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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 121(1): e202102550, feb. 2023. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1412904

ABSTRACT

Introducción. En las unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos, se utiliza gran cantidad de medicamentos, muchos prescritos fuera de las condiciones establecidas en su ficha técnica (prescripciones off-label y unlicensed). El objetivo de este estudio fue describir el uso de medicamentos y estimar la prevalencia de fármacos off-label y unlicensed en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos de un hospital de tercer nivel español. Población y métodos. Estudio transversal, observacional, de una cohorte de niños ingresados en una unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. El estudio se llevó a cabo en 2017. Se revisó cada fármaco prescrito, sus condiciones de uso y administración. Además, se analizaron las fichas técnicas de los fármacos implicados con la finalidad de identificar si el uso de los medicamentos se realizaba según sus condiciones de autorización, o bien se hacía fuera de prospecto (off-label) o como unlicensed. Resultados. La muestra fue de 97 pacientes. El 74,2 % (n = 72) de los pacientes recibieron algún fármaco off-label o unlicensed. El 23,8 % (n = 243) de las prescripciones fueron off-label y el 8,7 % (n = 89), unlicensed. El subanálisis realizado por grupos de edad mostró que el grupo de edad que recibió mayor número de prescripciones totales (n = 611) y el mayor porcentaje de fármacos prescritos en condiciones off-label y/o unlicensed (38,4 %) fue el de menores de 2 años. Conclusiones. La prescripción de fármacos off-label y/o unlicensed es una práctica habitual en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Este estudio permite documentar la complejidad de la terapéutica en niños.


Introduction. In pediatric intensive care units, a large number of drugs are used, many of which are prescribed for condition beyond those established in their summary of product characteristics (off-label and unlicensed drug prescriptions). The objective of this study was to describe drug use and estimate the prevalence of off-label and unlicensed drugs in a pediatric intensive care unit of a tertiary care Spanish hospital. Population and methods. Cross-sectional, observational study with a single cohort of children admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit. The study was conducted in 2017. Each drug prescription, its conditions of use and administration were reviewed. In addition, the summary of product characteristics of drugs used were analyzed in order to identify whether they were used according to their conditions of authorization, or whether they were used in an off-label or unlicensed manner. Results. The sample included 97 patients. At least one off-label or unlicensed drug was administered to 74.2% (n = 72) of patients; 23.8% (n = 243) corresponded to off-label prescriptions and 8.7% (n = 89), unlicensed prescriptions. A sub-analysis by age group showed that the age group that received a higher number of total prescriptions (n = 611) and a higher percentage of off-label and/or unlicensed drug prescriptions (38.4%) was under 2 years of age. Conclusions. Off-label and/or unlicensed drug prescription is a common practice in the pediatric intensive care unit. This study allowed us to document the complexity of therapeutics in children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Off-Label Use , Tertiary Healthcare , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Hospitals
2.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): 415-419, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398285

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El uso del Doppler transcraneal (DTC) en pacientes neurocríticos se reporta cada vez más en las terapias intensivas pediátricas. El objetivo de esta encuesta es conocer los usos y prácticas del DTC en la atención neurocrítica y el proceso de formación del personal que realiza el estudio. Materiales y métodos. Encuesta a profesionales de 23 unidades de terapia intensiva pediátrica de Argentina. Resultados. Porcentaje de respuesta del 86 %. Se utilizó en sospecha de muerte encefálica (n = 20), trauma de cráneo (n = 16) y accidente cerebrovascular (n = 16). El intensivista pediátrico es quien realiza los estudios (n = 13/20). Los encuestados utilizan el Doppler para decidir conductas y tratamientos, comenzar el proceso de evaluación de muerte encefálica, solicitar tomografía de cerebro y manejar la presión de perfusión cerebral con vasopresores. Conclusión. Todos los encuestados utilizan los hallazgos del DTC para guiar tratamientos o conductas. La mitad de los encuestados está poco conforme con la capacitación recibida.


Introduction. The use of transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasoundin neurocritical patients is reported to be increasingly common in pediatric intensive care units. The objective of this survey was to know about the use and practice of TCD ultrasound in neurocritical care and the training process of staff members performing it. Materials and methods. Survey administered to providers from 23 pediatric intensive care units of Argentina. Results. The percentage of response was 86%. TCD ultrasound was used for suspected brain death (n = 20), head injury (n = 16), and stroke (n = 16). Pediatric intensivists perform the test (n = 13/20). Surveyed participants use TCD ultrasound to decide on treatment and management, start brain death assessment, request brain computed tomography, and manage cerebral perfusion pressure with vasopressors. Conclusion. All surveyed participants use TCD ultrasound findings to guide management or treatments. Half of surveyed participants are little satisfied with their training.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Brain Death , Critical Care/methods , Argentina , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial/methods
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(6): e255-e263, dic. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1398308

ABSTRACT

Los cuidados paliativos pediátricos pretenden mejorar la atención y la calidad de vida de los niños en situación terminal o con una enfermedad de pronóstico letal. En el contexto hospitalario, las decisiones y tratamientos vinculados al final de la vida se realizan de forma frecuente en las unidades de cuidados intensivos. Es por esto que la integración de los cuidados paliativos en estos servicios constituye una evolución lógica del abordaje clínico del niño grave. Se realiza en este trabajo una actualización acerca de las indicaciones y particularidades del enfoque paliativo en el contexto de los cuidados intensivos pediátricos. Se contemplan el inicio del enfoque paliativo, la toma de decisiones, los aspectos comunicativos, el tratamiento farmacológico, el manejo de síntomas y la sedación paliativa.


Pediatric palliative care aims at improving the care and quality of life of children who are terminally ill or have a fatal prognosis. In the hospital setting, end-of-life decisions and treatments are common in intensive care units. This is why the integration of palliative care in these units is a logical evolution of the clinical approach to severely ill children. This study provides an update on the indications and characteristics of the palliative care approach in the context of pediatric intensive care. Here we describe palliative care approach initiation, decision-making, communicative aspects, drug treatment, symptom management, and palliative sedation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Palliative Care , Quality of Life , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Communication , Terminally Ill , Intensive Care Units
4.
Enferm. foco (Brasília) ; 13: 1-7, dez. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1413398

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: compreender a vivência dos familiares sobre a hospitalização da criança na perspectiva do cuidado humanizado. Métodos: pesquisa descritiva, caracterizada por abordagem qualitativa. O estudo foi realizado na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica do Hospital Municipal de Imperatriz, no estado do Maranhão. Participaram da pesquisa 10 familiares de crianças que estavam internadas por no mínimo 72 horas. As informações foram coletadas mediante a entrevista semiestruturada, no mês de novembro de 2019. Utilizou-se a análise do conteúdo na modalidade temática para tratamento dos dados. Resultados: emergiram quatro categorias: Sentimentos dos familiares diante da hospitalização da criança; Dificuldades enfrentadas pelas famílias durante o período de internação da criança; Cuidado Humanizado; e Estratégias de Enfrentamento dos familiares relacionados à hospitalização da criança. Conclusão: Constatou-se que os familiares vivenciam sentimentos de tristeza diante da hospitalização da criança na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica e desconhecem o significado de cuidado humanizado, associando-o com o fato de estarem sendo bem acolhidos. (AU)


