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1.
Rev. epidemiol. controle infecç ; 13(4): 216-222, out.-dez. 2023. ilus
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1532318

ABSTRACT

Background and objectives: inanimate surfaces and equipment in the hospital environment are considered reservoirs of resistant and pathogenic microorganisms. In Pediatric Intensive Care Units, the risk of infection is also related to the severity of pathologies associated with the immaturity of the immune system of this population. This study aimed to investigate microbiological environmental contamination in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Method: this is an exploratory cross-sectional study, carried out in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of a highly complex university hospital, located in southern Brazil. To assess environmental contamination, sterile swabs were rubbed on surfaces corresponding to the patient unit and in the common area. Results: twenty-eight surfaces were analyzed, 12 of which were located in units occupied by patients at the time of collection and 16 surfaces in the common use area. In the total number of surfaces analyzed by microbiological cultures, the patient unit showed 66.67% contamination by microorganisms, while surfaces in the common area showed 56.25%. Regarding the microbiological profile, all isolated microorganisms were Gram-positive and showed resistance, namely Staphylococcus aureus and coagulase-negative Staphylococcus. Conclusion: there was evidence of a high frequency of contamination on inanimate surfaces and equipment near and far from patients, essentially by pathogenic and multi-resistant microorganisms to antimicrobials.(AU)


Justificativa e objetivos: superfícies e equipamentos inanimados no ambiente hospitalar são considerados reservatórios de microrganismos resistentes e patogênicos. Nas Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos, o risco de infeção também está relacionado com a gravidade das patologias associadas à imaturidade do sistema imunitário desta população. Este estudo teve como objetivo investigar a contaminação microbiológica ambiental em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Método: trata-se de um estudo exploratório transversal, realizado em uma Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica de um hospital universitário de alta complexidade, localizado no Sul do Brasil. Para avaliar a contaminação ambiental, foram esfregados swabs estéreis nas superfícies correspondentes à unidade do paciente e na área comum. Resultados: foram analisadas vinte e oito superfícies, sendo 12 localizadas em unidades ocupadas por pacientes no momento da coleta e 16 superfícies em área de uso comum. No total de superfícies analisadas por culturas microbiológicas, a unidade paciente apresentou 66,67% de contaminação por microrganismos, enquanto as superfícies da área comum apresentaram 56,25%. Quanto ao perfil microbiológico, todos os microrganismos isolados eram Gram-positivos e apresentavam resistência, nomeadamente Staphylococcus aureus e Staphylococcus coagulase-negativa. Conclusão: houve evidência de elevada frequência de contaminação em superfícies inanimadas e equipamentos próximos e distantes dos pacientes, essencialmente por microrganismos patogênicos e multirresistentes aos antimicrobianos.(AU)


Fundamento y objetivos: las superficies y equipos inanimados del ambiente hospitalario son considerados reservorios de microorganismos resistentes y patógenos. En las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos el riesgo de infección también se relaciona con la gravedad de patologías asociadas a la inmadurez del sistema inmunológico de esta población. Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la contaminación ambiental microbiológica en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos. Método: se trata de un estudio exploratorio transversal, realizado en una Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos de un hospital universitario de alta complejidad, ubicado en el sur de Brasil. Para evaluar la contaminación ambiental se frotaron hisopos estériles en las superficies correspondientes a la unidad de pacientes y en el área común. Resultados: se analizaron veintiocho superficies, 12 de las cuales estaban ubicadas en unidades ocupadas por los pacientes en el momento de la recogida y 16 superficies en el área de uso común. Del total de superficies analizadas por cultivos microbiológicos, la unidad de pacientes presentó un 66,67% de contaminación por microorganismos, mientras que las superficies del área común presentaron un 56,25%. En cuanto al perfil microbiológico, todos los microorganismos aislados fueron Gram positivos y presentaron resistencia, concretamente Staphylococcus aureus y Staphylococcus coagulasa negativo. Conclusión: se evidenció alta frecuencia de contaminación en superficies inanimadas y equipos cercanos y lejanos de los pacientes, esencialmente por microorganismos patógenos y multirresistentes a los antimicrobianos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Cross Infection , Equipment Contamination , Cross-Sectional Studies , Drug Resistance, Multiple, Bacterial
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202772, ago. 2023. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442549

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Durante la internación, los pacientes pueden presentar un deterioro clínico significativo y requerir el ingreso no programado a la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP). Esto puede conllevar un aumento de la morbilidad y la mortalidad. Frecuentemente, estos eventos están precedidos por una fase de deterioro que podría pasar desapercibida. Objetivo. Determinar la frecuencia, analizar las causas, describir las características clínicas y los resultados de los traslados no programados en pacientes pediátricos hospitalizados, desde el área de internación general pediátrica (IGP) a la UCIP, y analizar las diferencias entre traslados urgentes y emergentes. Población y métodos. Estudio descriptivo prospectivo; se analizaron todos los traslados no programados desde IGP a la UCIP ocurridos entre el 1 de enero de 2014 y el 31 de diciembre 2019. Resultados. Se constataron 212 traslados no programados (21 traslados cada 1000 ingresos). El 76 % de los pacientes trasladados presentaban una comorbilidad asociada ­la más frecuente fue la patología oncológica (36 %)­ y llevaban más de 24 horas internados en IGP. Las causas más frecuentes de traslado fueron dificultad respiratoria (43 %), sepsis (20 %) y complicaciones neurológicas/neuroquirúrgicas (20 %). La tasa de mortalidad global fue del 8,96 % (19 pacientes). Conclusiones. El análisis de los traslados no programados es un elemento esencial en la evaluación de la calidad de atención y seguridad del paciente de un área, y debe constituir un indicador integrado al tablero de control. La interpretación de los traslados no programados como un evento prevenible constituye un cambio de paradigma clave.


Introduction. During hospitalization, patients may develop significant clinical deterioration and require unplanned admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). This may result in increased morbidity and mortality. These events are often preceded by a deterioration phase that may go unnoticed. Objective. To determine the frequency, analyze the causes, and describe the clinical characteristics and outcomes of unplanned transfers of hospitalized pediatric patients from the general pediatric ward (GPW) to the PICU, and analyze the differences between urgent and emergent transfers. Population and methods. Prospective, descriptive study; all unplanned transfers from the GPW to the PICU occurring between January 1st, 2014 and December 31st, 2019 were analyzed. Results. There were 212 unplanned transfers (21 transfers per 1000 admissions). An associated comorbidity was present in 76% of transferred patients ­being cancer the most frequent one (36%)­ and they had been hospitalized for more than 24 hours in the GPW. The most frequent causes of transfer were respiratory distress (43%), sepsis (20%), and neurological/neurosurgical complications (20%). The overall mortality rate was 8.96% (19 patients). Conclusions. The analysis of unplanned transfers is a critical component in the assessment of the quality of care and patient safety of an area, and should be an indicator integrated into the control panel. The interpretation of unplanned transfers as a preventable event is a key paradigm shift.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Patient Transfer/methods , Patients' Rooms , Prospective Studies , Hospitalization
4.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(4): e202202806, ago. 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1442558

