR) (84.5%) and tetracycline (TET) (78.9%). Multidrug resistant phenotype was seen in 95.1% of total isolates. Most common MDR profile was TMP/SMX/STR/AMP resistant pattern. Among the 142 Shigella spp. analyzed in this study, 28 isolates were positive for class 1 integron with two types of gene cassette arrays (dfrA17/aadA5 = 31.7% and dfrA7 = 3.8%). The class 2 integron was more frequently detected among the isolates (94.7%) with dfrA1/sat1/aadA1 (69.4%) and dfrA1/sat1 (30.6%) gene cassettes. ERIC-PCR results showed 6, 5, 4 and 3 main genotypes among S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and S. dysenteriae isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that multidrug resistant Shigella species with high prevalence of class 2 integron were very common in Iran. In addition, ERIC-PCR patterns showed limited variety of clones are responsible for shigellosis in the region of the study.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Clone Cells , Consensus , Developing Countries , Diffusion , Dysentery, Bacillary , Genotype , Integrons , Iran , Methods , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Shigella , Streptomycin , Tetracycline , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-722009

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In many developing countries, shigellosis is endemic and also occurs in epidemics and treatment of multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates are important. The aims of this study were to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility, prevalence of class 1 and 2 integrons and the clonal relatedness of isolates. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility tests were performed by disc diffusion method. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-sequencing technique was employed for detection and characterization of integrons. The genetic relatedness was evaluated by using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus (ERIC) PCR. RESULTS: There was a high percentage of resistance to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP/SMX) (93.7%), ampicillin (AMP) (87.3%), streptomycin (STR) (84.5%) and tetracycline (TET) (78.9%). Multidrug resistant phenotype was seen in 95.1% of total isolates. Most common MDR profile was TMP/SMX/STR/AMP resistant pattern. Among the 142 Shigella spp. analyzed in this study, 28 isolates were positive for class 1 integron with two types of gene cassette arrays (dfrA17/aadA5 = 31.7% and dfrA7 = 3.8%). The class 2 integron was more frequently detected among the isolates (94.7%) with dfrA1/sat1/aadA1 (69.4%) and dfrA1/sat1 (30.6%) gene cassettes. ERIC-PCR results showed 6, 5, 4 and 3 main genotypes among S. flexneri, S. sonnei, S. boydii and S. dysenteriae isolates, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that multidrug resistant Shigella species with high prevalence of class 2 integron were very common in Iran. In addition, ERIC-PCR patterns showed limited variety of clones are responsible for shigellosis in the region of the study.


Subject(s)
Ampicillin , Clone Cells , Consensus , Developing Countries , Diffusion , Dysentery, Bacillary , Genotype , Integrons , Iran , Methods , Phenotype , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Prevalence , Shigella , Streptomycin , Tetracycline , Trimethoprim, Sulfamethoxazole Drug Combination
5.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(3): 499-508, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889148

ABSTRACT

Abstract Salmonella is recognized as a common foodborne pathogen, causing major health problems in Saudi Arabia. Herein, we report epidemiology, antimicrobial susceptibility and the genetic basis of resistance among S. enterica strains isolated in Saudi Arabia. Isolation of Salmonella spp. from clinical and environmental samples resulted in isolation of 33 strains identified as S. enterica based on their biochemical characteristics and 16S-rDNA sequences. S. enterica serovar Enteritidis showed highest prevalence (39.4%), followed by S. Paratyphi (21.2%), S. Typhimurium (15.2%), S. Typhi and S. Arizona (12.1%), respectively. Most isolates were resistant to 1st and 2nd generation cephalosporin; and aminoglycosides. Moreover, several S. enterica isolates exhibited resistance to the first-line antibiotics used for Salmonellosis treatment including ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and chloramphenicol. In addition, the results revealed the emergence of two S. enterica isolates showing resistance to third-generation cephalosporin. Analysis of resistance determinants in S. enterica strains (n = 33) revealed that the resistance to β-lactam antibiotics, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline, was attributed to the presence of carb-like, dfrA1, floR, tetA gene, respectively. On the other hand, fluoroquinolone resistance was related to the presence of mutations in gyrA and parC genes. These findings improve the information about foodborne Salmonella in Saudi Arabia, alarming the emergence of multi-drug resistant S. enterica strains, and provide useful data about the resistance mechanisms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Saudi Arabia , Serotyping , Tetracycline/pharmacology
6.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(3): 321-328, May-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-896978