Objective: to understand the experience of family members about the hospitalization of the child from the perspective of humanized care. Methods: descriptive and exploratory research, characterized by a qualitative approach. The study was carried out in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit of the Municipal Hospital of Imperatriz, in the state of Maranhão. Ten relatives of children who were hospitalized for at least 72 hours participated in the study. The information was collected through the semi-structured interview in November 2019. Content analysis was used in the thematic modality for data processing. Results: four categories emerged: Feelings of family members regarding the hospitalization of the child; Difficulties faced by families during the child's hospitalization period; Humanized Care; and Strategies to cope with family members related to the hospitalization of the child. Conclusion: It was found that family members experience feelings of sadness before the child's hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit and were unaware of the meaning of humanized care, associating it with the fact that they are being welcomed. (AU)


Objetivo: entender la experiencia de los miembros de la familia sobre la hospitalización del niño desde la perspectiva de la atención humanizada. Métodos: investigación descriptiva y exploratoria, caracterizada por un enfoque cualitativo. El estudio se llevó a cabo en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos del Hospital Municipal de Imperatriz, en el estado de Maranhao. Diez familiares de niños que fueron hospitalizados durante al menos 72 horas participaron en el estudio. La información fue recopilada a través de la entrevista semiestructurada en noviembre de 2019. El análisis de contenido se utilizó en la modalidad temática para el procesamiento de datos. Resultados: surgieron cuatro categorías: Sentimientos de los miembros de la familia con respecto a la hospitalización del niño; Dificultades a las que se enfrentan las familias durante el período de hospitalización del niño; Cuidado Humanizado; y Estrategias para hacer frente a los miembros de la familia relacionados con la hospitalización del niño. Conclusión: Se encontró que los familiares experimentan sentimientos de tristeza ante la internación del niño en la Unidad de Cuidados Intensivos Pediátricos y desconocen el significado del cuidado humanizado, asociándolo al hecho de que están siendo bienvenido. (AU)


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Family , Humanization of Assistance , Nursing Care
5.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 304-309, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1390730

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las bacteriemias relacionadas con catéteres venosos centrales (CVC) son frecuentes en pacientes pediátricos posquirúrgicos de cardiopatías congénitas complejas internados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos cardiovascular (UCIP-CV) y tienen alta morbimortalidad. Objetivo. Analizar la efectividad de un programa interdisciplinario para prevención de bacteriemias relacionadas con CVC en la UCIP-CV. Material y métodos. Estudio de implementación, cuasiexperimental, antes-después, sin grupo control. Período de estudio del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2018. Población: equipo de salud de la UCIP-CV que atiende pacientes posquirúrgicos de cardiopatías complejas de un hospital. Período preintervención del 1 de enero de 2008 al 31 de diciembre de 2008; período de intervención del 1 de enero de 2009 al 1 de enero de 2018. Intervención: implementación de un programa de mejora continua. Se analizaron tasas de bacteriemias CVC/1000 días y de uso de CVC/100 días, puntaje de RACHS, razón estandarizada de infecciones (REI), riesgo relativo (RR), intervalo de confianza del 95 % (IC95%), estimando una p < 0,05 como estadísticamente significativa. La tasa de referencia se estimó como el promedio del período 2008/2009 y se comparó la tasa anual con la tasa de referencia. Resultados. La tasa de referencia de bacteriemia 2008/2009 fue 10,6/1000 días CVC para analizar la REI. El puntaje de RACHS mayor a 3 fue similar en todos los períodos analizados. Se observó una reducción de la REI estadísticamente significativa (p < 0,05) en la comparación anual. Al comparar la tasa de bacteriemia/1000 días de CVC inicial de 11,9 vs. final de 3,8, se observó una reducción significativa (RR: 0,16; IC95%: 0,07-0,35; p < 0,001). Conclusiones. El programa fue efectivo; se observó reducción progresiva y significativa de la tasa de bacteriemias relacionadas con CVC en la UCIP-CV.


Introduction. Central venous catheter (CVC)related bacteremias are common in pediatric patients following surgery for complex congenital heart disease admitted to a pediatric cardiac intensive care unit (PCICU) and have a high morbidity and mortality. Objective.To analyze the effectiveness of an interdisciplinary program for the prevention of CVC-related bacteremias in the PCICU. Material and methods. Quasi-experimental,before and after implementation study without a control group. Study period: 01-01-2008 to 1231-2018. Population: PCICU staff who care for patients following surgery for complex heart disease at a hospital. Pre-intervention period: 0101-2008 to 12-31-2008; intervention period: 01-012009 to 01-01-2018. Intervention: implementation of an ongoing improvement program. The rate of CVC-related bacteremias/1000 days and CVC use/100 days, RACHS score, standardized infection ratio (SIR), relative risk (RR), and 95% confidence interval (CI) were analyzed and a p value < 0.05 was considered statistically significant. The reference rate was estimated as the average for the 2008-2009 period and the annual and reference rates were compared. Results. The bacteremia reference rate for 20082009 was 10.6/1000 days of CVC to analyze the SIR. A RACHS score over 3 was similar across all studied periods. The annual comparison showed a statistically significant reduction (p < 0.05) in the SIR. The comparison between the baseline bacteremia rate/1000 days of CVC (11.9) and the final rate (3.8) showed a significant reduction (RR: 0.16; 95 % CI: 0.07­0.35; p < 0.001). Conclusions. The program was effective; the rate of CVC-related bacteremias in the PCICU showed a progressive, significant reduction.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Respiratory Tract Diseases , Catheterization, Central Venous/adverse effects , Bacteremia/etiology , Bacteremia/prevention & control , Central Venous Catheters/adverse effects , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intensive Care Units, Neonatal , Cause of Death , Bacteremia/epidemiology
6.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(5): 332-335, oct. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1391165

ABSTRACT

Introducción. El objetivo del estudio fue analizar el índice de mortalidad pediátrica 3 (PIM 3) y la evaluación de falla orgánica secuencial pediátrica (pSOFA) para predicción de muerte. Métodos. Estudio observacional prospectivo; se incluyeron pacientes de 1 mes a 17,9 años. La precisión se evaluó con el área bajo la curva (AUC) y se estimó la tasa de mortalidad estandarizada. Resultados. Se estudiaron 244 ingresos; la mediana de edad fue 60 meses. Los diagnósticos principales fueron neoplasias sólidas o hematológicas (26,5 %). La mortalidad por ingresos fue del 18 % (44/244). Para PIM 3 el AUC fue de 0,77 y para pSOFA, de 0,81; ambas escalas mostraron adecuada calibración (p > 0,05). La tasa de mortalidad estandarizada fue de 1,91. Conclusiones. Identificamos que las escalas de evaluación de mortalidad PIM 3 y pSOFA muestran capacidad de discriminación aceptable. En pacientes con neoplasias sólidas o hematológicas, PIM 3 no mostró adecuada calibración.