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La adecuada sedación y analgesia es fundamental en el tratamiento de pacientes que requieren asistencia ventilatoria mecánica (AVM). Se recomienda la utilización de protocolos y su monitoreo; son dispares los resultados reportados sobre adhesión e impacto. Objetivos. Evaluar el impacto de la implementación de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia sobre el uso de benzodiacepinas, opioides y evolución en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP), en pacientes que requieren AVM mayor a 72 horas. Métodos. Estudio tipo antes-después, no controlado, en la UCIP de un hospital pediátrico. Se desarrolló en 3 etapas: preintervención de diagnóstico situacional (de abril a septiembre de 2019), intervención y posintervención de implementación del protocolo de sedoanalgesia, educación sobre uso y monitorización de adherencia y su impacto (de octubre de 2019 a octubre de 2021). Resultados. Ingresaron al estudio 99 y 92 pacientes en las etapas pre- y posintervención, respectivamente. Presentaron mayor gravedad, menor edad y peso en el período preintervención. En la comparación de grupos, luego de ajustar por gravedad y edad, en la etapa posintervención se reportó una reducción en los días de uso de opioides en infusión continua (6 ± 5,2 vs. 7,6 ± 5,8; p = 0,018) y los días de uso de benzodiacepinas en infusión continua (3,3 ± 3,5 vs. 7,6 ± 6,8; p = 0,001). No se observaron diferencias significativas en los días de AVM y en los días totales de uso de benzodiacepinas. Conclusión. La implementación de un protocolo de sedoanalgesia permitió reducir el uso de fármacos en infusión continua.


Introduction. Adequate sedation and analgesia is essential in the management of patients requiring mechanical ventilation (MV). The implementation of protocols and their monitoring is recommended; mixed results on adherence and impact have been reported. Objectives. To assess the impact of the implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol on the use of benzodiazepines, opioids, and evolution in the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) in patients requiring MV for more than 72 hours. Methods. Before-and-after, uncontrolled study in the PICU of a children's hospital. The study was developed in 3 stages: pre-intervention for situational diagnosis (from April to September 2019), intervention, and post-intervention for implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol, education on use, and monitoring of adherence and impact (from October 2019 to October 2021). Results. A total of 99 and 92 patients were included in the study in the pre- and post-intervention stages, respectively. Patients had a more severe condition, were younger, and had a lower weight in the preintervention period. After adjusting for severity and age, the group comparison in the post-intervention stage showed a reduction in days of continuous infusion of opioids (6 ± 5.2 versus 7.6­5.8, p = 0.018) and days of continuous infusion of benzodiazepines (3.3 ± 3.5 versus 7.6 ± 6.8, p = 0.001). No significant  differences were observed in days of MV and total days of benzodiazepine use. Conclusion. The implementation of a sedation and analgesia protocol resulted in a reduction in the use of continuous infusion of drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Analgesia , Analgesics, Opioid , Pain , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hypnotics and Sedatives
5.
MedUNAB ; 26(1): 40-47, 20230731.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1525304

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La atresia pulmonar con comunicación interventricular es una cardiopatía compleja que enmarca grandes desafíos en su etapa pre y postquirúrgica; el uso del soporte vital extracorpóreo con membrana de oxigenación restablece la oxigenación y perfusión al organismo para permitir recuperación y complementar estudios. El objetivo de este caso clínico es determinar la atención de enfermería en la fase aguda post quirúrgica. Se expondrá usando el modelo teórico de Dorothea Orem: teorías de déficit de autocuidado y teoría de sistemas. Esta cardiopatía es la forma más severa de la tetralogía de Fallot. Tiene una incidencia del 2% entre todas las cardiopatías. Metodología. Es el caso de una preescolar con atresia pulmonar con comunicación interventricular, se describe los procesos realizados desde el diagnóstico, la intervención percutánea y reparo quirúrgico, así como el manejo de lesión residual en el marco del uso de diferentes tecnologías. Se resalta como elemento clave el uso del soporte con oxigenación con membrana extracorpórea usada como puente a decisión. Resultados. El plan de atención de enfermería en esta fase crítica logró los resultados planteados como la adecuada perfusión y oxigenación, recuperación de la función ventricular, estabilización hemodinámica para ser llevada al reparo de la lesión residual. Este novedoso soporte fue implementado dos veces durante la misma hospitalización y con resultados exitosos. Conclusiones. Caso de difícil manejo con terapias convencionales, pero con aplicación de una atención integral de enfermería; el uso de tecnología y de diversas especialidades permitió un egreso de la menor sin complicaciones. Palabras clave: Atresia Pulmonar; Oxigenación por membrana extracorpórea; Atención de Enfermería; Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrico; Cardiopatías Congénitas.


Introduction. The pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect is a complex heart disseas that possess great challenges in pre and post-surgical stages; the use of vital support extracorporeal with membrane oxygenation restores oxygen and perfusion to the body to allow recovery and complement studies. The objetive of this case report is to determinate the nurse attention in the acute post quirulgical phase. It will be presented using Dorothea Orem's theoretical model: theories of self-care deficits and systems theory. This heart disease is the most severe form of tetralogy Fallot. It has an incidence of 2% among all heart diseases. Methodology. This is the case of a kindergarten with pulmonary atresia with ventricular septal defect, the processes carried out from diagnosis, percutaneous intervention and surgical repair are described, as well as the management of residual injury within the framework of the use of different technologies. The use of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support used as a decision bridge is highlighted as a key element. Results. The nursing care plan in the critical phase achieved the results proposed as adequate perfusion and oxygenation, recovery of the ventricular function, hemodynamic stabilization to be carried out to repair the residual injury. This newfangled support was implemented twice during the same hospitalization with sucessful result. Conclusions. Case report with struggle managment with conventional therapies but with the application of comprehensive nursing care; the use of technology and the work of various specialities allowed the minor to be discharged without complications. Keywords: Pulmonary Atresia; Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation; Nursing Care; Intensive Care Units, Pediatric; Heart Defects, Congenital.


Introdução. A atresia pulmonar com comunicação interventricular é uma cardiopatia complexa que apresenta grandes desafios em sua fase pré e pós-cirúrgica. O uso de suporte de vida extracorpóreo com membrana de oxigenação restaura a oxigenação e a perfusão do corpo para permitir a recuperação e complementar os estudos. O objetivo deste caso clínico é determinar os cuidados de enfermagem na fase aguda pós-cirúrgica. Será apresentado utilizando o modelo teórico de Dorothea Orem: teorias do déficit de autocuidado e teoria de sistemas. Esta doença cardíaca é a forma mais grave de tetralogia de Fallot. Tem uma incidência de 2% entre todas as doenças cardíacas. Metodologia. É o caso de uma criança em idade pré-escolar com atresia pulmonar com comunicação interventricular, são descritos os processos realizados desde o diagnóstico, intervenção percutânea e reparação cirúrgica, bem como o manejo da lesão residual no âmbito da utilização de diferentes tecnologias. Destaca-se, como elemento-chave, a utilização de suporte com oxigenação por membrana extracorpórea como ponte para a decisão. Resultados. O plano de cuidados de enfermagem nesta fase crítica alcançou os resultados propostos como perfusão e oxigenação adequadas, recuperação da função ventricular, estabilização hemodinâmica a ser realizada para o reparo da lesão residual. Este novo suporte foi implementado duas vezes durante a mesma hospitalização e com resultados bem-sucedidos. Conclusões. Caso de difícil manejo com terapias convencionais, mas com aplicação de cuidados integrais de enfermagem, o uso da tecnologia e de diversas especialidades permitiu que a criança recebesse alta sem complicações. Palavras-chave: Atresia Pulmonar; Oxigenação por Membrana Extracorpórea; Cuidados de Enfermagem; Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica; Cardiopatias Congênitas.


