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1.
Medwave ; 21(6): e8231, jul. 2021.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284247

ABSTRACT

Objetivos Describir las características clínicas y evaluar los factores asociados con la mortalidad de los pacientes adultos con la nueva enfermedad causada por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) ingresados a un hospital de referencia nacional de Perú. Métodos Se realizó un estudio de cohorte prospectivo. Se incluyó a pacientes mayores de 18 años hospitalizados con el diagnóstico de infección por coronavirus 2 del síndrome respiratorio agudo severo (SARS-CoV-2). Se excluyó a quienes ingresaron con prueba rápida serológica positiva al ingreso, sin clínica sugestiva ni imágenes compatibles. Los datos se recolectaron a partir de la historia clínica. Resultados Se incluyó un total de 813 adultos, 544 (66,9%) tuvieron COVID-19 confirmado. La media de la edad fue de 61,2 años (desviación estándar: 15) y 575 (70,5%) fueron de sexo masculino. Las comorbilidades más frecuentes fueron hipertensión arterial (34,1%) y obesidad (25,9%). Los síntomas más frecuentes al ingreso fueron disnea (82,2%) y tos (53,9%). Un total de 114 (14%) pacientes recibieron ventilación mecánica, 38 (4,7%) ingresaron a unidad de cuidados intensivos y 377 (46,4%) fallecieron. Se asociaron a la mortalidad el requerimiento de soporte ventilatorio, el mayor compromiso pulmonar y los marcadores inflamatorios. Encontramos que por cada 10 años que aumentó la edad, el riesgo de morir se incrementó en 32% (riesgo relativo: 1,32; intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,25 a 1,38). Aquellos pacientes que requirieron ingreso a unidad de cuidados intensivos y ventilación mecánica tuvieron 1,39 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,13 a 1,69) y 1,97 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 1,69 a 2,29) veces el riesgo de morir, respectivamente. Conclusión La mortalidad encontrada en nuestro estudio fue alta y estuvo asociada a la edad, marcadores inflamatorios y compromiso respiratorio.


Objectives To describe and assess clinical characteristics and factors associated with mortality in adult patients with COVID-19 admitted to a national referral hospital in Peru. Methods We conducted a prospective cohort study that included hospitalized patients older than 18 years with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection diagnosis. Patients with a positive rapid serological test on admission but no respiratory symptoms nor compatible images were excluded. We collected the data from clinical records. Results A total of 813 adults were included, 544 (66.9%) with confirmed COVID-19. The mean age was 61.2 years (standard deviation: 15.0), and 575 (70.5%) were male. The most frequent comorbidities were hypertension (34.1%) and obesity (25.9%). On admission, the most frequent symptoms were dyspnea (82.2%) and cough (53.9%). A total of 114 (14.0%) patients received mechanical ventilation, 38 (4.7%) were admitted to the intensive care unit, and 377 (46.4%) died. The requirement for ventilatory support, greater lung involvement, and inflammatory markers were associated with higher mortality. It was found that for every 10-year age increase, the risk of dying increased 32% (relative risk: 1.32; 95% confidence interval: 1.25 to 1.38). Those who were admitted to the intensive care unit and and were placed on mechanical ventilation had 1.39 (95% confidence interval: 1.13 to 1.69) and 1.97 (95% confidence interval: 1.69 to 2.29) times the risk of dying compared to those who did not, respectively. Conclusion We found a high mortality rate among hospitalized patients associated with older age, higher inflammatory markers, and greater lung involvement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Peru/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , Cough/epidemiology , Cough/virology , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Dyspnea/virology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Hospitals
2.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 139(2): 178-185, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1181003

