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1.
Psiquiatr. salud ment ; 35(3/4): 262-267, jul.-dic. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1005052

ABSTRACT

Caso Clínico: Mujer, 23 años. Discapacidad intelectual. Asiste a colegio especial (no lee ni escribe). Institucionalizada. Motivo de ingreso: Paciente ingresa en octubre del 2017 traída por carabineros por ser encontrada en la calle bajo el efecto de múltiples sustancias, con ideación suicida. Días antes fue expulsada del hogar por agresión a cuidadoras. Diagnósticos de ingreso: Discapacidad intelectual moderado. Síndrome suicidal, Trastorno por dependencia a drogas. ¿Esquizofrenia hebefrénica? Evolución: Mantiene desajustes conductuales severos fluctuantes, con serias dificultades para manejar la rabia, lo que la lleva a tener conductas hetero y autoagresivas. Plan de tratamiento: Farmacológico (clozapina), Psicológico (TCC), Social (dispositivo adecuado post-alta). Clozapina para trastornos psicóticos en adultos con discapacidad intelectual. El principal riesgo de atribuir alguno de estos comportamientos a una supuesta "psicosis", es el de "medicalizar" y tratar de forma poco acertada. Es importante descartar factores ambientales y del aprendizaje (hábitos y conductas aprendidas, institucionalización, reacciones ante el estrés agudo.) La prevalencia de abuso y dependencia de sustancias en población con DI va desde el 0,5% al 2,6%. Lo cual es menor que la población general. Pacientes con DI y dependencia a drogas se asocia a otras enfermedades psiquiátricas (42-54%). Se ha informado que las personas con discapacidad intelectual en América Latina a menudo están institucionalizadas y escondidas de la sociedad en instalaciones deficientes y superpobladas.


Clinical Case: Female, 23 years old. Intellectual disability. He attends a special school (she does not read or write). Institutionalized. Reason for admission: Patient enters in October 2017 brought by police officers to be found in the street under the effect of multiple substances, with suicidal ideation. Days before she was expelled from the home because of assaulting caregivers. Admission diagnoses: Moderate intellectual disability. Suicidal syndrome, Disorder due to drug dependence. Hebephrenic schizophrenia? Evolution: Maintains fluctuating severe behavioral imbalances, with serious difficulties in managing rage, which leads to hetero and self-aggressive behaviors. Treatment plan: pharmacological (clozapine), Psychological (CBT), Social (adequate post-hospitalization discharge device). Clozapine for psychotic disorders in adults with intellectual disabilities. The main risk of attributing some of these behaviors to a supposed "psychosis" is that of "medicalizing" and dealing inappropriately. It is important to rule out environmental and learning factors (habits and behaviors learned, institutionalization, reactions to acute stress. The prevalence of substance abuse and dependence in the population with ID ranges from 0.5% to 2.6%. Which is less than the general population. Patients with ID and drug dependence are associated with other psychiatric illnesses (42-54%). It is reported that people with intellectual disabilty in Latin America are often institutionalized and hidden from society in poor and overcrowded facilities.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Young Adult , Substance-Related Disorders/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Psychotherapy , Psychotic Disorders , Antipsychotic Agents/therapeutic use , Clozapine/therapeutic use , Substance-Related Disorders/complications , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Suicidal Ideation , Intellectual Disability/classification , Intellectual Disability/complications , Intellectual Disability/etiology
2.
Rev. bras. neurol ; 54(4): 5-11, out.-dez. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-967818

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: A distrofia muscular de Duchenne (DMD) é frequentemente associada à deficiência intelectual (DI) e ao prejuízo de funções superiores como leitura, raciocínio, lógica, e memória. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar o desempenho cognitivo de pacientes com DMD através do Mini-Exame do Estado Mental (MEEM), um teste simples e rápido, usado como primeiro rastreio intelectual, principalmente quando baterias psicométricas complexas, dependentes de psicólogos especializados, não estão disponíveis. MÉTODO: Foi realizado um estudo observacional de trinta e quatro meninos com DMD, com idades entre 8 e 22 anos, separados em dois grupos de acordo com a presença de DI moderada-grave, conforme a definição clínica do funcionamento adaptativo do Manual Estatístico e Diagnóstico de Desordens Mentais 5º edição (DSM-5). Foram avaliados a pontuação no MEEM, marcos do desenvolvimento, independência nas atividades de vida cotidiana e capacidade de alfabetização. RESULTADOS: Os marcos motores e de linguagem estavam atrasados (16 meses), e a média no MEEM foi 21, ponto de corte mais baixo do que verificado em pares da mesma idade. O grupo com DI moderada-grave apresentou uma média de 12 no MEEM, e os subtestes de orientação, atenção e cálculo e linguagem foram os que demonstraram piores desempenhos. O ponto de corte de maior acurácia para distinguir DI moderada-grave nos pacientes com DMD foi 21. CONCLUSÃO: O MEEM apresentou adequada sensibilidade (100%) e especificidade (90%) para o ponto de corte de 21, revelando-se um bom método de triagem cognitiva para DI moderada-grave na DMD.