Introduction. The study objective was to analyze the Pediatric Index of Mortality 3 (PIM 3) and the pediatric Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (pSOFA) for the prediction of mortality. Methods. Observational, prospective study; patients aged 1 month to 17.9 years were included. Assessment of area under the curve (AUC) accuracy and estimation of standardized mortality rate. Results. A total of 244 admissions were studied: median age was 60 months. The main diagnoses were solid or hematologic neoplasms (26.5%). The mortality by admission was 18% (44/244). The AUC was 0.77 for PIM 3 and 0.81 for pSOFA; both scales showed an adequate calibration (p > 0.05). The standardized mortality rate was 1.91. Conclusions. We identified that the PIM 3 and pSOFA have an acceptable discrimination power. The calibration of the PIM 3 was not adequate in patients with solid or hematologic neoplasms.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Hematologic Neoplasms/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Prospective Studies , Hospital Mortality , Organ Dysfunction Scores , Mexico
8.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 55(2): 59-67, 20220801.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1380431

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los niños con quemaduras tienen un manejo complejo por lo cual el uso de la membrana amniótica como una cobertura temporal es un método válido para su implementación. Objetivos: Demostrar el uso de la membrana amniótica como cobertura temporal en pacientes pediátricos con quemaduras de segundo grado superficiales y profundas internados en el Centro Nacional de Quemaduras y Cirugías Reconstructivas (CENQUER), en julio y diciembre del 2021. Materiales y métodos: Estudio descriptivo de tipo retrospectivo mediante la revisión de casos clínicos-quirúrgicos de los pacientes pediátricos que ingresaron por diagnóstico de quemadura de segundo grado superficial y profundo en el CENQUER, durante el período comprendido entre julio y diciembre del 2021, donde se aplicó́ membrana amniótica humana. Resultados: Población de 14 pacientes, 11 provenían del departamento central y 3 del interior del país, con un promedio de 13% (R: 3%-25,5%) de superficie corporal quemada (SCQ) todos con quemaduras en promedio 7% tipo AB y 6% tipo ABB, 7 ingresaron con una gravedad moderada, 4 graves y 3 leves; 7 del sexo masculino y 7 del femenino , con un rango de edades entre 8 meses y 11 años cuya media fue de 4 años y una mediana de 7 años, con respecto al peso un promedio de 18 kg al ingreso % (R: 9-35 kg), las causas de las lesiones fueron 12 por escaldadura por agua caliente (85 %) y 2 por escaldadura con comida; 10 pacientes presentaron internación en sala y en la Unidad de terapia intensiva Pediátrica (UTIP) 4 pacientes, el promedio de tiempo transcurrido desde la quemadura a la consulta fueron de 7 hs (R: 1-48 hs), las regiones anatómicas que se cubrieron fueron: 4 pacientes en miembros superiores y tórax anterior (28 %), 2 exclusivamente en tórax anterior (16 %), 4 solo en miembros superiores (28 %), 4 en miembros inferiores (28 %), a los que se les colocó amnios por única ocasión en 10 pacientes a las 24 hs de la internación y en 4 pacientes a las 48 hs de internación, se utilizó antobioticoterapia parenteral en 3 pacientes y 11 pacientes no necesitaron antibioticoterapia parenteral, no se presentaron complicaciones en ninguno de los pacientes y tuvieron un promedio de internación de 8 días (R: 3- 16 días). Conclusión: El uso de membrana amniótica humana en pacientes quemados son favorables para los pacientes pediátricos; como demuestra en el estudio el menor uso de antibioticoterapia parenteral por la cobertura rápida de las heridas causadas por las quemaduras y el menor número de días de internación.


Introduction: Children with burns have a complex management for which the use of the amniotic membrane as a temporary cover is a valid method for its implementation. Objectives: Demonstrate the use of the amniotic membrane as temporary coverage in pediatric patients with superficial and deep second-degree burns admitted to the National Center for Burns and Reconstructive Surgery (CENQUER), in July and December 2021. Materials and methods: Descriptive retrospective study through the review of clinical-surgical cases of pediatric patients who were admitted due to a diagnosis of superficial and deep second-degree burns in the CENQUER, during the period between July and December 2021, where human amniotic membrane was applied. Results: Population of 14 patients, 11 came from the central department and 3 from the interior of the country, with an average of 13% (R: 3%-25.5%) of burned body surface area (SCQ), all with average 7% AB type burns. and 6% type ABB, 7 admitted with moderate severity, 4 severe and 3 mild; 7 males and 7 females, with an age range between 8 months and 11 years, whose average was 4 years and a median of 7 years, with respect to weight an average of 18 kg at admission % (R: 9- 35 kg), the causes of the injuries were 12 due to scalding due to hot water (85%) and 2 due to scalding with food; 10 patients were hospitalized in the ward and in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit (PICU) 4 patients, the average time elapsed from the burn to the consultation was 7 hours (R: 1-48 hours), the anatomical regions that were covered were: 4 patients in the upper limbs and anterior thorax (28%), 2 exclusively in the anterior thorax (16%), 4 only in the upper limbs (28%), 4 in the lower limbs (28%), who received amnios for a single occasion in 10 patients at 24 hours of hospitalization and in 4 patients at 48 hours of hospitalization, parenteral antibiotic therapy was used in 3 patients and 11 patients did not need parenteral antibiotic therapy, there were no complications in any of the patients and they had an average hospital stay of 8 days (R: 3-16 days). Conclusion: The use of human amniotic membrane in burn patients is favorable for pediatric patients; As shown in the study, the lower use of parenteral antibiotic therapy due to the rapid coverage of wounds caused by burns and the lower number of days of hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Burns , Patients , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Amnion , Amnion/drug effects
9.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 120(4): 257-263, Agosto 2022. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1371844

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las intoxicaciones pediátricas son un problema de salud pública a nivel mundial. El objetivo de este estudio fue caracterizar las intoxicaciones pediátricas que fueron atendidas en la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP) de un hospital en Chile. Población y métodos. Se revisaron las fichas clínicas de pacientes diagnosticados con intoxicación e ingresados a la UCIP entre los años 2013 y 2017. Resultados. Un total de 105 casos fueron identificados, lo que representa un 3 % del total de ingresos registrados en el período estudiado. La mediana de edad de los pacientes resultó ser de 10 años. El 73,3 % de los casos correspondieron a pacientes de sexo femenino. El 51 % de los casos se asociaron a intoxicaciones intencionales y el 83 % fue causado por exposición a medicamentos. Los medicamentos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron los antidepresivos (11,2 %), analgésicos no esteroides (10,7 %). La ingesta fue la vía de exposición más común (93 %). El promedio de estadía de los pacientes en UCIP fue de 1,3 días. Dos pacientes ingresaron en la UCI: uno requirió intubación y otro hemodiálisis. Se determinaron relaciones estadísticamente significativas entre el sexo del paciente y la circunstancia de exposición, y entre la condición psiquiátrica del paciente y el número de sustancias tóxicas ingeridas. Conclusión. La mayoría de las intoxicaciones atendidas en la UCIP fueron intencionales y correspondieron a pacientes de sexo femenino, a quienes se les asoció alguna patología psiquiátrica. Los grupos de medicamentos identificados con mayor frecuencia fueron los antidepresivos y los antiinflamatorios no esteroides.