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Infections caused by β-lactamase-producing gram-negative bacteria, such as Klebsiella pneumoniae, are increasing globally with high morbidity and mortality. The aim of the current study was to determine antimicrobial susceptibility patterns and the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes (β-lactamase and integron genes) using multiplex PCR. METHODS One-hundred K. pneumoniae isolates were collected from different clinical samples. Antibiotic susceptibility testing was performed with thirteen different antibiotics. Multiplex-PCR was used to detect β-lactamase (bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV , bla VEB, bla PER, bla GES, bla VIM, bla IMP, bla OXA, and bla KPC) and integron genes (int I, int II, and int III). RESULTS: The highest and lowest rate of resistance was exhibited against amikacin (93%) and imipenem (8%), respectively. The frequency of β-lactamase-positive K. pneumoniae was 37%, and the prevalence of the bla TEM, bla CTX-M, bla SHV , bla VEB, bla PER, bla GES, bla VIM, bla IMP, bla OXA, and bla KPC genes was 38%, 24%, 19%, 12%, 6%, 11%, 33%, 0%, 28%, and 23%, respectively. Of the 100 isolates, eight (8%) were positive for class I integrons; however, class II and III integrons were not detected in any of the strains. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate co-carriage of a number of β-lactamase genes and antibiotic resistance integrons on the same plasmids harboring multi-drug resistance genes. It seems that these properties help to decrease treatment complications due to resistant bacterial infections by rapid detection, infection-control programs and prevention of transmission of drug resistance.


Subject(s)
Humans , beta-Lactamases/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial/genetics , Integrons/genetics , Klebsiella pneumoniae/drug effects , Klebsiella pneumoniae/genetics , Klebsiella Infections/microbiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Klebsiella pneumoniae/isolation & purification , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57420

ABSTRACT

Salmonella enterica isolates (n = 122), including 32 serotypes from 113 dogs and 9 cats, were obtained from household dogs (n = 250) and cats (n = 50) during 2012–2015. The isolates were characterized by serotyping, antimicrobial resistance phenotyping and genotyping, and virulence gene screening. Serovars Weltevreden (15.6%) and Typhimurium (13.9%) were the most common. The majority (43%) of the isolates were multidrug resistant. The dog isolates (12.3%) harbored class 1 integrons, of which the dfrA12-aadA2 cassette was most frequent (66.7%). The only class integron in serovar Albany was located on a conjugative plasmid. Two ESBL-producing isolates (i.e., a serovar Krefeld and a serovar Enteritridis) carried bla(TEM) and bla(CTX-M), and the bla(TEM) gene in both was horizontally transferred. Of the plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance genes tested, only qnrS (4.9%) was detected. Most Salmonella isolates harbored invA (100%), prgH (91.8%), and sipB (91%). Positive associations between resistance and virulence genes were observed for bla(PSE-1)/orgA, cmlA/spaN, tolC, and sul1/tolC (p < 0.05). The results suggest that companion dogs and cats are potential sources of S. enterica strains that carry resistance and virulence genes and that antimicrobial use in companion animals may select for the examined Salmonella virulence factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Dogs , Family Characteristics , Friends , Humans , Integrons , Mass Screening , Pets , Plasmids , Salmonella enterica , Salmonella , Serogroup , Serotyping , Virulence Factors , Virulence
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-99759

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) is considered a serious global threat. However, little is known regarding the multidrug resistance (MDR) mechanisms of CRKP. This study investigated the phenotypes and MDR mechanisms of CRKP and identified their clonal characteristics. METHODS: PCR and sequencing were utilized to identify antibiotic resistance determinants. Integron gene cassette arrays were determined by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) and pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) were used for epidemiological analysis. Plasmids were typed by using a PCR-based replicon typing and analyzed by conjugation and transformation assays. RESULTS: Seventy-eight strains were identified as resistant to at least one carbapenem; these CRKP strains had a high prevalence rate (38.5%, 30/78) of carbapenemase producers. Additionally, most isolates harbored MDR genes, including Extended spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC, and quinolone and aminoglycoside resistance genes. Loss of porin genes was observed, and Class 1 integron was detected in 66.7% of the investigated isolates. PFGE and MLST results excluded the occurrence of clonal dissemination among these isolates. CONCLUSIONS: A high prevalence of NDM-1 genes encoding carbapenem resistance determinants was demonstrated among the K. pneumoniae isolates. Importantly, this is the first report of bla(NDM-1) carriage in a K. pneumoniae ST1383 clone in China and of a MDR CRKP isolate co-harboring bla(NDM-1), bla(KPC-2), bla(CTX-M), bla(SHV), acc(6′)-Ib, rmtB, qnrB, and acc(6′)-Ib-cr.