BACKGROUND: Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and with impairment of higher mental functions as reading, learning, logical thinking and memory. The goal of this study was evaluate the cognitive performance of DMD patients by Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), first bedside screening test, widely used in pediatrics, when neuropsychologic batteries, dependent on specialized psychologists, are not easily available in public health system. METHODS: An observational study of thirty-four boys with DMD, aged 8-22 years, was performed, spliting this group into two sub-groups, according to the presence of moderate-severe, defined by Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) adaptative functioning clinical criteria. The MMSE scores, developmental milestones, independence in daily life activities and literacy skills were evaluated. RESULTS: Motor and language milestones were reached with 16 months, later than usual and mean on MMSE was 21, lower than in healthy pairs. In assessment by groups, patients with moderate-severe intellectual disability presented a performance in total MMSE (12) and orientation, attention/calculation and language MMSE subtests lower than patients without ID. The most accurate cutoff value on MMSE to distinguish moderate-severe intellectual disability in DMD patients was 21. CONCLUSION: This study has shown adequate sensitivity and specificity of the MMSE for detection of moderate-severe intellectual disability, with almost 100% sensitivity and 90% specificity for cutoff values of 21 points in DMD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Adolescent , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/complications , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/diagnosis , Muscular Dystrophy, Duchenne/genetics , Intellectual Disability/diagnosis , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Sensitivity and Specificity , Observational Studies as Topic , Mental Status and Dementia Tests/standards
3.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet. (Impr.) ; 23(11): 3535-3545, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974741

ABSTRACT

Abstract The gold rush in the Amazon Region caused an increase of mercury (Hg) levels in the environment, and, consequently, raised human exposure. Once released into aquatic systems, Hg could generate methylmercury (MeHg), an extremely toxic compound, which is accumulated through trophic chains. Several studies have provided evidences of the brain sensitivity to MeHg, as well as, of the fetus vulnerability during pregnancy. The main objective of this study was to estimate the Mild Mental Retardation (MMR) in Amazonian populations, caused by prenatal exposure to MeHg, using the methodology proposed by Poulin (2008), which quantifies the environmental burden of disease. The estimates of the MMR burden, attributed to prenatal MeHg exposure, were based on the calculation of Disability-Adjusted Life Years (DALY), which were obtained from MMR incidence rate in the studied populations. At the local level, the MMR incidence rate calculations were based on primary data of MeHg exposure of riverine women at childbearing age. The MMR incidence rate was equal to 5.96/1,000 infants, which would result in 2.0 IQ points loss in 34.31% of the newborns. The estimated DALY/1,000 infants was equal to 71.2, while the DALY was 576. For the regional estimates, different exposure scenarios were created. The calculated DALY varied from 3,256 to 65,952 per year.


Resumo A corrida pelo ouro na Amazônia elevou os níveis de mercúrio (Hg) no ambiente e, consequentemente, aumentou a exposição humana. Uma vez liberado em sistemas aquáticos, o Hg pode gerar metilmercúrio (MeHg), um composto tóxico que se acumula ao longo de cadeias tróficas. Vários estudos têm gerado evidências sobre a sensibilidade do cérebro ao MeHg, bem como sobre a vulnerabilidade do feto durante a gravidez. O principal objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar a carga de Retardo Mental Leve (RML) em populações amazônicas, causada pela exposição pré-natal ao MeHg, utilizando a metodologia proposta por Poulin (2008). As estimativas de RML, atribuída à exposição ao MeHg pré-natal, foram baseadas no cálculo dos Anos de Vida Ajustados por Incapacidade (DALY), que foi desenvolvido a partir de taxa de incidência RML nas populações estudadas. Em nível local, o cálculo da taxa de incidência RML baseou-se em dados primários sobre a exposição ao MeHg em mulheres ribeirinhas em idade fértil. A taxa de incidência RML foi igual a 5,96/1.000 nascidos, o que resulta na perda de 2,0 pontos de QI em 34,31% dos nascidos. A estimativa de DALY/1.000 nascidos foi igual a 71,2, enquanto o DALY foi de 576. Para as estimativas regionais, foram criados diferentes cenários de exposição. Os DALYs calculados variaram de 3.256 a 65.952 por ano.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Adolescent , Adult , Young Adult , Maternal Exposure/adverse effects , Environmental Exposure/adverse effects , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Methylmercury Compounds/toxicity , Prenatal Exposure Delayed Effects/epidemiology , Brazil , Cost of Illness , Disabled Persons , Quality-Adjusted Life Years , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Middle Aged
4.
Salud pública Méx ; 59(4): 423-428, Jul.-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-903779

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Objective: Inborn errors of metabolism (IEM) are genetic conditions that are sometimes associated with intellectual developmental disorders (IDD). The aim of this study is to contribute to the metabolic characterization of IDD of unknown etiology in Mexico. Materials and methods: Metabolic screening using tandem mass spectrometry and fluorometry will be performed to rule out IEM. In addition, target metabolomic analysis will be done to characterize the metabolomic profile of patients with IDD. Conclusion: Identification of new metabolomic profiles associated with IDD of unknown etiology and comorbidities will contribute to the development of novel diagnostic and therapeutic schemes for the prevention and treatment of IDD in Mexico.