Subject(s)
Extracorporeal Membrane Oxygenation , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pulmonary Atresia , Heart Defects, Congenital , Nursing Care
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(3): e202202656, jun. 2023.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1435629

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El botulismo del lactante (BL) es la forma más frecuente de botulismo humano en Argentina. El objetivo es describir aspectos esenciales del diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes con BL internados en el servicio de terapia intensiva pediátrica (STIP). Métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y retrospectivo. Se utilizó la base de datos del STIP con diagnóstico de BL en el período 2005-2020. Se registraron variables demográficas, métodos de diagnóstico, días de asistencia respiratoria mecánica convencional (ARMC), de ventilación no invasiva (VNI), estadía en STIP, mortalidad al alta hospitalaria. Resultados. Se registraron 21 pacientes con BL; 14 pacientes fueron varones, con una mediana de edad de 5 meses (RIC 2-6 m). El diagnóstico se realizó mediante técnica de bioensayo y se detectó la toxina en suero en 12 pacientes. Uno solo no requirió ARMC; 1 paciente fue traqueostomizado; 18 pacientes recibieron antibióticos; 5 recibieron VNI. Ningún paciente recibió antitoxina y no hubo fallecidos. La mediana de estadía hospitalaria fue 66 días (RI: 42-76); de internación en STIP, 48 días (RI: 29-78); y de ARMC, 37 días (RI: 26-64). La demora en la confirmación diagnóstica fue 15,8 ± 4,8 días. Conclusiones. La totalidad de los pacientes fueron diagnosticados con la técnica de bioensayo, que generó un tiempo de demora diagnóstica que excede los lapsos recomendados para la administración del tratamiento específico. Ningún paciente recibió tratamiento específico. El BL presentó baja mortalidad, pero tiempos de ARM e internación prolongados, que se asocian a infecciones sobreagregadas y uso frecuente de antibióticos.


Introduction. Infant botulism (IB) is the most common form of human botulism in Argentina. Our objective was to describe the main aspects of diagnosis and management of patients with IB admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU). Methods. Observational, descriptive, and retrospective study. The PICU database with IB diagnosis in 2005­2020 period was used. Demographic variables, diagnostic methods, days of conventional mechanical ventilation (CMV), non-invasive ventilation (NIV), length of stay in the PICU and mortality upon hospital discharge were recorded. Results. In total, 21 patients with IB were recorded; 14 were male, their median age was 5 months (IQR: 2­6 m). Diagnosis was made by bioassay, and the toxin was identified in the serum of 12 patients. Only 1 patient did not require CMV; 1 patient had a tracheostomy; 18 patients received antibiotics; 5 received NIV. No patient was administered antitoxin and no patient died. The median length of stay in the hospital was 66 days (IQR: 42­76); in the PICU, 48 days (IQR: 29­78); and the median use of CMV, 37 days (IQR: 26­64). The delay until diagnostic confirmation was 15.8 ± 4.8 days. Conclusions. All patients were diagnosed using the bioassay technique, which resulted in a diagnostic delay that exceeds the recommended period for the administration of a specific treatment. No patient received a specific treatment. IB was related to a low mortality, but also to prolonged use of MV and length of hospital stay, which were associated with cross infections and frequent antibiotic use.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Botulism/diagnosis , Botulism/therapy , Botulism/epidemiology , Cytomegalovirus Infections , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Delayed Diagnosis , Anti-Bacterial Agents
7.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 14: 1-8, mar. 20, 2023. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1425393

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Identificar o conhecimento da equipe de enfermagem antes e após a implementação do protocolo de prevenção de pneumonia associada à ventilação mecânica. Métodos: Estudo quantitativo descritivo do tipo quase experimental realizado nas unidades pediátricas de um hospital universitário público na região norte do estado do Paraná, em setembro de 2018. A população foi composta por enfermeiros e auxiliares/técnicos de enfermagem. Foi utilizado um instrumento com questões objetivas, para que os profissionais assinalassem individualmente antes (pré-teste) e após (pós-teste) a intervenção. Para implementação do protocolo utilizouse a abordagem por meio de oficina educativa. Para análise dos dados utilizou-se teste de qui-quadrado após teste de normalidade considerando p<0,05. Resultados: Participaram das oficinas 6 (16,7%) enfermeiros e 30 (83,3%) auxiliar/técnico de enfermagem, 72,2% trabalham na área ≥10 anos. Após as oficinas houve aumento do conhecimento quanto as informações gerais sobre pneumonia associada à ventilação, proliferação bacteriana na cavidade oral e formação do biofilme na cavidade oral. Conclusão: Não houve significância estatística em quase todos os blocos, porém ressalta-se que a compreensão dos profissionais aumentou com o método de ensino, foram encontrados números expressivos e efetivos de adesão ao conhecimento após a intervenção. (AU)


bjective: To identify the knowledge of the nursing team before and after the implementation of the pneumonia prevention protocol associated with mechanical ventilation. Methods: Quantitative descriptive study of the quasi-experimental type carried out in the pediatric units of a public university hospital in the northern region of the state of Paraná, in September 2018. The population consisted of nurses and nursing assistants/technicians. An instrument with objective questions was used, so that professionals individually marked before (pre-test) and after (post-test) the intervention. For the implementation of the protocol, the approach was used through an educational workshop. For data analysis, a chi-square test was used after a normality test considering p<0.05. Results: Six (16.7%) nurses and 30 (83.3%) nursing assistants/technicians participated in the workshops, 72.2% work in the area ≥10 years. After the workshops, there was an increase in knowledge regarding general information about pneumonia associated with ventilation, bacterial proliferation in the oral cavity and biofilm formation in the oral cavity. Conclusión: There was no statistical significance in almost all blocks, however it is noteworthy that the professionals' understanding increased with the teaching method, expressive and effective numbers of adherence to knowledge were found after the intervention. (AU)


Objetivo: Identificar los conocimientos del equipo de enfermería antes y después de la implementación del protocolo de prevención de neumonías asociadas a la ventilación mecánica. Métodos: Estudio descriptivo cuantitativo de tipo cuasiexperimental realizado en las unidades de pediatría de un hospital universitario público de la región norte del estado de Paraná, en septiembre de 2018. La población estuvo conformada por enfermeros y auxiliares/técnicos de enfermería. Se utilizó un instrumento con preguntas objetivas, para que los profesionales puntuaran individualmente antes (pre-test) y después (post-test) de la intervención. Para implementar el protocolo, se utilizó el enfoque a través de un taller educativo. Para el análisis de los datos se utilizó una prueba de chicuadrado luego de una prueba de normalidad considerando p<0.05. Resultados: En los talleres participaron 6 (16,7%) enfermeras y 30 (83,3%) auxiliares/técnicos de enfermería, 72,2% laboran en el área ≥10 años. Después de los talleres, se incrementó el conocimiento sobre la información general sobre neumonía asociada a la ventilación, proliferación bacteriana en la cavidad bucal y formación de biofilm en la cavidad bucal. Conclusión: No hubo significación estadística en casi todos los bloques, sin embargo se destaca que la comprensión de los profesionales aumentó con el método de enseñanza, se encontraron números expresivos y efectivos de adherencia al conocimiento después de la intervención. (AU)