Introduction. Pediatric poisoning is a public health problem worldwide. The objective of this study was to establish the characteristics of pediatric cases of poisoning seen at the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) of a hospital in Chile. Population and methods. The medical records of patients diagnosed with poisoning and admitted to the PICU between 2013 and 2017 were reviewed. Results. A total of 105 cases were identified, who account for 3% of all admissions recorded in the study period. Patients' median age was 10 years. In total, 73.3% of cases were female patients; 51% of cases were associated with intentional poisoning; and 83% were caused by drug exposure. The most common drugs identified were antidepressants (11.2%) and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (10.7%). Intake was the most frequent route of exposure (93%). The average length of stay in the PICU was 1.3 days. One patient required intubation and another required hemodialysis in the PICU. Statistically significant relationships were established between patient sex and the circumstance of exposure and between the patient's psychiatric condition and the number of toxic substances ingested. Conclusion. Most poisoning cases seen at the PICU were intentional and occurred in female patients, who had a psychiatric condition. The most common drugs identified were antidepressants and non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Poisons , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Hospitals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Antidepressive Agents
10.
Med. infant ; 29(2): 123-131, Junio 2022. Tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1381849

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El uso de herramientas estandarizadas como estrategia de comunicación para brindar información relevante, precisa y actualizada, forma parte de las iniciativas de calidad en las instituciones que cumplen altos estándares en la atención de pacientes. Objetivo: Describir la implementación de un programa de traspaso (IPASS) en unidades de cuidados intensivos pediátricos específicos. Material y métodos: Estudio cuasi-experimental antes y después de una intervención, no controlado, utilizando como sujetos a los profesionales de la salud involucrados en traspasos de pacientes de la unidad de terapia intensiva cardiovascular (UCI 35) e inmunosuprimidos (UCI 72). La intervención consistió en la introducción de un paquete de medidas de estandarización del traspaso de pacientes que consta de: una herramienta escrita, una mnemotecnia oral, una capacitación de trabajo en equipo, observación y devolución estandarizada de los traspasos, basados en la metodología IPASS. Se realizó además una encuesta de percepción de seguridad, tanto en la etapa pre y post intervención. Se comparó el cumplimiento de cada componente del traspaso antes y después de la intervención mediante la prueba de chi2 . Resultados: Se realizaron 101 observaciones de traspaso y 56 encuestas. La mediana de pacientes por cada observación fue 6 (r: 4 a 12) y el tiempo promedio de 26± 11 min. Conclusiones: El uso de un paquete de medidas de estandarización del traspaso de pacientes posquirúrgicos cardiovasculares e inmunosuprimidos aumentó significativamente la presencia de información clave sobre criticidad de la enfermedad, acciones y situaciones de contingencia, junto con la inclusión de la síntesis por el receptor del traspaso (AU)


Introduction: The use of standardized tools as a communication strategy to provide relevant, accurate, and up-to-date information is part of quality initiatives in institutions that adhere to high standards in patient care. Objective: To describe the implementation of a handoff program (IPASS) in specific pediatric intensive care units. Methods: An uncontrolled, quasi-experimental, beforeand-after study. Subjects were healthcare providers involved in patient handoffs in the cardiovascular (ICU 35) and immunocompromised-patient (ICU 72) intensive care units. The intervention consisted of the introduction of a bundle to standardize patient handoff consisting of: a written tool, an oral mnemonic, teamwork training, observation, and standardized feedback for handoffs based on the IPASS methodology. A safety perception survey was also carried out, both in the pre- and post-intervention stage. Compliance with each handoff component before and after the intervention was compared using the Chi-squared test. Results: 101 handoff observations and 56 surveys were conducted. The median number of patients per observation was 6 (r: 4 to 12) and the mean handoff time was 26±11 min. Conclusions: The use of a standardized handoff bundle for post-surgical cardiovascular and immunocompromised patients significantly increased the availability of key information on disease severity, actions, and contingency situations, as well as a synthesis by the handoff receiver (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Medical Errors/prevention & control , Quality Improvement , Patient Safety , Patient Handoff/standards , Patient Handoff/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
11.
Rev. cuba. hematol. inmunol. hemoter ; 38(2): e1543, abr.-jun. 2022. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1408453

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los pacientes que ingresan a la unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos son aquellos con alto riesgo de mortalidad que pueden presentar síndrome de disfunción orgánica múltiple. Los pacientes que padecen leucemia linfoide aguda forman parte de este grupo. Objetivos: Validar la escala pediátrica de evaluación del fallo multiorgánico secuencial (pSOFA) en pacientes cubanos graves con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoide aguda. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, prospectivo, multicéntrico, en unidades de cuidados intensivos de hospitales cubanos con 92 pacientes y 184 ingresos. Se calcularon las puntuaciones de las escalas de disfunción multiorgánica secuencial, riesgo de mortalidad e índice de mortalidad pediátrica, y se evaluó la presencia de disfunción orgánica en las primeras 24 h y a las 48 h. Resultados: La puntuación pSOFA fue mayor en los no supervivientes (p < 0,001) y la mortalidad se incrementó de modo progresivo en los subgrupos con las puntuaciones pSOFA más altas. El análisis de las curvas de las características operativas del receptor (ROC) mostró que el área bajo la curva (AUC) para la predicción de la mortalidad con la puntuación pSOFA fue de 0,89, comparado con 0,84 y 0,79 con las escalas PRISM-3 y PIM-2, respectivamente. Conclusiones: La escala pSOFA mostró ser útil para establecer los criterios disfunción orgánica y su especificidad en el riesgo de mortalidad en los pacientes pediátricos cubanos críticos con diagnóstico de leucemia linfoide aguda(AU)


Introduction: Patients admitted to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) are those with a high risk of mortality who may present multiple organ dysfunction syndrome. Patients with acute lymphoid leukemia are part of this group. Objectives: To validate the pediatric sequential multi-organ failure assessment scale (pSOFA) in severe Cuban patients diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia. Methods: An observational, prospective, multicenter study was carried out in intensive care units of Cuban hospitals with 92 patients and 184 admissions. The scores of the sequential multiple organ dysfunction, mortality risk and pediatric mortality index scales were calculated, and the presence of organ dysfunction was evaluated in the first 24 hours and at 48 hours. Results: The pSOFA score was higher in non-survivors (p <0.001) and mortality progressively increased in the subgroups with the highest pSOFA scores. The analysis of the receiver operating characteristics (ROC) curves showed that the area under the curve (AUC) for the prediction of mortality with the pSOFA score was 0.89, compared to 0.84 and 0.79 with the PRISM-3 and PIM-2 scales, respectively. Conclusions: The pSOFA scale proved useful to establish the criteria for organ dysfunction and its specificity in the risk of mortality in critical Cuban pediatric patients diagnosed with acute lymphoid leukemia(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Sensitivity and Specificity , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma , Multiple Organ Failure , Weights and Measures , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Observational Study
12.
rev.cuid. (Bucaramanga. 2010) ; 13(2): 1-13, 20220504.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1402353