Subject(s)
China , Clone Cells , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Electrophoresis, Gel, Pulsed-Field , Genes, MDR , Integrons , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Klebsiella , Molecular Epidemiology , Phenotype , Plasmids , Pneumonia , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Prevalence , Replicon
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-648347

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Integrons are thought to play an important role in the spread of antibiotic resistance. This study investigates class 1 and 2 integron-positive methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains isolated in Iran and characterizes their patterns of antimicrobial resistance. METHODS: Hundred clinical isolates of coagulase-negative staphylococci were characterized for integron content and staphylococcal cassette chromosome mec (SCCmec) type. RESULTS: Sixteen isolates carried class 1 (intI1) integrons and four isolates carried class 2 (intI2) integrons. One resistance gene array was identified among the class 1 integrons (aadA1 cassette). The distribution of SCCmec types in 50 methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains showed that SCCmec types III and V dominated among the tested strains. CONCLUSION: This is the first report of methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci strains that carry two mobile genetic elements, including class 1 and 2 integrons and SCCmec, in Iran.


Subject(s)
Coagulase , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Integrons , Interspersed Repetitive Sequences , Iran , Methicillin Resistance
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281411

ABSTRACT

Objective The aim of our study is to investigate the prevalence of Carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (CRKP) and the genetic characteristics of the class 1 integron in CRKP on multi-drug resistance.Methods Clinical Klebsiella pneumoniae strains were collected from multiple departments of a hospital in central China. CRKP strains were identified among the isolates, and antibiotics susceptibility of CRKP strains was analyzed. The polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was adopted to amplify the class 1 integron variable area. The integron genetic structure was analyzed with enzyme digestion and DNA sequencing technology. The relation between class 1 integron and drug resistance was analyzed statistically.Results Totally 955 strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae were isolated from varied sites of the hospital, and 117(12.3%) of them were identified as CRKP, with a separation rate of 8.9% (26/292) in 2013, 11.3% (38/336) in 2014 and 16.2% (53/327) in 2015, which shows an increasing trend by year. 44.4% (52/117) of CRKP strains were separated from specimen of ICU, and 61.5% (72/117) were from sputum. Over 95% CRKP strains were resistant to ampicillin/sulbactam, aztreonam, imipenem, meropenem, ceftazidme, cefotaxime, cefepime,and piperacillin, while relatively low resistant rates were found in tigecycline (12.8%) and colistin (35.9%). The class 1 integron was detected in 77.8% (91/117) of CRKP strains. Class 1 integron of CRKP was significantly correlated with the antibiotic resistance to the tobramycin, gentamicin and amikacin (all P<0.01). The gene cassette analysis of variable area of class 1 integron showed that aadA2 accounts for 64.8% (59/91), aacA4-catB8-aadA1 23.1% (21/91), and aadA2-dfrA25 12.1% (11/91).Conclusions CRKP has an increasing trend in a clinical setting in China, and most of them were resistant to multiple antibiotics. Class 1 integron in CRKP has strong ability to capture the genes resistant to aminoglycosides antibiotics from environment, with the aadA2 gene as the most popular one.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Carbapenems , Pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Integrons , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Genetics
11.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 800-806, Oct.-Dec. 2016.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828199