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The fragility of healthcare systems worldwide had not been exposed by any pandemic until now. The lack of integrated methods for bed capacity planning compromises the effectiveness of public and private hospitals' services. OBJECTIVES: To estimate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the provision of intensive care unit and clinical beds for Brazilian states, using an integrated model. DESIGN AND SETTING: Experimental study applying healthcare informatics to data on COVID-19 cases from the official electronic platform of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. METHODS: A predictive model based on the historical records of Brazilian states was developed to estimate the need for hospital beds during the COVID-19 pandemic. RESULTS: The proposed model projected in advance that there was a lack of 22,771 hospital beds for Brazilian states, of which 38.95% were ICU beds, and 61.05% were clinical beds. CONCLUSIONS: The proposed approach provides valuable information to help hospital managers anticipate actions for improving healthcare system capacity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Pandemics , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Brazil/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Hospitals
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(2): 188-195, abr.-jun. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289079

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Describir la práctica habitual de asistencia kinésica motora en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de adultos, tanto en pacientes con y sin COVID-19. Métodos: Estudio observacional transversal de tipo encuesta online. Se incluyeron kinesiólogos que trabajan en unidades de cuidados intensivos de adultos en Argentina. Se realizaron 16 preguntas de respuesta múltiple o simple agrupadas en 3 apartados. El primero caracterizado por datos personales, profesionales o del ámbito laboral. El segundo, destinado a conocer el accionar habitual y un tercero enfocado en las prácticas bajo la pandemia COVID-19. Resultados: Sobre 351 kinesiólogos, el 76.1% reportó que la movilización de los pacientes estaba a cargo exclusivamente de ellos. El objetivo máximo a alcanzar desde el aspecto motor fue variable según cuatro escenarios: Pacientes en ventilación mecánica, desvinculados de la ventilación mecánica, los que nunca estuvieron asociados a la ventilación mecánica y con COVID-19 en ventilación mecánica. En el primer y último escenario el objetivo máximo fue optimizar valores de fuerza muscular. En los restantes fue realizar actividades de la vida diaria. Por último, la mayor limitante en el abordaje de pacientes con COVID-19 fue el aislamiento respiratorio y/o de contacto. Conclusión: Los kinesiólogos en Argentina reportaron encargarse de la movilización de los pacientes en la unidad de cuidados intensivos. Los objetivos máximos desde el aspecto motor para cuatro escenarios clásicos en el área cerrada podrían estar determinado por la asociación con la ventilación mecánica. La mayor limitación a la hora de movilizar a pacientes con COVID-19 fue el aislamiento respiratorio y de contacto.


Abstract Objective: To describe the usual practice of mobility therapy in the adult intensive care unit for patients with and without COVID-19. Methods: Online survey in which physical therapists working in an adult intensive care unit in Argentina participated. Sixteen multiple-choice or single-response questions grouped into three sections were asked. The first section addressed personal, professional and work environment data. The second section presented questions regarding usual care, and the third focused on practices under COVID-19 pandemic conditions. Results: Of 351 physical therapists, 76.1% answer that they were exclusively responsible for patient mobility. The highest motor-based goal varied according to four patient scenarios: Mechanically ventilated patients, patients weaned from mechanical ventilation, patients who had never required mechanical ventilation, and patients with COVID-19 under mechanical ventilation. In the first and last scenarios, the highest goal was to optimize muscle strength, while for the other two, it was to perform activities of daily living. Finally, the greatest limitation in working with patients with COVID-19 was respiratory and/or contact isolation. Conclusion: Physical therapists in Argentina reported being responsible for the mobility of patients in the intensive care unit. The highest motor-based therapeutic goals for four classic scenarios in the closed area were limited by the need for mechanical ventilation. The greatest limitation when mobilizing patients with COVID-19 was respiratory and contact isolation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Critical Care/statistics & numerical data , Physical Therapists/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Argentina , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Activities of Daily Living , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Illness/rehabilitation , Muscle Strength
4.
Rev. CEFAC ; 23(1): e1720, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143681