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El manejo integral de delirium tiene componentes de diferente índole y el rol de enfermería frente a éste puede ser difuso. Objetivo: Identificar en la literatura disponible los cuidados de enfermería no farmacológicos para niños hospitalizados en Unidad de Cuidado Intensivo Pediátrica que presenten delirium. Materiales y métodos: Se realizó una búsqueda estratégica en Web Of Science, Medline, Science Direct, Scielo, Biblioteca Virtual en Salud, LILACS y Open Grey utilizando los términos "nursing care", "child OR children", "delirium", y "Pediatric Intensive Care Unit". La extracción y análisis de los datos se dio por medio de una matriz. Resultados: Se identificaron 12 artículos que cumplían con los criterios de inclusión y se clasificaron en 4 categorías según la intervención principal desarrollada en el estudio: Abordaje investigativo, intervenciones de confort, intervenciones integrales, e intervenciones educativas. Discusión: El cuidado de enfermería frente al delirium comprende medidas preventivas o curativas que parten del paciente como centro y se extienden hasta su entorno y su familia. Las intervenciones de enfermería pueden estar interrelacionadas de manera que se sustentan y complementan entre ellas. Algunas actividades de cuidado pueden considerarse un indicador de calidad de la atención en salud. Conclusión: Para abordar integralmente el delirium pediátrico es necesario incidir sobre los factores individuales, ambientales y estructurales que contribuyen a su aparición. El cuidado de enfermería frente al delirium constituye una forma de proteger y promover el bienestar y el desarrollo inmediato y futuro de los niños.


Introduction: Comprehensive management of delirium has components of different kinds, and the role of nursing in it may be unclear. Objetive: To identify in the literature available non-pharmacological nursing care for children with delirium hospitalized in Pediatric Intensive Care Units. Materials and Methods: A strategic search was performed in Web of Science, MEDLINE, Science Direct, Scielo, Virtual Health Library, LILACS, and Open Grey using the terms "nursing care," "child OR children," "delirium," and "Pediatric Intensive Care Unit." Data extraction and analysis were performed using a matrix. Results: Twelve articles were identified that met the inclusion criteria and were classified into four categories according to the main intervention developed in the study: Research approach, comfort interventions, comprehensive interventions, and educational interventions. Discussion: Nursing care for delirium includes preventive or curative measures starting from the patient as the center and extending to the patient's environment and family. Nursing interventions may be interrelated in a way that supports and complements each other. Some care activities may be considered an indicator of the quality of care. Conclusions: A comprehensive approach to pediatric delirium requires addressing individual, environmental, and structural factors that contribute to its onset. Delirium nursing care is a way to protect and promote children's immediate and future well-being and development.


Introdução: O manejo integral do delirium possui componentes de natureza diversa e o papel da enfermagem frente a ele pode ser difuso. Objetivo: identificar os cuidados de enfermagem não farmacológicos na literatura disponível para crianças internadas na UTI. Cuidado com delírio. Materiais e métodos: Foi realizada uma busca estratégica no Web Of Science, Medline, Science Direct, Scielo, Biblioteca Virtual em Saúde, LILACS e Open Gray utilizando os termos "cuidado de enfermagem", "criança OR crianças", "delirium" e " Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica". A extração e análise dos dados se deu por meio de uma matriz. Resultados: oram identificados 12 artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão e foram classificados em 4 categorias de acordo com a principal intervenção desenvolvida no estudo: abordagem investigativa, intervenções de conforto, intervenções integrais e intervenções educativas. Discussão: O cuidado de enfermagem contra o delirium inclui medidas preventivas ou curativas que partem do paciente como centro e se estendem ao seu ambiente e família. As intervenções de enfermagem podem ser inter-relacionadas de forma que se apoiem e se complementem. Algumas atividades assistenciais podem ser consideradas um indicador da qualidade da assistência à saúde. Conclusões: Para abordar de forma abrangente o delirium pediátrico, é necessário focar nos fatores individuais, ambientais e estruturais que contribuem para o seu aparecimento. A assistência de enfermagem ao delirium é uma forma de proteger e promover o bem-estar e o desenvolvimento imediato e futuro da criança.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Child Care , Critical Care , Nurses, Pediatric
13.
REME rev. min. enferm ; 26: e1441, abr.2022. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1394550

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: compreender a percepção materna sobre a participação do pai durante a hospitalização do filho em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Métodos: pesquisa qualitativa de inspiração fenomenológica, cujo referencial metodológico para análise dos discursos, advindos de 12 entrevistas com mães de crianças hospitalizadas no interior do estado de São Paulo, foi a análise da estrutura do fenômeno situado. Resultados: emergiram três categorias temáticas: Participando do processo de adoecimento do filho - a essencialidade da presença do pai; Sofrendo pelo filho - o pai sendo afetado pela hospitalização; Não podendo estar com o filho - o pai sendo impedido de ser acompanhante durante a hospitalização. As mães reconhecem a participação dos pais durante hospitalização do filho por meio de apoio, compartilhamento de atividades e na importância para a recuperação da criança. Contudo, o sofrimento advindo do adoecimento e da hospitalização, a necessidade de se dedicar ao trabalho, questões organizacionais do hospital e a ausência de legislações trabalhistas impedem a permanência dos pais no serviço de saúde. Conclusão: as unidades pediátricas precisam modificar as normas institucionais, acolhendo mãe e pai, oferecendo condições de permanência e apoiando-os durante a hospitalização do filho. É mister que a área de Enfermagem familiar discuta a participação do pai na vida do filho, em especial no ambiente hospitalar e de cuidados intensivos, de modo a impulsionar a elaboração de leis que garantam a manutenção do emprego em caso de acompanhamento do filho durante a hospitalização.


RESUMEN Objetivo: comprender la percepción materna sobre la participación del padre durante la hospitalización del hijo en la Unidad de Terapia Intensiva Pediátrica. Métodos: investigación cualitativa de inspiración fenomenológica, cuyo referente metodológico para el análisis de los discursos provenientes de 12 entrevistas con madres de niños hospitalizados en el interior del estado de São Paulo, fue el análisis de la estructura del fenómeno situado. Resultados: surgieron tres categorías temáticas: Participar en el proceso de enfermedad del hijo - la esencialidad de la presencia del padre; Sufrir por el hijo - el padre afectado por la hospitalización; No poder estar con el hijo: el padre impedido de ser acompañante durante la hospitalización. Las madres reconocieron la participación de los padres durante la hospitalización del hijo mediante el apoyo, compartir actividades y la importancia para la recuperación del niño. Sin embargo, el sufrimiento derivado de la enfermedad y la hospitalización, la necesidad de dedicarse al trabajo, los problemas de organización de los hospitales y la falta de leyes laborales impiden que los padres sigan en el servicio sanitario. Conclusión: las unidades pediátricas necesitan modificar las normas institucionales, acogiendo a la madre y al padre, ofreciendo condiciones de permanencia y ayudando durante la hospitalización del hijo. Es fundamental que el área de Enfermería de la familia discuta la participación del padre en la vida del hijo, especialmente en el ambiente hospitalario y de cuidados intensivos, para incentivar el desarrollo de leyes que garanticen el mantenimiento del empleo en el caso de acompañar a um hijo durante la hospitalización.