Resumen: Objetivo: Los errores innatos del metabolismo (EIM) son condiciones genéticas que pueden asociarse con trastornos del desarrollo intelectual (TDI). El objetivo de este estudio es contribuir a la caracterización metabólica de los pacientes con TDI de etiología desconocida. Material y métodos: Se realizará un tamiz metabólico mediante espectrometría de masas-tándem y fluorometría para descartar EIM; además, se analizará el perfil metabolómico de los pacientes con TDI. Conclusión: La identificación de perfiles metabolómicos asociados con los TDI de etiología desconocida contribuirá al desarrollo de nuevos esquemas diagnósticos y terapéuticos para la prevención y tratamiento de los TDI en México.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Young Adult , Metabolomics/methods , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/diagnosis , Mass Screening , Health Surveys , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Fragile X Syndrome/diagnosis , Fragile X Syndrome/epidemiology , Mexico/epidemiology
5.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 34(2): 166-170, abr.-jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-712400

ABSTRACT

La microangiopatía cerebral retiniana con calcificaciones y quistes es una enfermedad poco frecuente, caracterizada por alteraciones cerebrales, retinianas y óseas, así como por predisposición al sangrado gastrointestinal. Existen pocos reportes de casos de esta condición, especialmente en adultos, en quienes la incidencia es baja. Los hallazgos por medio de neuroimágenes son característicos, con calcificaciones bilaterales y múltiples formaciones quísticas. El propósito de este artículo fue hacer una revisión bibliográfica e ilustrar dos casos cuyo diagnóstico fue posible con la ayuda de neuroimágenes.


Cerebroretinal microangiopathy with calcifications and cysts is a rare condition characterized by brain, retinal and bone anomalies, as well as a predisposition to gastrointestinal bleeding. There are few reported cases of this condition in adults, among whom the incidence is low. Neuroimaging findings are characteristic, with bilateral calcifications, leukoencephalopathy and intracranial cysts. The purpose of this article was to do a literature survey and illustrate two cases diagnosed with the aid of neuroimaging.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Ataxia/pathology , Brain Neoplasms/pathology , Brain/pathology , Calcinosis/pathology , Central Nervous System Cysts/pathology , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/pathology , Leukoencephalopathies/pathology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Muscle Spasticity/pathology , Neuroimaging/methods , Retinal Diseases/pathology , Seizures/pathology , Ataxia/diagnosis , Brain Neoplasms/diagnosis , Calcinosis/diagnosis , Central Nervous System Cysts/diagnosis , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases/diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Hair Color , Hypopigmentation/etiology , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Leukoencephalopathies/diagnosis , Muscle Spasticity/diagnosis , Quadriplegia/etiology , Retinal Diseases/diagnosis , Seizures/diagnosis , Trochlear Nerve Diseases/etiology
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 33(3): 402-410, set. 2013. graf, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-698763

ABSTRACT

Introducción. De 1 a 3 % de la población mundial tiene retardo mental. Este trastorno constituye un motivo de consulta y diagnóstico frecuente en los servicios de Neuropediatría. Objetivo. Determinar la etiología en pacientes con retraso mental que asisten a la consulta de Neuropediatría en dos centros hospitalarios de tercer nivel. Materiales y métodos. Se incluyeron pacientes pediátricos con diagnóstico de retardo mental, para cuya evaluación se empleó el algoritmo diagnóstico propuesto por el Comité de Genética Médica y Academia de Pediatría. Los datos se registraron en una base de Excel ™ y posteriormente se analizaron en SPSS ™ , versión 1.5. La causa etiológica de la discapacidad cognitiva se clasificó en cinco categorías. Resultados. Se incluyeron 239 pacientes. Según la gravedad, 39 % de los pacientes presentaron retardo mental leve, 37,7 %, moderado, 13,4%, grave, y 9,6 %, profundo. Entre las manifestaciones clínicas se destacó la presencia de anomalías menores en el 70,3 %, hallazgos que al encontrarse en más de dos sugirieron una causa de origen genético. La etiología definitiva del retardo mental se determinó en el 64,4 %. Las causas ambientales explicaron el 36,4% de esta discapacidad, en la cual la hipoxia perinatal fue la más frecuente. Las causas genéticas explicaron el 23,8 % de los casos. Finalmente, el 23,8 % persistieron sin diagnóstico específico. Conclusiones. La hipoxia perinatal es la causa más frecuente de discapacidad cognitiva. Es por esto que el tratamiento precoz de las enfermedades concomitantes del recién nacido prematuro pueden causar un impacto en el resultado final, disminuyendo la discapacidad motora y cognitiva. La segunda causa de retardo mental es la genética. La proporción de pacientes sin diagnóstico específico posiblemente podría disminuirse si el acceso de esta población a estudios de genética fuera mayor y los estudios pudieran ser cubiertos, en cualquiera de sus afiliaciones, por el sistema de salud del país.