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: to describe the profile of patients treated by Speech-Language therapists in a Critical Patient Unit. Methods: an ex post facto, observational and descriptive study was carried out. Monthly statistical data of patients hospitalized in the period January-December 2018 were analyzed, in the Intensive Care Unit at a public hospital. Data were described from the analysis of frequency and measures of central tendency. The distribution of the variables was determined through the skewness-kurtosis test, considering a significance level of p<0.05. Results: 217 individuals got 868 speech-language therapy services. Men (57.26%), older than 65 years old, required a more frequent intervention. The main medical diagnosis of admission to the unit corresponded to non-specific pathologies (57.14%), respiratory disease (15.21%) and cerebrovascular disease (12.79%). The speech-language therapy functions were related to the evaluation of swallowing (54.31%) and voice (32.4%). In relation to the intervention, the treatment of dysphagia (25.82%) and oral motor functions (25.04%) was predominant in the duties. Functions associated with language, speech and cognition were secondary. Conclusion: the profile of the critical patient and the speech-language therapy work in this field represent a first step to characterize the role of the speech-language therapist in Intensive Medicine teams.


RESUMEN Objetivo: describir el perfil de usuarios atendidos por fonoaudiólogos en una unidad de paciente crítico. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo con temporalidad ex post facto. Se analizaron los resúmenes estadísticos mensuales de usuarios internados durante los meses de enero a diciembre de 2018, en la unidad de cuidados intensivos de un hospital público. Se describieron los datos a partir de análisis de frecuencia y medidas de tendencia central. La distribución de las variables se determinó mediante skewness-kurtosis test, considerando un nivel de significancia p<0,05. Resultados: 217 sujetos recibieron 868 atenciones fonoaudiológicas. Los hombres (57,26%) mayores de 65 años requirieron una intervención más frecuente. Los principales diagnósticos médicos de ingreso a la unidad correspondieron a patologías inespecíficas (57,14%), enfermedades respiratorias (15,21%) y cerebrovasculares (12,79%). Las funciones de fonoaudiología se relacionaron con la evaluación de la deglución (54,31%) y de la voz (32,4%). En cuanto a la intervención, el tratamiento de la disfagia (25,82%) y las funciones motoras orales (25,04%) dominaron la carga laboral. Las funciones asociadas con el lenguaje, el habla y la cognición fueron secundarias. Conclusión: el perfil del paciente crítico y las labores fonoaudiológicas en este ámbito representan un primer paso para caracterizar el rol profesional del fonoaudiólogo en el contexto de los equipos de medicina intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Speech Disorders/rehabilitation , Speech Therapy/statistics & numerical data , Deglutition Disorders/rehabilitation , Voice Disorders/rehabilitation , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Critical Care
5.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(6): 526-532, nov.-dic. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249962

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: Se informa que la mayoría de los niños afectados por SARS-CoV-2 cursan asintomáticos y que en ellos la mortalidad por COVID-19 es baja; en México se desconoce la información al respecto en este grupo de la población. Objetivo: Evaluar los factores de riesgo asociados a mortalidad en niños mexicanos con COVID-19. Método: Análisis secundario de la base de datos de la Dirección General de Epidemiología. Se incluyeron niños menores de 19 años, en quienes se confirmó SARS-CoV-2 mediante RT-PCR. Resultados: Se incluyeron 1443 niños. La mediana de edad fue de ocho años; 3.3 % ingresó a la unidad de cuidados intensivos, 1.8 % requirió ventilación mecánica asistida y la mortalidad fue de 1.9 %. En los modelos multivariados, el desarrollo de neumonía constituyó el principal factor de riesgo de mortalidad, con razón de momios (RM) de 6.45 (IC 95 % 1.99, 20.89); los pacientes que requirieron intubación tuvieron RM de 8.75 (IC 95 % 3.23, 23.7). Conclusiones: Los niños con COVID 19 tienen alta mortalidad en México, por lo que en ellos se debe procurar evitar la neumonía, especialmente en los menores de cuatro años, con riesgo cardiovascular o inmunosupresión.