Subject(s)
Health Personnel , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Child Care , Health Education , Pneumonia, Ventilator-Associated
8.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202102550, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412904

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos, se utiliza gran cantidad de medicamentos, muchos prescritos fuera de las condiciones establecidas en su ficha técnica (prescripciones off-label y unlicensed). El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el uso de medicamentos y estimar la prevalencia de fármacos off-label y unlicensed en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de un hospital de tercer nivel español. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional, de una cohorte de niños ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en 2017. Se revisó cada fármaco prescrito, sus condiciones de uso y administración. Además, se analizaron las fichas técnicas de los fármacos implicados con la finalidad de identificar si el uso de los medicamentos se realizaba según sus condiciones de autorización, o bien se hacía fuera de prospecto (off-label) o como unlicensed. Resultados. La muestra fue de 97 pacientes. El 74,2 % (n = 72) de los pacientes recibieron algún fármaco off-label o unlicensed. El 23,8 % (n = 243) de las prescripciones fueron off-label y el 8,7 % (n = 89), unlicensed. El subanálisis realizado por grupos de edad mostró que el grupo de edad que recibió mayor número de prescripciones totales (n = 611) y el mayor porcentaje de fármacos prescritos en condiciones off-label y/o unlicensed (38,4 %) fue el de menores de 2 años. Conclusiones. La prescripción de fármacos off-label y/o unlicensed es una práctica habitual en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Este estudio permite documentar la complejidad de la terapéutica en niños.


Introduction. In pediatric intensive care units, a large number of drugs are used, many of which are prescribed for condition beyond those established in their summary of product characteristics (off-label and unlicensed drug prescriptions). The objective of this study was to describe drug use and estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed drugs in a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care Spanish hospital. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational study with a single cohort of children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. The study was conducted in 2017. Each drug prescription, its conditions of use and administration were reviewed. In addition, the summary of product characteristics of drugs used were analyzed in order to identify whether they were used according to their conditions of authorization, or whether they were used in an off-label or unlicensed manner. Results. The sample included 97 patients. At least one off-label or unlicensed drug was administered to 74.2% (n = 72) of patients; 23.8% (n = 243) corresponded to off-label prescriptions and 8.7% (n = 89), unlicensed prescriptions. A sub-analysis by age group showed that the age group that received a higher number of total prescriptions (n = 611) and a higher percentage of off-label and/or unlicensed drug prescriptions (38.4%) was under 2 years of age. Conclusions. Off-label and/or unlicensed drug prescription is a common practice in the pediatric intensive care unit. This study allowed us to document the complexity of therapeutics in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Off-Label Use , Tertiary Healthcare , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Hospitals
10.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, CUMED | ID: biblio-1521886

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La notificación de eventos adversos es reflejo de la calidad asistencial de enfermería y de la cultura de seguridad. Objetivo: Identificar la percepción de enfermería sobre la notificación de eventos adversos en cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Métodos: Estudio cualitativo, de tipo investigación convergente asistencial, realizado en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos del Hospital Provincial Pediátrico "José Luis Miranda", Cuba, de octubre a diciembre del año 2022. Participaron 38 enfermeras, por medio de entrevista informal, observación participante y grupo de discusión. Los datos recogidos en el proceso investigativo fueron organizados por analogía de información y analizados de forma cualitativa, ello incluyó el descubrimiento, codificación y relativización de la información, lo cual permitió identificar categorías, codificar estas categorías y establecer relaciones. Resultados: Los participantes percibían que la notificación de eventos adversos se realizaba de forma verbal al jefe de equipo de enfermería. La ausencia de notificación ocurría por desconocimiento de los aspectos de la cultura de seguridad, temor a sanciones y no existencia de un sistema de notificación. Como parte de las estrategias para la notificación de eventos adversos los enfermeros sugirieron la realización de talleres y cursos formativos sobre cultura de seguridad, crear un ambiente laboral no punitivo que favorezca el análisis y aprendizaje de cada error. Conclusión: Los profesionales de enfermería perciben que se notifican de forma espontánea los eventos adversos en cuidados intensivos, existe la necesidad de formar al personal en cultura de seguridad del paciente y diseñar un sistema de vigilancia de eventos adversos(AU)


Introduction: Adverse event reporting is a reflection of nursing care quality and safety culture. Objective: To identify nurses' perception about adverse event reporting in pediatric intensive care. Methods: A qualitative study, of convergent care research type, was carried out in the intensive care unit of Hospital Provincial Pediátrico José Luis Miranda, in Cuba, from October to December 2022. Thirty-eight nurses participated in an informal interview, with participant observation and a discussion group. The data collected in the research process were organized by information analogy, as well as qualitatively analyzed. This included the discovery, coding and relativization of the information, which allowed to identify and code these categories, as well as establishing relationships. Results: The participants perceived that adverse event reporting was done verbally to the head nurse. The lack of reporting was due to lack of knowledge about safety culture aspects, fear of sanctions and the nonexistence of a reporting system. As part of the strategies to encourage adverse events reporting, the nurses suggested holding workshops and training courses on safety culture, as well as creating a nonpunitive working environment that favors the analysis and learning from each error. Conclusion: Nursing professionals perceive that adverse events in the intensive care settings are reported spontaneously. There is a need to train such staff based on a patient safety culture and to design an adverse event surveillance system(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Nursing Care/methods
11.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515294

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La insuficiencia adrenal hipotálamo hipofisaria usualmente se manifiesta secundaria a tumores y, cuando resulta congénita se asocia, con frecuencia, con otras deficiencias hormonales. La crisis adrenal suele presentarse en su debut y puede resultar potencialmente mortal. Objetivo: Examinar el caso de una paciente con insuficiencia adrenal central que debutó con una crisis adrenal congénita. Presentación del caso: Recién nacida a término, padres no consanguíneos, hospitalizada a los 9 días de vida por clínica de una semana con múltiples episodios eméticos y apnea. Ingresó con deshidratación severa, hipotensa y estuporosa. Además, se encontró acidosis metabólica severa, hipoglucemia persistente, hiponatremia e insuficiencia prerrenal. Ante la no mejoría de su estado hemodinámico, a pesar del uso de cristaloides y vasopresores, finalmente mejoró con la administración de dosis altas de hidrocortisona. El diagnóstico de deficiencia de cortisol de origen central se realizó con un test dinámico de insulina y la resonancia magnética nuclear hipofisaria. Conclusiones: La crisis adrenal se debe tener presente como diagnóstico diferencial en episodios agudos con inestabilidad hemodinámica persistente e hipoglucemia de difícil manejo. Adicionalmente, hay que considerar que existen otras causas menos comunes de insuficiencia adrenal en neonatos como la hipoplasia hipofisaria(AU)