Introduction: One to three per cent of the world population has mental retardation. This is a frequently consulted and diagnosed disorder in neuropediatric services. Causes are heterogeneous and only a proportion of these patients achieve an accurate etiologic diagnosis. Objective: To determine the etiology of patients with mental retardation who go to the neuropediatric services in two third level hospitals. Materials and methods: We included pediatric patients diagnosed with mental retardation, and used the diagnostic algorithm proposed by the committee of medical genetics and the Academy of Pediatrics for the evaluation of these patients. The data were entered into an Excel database and subsequently analyzed in SPSS 1.5. The etiology of cognitive impairment was classified into five categories. Results: We included 239 patients: 60.3% were male; according to the severity, 39% of the patients had mild mental retardation, 37.7% had moderate mental retardation, 13.4% had severe mental retardation, and 9.6% had profound mental retardation. In the clinical findings, we found the presence of minor anomalies in 70.3% of patients; these findings in more than two patients suggested a genetic etiology. Definitive etiology of mental retardation was determined in 64.4% of the patients. Environmental causes accounted for 36.4% of this disability in which perinatal hypoxia is the most frequent cause. Genetic causes accounted for 23.8% of the etiology. Finally, 23.8% continued to have no specific diagnosis. Conclusions: Perinatal hypoxia is the most common cause of cognitive impairment in our population. Early treatment of comorbidities of premature infants can impact the bottom line by decreasing motor and cognitive impairment in these patients. Patients with genetic etiology are the second cause. The proportion of undiagnosed patients could decrease if patient access to genetic studies were better and if these studies were covered by the social security regime in our country, regardless of affiliation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Retrospective Studies , Tertiary Care Centers
7.
Rev. peru. epidemiol. (Online) ; 17(2): 1-7, mayo.-ago. 2013. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIPECS | ID: lil-706067

ABSTRACT

La parálisis cerebral constituye un problema de primera magnitud a nivel mundial por la discapacidad que provoca, por su cronicidad y por las complicaciones médicas, y sociales que originan. Objetivo: Determinar la proporción de individuos con discapacidad intelectual, evaluar el grado de discapacidad intelectual, la forma clínica de presentación, la etiolog¡a y la capacidad funcional de los pacientes. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, se incluyeron 1961 personas con parálisis cerebral, que fueron identificadas en un estudio de base poblacional en Bolivia entre los años 2009 y 2012. Resultados: Se observó un discreto predominio del sexo masculino (55,4%) y de los casos de 18 años y más (595 casos). 1448 casos presentaron discapacidad intelectual con predominio de los grados severos y profundos (30,5% y 23,8%). La causa perinatal se identificó en 1061 personas (54,1%), seguido de los factores prenatales y postnatales. En el 89,2% de los casos se constató un componente espástico, el 49,8% de los casos no deambulaban. Conclusiones: El mayor número de casos se encontró en el Oriente del pa¡s, con discreto predominio del sexo masculino y en el grupo de edad de 15 años y más. Las causas perinatales se identificaron en m s de la mitad de los casos. Predominaron los casos con par lisis cerebral de tipo espástico con una frecuencia ocho veces mayor que el resto. El 50% de las personas con parálisis cerebral no deambulan, y un 13% lo hace con ayuda.


Cerebral palsy is a worldwide major problem because of the disability it causes, its chronicity and the medical and social complications it generates. Objective: To determine the proportion of individuals with intellectual disabilities, to assess the degree of intellectual disability, the clinical presentation, etiology, and functional capacity of patients. Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study, we included 1961 people with cerebral palsy, who were identified in a population-based study in Bolivia between 2009 and 2012. Results: There was a slight predominance of males (55,4%) cases and 18 years of age and older (595 cases). 1448 cases had intellectual disabilities, predominantly severe and profound degrees (30,5% and 23,8%). The perinatal etiology was identified in 1061 people (54.1%), followed by prenatal and postnatal factors. In 89.2% of cases there was an spastic component, 49.8% of cases were not walking. Conclusion: The largest number of cases was found in the east of the country, with a slight predominance of males and in the age group 15 years and older. Perinatal causes were identified in more than half of the cases. We found a predominance of cases with spastic cerebral palsy, with a frequency eight times higher than the rest. The 50% of people with cerebral palsy do not walk, and 13% do so with help.


Subject(s)
Female , Intellectual Disability , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Cerebral Palsy/epidemiology , Bolivia , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies
8.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2013 Apr; 19(2): 171-178
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-149425

ABSTRACT

CONTEXT: Unbalanced subtelomeric chromosomal rearrangements are often associated with intellectual disability (ID) and malformation syndromes. The prevalence of such rearrangements has been reported to be 5-9% in ID populations. AIMS: To study the prevalence of subtelomeric rearrangements in the Indonesian ID population. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We tested 436 subjects with unexplained ID using multiplex ligation dependent probe amplification (MLPA) using the specific designed sets of probes to detect human subtelomeric chromosomal imbalances (SALSA P070 and P036D). If necessary, abnormal findings were confirmed by other MLPA probe kits, fluorescent in situ hybridization or Single Nucleotide Polymorphism array. RESULTS: A subtelomeric aberration was identified in 3.7% of patients (16/436). Details on subtelomeric aberrations and confirmation analyses are discussed. CONCLUSION: This is the first study describing the presence of subtelomeric rearrangements in individuals with ID in Indonesia. Furthermore, it shows that also in Indonesia such abnormalities are a prime cause of ID and that in developing countries with limited diagnostic services such as Indonesia, it is important and feasible to uncover the genetic etiology in a significant number of cases with ID.