ABSTRACT

Abstract In Latin America, the disease burden of shigellosis is found to coexist with the rapid and rampant spread of resistance to commonly used antibiotics. The molecular basis of antibiotic resistance lies within genetic elements such as plasmids, transposons, integrons, genomic islands, etc., which are found in the bacterial genome. Integrons are known to acquire, exchange, and express genes within gene cassettes and it is hypothesized that they play a significant role in the transmission of multidrug resistance genes in several Gram-negative bacteria including Shigella. A few studies have described antibiotic resistance genes and integrons among multidrug resistant Shigella isolates found in Latin America. For example, in Brazil, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica and Peru, class 1 and class 2 integrons have been detected among multidrug resistant strains of Shigella; this phenomenon is more frequently observed in S. flexneri isolates that are resistant to trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, streptomycin, ampicillin, chloramphenicol, and tetracycline. The gene cassette sul2, which is frequently detected in Shigella strains resistant to the sulfonamides, suggests that the sulfonamide-resistant phenotype can be explained by the presence of the sul2 genes independent of the integron class detected. It is to be noted that sul3 was negative in all isolates analyzed in these studies.The high frequency of sulfonamide (as encoded by sul2) and trimethoprim resistance is likely to be a result of the recurrent use of trimethoprim sulfamethoxazole as a popular regimen for the treatment of shigellosis. The observed resistance profiles of Shigella strains confirm that ampicillin and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole are ineffective as therapeutic options. In-depth information regarding antibiotic resistance mechanism in this pathogen is needed in order to develop suitable intervention strategies. There is a pressing need for regional and local antimicrobial resistance profiling of Shigella to be included as a part of the public health strategy.


Subject(s)
Shigella/drug effects , Shigella/genetics , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Integrons , Dysentery, Bacillary/microbiology , Dysentery, Bacillary/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Population Surveillance , Dysentery, Bacillary/drug therapy , Genetic Loci , Genes, Bacterial , Latin America/epidemiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(4): 785-792, Oct.-Dec. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-828193

ABSTRACT

Abstract Acinetobacter baumannii is widely recognized as an important pathogen associated with nosocomial infections. The treatment of these infections is often difficult due to the acquisition of resistance genes. A. baumannii presents a high genetic plasticity which allows the accumulation of these resistance determinants leading to multidrug resistance. It is highlighted the importance of the horizontal transfer of resistance genes, through mobile genetic elements and its relationship with increased incidence of multidrug resistant A. baumannii in hospitals. Considering that resistance to carbapenems is very important from the clinical and epidemiological point of view, the aim of this article is to present an overview of the current knowledge about genetic elements related to carbapenem resistance in A. baumannii such as integrons, transposons, resistance islands and insertion sequences.


Subject(s)
DNA, Bacterial , DNA Transposable Elements , Carbapenems/pharmacology , beta-Lactam Resistance , Acinetobacter baumannii/drug effects , Acinetobacter baumannii/genetics , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Mutagenesis, Insertional , Integrons , Genomic Islands
13.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(2): 337-344, Apr.-June 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-780846

ABSTRACT

Abstract Fecal bacteria are considered to be a potential reservoir of antimicrobial resistance genes in the aquatic environment and could horizontally transfer these genes to autochthonous bacteria when carried on transferable and/or mobile genetic elements. Such circulation of resistance genes constitutes a latent public health hazard. The aim of this study was to characterize the variable region of the class 1 integron and relate its genetic content to resistance patterns observed in antimicrobial-resistant Escherichia coli isolated from the surface waters of Patos Lagoon, Southern Brazil. Genetic diversity of the isolates and presence of the qacEΔ1 gene, which confers resistance to quaternary ammonium compounds, were also investigated. A total of 27 isolates were analyzed. The variable region harbored dfrA17, dfrA1 and dfrA12 genes, which confer resistance to trimethoprim, and aadA1, aadA5 and aadA22 genes that encode resistance to streptomycin/spectinomycin. Most of the isolates were considered resistant to quaternary ammonium compounds and all of them carried the qacE Δ1 gene at the 3′ conserved segment of the integron. ERIC-PCR analyses of E. coli isolates that presented the integrons showed great genetic diversity, indicating diverse sources of contamination in this environment. These results suggest that fecal bacteria with class 1 integrons in aquatic environments are potentially important reservoirs of antibiotic-resistance genes and may transfer these elements to other bacteria that are capable of infecting humans.


Subject(s)
Integrons , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Escherichia coli/genetics , Fresh Water/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Phylogeny , Genetic Variation , Brazil , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli Proteins/metabolism , Escherichia coli/drug effects , Escherichia coli/metabolism
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 47(1): 196-201, Jan.-Mar. 2016. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-775099