Introduction: Hypothalamic-pituitary adrenal insufficiency usually manifests secondary to tumors and, when congenital, is often associated with other hormonal deficiencies. Adrenal crisis usually occurs at its onset and can be life threatening. Objective: To review the case of a patient with central adrenal insufficiency who had an onset with a congenital adrenal crisis. Case presentation: Term newborn, non-consanguineous parents, hospitalized at 9 days of life for a week-long clinical presentation with multiple emetic episodes and apnea. She was admitted with severe dehydration, hypotensive and stuporous. In addition, severe metabolic acidosis, persistent hypoglycemia, hyponatremia and prerenal failure were found. Given the lack of improvement of her hemodynamic status, despite the use of crystalloids and vasopressors, she finally improved with the administration of high doses of hydrocortisone. The diagnosis of cortisol deficiency of central origin was made with a dynamic insulin test and pituitary nuclear magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions: Adrenal crisis should be kept in mind as a differential diagnosis in acute episodes with persistent hemodynamic instability and difficult-to-manage hypoglycemia. Additionally, other less common causes of adrenal insufficiency in neonates, such as pituitary hypoplasia, should be considered(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Ceftriaxone/therapeutic use , Hydrocortisone/therapeutic use , Adrenal Insufficiency/etiology , Milrinone/therapeutic use , Dobutamine/therapeutic use , Vasoconstrictor Agents/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric
12.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2023. 74 f p. tab.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1516507

ABSTRACT

O interesse da presente Dissertação surgiu com o intuito de avaliar as Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátricas no aspecto de estrutura do serviço. O inquérito do estudo foi colhido de 01/07/2020 a 31/10/2020 através de um questionário autopreenchido pelos 29 médicos responsáveis técnicos e pelos 1084 profissionais de saúde atuantes nas unidades. O objetivo primário da Dissertação foi avaliar a adequabilidade de aspectos estruturais de 29 Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátricas de sete estados no Brasil à regulamentação normativa que já estava vigente no país antes da pandemia, e às normativas e demandas impostas durante a pandemia. Foram analisados seletos indicadores de estrutura (recursos humanos, protocolos, estrutura física, orientações e rotinas na pandemia, educação continuada e treinamento, e recursos materiais). Na análise de indicadores para verificação de adequação à normativa regulamentadora, avaliou-se que na dimensão de recursos humanos e protocolos ao menos um terço das unidades não cumpriam requisitos previstos em norma. Em recursos humanos, as menores proporções observadas foram para a categoria de técnicos de enfermagem, médicos diaristas e fisioterapeutas (65.5%, 69.1%, 82.7%). Para protocolos clínicos, há 55.2% de unidades que têm protocolos de sepse, sedação e dor instalados e vigentes. Apesar de já haver essa defasagem em questões estruturais, quando se analisou a adequação para as normativas e demandas da pandemia, verificou-se que a resposta das unidades nas diferentes dimensões de estrutura analisadas foi em geral melhor ou semelhante ao observado em estudos feitos na mesma época na América Latina. Foram entrevistados 1084 profissionais de saúde e 60% tiveram disponibilidade de Equipamentos de Proteção Individual (EPI) para assistência em procedimentos geradores de aerossol. As unidades com financiamento privado obtiveram maiores proporções de adequação em recursos humanos para algumas categorias profissionais durante a pandemia como para médicos intensivistas (44.8% x 17.2%; p<0.01). Também houve diferença significativa em recursos materiais, como para assistência em procedimentos geradores de aerossol (31.3% x 28.8%; p=0.02). A categoria profissional que teve mais inadequação à normativa para disponibilidade de EPI foi a de técnicos de enfermagem (14.4% x 11.3%; p<0.01). O que se observou, portanto, foi que nos aspectos avaliados a situação pré-pandemia era razoável, mas já com espaços para melhorias, e durante a crise sanitária houve uma resposta comparável a resultados encontrados em outros estudos na região. Porém, se tivesse havido uma gestão mais eficiente com deslocamento adequado de recursos, é provável que a reação tivesse sido melhor. (AU)


The interest of this dissertation arose to evaluate Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) in terms of service structure. The study survey was collected from 07/01/2020 to 10/31/2020 through a self-completed questionnaire by the 29 technical responsible physicians and 1084 health professionals working in the unit. The primary objective was to describe and evaluate the suitability of structural aspects of 29 Pediatric Intensive Care Units from seven states in Brazil to the normative regulation that was already in course in Brazil before the pandemic, and to the norms and demands imposed during the pandemic. It is proposed to analyze structure indicators (human resources, protocols, physical structure, guidelines and routines in the pandemic, continuing education and training, and material resources). In the analysis of indicators for verification of adequacy to the regulatory norms, it was evaluated that in the dimension of human resources and protocols, at least one third of the units did not fulfill requirements foressen in the norm. In human resources, the lowest proportions observed were for the category of nursing technicians, diarist doctors and physiotherapists (65.5%, 69.1%, 82.7%). For protocols and routines, there are 55.2% of units that have sepsis sedation and pain protocols installed and current. Despite this lag, already existing, when the suitability for the pandemic's regulations and demands was analyzed, it was found that the response of the units in the different structural dimensions analyzed was generally better or similar to that observed in studies carried out at that period in Latin America. There were 1084 health professionals interviewed and 60% had personal protective Equipment (PPE) available for assistance in aerosol- generating procedures. Units with private funding had higher proportions of adequacy in human resources for some professional categories during the pandemic such as intensive care physicians (44.8% x 17.2%; p<0.01), and material resources, such as assistance in aerosol-generating procedures (31.3% x 28.8%; p=0.02). The professional category that had the most inadequacy to the regulations for the availability for of PPE (personal protective equipment) was that of nursing technicians (14.4% x 11.3%; p<0.01). What was observed, therefore, was that in the aspects evaluated, the pre-pandemic situation was reasonable, but already with room for improvement, and during the health crisis there was a response comparable to results found in other studies in the region. However, if there had been more efficient management with adequate allocation of resources, it is likely that the reaction would have been better. (AU)


Subject(s)
Pediatrics , Health Evaluation , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/organization & administration , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric/supply & distribution , Health Personnel , COVID-19 , Unified Health System , Brazil , Health Management
13.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 94(1): e204, 2023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UY-BNMED, BNUY | ID: biblio-1420116

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: describir las características de ocho pacientes pediátricos que se presentaron con síndrome inflamatorio multisistémico (MIS-C) asociado a SARS-CoV-2 y compromiso cardíaco. Material y métodos: estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo de ocho pacientes con edades entre 1 y 13 años, con diagnóstico de MIS-C y compromiso cardíaco, asistidos en el CHPR. Se analiza su historia clínica, evolución y tratamiento. Resultados: los pacientes presentaron fiebre en el 100%, exantema e hiperemia conjuntival en el 88%, síntomas digestivos en el 50%, insuficiencia respiratoria en el 25% y shock en el 50%. Todos requirieron ingreso a cuidados intensivos. La alteración de la contractilidad cardíaca estuvo presente en el 63% de los pacientes, fue leve y segmentaria en el 80%, el 60% requirió soporte inotrópico por 3 días, recuperando una función normal en 7 días. La insuficiencia mitral se presentó en el 25% y el derrame pericárdico en el 38%, ambos de grado leve. Un paciente presentó dilatación de arterias coronarias con Z score < 2. El 85% de los pacientes presentó alteraciones del ECG, en el 29% se trató de alteración en la repolarización, en el 29% intervalo QTc prolongado, en el 15% bloqueo atrioventricular de 1er grado y bloqueo incompleto de rama derecha. Un paciente tuvo fibrilación auricular por 3 días con remisión espontánea a ritmo sinusal. Las troponinas estuvieron altas en el 57% de los pacientes y el ProBNP elevado en el 100%. Todos recibieron inmunoglobulinas, metilprednisolona y aspirina. Conclusiones: se presentaron ocho pacientes pediátricos con MIS-C y compromiso cardíaco, el 50% se presentó en shock, todos requirieron ingreso a cuidados intensivos. El 85% presento alteraciones en el ECG. El 63% presentó compromiso de la contractilidad sectorial y leve, se normalizó en 7 días. El 60% requirió soporte inotrópico por una media de 3 días.