Subject(s)
Chromosome Aberrations/genetics , Cohort Effect , Female , Gene Rearrangement , Humans , Indonesia , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Male , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Telomere/genetics
9.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 73(2): 145-147, abr. 2013. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-694755

ABSTRACT

La ubicación anatómica de la glándula tiroidea y su biosíntesis hormonal están reguladas por la expresión de ciertos genes, cuya alteración puede conducir a las denominadas disgenesias tiroideas: agenesia, ectopía e hipoplasia, así como a las variantes dishormonogenéticas. Se presenta el caso de una paciente con retraso mental y diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo realizado en la edad adulta. Las determinaciones bioquímicas confirmaron el diagnóstico de hipotiroidismo no autoinmune. Este caso representa la evolución prolongada de una hipofunción tiroidea, que cursó en forma solapada y no diagnosticada durante 53 años de vida, con secuelas relevantes de esta deficiencia al momento del diagnóstico. La terapia exógena logró mejorías evidentes en la signo sintomatología, pero no revirtió el presunto daño neurológico atribuible a la falta de hormona tiroidea necesaria durante el desarrollo fetal. En la necropsia realizada se encontró escaso tejido tiroideo cervical correspondiente a hipoplasia tiroidea eutópica. El hallazgo de un remanente tiroideo menor a 1 cm permite explicar la supervivencia de la paciente hasta una edad avanzada.


The anatomical location of the thyroid gland and its hormone byosinthesis are regulated by the expression of certain genes, whose disruption leads to the so-called thyroid dysgenesis: agenesis, ectopia and hypoplasia, and to dyshormonogenesis. We present the case of a patient with mental retardation and hypothyroidism whose diagnosis was made in adulthood. Biochemical determinations confirmed the diagnosis without evidence of thyroid autoimmunity. This patient represents the extended evolution of a thyroid hypofunction, which lasted in an unsuspected way for 53 years, with important consequences of this deficiency at diagnosis. Exogenous therapy achieved great improvement in clinical symptoms, but did not reverse the neurological damage attributable to the lack of thyroid hormone necessary for fetal development. The necropsy revealed little thyroid tissue in the neck corresponding to eutopic thyroid hypoplasia. The discovery of a remaining thyroid of less than 1 cm justified the patient survival up to old age.


Subject(s)
Aged , Female , Humans , Congenital Hypothyroidism/etiology , Thyroid Dysgenesis/complications , Congenital Hypothyroidism/drug therapy , Congenital Hypothyroidism/pathology , Delayed Diagnosis , Fatal Outcome , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Thyroid Dysgenesis/drug therapy , Thyroid Dysgenesis/pathology , Thyroxine/therapeutic use
10.
Rev. Soc. Psiquiatr. Neurol. Infanc. Adolesc ; 23(3): 171-176, dic. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-677254

ABSTRACT

El Síndrome de Williams (SW) es un síndrome genético generado por la deleción del gen de la Elastina y genes contiguos del cromosoma 7q11.23. Tiene una incidencia de 1:7500-20.000 recién nacidos vivos. Se caracteriza por un conjunto de síntomas y signos con compromiso multiorgánico y un fenotipo conductual distintivo. Objetivo: Describir la clínica del SW en relación a tres casos clínicos. Método: Estudio descriptivo retrospectivo de fichas clínicas de pacientes estudiados y tratados entre el 2006 y 2012. Resultados: Tres varones con rango de edad entre 4 y 6 años. Todos presentaron dismorfias características y se asociaron a cardiopatía congénita: estenosis aórtica supravalvular. En los rasgos de personalidad destacaron alta sociabilidad y habilidades en lenguaje expresivo, RM leve a moderado y mala coordinación motora. Conclusión: Todos nuestros pacientes presentaron características concordantes con las descritas para SW. Existen alteraciones funcionales cerebrales en pacientes con SW que tienen relación con el perfil cognitivo observado.


Williams Syndrome (WS) is a genetic disorder caused by deletion of elastine gene and contiguous genes of chromosome 7q11.2. It has an incidence of 1:7.500-20.000 newly born. It is characterized by a group of symptoms and signs with multiorganic involvement and a distinctive behavioural phenotype. Objective: To describe the clinical manifestations of WS in relation to three case reports. Method: review of clinical reports of patients diagnosed and treated between 2006 and 2012. Results: Three boys aged 5-9 years, all of them presented distinctive appearance, associated to congenital heart disease: aortic supravalvular stenosis. Behavioral features included high sociability and expressive language skills, mental retardation and poor motor coordination. Conclusions: All of our patients had clinical characteristics corresponding to the ones described for WS in the literature. The peculiar cognitive profile is presumed to be related to functional brain alterations described in WS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Williams Syndrome/complications , Williams Syndrome/physiopathology , Williams Syndrome/psychology , Chromosome Deletion , Cognition , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Aortic Stenosis, Subvalvular/etiology , Social Behavior , Williams Syndrome/genetics , Motor Skills Disorders/etiology
11.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2012 May; 18(2): 161-166
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-143264