ABSTRACT Objective: to understand the maternal perception of the father's participation during the child's hospitalization in the Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Methods: this is a qualitative research of phenomenological inspiration, whose methodological reference for the analysis of the speeches was the analysis of the structure of the situated phenomenon, arising from 12 interviews with mothers of hospitalized children in the countryside of the state of São Paulo. Results: three thematic categories emerged: Participating in the child's illness process - the essentiality of the father's presence; Suffering for the child - the father affected by the hospitalization; Not being able to be with the child - the father prevented from being a companion during hospitalization. Mothers recognize the fathers' participation during the child's hospitalization through support, sharing activities, and the importance of the child's recovery. However, the suffering resulting from illness and hospitalization, the need to dedicate themselves to their jobs, organizational issues at the hospital, and the absence of labor laws prevent parents from staying in the health service. Conclusion: pediatric units need to modify institutional norms, welcome mother and father, offer permanence conditions, and support them during the child's hospitalization. The Family Nursing area must discuss the father's participation in the child's life, especially in the hospital and intensive care environment, to promote the elaboration of laws that guarantee the maintenance of the job in case of accompanying the child during the hospitalization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Child, Hospitalized , Father-Child Relations , Maternal Behavior , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Family Nursing , Qualitative Research , Hospitalization/legislation & jurisprudence
14.
Med. infant ; 29(1): 38-43, Marzo 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1367206

ABSTRACT

La Injuria Pulmonar Autoinducida por el Paciente (p-SILI) es una entidad recientemente reconocida. Clásicamente, el daño producido por la ventilación mecánica (VM) se asoció al uso de presión positiva, y para disminuirlo se crearon distintas estrategias conocidas como parámetros de protección pulmonar. Sin embargo, es importante reconocer los potenciales efectos deletéreos de la ventilación espontánea dependientes de la injuria pulmonar previa que sufra el paciente y del esfuerzo que realice. En este artículo se explican los distintos mecanismos que pueden producir p-SILI y las estrategias descritas en la literatura para prevenirla (AU)


Patient self-inflicted lung injury (p-SILI) is a recently recognized disorder. Classically, damage produced by mechanical ventilation (MV) was associated with the use of positive pressure, and different strategies known as lung protection parameters were created to reduce it. Nevertheless, it is important to recognize the potential deleterious effects of the effort made during spontaneous breathing due to previous lung injury suffered by the patient. This article explains the different mechanisms that may produce p-SILI and the prevention strategies described in the literature. (AU)


Subject(s)
Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Tidal Volume , Positive-Pressure Respiration/methods , Lung Injury/physiopathology , Lung Injury/prevention & control
15.
Rev. bioét. (Impr.) ; 30(1): 45-53, jan.-mar. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1376495

ABSTRACT

Resumo Comunicar más notícias é tarefa desafiadora na prática médica, motivo pelo qual o tema tem adquirido relevância na formação de futuros profissionais. Nas unidades de terapia intensiva, esse tipo de comunicação se mescla a múltiplas situações, a exemplo do manejo de informações envolvendo o agravamento do estado clínico e a possibilidade de morte iminente, especialmente em casos pediátricos. Diante desse contexto, o objetivo desta pesquisa foi compreender os desafios enfrentados por médicos intensivistas na comunicação de más notícias, tendo como eixo de análise algumas questões problematizadas no campo das discussões bioéticas. Os resultados apontaram a necessidade de preparo técnico e pessoal do médico diante desse importante desafio, haja vista que a participação da criança no processo de tratamento ainda é limitada, realidade que dificulta o compartilhamento das informações e, consequentemente, o exercício da autonomia.


Abstract Breaking bad news is a challenging task in medical practice, reason why this topic's relevance has grown in the training of future professionals. In intensive care units, this type of communication is mixed with multiple situations, such as the management of information involving the worsening of clinical conditions and the possibility of imminent death, especially in pediatric cases. Given this context, the objective if this study was to understand the challenges faced by intensive care physicians in breaking bad news, from the analytical axis of some questions raised in the field of bioethical discussions. The results highlight the need for technical and personal preparation of physicians in the face of this important challenge, since the child's participation in the treatment process remains limited, a reality that hinders the sharing of information and, consequently, the exercise of autonomy.


Resumen Comunicar malas noticias es una tarea desafiante en la práctica médica, por lo que el tema ha adquirido relevancia en la formación de los futuros profesionales. En las unidades de cuidados intensivos, este tipo de comunicación se mezcla con múltiples situaciones, como, por ejemplo, el manejo de información que implica el agravamiento del estado clínico y la posibilidad de muerte inminente, especialmente en los casos pediátricos. Ante este contexto, el objetivo de esta investigación fue comprender los desafíos que enfrentan los médicos intensivistas en la comunicación de malas noticias, teniendo como eje de análisis algunas cuestiones problematizadas en el ámbito de las discusiones bioéticas. Los resultados señalaron la necesidad de una preparación técnica y personal del médico que se enfrenta a este importante desafío, una vez que la participación del niño en el proceso de tratamiento sigue siendo limitada, una realidad que dificulta el intercambio de información y, en consecuencia, el ejercicio de la autonomía.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Attitude to Death , Bioethical Issues , Death , Health Communication , Child
16.
Rev. Pesqui. Fisioter ; 12(1)jan., 2022. ilus, tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1373641

ABSTRACT

INTRODUÇÃO: Após doença crítica, diversas complicações podem surgir, incluindo prejuízo da funcionalidade. OBJETIVOS: Avaliar a funcionalidade de pacientes críticos pediátricos após a alta hospitalar. MATERIAIS E MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional longitudinal prospectivo, com 214 pacientes com idade entre um mês e <18 anos, que necessitaram de internação em UTIP. A funcionalidade foi avaliada com a Escala de Estado Funcional (FSS-Brasil) na linha de base, alta da UTIP, alta hospitalar, três e seis meses após alta. Nova morbidade foi definida como piora do estado funcional de dois ou mais pontos no mesmo domínio da FSS-Brasil quando comparado com a pontuação inicial. O modelo Generalized Estimating Equation foi utilizado para comparar os escores da FSS-Brasil. Teste Qui-quadrado de McNemar foi utilizado para avaliar a diferença entre as categorias de estado funcional em cada domínio. Regressão de Poisson foi realizada para determinar associações entre variáveis clínicas e estado funcional. RESULTADOS: Dos 214 pacientes,135 terminaram o seguimento. A maioria da amostra era do sexo masculino (57,5%), com alguma condição crônica (76,2%) e 45,8% reinternaram no hospital. Observamos disfunção moderada na FSS-Brazil (10-15) na alta da UTIP (42,1%) e nova morbidade foi observada em 11,5% da amostra após alta hospitalar. Mais dias em ventilação mecânica invasiva aumentaram em 1,02 o risco de nova morbidade. CONCLUSÕES: Pacientes que necessitaram de UTIP recuperaram a funcionalidade após a alta hospitalar e permaneceram estáveis em três e seis meses. A incidência de nova morbidade foi baixa e a ventilação mecânica invasiva foi fator de risco.