Objective: describe the characteristics of 8 children who presented Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome associated with SARS-CoV2 infections (MIS-C) and cardiac involvement. Material and methods: descriptive, retrospective study of 8 patients of between 1 and 13 years of age, diagnosed with MIS-C and cardiac involvement, assisted at the Pereira Rossell Children Hospital, analysis of their medical records, evolution and treatment. Results: the patients showed: fever in 100% of the cases, rash and conjunctival hyperemia in 88%, digestive symptoms in 50%, respiratory failure in 25% and shock in 50%. All required admission to Intensive Care. Cardiac contractility alteration was present in 63% of patients, the affectation was mild and segmental in 80%, 60% required inotropic support for 3 days and recovered normal functions in 7 days. Mitral regurgitation was present in 25% of the cases and pericardial effusion in 38%, mild in both cases. One patient had dilated coronary arteries with a Z score <2. 85% of the patients presented ECG abnormalities, 29% present alteration of repolarization, 29% prolonged QTc, 15% 1st degree atrioventricular block and incomplete right bundle branch block. One patient had atrial fibrillation for 3 days with spontaneous remission to sinus rhythm. Troponins were increased in 57% of the patients and ProBNP elevated in 100%. All patients received Immunoglobulins, Methylprednisolone and Aspirin. Conclusions: we present eight pediatric patients with MIS-C and cardiac involvement, 50% suffered shock, all required admission to Intensive Care. ECG abnormalities were found in 85% of the patients. Mild and segmental contractility compromise was found in 63% of the patients and normalized in 7 days. 60% required inotropic support for a mean of 3 days.


Objetivo: descrever as características de 8 pacientes pediátricos que apresentaram Síndrome Inflamatória Multissistêmica (MIS-C) associada ao SARS-CoV-2 e comprometimento cardíaco. Material e métodos: estudo descritivo, retrospectivo, de oito pacientes com idade entre 1 e 13 anos, com diagnóstico de MIS-C e comprometimento cardíaco, assistidos pelo CHPR. Seu prontuário médico, evolução e tratamento são analisados. Resultados: os pacientes apresentaram febre em 100%, erupção cutânea e hiperemia conjuntival em 88%, sintomas digestivos em 50%, insuficiência respiratória em 25% e choque em 50%. Todos necessitaram de internação nos cuidados intensivos. A alteração da contratilidade cardíaca esteve presente em 63% dos pacientes, foi leve e segmentar em 80%, 60% necessitaram de suporte inotrópico por 3 dias, recuperando a função normal em 7 dias. A regurgitação mitral ocorreu em 25% dos pacientes e o derrame pericárdico em 38%, ambos de grau leve. Um paciente apresentou dilatação da artéria coronária com escore Z < 2. 85% dos pacientes apresentaram anormalidades no ECG, 29% foram alterações de repolarização, 29% intervalo QTc prolongado em bloqueio atrioventricular de 1º grau a 15% e bloqueio incompleto do ramo direito. Um paciente apresentou fibrilação atrial por 3 dias com remissão espontânea ao ritmo sinusal. As troponinas foram elevadas em 57% dos doentes e ProBNP elevado em 100%. Todos receberam imunoglobulinas, Metilprednisolona e aspirina. Conclusões: houve oito pacientes pediátricos com SMIM-C e comprometimento cardíaco, 50% em choque, todos necessitaram de internação em terapia intensiva. 85% apresentaram elevações no ECG. 63% apresentaram comprometimento setorial e de contratilidade leve, normalizados em 7 dias. 60% necessitaram de suporte inotrópico por uma média de 3 dias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/complications , COVID-19/complications , Methylprednisolone/therapeutic use , Heparin/therapeutic use , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/drug therapy , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Aspirin/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/administration & dosage , Fibrinolytic Agents/therapeutic use , Heparin Antagonists/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/administration & dosage , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/therapeutic use
14.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 952023. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1515290

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El derrame pleural paraneumónico resulta la complicación más frecuente de la neumonía bacteriana, de manejo complejo y muchas veces quirúrgico. No existen publicaciones en Cuba provenientes de ensayos clínicos controlados y aleatorizados ni del uso de la estreptoquinasa recombinante (Heberkinasa®) en el derrame pleural. Objetivo: Evaluar la eficacia y la seguridad de la Heberkinasa® en el tratamiento del derrame pleural paraneumónico complicado complejo y el empiema en niños. Métodos: Ensayo clínico fase III, abierto, aleatorizado (2:1), en grupos paralelos y controlado. Se concluyó la inclusión prevista de 48 niños (1-18 años de edad), que cumplieron los criterios de selección. Los progenitores otorgaron el consentimiento informado. Los pacientes se distribuyeron en dos grupos: I- experimental: terapia estándar y administración intrapleural diaria de 200 000 UI de Heberkinasa® durante 3-5 días y II-control: tratamiento estándar. Las variables principales: necesidad de cirugía y la estadía hospitalaria. Se evaluaron los eventos adversos. Resultados: Ningún paciente del grupo I-experimental requirió cirugía, a diferencia del grupo II-control en el que 37,5 por ciento necesitó cirugía video-toracoscópica, con diferencia altamente significativa. Se redujo la estadía hospitalaria (en cuatro días), las complicaciones intratorácicas y las infecciones asociadas a la asistencia sanitaria en el grupo que recibió Heberkinasa®. No se presentaron eventos adversos graves atribuibles al producto. Conclusiones: La Heberkinasa® en el derrame pleural paraneumónico complicado complejo y empiema resultó eficaz y segura para la evacuación del foco séptico, con reducción de la necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico, de la estadía hospitalaria y de las complicaciones, sin eventos adversos relacionados con su administración(AU)


Introduction: Paraneumonic pleural effusion is the most frequent complication of bacterial pneumonia, with complex and often surgical management. There are no publications in Cuba from randomized controlled clinical trials or the use of recombinant streptokinase (Heberkinase®) in pleural effusion. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of Heberkinase® in the treatment of complex complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and empyema in children. Methods: Phase III, open-label, randomized (2:1), parallel-group, controlled clinical trial. The planned inclusion of 48 children (1-18 years of age), who met the selection criteria, was completed. Parents gave informed consent. The patients were divided into two groups: I-experimental: standard therapy and daily intrapleural administration of 200,000 IU of Heberkinase® for 3-5 days; and II-control: standard treatment. The main variables: need for surgery and hospital stay. Adverse events were evaluated. Results: No patient in group I-experimental required surgery, unlike group II-control in which 37.5 percent required video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery, with a highly significant difference. Hospital stay (to 4 days), intrathoracic complications and infections associated to healthcare in the group that received Heberkinase® was reduced. No serious adverse events attributable to the product occurred. Conclusions: Heberkinase® in complex complicated parapneumonic pleural effusion and empyema was effective and safe for the draining of the septic focus, with reduction of the need for surgical treatment, hospital stay and complications, with no adverse events related to its administration(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pleural Effusion/complications , Pneumonia/complications , Streptokinase/therapeutic use , Treatment Outcome , Empyema, Pleural/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Bacterial/etiology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Randomized Controlled Trial , Clinical Trial, Phase III
15.
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 284-288, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971074