ABSTRACT

Background: Rubinstein-Taybi syndrome (RSTS) is a rare congenital neurodevelopmental disorder, characterized by postnatal growth deficiency, typical dysmorphic features, broad thumbs and toes, and mental retardation. Very few cases are reported in literature from developing countries. Diagnosis is often delayed due to non-familiarity with the characteristic features of this syndrome. Aims: To report 11 cases of RSTS and to review the current literature. Settings And Design: Retrospective study conducted in genetic and metabolic unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital in north India over a period of 3½ years. Materials And Methods: 11 patients with diagnosis of RSTS were identified, and their case sheets were reviewed. Results: Developmental delay was presenting complaint in 10 patients, and seizure in 1 case. 7 patients had microcephaly (head circumference below −3 SD), and a prominent beaked nose was seen in 9 patients. The intelligence quotient (IQ) varied from 22-62 in 7 patients who had mental retardation. The most notable features in hands were broadness, shortening, and flattening of the distal phalanx of thumbs or great toes. Additionally, we also noted webbing of neck, microphthalmia, and pachygyria (on MRI brain) in 1 patient each. Conclusions: The diagnosis of RSTS is primarily clinical and based on characteristic phenotype that is often combined with a variety of somatic anomalies. An early diagnosis facilitates appropriate genetic counseling and in planning the management.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Craniofacial Abnormalities/epidemiology , Craniofacial Abnormalities/etiology , Early Diagnosis , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Intelligence/classification , Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome/diagnosis , Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome/epidemiology , Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome/etiology , Rubinstein-Taybi Syndrome/therapy
12.
IRCMJ-Iranian Red Crescent Medical Journal. 2012; 14 (2): 79-85
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178364

ABSTRACT

Intellectual disability [ID] has a worldwide prevalence of 1-3% and results from extraordinary heterogeneous. To shed more light on the causes of ID in Kerman Province, in Southeast Iran, we set out in 2008 to perform systematic clinical studies and homozygosity mapping in large Iranian families with ID. Fifty seven families with a minimum of two mentally retarded children from Kerman Province were initially tested for metabolic disorders, by Tandem mass spectrometry. Fragile X testing and standard karyotyping were performed for all probands of families. Cases with autosomal recessive [AR] pattern of inheritance and microcephaly were subjected to homozygosity mapping by using several microsatellite markers for known MCPH loci. Three out of seven families with X-linked pattern of inheritance were positive for fragile X syndrome. Chromosome abnormality was not observed in any of dysmorphic patients and all families were negative for metabolic tests. Among the remaining 50 families of AR ID, six were found to be microcephalic, of which 2 linked to two MCPH loci [33.3%]. The rest 4 families were not linked to any of the known loci. The results of this study showed that ID with microcephaly comprised 12% of ID cases in Kerman Province. In two families with apparent linkage to the MCPH5 and MCPH6 locus, mutation screening was not successful, which might indicate that either the mutation is located in the regulatory sequences of the gene or that there might be another genes present in these regions, which is mutated in such cases


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Male , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Microcephaly , Intellectual Disability/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60490

ABSTRACT

Deletion and duplication of the -3.7-Mb region in 17p11.2 result in two reciprocal syndrome, Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Smith-Magenis syndrome is a well-known developmental disorder. Potocki-Lupski syndrome has recently been recognized as a microduplication syndrome that is a reciprocal disease of Smith-Magenis syndrome. In this paper, we report on the clinical and cytogenetic features of two Korean patients with Smith-Magenis syndrome and Potocki-Lupski syndrome. Patient 1 (Smith-Magenis syndrome) was a 2.9-yr-old boy who showed mild dysmorphic features, aggressive behavioral problems, and developmental delay. Patient 2 (Potocki-Lupski syndrome), a 17-yr-old boy, had only intellectual disabilities and language developmental delay. We used array comparative genomic hybridization (array CGH) and found a 2.6 Mb-sized deletion and a reciprocal 2.1 Mb-sized duplication involving the 17p11.2. These regions overlapped in a 2.1 Mb size containing 11 common genes, including RAI1 and SREBF.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Asians/genetics , Child, Preschool , Chromosomes, Human, Pair 17 , Comparative Genomic Hybridization , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Gene Deletion , Gene Duplication , Humans , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Karyotyping , Male , Smith-Magenis Syndrome/diagnosis , Sterol Regulatory Element Binding Protein 1/genetics , Transcription Factors/genetics
15.
Clinics ; 66(supl.1): 55-63, 2011. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593149

ABSTRACT

Intellectual disability is a prevalent form of cognitive impairment, affecting 2-3 percent of the general population. It is a daunting societal problem characterized by significant limitations both in intellectual functioning and in adaptive behavior as expressed in conceptual, social and practical adaptive skills. Intellectual disability is a clinically important disorder for which the etiology and pathogenesis are still poorly understood. Moreover, although tremendous progress has been made, pharmacological intervention is still currently non-existent and therapeutic strategies remain limited. Studies in humans have a very limited capacity to explain basic mechanisms of this condition. In this sense, animal models have been invaluable in intellectual disability investigation. Certainly, a great deal of the knowledge that has improved our understanding of several pathologies has derived from appropriate animal models. Moreover, to improve human health, scientific discoveries must be translated into practical applications. Translational research specifically aims at taking basic scientific discoveries and best practices to benefit the lives of people in our communities. In this context, the challenge that basic science research needs to meet is to make use of a comparative approach to benefit the most from what each animal model can tell us. Intellectual disability results from many different genetic and environmental insults. Taken together, the present review will describe several animal models of potential intellectual disability risk factors.