ABSTRACT

Abstract Non-typhoidal salmonellosis is an important zoonotic disease caused by Salmonella enterica. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance in Salmonella spp. and its association with fluoroquinolone susceptibility in Brazil. A total of 129 NTS isolates (samples from human origin, food from animal origin, environmental, and animal) grouped as from animal (n = 62) and human (n = 67) food were evaluated between 2009 and 2013. These isolates were investigated through serotyping, antimicrobial susceptibility testing, and the presence of plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (qnr, aac(6')-Ib) and associated integron genes (integrase, and conserved integron region). Resistance to quinolones and/or fluoroquinolones, from first to third generations, was observed. Fifteen isolates were positive for the presence of qnr genes (8 qnrS, 6 qnrB, and 1 qnrD) and twenty three of aac(6')-Ib. The conserved integron region was detected in 67 isolates as variable regions, from ±600 to >1000 pb. The spread of NTS involving PMQR carriers is of serious concern and should be carefully monitored.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Environmental Microbiology , Food Microbiology , Quinolones/pharmacology , Salmonella Infections/microbiology , Salmonella enterica/drug effects , Brazil , Foodborne Diseases/microbiology , Genes, Bacterial , Integrons , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Plasmids/analysis , Serotyping , Salmonella enterica/classification , Salmonella enterica/genetics , Salmonella enterica/isolation & purification
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-281465

ABSTRACT

Objective To explore the effects of Scutellaria baicalensis on activity and biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumonia (Kp).Methods The broth and agar dilution Methods were carried out to determine minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of Scutellaria baicalensis for TW518. VITEK-32 system was used to assay TW518 susceptibility to antibiotics. Kp biofilms were formed in vitro and stained with BacLight Live/Dead stain. The class integron geneⅠ1 mRNA expression was analyzed with RT-PCR.Results The minimum inhibitory concentration of Scutellaria baicalensis on TW518 identified as a Kp colony was 32 mg/ml, and minimum bactericidal concentration was 64 mg/ml. Scutellaria baicalensis and broad-spectrum penicillin, cephalosporin, quinolones, or beta-lactamase had synergistic bactericidal effects. Biofilm formation activity of Kp treated with Scutellaria baicalensis was significantly lower than that of the control group. And class integron geneⅠ1 mRNA expression of TW518 was significantly inhibited by Scutellaria baicalensis.Conclusions Scutellaria baicalensis has sterilization effect on Kp, and Scutellaria baicalensis could effectively inhibit Kp biofilm formation with prolonged treatment. Scutellaria baicalensis might inhibit Kp biofilm formation through down-regulating integron geneⅠ1 expression.


Subject(s)
Biofilms , Integrons , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Physiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Scutellaria baicalensis
17.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(1): 1-5, 05/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748268

ABSTRACT

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) cause hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and hemolytic-uremic syndrome in humans (HUS). Cattle are the main reservoir of STEC and transmission to humans occurs through contaminated food and water. Antibiotics are used in pig production systems to combat disease and improve productivity and play a key role in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes to the bacteria. Integrons have been identified in resistant bacteria allowing for the acquisition and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes. STEC strains isolated from humans and animals have developed antibiotic resistance. In our laboratory, 21 non-157 STEC strains isolated from pigs were analyzed to detect class 1 and 2 integrons by PCR. Eight carried integrons, 7 of them harbored intl2. In another study 545 STEC strains were also analyzed for the presence of intl1 and intl2. Strains carrying intl1 belonged to isolates from environment (n = 1), chicken hamburger (n = 2), dairy calves (n = 4) and pigs (n = 8). Two strains isolated from pigs harbored intl2 and only one intl1/intl2, highlighting the presence of intl2 in pigs. The selection for multiresistant strains may contribute to the emergence of antibiotic resistant pathogens and facilitate the spreading of the mobile resistance elements to other bacteria.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Humans , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Integrons , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/drug effects , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/genetics , Chickens , Diarrhea/microbiology , Diarrhea/veterinary , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli Infections/veterinary , Meat/microbiology , Swine , Shiga-Toxigenic Escherichia coli/isolation & purification
18.
IBJ-Iranian Biomedical Journal. 2015; 19 (4): 233-239
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171813