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#To study the application value of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.@*METHODS@#The critically ill children in Hunan Children's Hospital who were transported with or without a transport ventilator were included as the observation group (from January 2019 to January 2020; n=122) and the control group (from January 2018 to January 2019; n=120), respectively. The two groups were compared in terms of general data, the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and blood oxygen saturation during transport, the incidence rates of adverse events, and outcomes.@*RESULTS@#There were no significant differences between the two groups in sex, age, oxygenation index, pediatric critical illness score, course of disease, primary disease, heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation before transport (P>0.05). During transport, there were no significant differences between the two groups in the changes in heart rate, respiratory rate, and transcutaneous oxygen saturation (P>0.05). The incidence rates of tracheal catheter detachment, indwelling needle detachment, and sudden cardiac arrest in the observation group were lower than those in the control group during transport, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). Compared with the control group, the observation group had significantly shorter duration of mechanical ventilation and length of stay in the pediatric intensive care unit and significantly higher transport success rate and cure/improvement rate (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The application of transport ventilator in the inter-hospital transport can improve the success rate of inter-hospital transport and the prognosis in critically ill children, and therefore, it holds promise for clinical application in the inter-hospital transport of critically ill children.


Subject(s)
Child , Humans , Critical Illness , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ventilators, Mechanical , Prognosis
16.
Chinese Journal of Pediatrics ; (12): 209-215, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970269

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the differences in clinical characteristics, diagnosis, and treatment of pediatric septic shock in pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) among hospitals of different levels. Methods: This retrospective study enrolled 368 children with septic shock treated in the PICU of Beijing Children's Hospital, Henan Children's Hospital, and Baoding Children's Hospital from January 2018 to December 2021. Their clinical data were collected, including the general information, location of onset (community or hospital-acquired), severity, pathogen positivity, consistence of guideline (the rate of standard attainment at 6 h after resuscitation and the rate of anti-infective drug administration within 1 h after diagnosis), treatment, and in-hospital mortality. The 3 hospitals were national, provincial, and municipal, respectively. Furthermore, the patients were divided into the tumor group and the non-tumor group, and into the in-hospital referral group and the outpatient or emergency admission group. Chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results: The 368 patients aged 32 (11, 98) months, of whom 223 were males and 145 females. There were 215, 107, and 46 patients with septic shock, with males of 141, 51, and 31 cases, from the national, provincial, and municipal hospitals, respectively. The difference in pediatric risk of mortality Ⅲ (PRISM Ⅲ) scores among the national,provincial and municipal group was statistically significant (26(19, 32) vs.19(12, 26) vs. 12(6, 19), Z=60.25,P<0.001). The difference in community acquired septic shock among the national,provincial and municipal group was statistically significant (31.6%(68/215) vs. 84.1%(90/107) vs. 91.3%(42/46), χ2=108.26,P<0.001). There were no significant differences in compliance with guidelines among the 3 groups (P>0.05). The main bacteria detected in the national group were Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.4% (12/78)) and Staphylococcus aureus (15.4% (12/78)); in the provincial group were Staphylococcus aureus (19.0% (12/63)) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.7% (8/63)), and in the municipal group were Streptococcus pneumoniae (40.0% (10/25)) and Enteric bacilli (16.0% (4/25)). The difference in the proportion of virus and the proportion of 3 or more initial antimicrobials used among the national,provincial and municipal group was statistically significant (27.7% (43/155) vs. 14.9% (13/87) vs. 9.1% (3/33), 22.8%(49/215) vs. 11.2%(12/107) vs. 6.5%(3/46), χ2=8.82, 10.99, both P<0.05). There was no difference in the in-hospital mortality among the 3 groups (P>0.05). Regarding the subgroups of tumor and non-tumor, the national group had higher PRISM Ⅲ (31(24, 38) vs. 22 (21, 28) vs.16 (9, 22), 24 (18, 30) vs. 17(8, 24) vs. 10 (5, 16), Z=30.34, 10.45, both P<0.001), and it was the same for the subgroups of in-hospital referral and out-patient or emergency admission (29 (21, 39) vs. 23 (17, 30) vs. 15 (10, 29), 23 (17, 29) vs. 18 (10, 24) vs. 11 (5, 16), Z=20.33, 14.25, both P<0.001) as compared to the provincial and municipal group. There was no significant difference in the in-hospital mortality among the 2 pairs of subgroups (all P>0.05). Conclusion: There are differences in the severity, location of onset, pathogen composition, and initial antibiotics of pediatric septic shock in children's hospitals of different levels, but no differences in compliance with guidelines and in-hospital survival rate.


Subject(s)
Female , Male , Humans , Child , Retrospective Studies , Shock, Septic/therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hospitals, Pediatric
17.
Arq. ciências saúde UNIPAR ; 27(3): 1358-1376, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1426535

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: conhecer os sentimentos maternos frente a dor no recém-nascido durante procedimentos invasivos. Método: revisão integrativa cuja elaboração da questão norteadora foi baseada na estrutura mnemônica PiCo (População, Fenômeno de Interesse e Contexto): "Quais são os sentimentos maternos gerados frente a pratica de procedimentos invasivos que podem causar dor em seus filhos recém-nascidos? A busca dos estudos foi realizada nas seguintes bases de dados: lilacs, medline, pubmed, scielo e embase, com a combinação dos descritores em português, espanhol e inglês: mães, sentimentos, procedimentos invasivos; criança, dor, experiências, unidade de terapia intensiva, internação, hospitalar. Sem limite temporal. A coleta ocorreu de setembro a outubro de 2022. Resultados: a busca nas bases de dados resultou em 398 artigos sendo apenas nove artigos selecionados, os quais contemplaram a pergunta de pesquisa. Conclusão: os sentimentos maternos frente aos procedimentos invasivos que causam dor em seus filhos envolvem intenso sofrimento expresso por momentos de angústias, ansiedade, estresse, tristeza, medo, impotência e rompimento da vinculação mãe e filho. PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Mães; Sentimentos; Procedimentos Invasivos; Dor; Criança.


Objective: to know maternal feelings regarding pain in newborns during invasive procedures. Method: integrative review whose elaboration of the guiding question was based on the PiCo mnemonic structure (Population, Phenomenon of Interest and Context): "What are the maternal feelings generated when facing the practice of invasive procedures that can cause pain in their newborn children? The search for studies was carried out in the following databases: lilacs, medline, pubmed, scielo and embase, with a combination of descriptors in Portuguese, Spanish and English: mothers, feelings, invasive procedures; child, pain, experiences, intensive care unit, admission, hospital. No time limit. The collection took place from September to October 2022. Results: the search in the databases resulted in 398 articles, with only nine selected articles, which included the research question. Conclusion: maternal feelings in the face of invasive procedures that cause pain in their children involve intense suffering expressed by moments of anguish, anxiety, stress, sadness, fear, impotence and disruption of the mother-child bond.