BACKGROUND: After a critical disease many complications could appear, one of them is functional impairment. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the functional status of critical pediatric patients after hospital discharge. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Prospective longitudinal observational study, included 214 patients with age between one month and <18 years old, who needed PICU admission. The functional status was evaluated with Functional Status Scale (FSS-Brazil) at baseline, PICU discharge, hospital discharge, three and six months after this and new morbidity was defined as a worsening in functional status in the FSS-Brazil of two or more points in the same domain compared with the baseline score. The Generalized Estimating Equation model was used to compare the FSS-Brazil scores. McNemar Chi-square test was used to evaluate the difference between the categories of functional status in each domain. Poisson regression was performed to determine associations between clinical variables and functional status. RESULTS: Of the 214 patients, 135 finished the follow-up. The majority of the sample was males (57.5%), with some chronic condition (76.2%) and 45.8% were readmitted to the hospital. It was observed moderate dysfunction in FSS-Brazil score (10-15) at PICU discharge (42.1%) and the new morbidity was observed in 11.5% of the sample after hospital discharge. More days in invasive mechanical ventilation increases 1.02 the risk of new morbidity. CONCLUSIONS: Patients who needed PICU recovered functional status after hospital discharge and remained stable in three and six months. The incidence of new morbidity was low and invasive mechanical ventilation was a risk factor for new morbidity.


Subject(s)
Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Pediatrics , Morbidity
17.
Neumol. pediátr. (En línea) ; 17(1): 28-33, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1379429

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este estudio es analizar desenlaces clínicos de oxigenoterapia con cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF) en niños con dificultad respiratoria aguda en un servicio de urgencias. Estudio longitudinal, retrospectivo de datos panel en niños con diagnóstico de dificultad respiratoria moderada- severa. El resultado primario de interés fue ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos pediátricos (UCIP) o requerir intubación 24 horas posteriores al inicio de la terapia. Se calcularon medidas de frecuencia y tendencia central. Los grupos se compararon con las pruebas Chi2, Fisher, Wilcoxon y Kruskal-Wallis. El análisis de datos panel balanceados identificó puntos de inflexión en las curvas de normalización de respuesta respiratoria. Un total de 339 niños de 0 a 16 años cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Mayoría hombres (62,24%), mediana de edad 2 años (RIQ= 0,75-3) y neumonía como principal causa de dificultad respiratoria (33,92%). El ingreso a UCIP (14,5%) y la intubación (0,9%) fue baja en la cohorte. En las primeras tres horas con CNAF se evidenció mejoría en los parámetros respiratorios, sin diferencias significativas entre pacientes con y sin respuesta clínica (frecuencia cardiaca p=0,317; frecuencia respiratoria p=0,423; SatO2 p=0,297; FiO2 p=0,116). No se presentaron eventos adversos ni casos de mortalidad. Los resultados sugieren que la oxigenoterapia con CNAF puede ser una alternativa de soporte respiratorio inicial en niños ≤16 años con dificultad respiratoria moderada a severa. La incidencia de intubación e ingreso a UCIP fue baja. La CNAF fue bien tolerada en los diferentes grupos de edad.


Objective: To analyze clinical outcomes of oxygen therapy with a high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) in children with acute respiratory distress in an emergency department. We design a longitudinal retrospective study of panel data in children with a diagnosis of moderate-severe respiratory distress. The primary outcome of interest was admission to the pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) or requiring intubation 24 hours after initiation of therapy.We calculated the statistics of frequency and central tendency. Finally, the Chi2, Fisher, Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests were used to compare groups. Balanced panel data analysis identified inflexion points in the respiratory response normalization curves. Children (n = 339) from zero to 16 years old met the inclusion criteria. Most men (62.24%), median age= 2 years (IQR = 0.75-3) and pneumonia as the main cause of respiratory distress (33.92%). Admission to the PICU (14.5%) and intubation (0.9%) was low in the cohort. In the first three hours with HFNC, improvement in respiratory parameters was evidenced, with no significant differences between patients with and without clinical response (heart rate p = 0.317; respiratory rate p = 0.423; SatO2 p = 0.297; FiO2 p = 0.116). There were no adverse events or mortality cases. The results suggest that oxygen therapy with HFNC can be an alternative for initial respiratory support in children ≤16 years of age with moderate to severe respiratory distress. The incidence of intubation and admission to the PICU was low. The HFNC was well tolerated in the different age groups.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Cannula , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Retrospective Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Treatment Outcome , Colombia , Emergencies
18.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2022. 196 f p. graf, tab, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1382122

ABSTRACT

Mais de um terço dos familiares de pacientes internados em Unidades de Terapia Intensiva Pediátricas (UTIP) evoluem com ansiedade, depressão e Transtorno de Estresse Pós- Traumático (TEPT), com consequente diminuição da qualidade de vida e grande impacto social. A estas complicações, alcunhou-se o termo Síndrome Pós-Terapia Intensiva Familiar (PICS- F), com o objetivo de aumentar a conscientização sobre o assunto visto que os dados disponíveis na literatura são ainda escassos e de baixa qualidade. Estratégias que minimizem estes desfechos negativos após a alta vêm sendo adotadas em UTIP de diferentes países. O objetivo desta tese foi avaliar o impacto de um programa de diários hospitalares na incidência de TEPT e de sofrimento psíquico em familiares de pacientes pediátricos criticamente doentes. Entre dezembro de 2019 e dezembro de 2021, realizamos um estudo de intervenção randomizado por clusters e alocado em crossover, com dois braços e dois períodos em quatro UTIP do estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram elegíveis os familiares de crianças de 29 dias a 12 anos que estiveram internadas na UTIP por mais de 36 horas por motivos clínicos ou cirúrgicos. O uso de diários de UTIP foi comparado com a prática padrão. Os diários foram preenchidos pela equipe de saúde e familiares, tiveram fotografias inseridas e foram entregues aos familiares na alta da UTIP. Os desfechos primários foram: (a) a incidência de TEPT aferida com o instrumento PCL- 5 (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition); e (b) a incidência de sofrimento psíquico aferida com o instrumento Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS). Ambos os desfechos foram aferidos em familiares de crianças graves, 45 a 60 dias após sua alta da UTIP. Também foi realizada uma análise de sensibilidade para avaliar o impacto de níveis diferentes de adesão ao diário nos desfechos. Um total de 339 participantes foi analisado, 170 no grupo que fez uso do diário e 169 no grupo controle. As características dos participantes foram semelhantes nos dois grupos de estudo. O uso de diários diminuiu em média 2,57 pontos no escore total do PCL 5 dos familiares (IC 95% -2,58 a -2,57; p<0,001) e foi encontrada razão de taxa de incidência (IRR) de 0,60 (IC 95% 0,57 a 0,64; p<0,001), significando uma redução de 40% na incidência de TEPT no grupo intervenção quando comparado ao controle. Com relação ao sofrimento psíquico, o uso de diários resultou em um IRR de 0,78 (IC 95% 0,77 a 0,78). A análise de conteúdo dos diários mostrou que a adesão total foi ainda mais impactante do que a adesão parcial aos diários. Os resultados apresentados nesta tese corroboram a hipótese de que diários têm efeito protetor sobre a incidência de TEPT e de sofrimento psíquico em familiares de crianças criticamente doentes, sendo, portanto, benéficos na prevenção de PICS-F.