Abstract Introduction: Most children affected by SARS-CoV-2 are reported to be asymptomatic, and COVID-19-related mortality in them is low; in Mexico, there is a lack of information on the subject in this population group. Objective: To assess the risk factors associated with mortality in Mexican children with COVID-19. Method: Secondary analysis of the General Directorate of Epidemiology database. Children younger than 19 years, in whom SARS-CoV-2 infection was confirmed by RT-PCR, were included. Results: 1443 children were included. Median age was eight years; 3.3 % were admitted to the intensive care unit, 1.8 % required assisted mechanical ventilation, and mortality was 1.9 %. In multivariate models, the development of pneumonia was the main risk factor for mortality, with an odds ratio (OR) of 6.45 (95 % CI 1.99, 20.89); patients who required intubation had an OR of 8.75 (95 % CI 3.23, 23.7). Conclusions: Children with COVID-19 exhibit high mortality in Mexico, and avoiding pneumonia should therefore be tried in them, especially in children younger than four years with cardiovascular risk or immunosuppression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , COVID-19/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Mexico/epidemiology
6.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(4): 487-492, out.-dez. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156249

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever as características clínicas e os preditores de ventilação mecânica em pacientes adultos internados com COVID-19. Métodos: Conduziu-se um estudo de coorte retrospectiva com inclusão de pacientes hospitalizados entre 17 de março e 3 de maio de 2020, que tiveram o diagnóstico de infecção pelo SARS-CoV-2. As características clínicas e demográficas foram extraídas de registros em prontuário eletrônico. Resultados: Incluíram-se no estudo 88 pacientes consecutivos. A mediana da idade dos pacientes foi de 63 anos (IQR: 49 - 71); 59 (67%) pacientes eram do sexo masculino, 65 (86%) tinham educação universitária e 67 (76%) tinham, no mínimo, uma comorbidade. Dentre eles, 29 (33%) pacientes foram admitidos à unidade de terapia intensiva, 18 (20%) necessitaram de ventilação mecânica e nove (10,2%) morreram durante a hospitalização. O tempo mediano de permanência na unidade de terapia intensiva e o tempo mediano de ventilação mecânica foram, respectivamente, de 23 e 29,5 dias. Idade acima ou igual a 65 anos foi fator de risco independente para ventilação mecânica (RC: 8,4; IC95% de 1,3 - 55,6; valor de p = 0,02). Conclusão: Nossos achados descrevem a primeira onda de pacientes brasileiros hospitalizados por COVID-19. Em nossa população, idade foi o maior preditor de insuficiência respiratória e necessidade de ventilação mecânica.


Abstract Objective: This study aims to describe the clinical characteristics and predictors of mechanical ventilation of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in a single center. Methods: A retrospective cohort study was performed and included adult inpatients hospitalized from March 17th to May 3rd, 2020, who were diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Clinical and demographic characteristics were extracted from electronic medical records. Results: Overall, 88 consecutive patients were included in this study. The median age of the patients was 63 years (IQR 49 - 71); 59 (67%) were male, 65 (86%) had a college degree and 67 (76%) had at least one comorbidity. Twenty-nine (33%) patients were admitted to the intensive care unit, 18 (20%) patients needed mechanical ventilation, and 9 (10.2%) died during hospitalization. The median length of stay in the intensive care unit and the median duration of mechanical ventilation was 23 and 29.5 days, respectively. An age ≥ 65 years was an independent risk factor for mechanical ventilation (OR 8.4 95%CI 1.3 - 55.6 p = 0.02). Conclusion: Our findings describe the first wave of Brazilian patients hospitalized for COVID-19. Age was the strongest predictor of respiratory insufficiency and the need for mechanical ventilation in our population.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , COVID-19/therapy , Hospitalization , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/virology , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Age Factors , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/physiopathology , Length of Stay
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(5): 484-490, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1143953