Objetivo: conocer los sentimientos maternos en relación al dolor en recién nacidos durante procedimientos invasivos. Método: revisión integrativa cuya elaboración de la pregunta guía se basó en la estructura mnemotécnica PiCo (Población, Fenómeno de Interés y Contexto): "¿Cuáles son los sentimientos maternos generados ante la práctica de procedimientos invasivos que pueden causar dolor en sus hijos recién nacidos? La búsqueda de estudios se realizó en las siguientes bases de datos: lilacs, medline, pubmed, scielo y embase, con una combinación de descriptores en portugués, español e inglés: mothers, feelings, invasive procedures; child, pain, experiences, intensive care unit, admission, hospital. Sin límite de tiempo. La recogida tuvo lugar de septiembre a octubre de 2022. Resultados: la búsqueda en las bases de datos resultó en 398 artículos, con sólo nueve artículos seleccionados, que incluían la pregunta de investigación. Conclusión: los sentimientos maternos ante procedimientos invasivos que causan dolor en sus hijos implican un intenso sufrimiento expresado por momentos de angustia, ansiedad, estrés, tristeza, miedo, impotencia y ruptura del vínculo madre-hijo.


Subject(s)
Pain/psychology , Infant, Newborn , Emotions/physiology , Hospitalization , Mother-Child Relations/psychology , Mothers/psychology , Anxiety/psychology , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Child , Database , Fear/psychology , Sadness/psychology , Psychological Distress , Object Attachment
18.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13: 1-7, dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413398

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender a vivência dos familiares sobre a hospitalização da criança na perspectiva do cuidado humanizado. Métodos: pesquisa descritiva, caracterizada por abordagem qualitativa. O estudo foi realizado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica do Hospital Municipal de Imperatriz, no estado do Maranhão. Participaram da pesquisa 10 familiares de crianças que estavam internadas por no mínimo 72 horas. As informações foram coletadas mediante a entrevista semiestruturada, no mês de novembro de 2019. Utilizou-se a análise do conteúdo na modalidade temática para tratamento dos dados. Resultados: emergiram quatro categorias: Sentimentos dos familiares diante da hospitalização da criança; Dificuldades enfrentadas pelas famílias durante o período de internação da criança; Cuidado Humanizado; e Estratégias de Enfrentamento dos familiares relacionados à hospitalização da criança. Conclusão: Constatou-se que os familiares vivenciam sentimentos de tristeza diante da hospitalização da criança na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica e desconhecem o significado de cuidado humanizado, associando-o com o fato de estarem sendo bem acolhidos. (AU)


Objective: to understand the experience of family members about the hospitalization of the child from the perspective of humanized care. Methods: descriptive and exploratory research, characterized by a qualitative approach. The study was carried out in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Municipal Hospital of Imperatriz, in the state of Maranhão. Ten relatives of children who were hospitalized for at least 72 hours participated in the study. The information was collected through the semi-structured interview in November 2019. Content analysis was used in the thematic modality for data processing. Results: four categories emerged: Feelings of family members regarding the hospitalization of the child; Difficulties faced by families during the child's hospitalization period; Humanized Care; and Strategies to cope with family members related to the hospitalization of the child. Conclusion: It was found that family members experience feelings of sadness before the child's hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and were unaware of the meaning of humanized care, associating it with the fact that they are being welcomed. (AU)


Objetivo: entender la experiencia de los miembros de la familia sobre la hospitalización del niño desde la perspectiva de la atención humanizada. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y exploratoria, caracterizada por un enfoque cualitativo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Municipal de Imperatriz, en el estado de Maranhao. Diez familiares de niños que fueron hospitalizados durante al menos 72 horas participaron en el estudio. La información fue recopilada a través de la entrevista semiestructurada en noviembre de 2019. El análisis de contenido se utilizó en la modalidad temática para el procesamiento de datos. Resultados: surgieron cuatro categorías: Sentimientos de los miembros de la familia con respecto a la hospitalización del niño; Dificultades a las que se enfrentan las familias durante el período de hospitalización del niño; Cuidado Humanizado; y Estrategias para hacer frente a los miembros de la familia relacionados con la hospitalización del niño. Conclusión: Se encontró que los familiares experimentan sentimientos de tristeza ante la internación del niño en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos y desconocen el significado del cuidado humanizado, asociándolo al hecho de que están siendo bienvenido. (AU)


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Family , Humanization of Assistance , Nursing Care
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e255-e263, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398308

ABSTRACT

Los cuidados paliativos pediátricos pretenden mejorar la atención y la calidad de vida de los niños en situación terminal o con una enfermedad de pronóstico letal. En el contexto hospitalario, las decisiones y tratamientos vinculados al final de la vida se realizan de forma frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Es por esto que la integración de los cuidados paliativos en estos servicios constituye una evolución lógica del abordaje clínico del niño grave. Se realiza en este trabajo una actualización acerca de las indicaciones y particularidades del enfoque paliativo en el contexto de los cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se contemplan el inicio del enfoque paliativo, la toma de decisiones, los aspectos comunicativos, el tratamiento farmacológico, el manejo de síntomas y la sedación paliativa.


Pediatric palliative care aims at improving the care and quality of life of children who are terminally ill or have a fatal prognosis. In the hospital setting, end-of-life decisions and treatments are common in intensive care units. This is why the integration of palliative care in these units is a logical evolution of the clinical approach to severely ill children. This study provides an update on the indications and characteristics of the palliative care approach in the context of pediatric intensive care. Here we describe palliative care approach initiation, decision-making, communicative aspects, drug treatment, symptom management, and palliative sedation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Communication , Terminally Ill , Intensive Care Units
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): 415-419, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398285

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El uso del Doppler transcraneal (DTC) en pacientes neurocríticos se reporta cada vez más en las terapias intensivas pediátricas. El objetivo de esta encuesta es conocer los usos y prácticas del DTC en la atención neurocrítica y el proceso de formación del personal que realiza el estudio. Materiales y métodos. Encuesta a profesionales de 23 unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica de Argentina. Resultados. Porcentaje de respuesta del 86 %. Se utilizó en sospecha de muerte encefálica (n = 20), trauma de cráneo (n = 16) y accidente cerebrovascular (n = 16). El intensivista pediátrico es quien realiza los estudios (n = 13/20). Los encuestados utilizan el Doppler para decidir conductas y tratamientos, comenzar el proceso de evaluación de muerte encefálica, solicitar tomografía de cerebro y manejar la presión de perfusión cerebral con vasopresores. Conclusión. Todos los encuestados utilizan los hallazgos del DTC para guiar tratamientos o conductas. La mitad de los encuestados está poco conforme con la capacitación recibida.


Introduction. The use of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasoundin neurocritical patients is reported to be increasingly common in pediatric intensive care units. The objective of this survey was to know about the use and practice of TCD ultrasound in neurocritical care and the training process of staff members performing it. Materials and methods. Survey administered to providers from 23 pediatric intensive care units of Argentina. Results. The percentage of response was 86%. TCD ultrasound was used for suspected brain death (n = 20), head injury (n = 16), and stroke (n = 16). Pediatric intensivists perform the test (n = 13/20). Surveyed participants use TCD ultrasound to decide on treatment and management, start brain death assessment, request brain computed tomography, and manage cerebral perfusion pressure with vasopressors. Conclusion. All surveyed participants use TCD ultrasound findings to guide management or treatments. Half of surveyed participants are little satisfied with their training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Brain Death , Critical Care/methods , Argentina , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods
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