More than a third of family members of critically ill children in Pediatric Intensive Care Units (PICU) develop anxiety, depression, and Post Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD), with a consequent decrease in quality of life and great social impact. Hence, the term Post- Intensive Family Therapy Syndrome (PICS-F) was created to raise awareness of these complications and define a global research agenda. Data on this theme available in the literature are still scarce and of low quality. After discharge, strategies that minimize these negative outcomes have been adopted in PICUs in different countries. This thesis aimed to evaluate the impact of a hospital diary program on PTSD and psychological distress incidence in family members of critically ill pediatric patients. Between December 2019 and December 2021, we conducted a cluster-randomized, crossover, two-arm, two-period intervention study in four PICUs. Relatives of children aged 29 days to 12 years who were hospitalized in the PICU for more than 36 hours for clinical or surgical reasons were eligible. The use of PICU diaries was compared with standard practice. The diaries were filled in by the health professionals and family members, had photographs inserted, and were handed to family members upon PICU discharge. The primary outcomes were: (a) the incidence of PTSD measured with the PCL-5 instrument (Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist for DSM-5 - Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition); and (b) the incidence of psychological distress measured with the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Score (HADS) instrument. Both outcomes were measured in family members of critically ill children 45 to 60 days after discharge from the PICU. A sensitivity analysis was also performed on adherence to the diary by evaluating its content. A total of 339 participants were analyzed, 170 in the diary group and 169 in the control group. Participant characteristics were similar in the two study groups. The use of diaries decreased an average of 2.57 points in the total PCL-5 score of family members (95% CI -2.58 to -2.57; p<0.001) and an incidence rate ratio (IRR) of 0.60 (95% CI 0.57 to 0.64; p< 0.001), resulting in a 40% reduction in PTSD incidence. Regarding psychological distress, the use of diaries resulted in an IRR of 0.78 (95% CI 0.77 to 0.78). The content analysis of the diaries showed that full adherence was even more impactful than partial adherence to the diaries (IRR 0.68 [CI 95% 0.57 to 0.81] and IRR 0.77 [CI 95% 0. 70 to 0.86], respectively). Therefore, the more complete the diaries, the greater their effect on reducing psychological distress incidence. The results presented in this thesis support the hypothesis that diaries have a protective effect on PTSD and psychological distress in family members of critically ill children and are beneficial in preventing PICS-F.


Subject(s)
Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Family , Psychological Distress , Intervention Studies
19.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 23(4): 1-10, 2022. tables, figures
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1396409

ABSTRACT

Background: COVID-19 is a major global health challenge that has affected all age groups and gender, with over 5 million deaths reported worldwide to date. The objective of this study is to assess available information on COVID-19 in children and adolescents with respect to clinical characteristics, co-morbidities, and outcomes, and identify gaps in the literatures for appropriate actions. Methodology: Electronic databases including Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar were searched for observational studies such as case series, cross-sectional and cohort studies published from December 2019 to September 2021, using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guide. Data extracted included (i) patient demography (age and gender), (ii) clinical characteristics including vaccination status and presence of co-morbidities, (iii) clinical management including the use of sequential organ failure assessment (SOFA) scores, oxygen requirement, use of mechanical ventilation, and (iv) disease outcomes including length of hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) admission, recovery, complications with sequelae, or death. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results: A total of 11 eligible studies were included with a total of 266 children and adolescents; 137 (51.5%) females and 129 (48.5%) males. The mean age of the children was 9.8 years (range of 0 ­ 19 years), and children ≥ 6 years were more affected (40.7%) than age groups 1 ­ 5 years (31.9%) and < 1 year (27.4%). The major co-morbidities were respiratory diseases including pre-existing asthma (3.4%), neurologic conditions (3.4%) and cardiac pathology (2.3%). Majority (74.8%, 199/266) of the patients were discharged without sequelae, 0.8% (2/266) were discharged with sequalae from one study, and mortality of 1.9% (5/266) was reported, also from one study. SOFA scores of patients at admission were not stated in any of the study, while only one study reported patient vaccination status. Conclusion: It is recommended that safe vaccines for children < 1 year of age should be developed in addition to other preventive measures currently in place. SOFA scores should be used to assess risk of COVID-19 severity and monitor prognosis of the disease, and vaccination status of children should be documented as this may impact the management and prognosis of the disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Comorbidity , Diagnostic Tests, Routine , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Child , Treatment Outcome
20.
S. Afr. j. child health ; 16(3): 130-133, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM | ID: biblio-1397728

ABSTRACT

Background. Pneumonia is one of the leading causes of under-5 death in South Africa and accounts for a substantial burden of paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) admissions. However, little is known about PICU outcomes in HIV-exposed uninfected (HIV-EU) children with pneumonia, despite the growing size of this vulnerable population. Objectives. To determine whether HIV exposure without infection is an independent risk factor for mortality and morbidity in children admitted to PICU with pneumonia. Methods. This retrospective review included all patients with pneumonia admitted to the PICU at Chris Hani Baragwanath Academic Hospital between 1 January 2013 and 31 December 2014. Patients were classified as HIV-unexposed (HIV-U), HIV-EU and HIV-infected. Medical records were reviewed to determine survival to PICU discharge, duration of PICU admission and duration of mechanical ventilation. Survival analysis was used to determine the association between HIV infection/exposure with mortality, and linear regression was used to examine the association with length of stay and duration of mechanical ventilation. This study included 107 patients: 54 were HIV-U; 28 were HIV-EU; 23 HIV-positive; and 2 had an unknown HIV status. Results. Overall, 84% (n=90) survived to PICU discharge, with no difference in survival based on HIV infection or exposure. Both HIV-EU and HIV-U children had significantly shorter PICU admissions and fewer days of mechanical ventilation compared with HIV-infected children (p=0.011 and p=0.004, respectively). Conclusion. HIV-EU children behaved similarly to HIV-U children in terms of mortality, duration of PICU admission and length of mechanical ventilation. HIV infection was associated with prolonged length of mechanical ventilation and ICU stay but not increased mortality.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pneumonia , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , HIV Infections , Risk Factors , Intensive Care Units , Mortality
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