ABSTRACT

Extended spectrum beta lactamases [ESBLs] are an important cause of transferable multidrug resistance [MDR] in gram-negative bacteria. The most described ESBL genes are generally found within integron like structures as mobile genetic elements. The aim of this study was to identify the accompanying of class 1 integrons and ESBLs in the MDR E. coli isolates. Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined for 33 E. coli strains by the disk diffusion method. Double-disk synergy test was applied for screening ESBL. To identify the strains carrying integrons, the conserved regions of integron-encoded integrase gene intI1 were amplified. For detection of gene cassettes, 5'CS and 3'CS primers were used. All E. coli isolates were identified as multi-drug resistant. More than 50% of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline, cephalothin, cefuroxime, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, and third generation cephalosporines. Nearly all of the isolates displayed sensitivity to piperacillin. There was a significant correlation between production of ESBL and resistance to all antibiotics except for ciprofloxacin and piperacillin [P < 0.01]. Thirty two MDR strains [97%] included class 1 integron, and some isolates that included integrons were similar in the size of gene cassettes. The isolates were different in the resistance profiles; however, some others had similar resistance profiles. Of eight ESBL positive isolates, seven [87.5%] carried class 1 integrons. Class 1 integrons were frequent in MDR and also ESBL-producing E. coli isolates. High prevalence of class 1 integrons confirms that integron-mediated antimicrobial gene cassettes are important in E. coli resistance profile


Subject(s)
Integrons , beta-Lactamases , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Prevalence , Anti-Infective Agents
19.
EJMM-Egyptian Journal of Medical Microbiology [The]. 2015; 24 (2): 11-17
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-171471

ABSTRACT

Integrons are mobile genetic elements considered to play a role in transmission of antibiotic resistance genes with limited studies concerning this issue. were first to detect the prevalence of integrons in Gram positive and non fermentative Gram negative isolates from Intensive Care Unit of Zagazig University Hospitals and to investigate the association between integrons carriage and antimicrobial susceptibility of bacterial isolates. Culture, API identification and antibiotic susceptibility testing were done to all isolates. PCR using primers for integrons Class I, II and III followed by RFLP using RsaI enzyme was applied to all Gram-positive and non-fermentative Gram-negative isolates. Out of 183 clinical samples: 40 non fermentative Gram negative and 33 Gram positive bacteria were detected. The most predominant isolates of both groups were Pseudomonas aeruginosa [62.5%] and Staph aureus [69.7%] respectively. A high statistical significant difference regarding association between amikacin, spectinomycin and ciprofloxacin resistance, and integron existence was found in P.aeruginosa. Meanwhile, ceftazidime, aztreonam, cefotaxime, tetracycline, piperacillin and Sulphamethoxazole-trimethoprim resistance were high significantly associated with integron existance in isolated A. baumannii. A high statistically significant difference exists between integrons carriage and multidrug resistant pathogens


Subject(s)
Humans , Integrons/genetics , Gram-Positive Bacteria/isolation & purification , Gram-Negative Bacteria/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Multiple , Hospitals, University
20.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 765-770, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351482

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To investigate the correlation between Shigella flexneri multi-drug resistance and drug resistance gene cassette of integrons.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>All 79 strains of Shigella flexneri were isolated from the feces of children ranged in age from 6 months to 14 years in some hospitals of Jinan, between May 2009 and April 2012.The resistance was detected by Kirby Bauer agar diffusion method, 1, 2 and 3 integron gene was amplified by PCR, the variable region of positive strains treated with enzyme digestion and determined by Series Analysis.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Among 79 Shigella flexneri strains, the resistance rate was 91% (72/79) to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, tetracycline, streptomycin, 70% (55/79) to sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, 30% (24/79), 23% (18/79), 33% (26/79) and 32% (25/79) to cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin and levofloxacin.All 79 strains were susceptible to cefoxitin, imipenem, cefoperazone/sulbactam. The common drug resistance pattern is ampicillin tetracycline-chloramphenicol-streptomycin, accounted for 91% (72/79); 91% (72/79) strains carried integrons of class 1, 86% (68/79) strains carried integrons of class 2, No intI3 was detected. The resistance to ampicillin, streptomycin, tetracycline, chloramphenicol of atypical class 1 integron positive strains was significantly higher than the negative strains (χ² = 35.96, P<0.01). The sequencing results:dfrV was detected in class 1 integron variable regions of 9 strains, dfrA17-aadA5 in 2 strains, blaOXA-30-aadA1 in 70 strains, 2 strains were not detected resistance gene cassette, all resistance gene cassettes were dfrA1-sat1-aadA1 in class 2 integron variable regions.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The muti-drug resistance of Shigella flexneri in Jinan was closely associated with integrons.</p>


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Anti-Bacterial Agents , Pharmacology , Child , Child, Preschool , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial , Genetics , Dysentery, Bacillary , Microbiology , Feces , Microbiology , Humans , Infant , Integrons , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Shigella flexneri , Genetics
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