Subject(s)
Animals , Disease Models, Animal , Intellectual Disability/genetics , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/genetics , Down Syndrome/genetics , Fragile X Syndrome/genetics , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Metabolism, Inborn Errors/complications , Rett Syndrome/genetics
16.
Indian J Hum Genet ; 2010 Sept; 16(3): 172-174
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-138921

ABSTRACT

Prader–Willi syndrome (PWS) is neurogenetic disorder involving the imprinting mechanism at 15q11–13 region. We report a 4-year-old girl who was referred to our laboratory to be investigated for clinical obesity, mental deficiency and respiratory problems. The patient was born for non-consanguineous and healthy biological parents. After normal pregnancy, the patient was delivered by cesarean section at full term, with a birth weight of 2500 g, and the height and head circumference were unknown. In neonatal stage, she presented severe hypotonia with feeding problems. Her developmental progress was delayed. She walked and developed speech at the age of 3 years. Since the age of 3 years, she presented severe dental problems. Methylation study had confirmed the diagnosis, and for detecting etiology, fluorescence in situ hybridization using probes for small nuclear ribonucleoprotein polypeptide N (SNRPN), which map inside the chromosomal region 15q11–15q13, was necessary to confirm the 15q11–15q13 deletion of paternal chromosome 15, which is the predominant genetic defect in PWS. In conclusion, we report this case with an objective to reinforce the necessity of analysis of DNA methylation within the 15q11–13 region, which is an important tool for the correct diagnosis among children presenting with neonatal hypotonia, mental deficiency and obesity.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Intellectual Disability/etiology , In Situ Hybridization, Fluorescence/methods , Methylation , Obesity/etiology , Parents , Prader-Willi Syndrome/diagnosis , Prader-Willi Syndrome/epidemiology , Prader-Willi Syndrome/etiology , Prader-Willi Syndrome/genetics , Respiration/abnormalities
17.
Gac. méd. Caracas ; 118(3): 203-211, jul.-sept. 2010. ilus, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-676683

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de Down, es la causa más frecuente de discapacidad intelectual, fue descrito por primera vez en el año 1886, durante una era de grandes cambios en el conocimiento de la genética y la evolución. Ocurre con una frecuencia de 1 por cada 700 nacidos vivos. En muchos casos la historia de la investigación en el síndrome de Down cursa paralela a la historia de la genética humana y ha sido fuente de grandes progresos en esta ciencia. En esta revisión se describe la interrelación entre los avances del conocimiento de la genética y el conocimiento del síndrome de Down tomando en consideración el impacto del descubrimiento de su etiología realizado en 1959 por Jerone Lejeune. Con motivo de la celebración de los 50 años de este acontecimiento, se escogió este descubrimiento como marcador de división cronológica de las etapas de producción del conocimiento sobre el síndrome, obteniéndose la era pre y pos-Lejeune, desde su descripción inicial al presente y sobre la base de esta perspectiva histórica se especula brevemente acerca del futuro de la investigación en el síndrome de Down


Down syndrome, is the most common cause of intellectual disabilities, it was first described in 1866, during an era of great change in understanding of genetics and evolution. It occurs in about I of every 700 newborns. In many instances, The history of research on Down syndrome courses parallels with the history of human genetics and it has inspired progress in human genetics. In this revision, it is described the interplay between advances in the understandins of genetics and the understanding of the Down syndrome and it was considered the finding of its etiology by Jerone Lejeune in 1959, as the index, Fifty years the discovery of the origin of the Down syndrome, it has been utilized for the division of two eras in the generation of knowledge in Down syndrome, the pre and the post-Lejeune era, from its initial description to the present, and on the basis of this historical perspective, speculate briefly about the future of research on Down syndrome


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Down Syndrome/etiology , Down Syndrome/history , Aneuploidy
18.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 17(6): 525-528, jul. 2010.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-576296

ABSTRACT

El retraso mental es una entidad clínica que se presenta con alta frecuencia en la población general y obedece a múltiples causas. El retraso mental de origen genético es etiológicamente heterogéneo y suele presentarse formando parte de cuadros clínicos más complejos. En la actualidad aún son pocos los genes conocidos asociados a este fenotipo, si bien para algunas enfermedades éstos están bien establecidos, como es el caso de la neurofibromatosis tipo 1, la esclerosis tuberosa y la distrofia miotónica de Steinert, todos ellos trastornos monogénicos de transmisión autosómica dominante causados por mutaciones en los genes NF1, TSC1 y TSC2, y DMPK, respectivamente. Estudios recientes están empezando a elucidar la patogénesis de estas enfermedades, sugiriendo así posibles dianas terapéuticas. Otra entidad que cursa con retraso mental autosómico dominante son los desequilibrios cromosómicos crípticos, que también acostumbran a asociarse a cuadros sindrómicos y que están empezando a ser diagnosticados actualmente gracias a las nuevas técnicas moleculares. En el presente trabajo se profundiza en el retraso mental que presenta un patrón de herencia autosómico dominante, con especial énfasis en las enfermedades neurofibromatosis tipo 1, esclerosis tuberosa y distrofia miotónica de Steinert, y en el causado por desequilibrios cromosómicos crípticos.


Subject(s)
Myotonic Dystrophy , Neurofibromatosis 1 , Intellectual Disability/classification , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Intellectual Disability/therapy , Tuberous Sclerosis
19.
Rev. chil. nutr ; 37(1): 111-117, mar. 2010. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-577376

ABSTRACT

Phenylquetonuria (PKU) is a hereditary disease, caused by the deficiency or absence of the enzyme phenylalanine hydroxylase, which produces an abnormal conversion of phenylalanine (Phe) to tyrosine. If PKU is not diagnosed and treated during the neonatal period, blood accumulation of Phe causes neurological damage. Chile has a neonatal screening program for PKU and congenital hypothyroidism since 1992; this program has diagnosed 162 PKU patients in Chile, which are being followed-up in INTA, Universidad de Chile. Nowadays, there are 20 PKU patients in adolescence, so we face a new challenge such as maternal PKU syndrome. This syndrome refers to the teratogenic effect of Phe in a pregnant PKU female. The most frequent anomalies are intrauterine growth retardation, microcephaly, global development retardation and congenital heart defects. Their occurrence is directly related to maternal Phe during pregnancy. In order to assure a normal pregnancy and to prevent this syndrome, levels of Phe in blood should be kept between 2 and 6 mgldl prior to conception and throughout pregnancy. Considering this challenge, INTA has proposed a strict protocol of follow-up to improve the compliance to nutritional therapy and prevent maternal PKU syndrome.


La fenilquetonuria (PKU) es una patología hereditaria, producida por la deficiencia o ausencia de la enzima fenilalanina hidroxilasa, lo que impide la metabolización normal de la fenilalanina (FA) a tirosina. La acumulación de fenilalanina en la sangre ocasiona daño neurológico si no es diagnosticada y tratada desde el periodo neonatal. Desde 1992 Chile tiene un programa de pesquisa neonatal de PKU e hipotiroidismo congénito, lo que ha permitido diagnosticar 162 casos con PKU, los que mantienen un seguimiento integral en el INTA, de la Universidad de Chile. Actualmente hay 20 PKU en etapa de adolescencia, por lo que nos enfrentamos a un nuevo desafío, el síndrome de PKU materna. Este síndrome se refiere al efecto teratogénico de la FA en una embarazada con PKU. Las alteraciones más características son el retraso del crecimiento intrauterino, la microcefalia, el retraso global del desarrollo y los defectos cardiacos congénitos. La presencia de estas alteraciones está directamente relacionada con los niveles de FA de la madre durante el embarazo. Para asegurar un embarazo normal y prevenir este síndrome se recomienda la mantención de niveles de FA entre 2 y 6 mg/dl, desde el período preconcepcional y durante todo el embarazo. El INTA considerando este desafío, ha propuesto un protocolo de seguimiento estricto preconcepcional y durante el embarazo con el objetivo de favorecer la adherencia al tratamiento nutricional y prevenir el síndrome de PKU materna.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Phenylketonuria, Maternal/diet therapy , Phenylketonuria, Maternal/physiopathology , Phenylketonuria, Maternal/prevention & control , Developmental Disabilities/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Phenylalanine Hydroxylase/deficiency , Monitoring, Physiologic , Nutritional Requirements , Prenatal Care , Intellectual Disability/etiology , Syndrome
20.
IJCN-Iranian Journal of Child Neurology. 2010; 3 (4): 59-63
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-125350

ABSTRACT

Angelman Syndrome [AS] is a genetically determined syndrome that has a unique behavioral phenotype. This syndrome is described as jerky ataxia and an unusual happy facial expression with pathological laughter. Severe mental retardation is a unique feature of the syndrome, together with microbrachycephaly and abnormal electroencephalographic findings with or without clinical seizures. The patients cannot speak or at most, they have a vocabulary consisting only of a few words. The genetic abnormality of AS has been located on chromosome 15q11-q13. Patients with As mostly have deletions on the maternally derived allele [75-80%] while some of them show paternal uniparental disomy [approximetly sign 2%] or a rare imprinting mutation developmental disorder caused by deletion of the maternally-inherited chromosome 15q11-13. A 2.5-year-old girl is presented. Clinical suspicion of AS was raised at the age of 27 months when she presented with mental retardation and epilepsy, absence of speech, inability to gait and paroxysmal episodes of laughter. Moreover, she had facial dysmorphic features such as microbrachycephaly, mid-facial hypoplasia, macrostomia and a prominent mandible. Chromosomal analysis revealed 46 xx with the deletion of 15q chromosome [15q11q13-snrpn/ic] Our patient met the classical phenotype and genotype of AS


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Child, Preschool , Angelman Syndrome/genetics , Intellectual Disability/etiology
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