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Cardiac surgery can produce persistent deficit in the ratio of Oxygen Delivery (DO2) to Oxygen Consumption (VO2). Central venous oxygen Saturation (ScvO2) is an accessible and indirect measure of DO2/VO2 ratio. Objective: To monitor perioperative ScvO2 and assess its correlation with mortality during cardiac surgery. Methods: This prospective observational study evaluated 273 patients undergoing cardiac surgery. Blood gas samples were collected to measure ScvO2 at three time points: T0 (after anesthetic induction), T1 (end of surgery), and T2 (24 hours after surgery). The patients were divided into two groups (survivors and nonsurvivors). The following outcomes were analyzed: intrahospital mortality, length of Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital stay (LOS), and variation in ScvO2. Results: Of the 273 patients, 251 (92%) survived and 22 (8%) did not. There was a significant perioperative reduction of ScvO2 in both survivors (T0 = 78% ± 8.1%, T1 = 75.4% ± 7.5%, and T2 = 68.5% ± 9%; p< 0.001) and nonsurvivors (T0 = 74.4% ± 8.7%, T1 = 75.4% ± 7.7%, and T2 = 66.7% ± 13.1%; p < 0.001). At T0, the percentage of patients with ScvO2< 70% was greater in the nonsurvivor group (31.8% vs. 13.1%; p= 0.046) and the multiple logistic regression showed that ScvO2 is an independent risk factor associated with death, OR = 2.94 (95% CI 1.10−7.89) (p= 0.032). The length of ICU and LOS were 3.6 ± 3.1 and 7.4 ± 6.0 days respectively and was not significantly associated with ScvO2. Conclusions: Early intraoperative ScvO2 < 70% indicated a higher risk of death. A perioperative reduction of ScvO2 was observed in patients undergoing cardiac surgery, with high intraoperative and lower postoperative levels.


Resumo Justificativa: A cirurgia cardíaca pode produzir déficit persistente na razão entre oferta de oxigênio (DO2) e consumo de oxigênio (VO2). A Saturação venosa central de Oxigênio (SvcO2) é uma medida acessível e indireta da razão DO2/VO2. Objetivo: Monitorar a SvcO2 perioperatória e avaliar sua correlação com a mortalidade em cirurgia cardíaca. Método: Este estudo observacional prospectivo avaliou 273 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia cardíaca. Coletamos amostras de sangue para medir a SvcO2 em três momentos: T0 (após indução anestésica), T1 (final da cirurgia) e T2 (24 horas após a cirurgia). Os pacientes foram divididos em dois grupos (sobreviventes e não sobreviventes). Os seguintes desfechos foram analisados: mortalidade intra-hospitalar, tempo de permanência na Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI) e de internação hospitalar, e variação na SvcO2. Resultados: Dos 273 pacientes, 251 (92%) sobreviveram e 22 (8%) não. Houve queda significante da SvcO2 perioperatória nos sobreviventes (T0 = 78% ± 8,1%, T1 = 75,4% ± 7,5% e T2 = 68,5% ± 9%; p< 0,001) e nos não sobreviventes (T0 = 74,4% ± 8,7%, T1 = 75,4% ± 7,7% e T2 = 66,7% ± 13,1%; p< 0,001). No T0, a porcentagem de pacientes com SvcO2< 70% foi maior no grupo não sobrevivente (31,8% vs. 13,1%; p = 0,046) e a regressão logística múltipla mostrou que a SvcO2 é um fator de risco independente associado ao óbito, OR = 2,94 (95% IC 1,10 − 7,89) (p = 0,032). O tempo de permanência na UTI e de hospitalização foi de 3,6 ± 3,1 e 7,4 ± 6,0 dias, respectivamente, e não foi significantemente associado à SvcO2. Conclusões: Valores precoces de SvcO2 intraoperatória < 70% indicaram maior risco de óbito em pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardíaca. Observamos redução perioperatória da SvcO2, com altos níveis no intraoperatório e mais baixos no pós-operatório.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Oxygen/blood , Oxygen Consumption/physiology , Hospital Mortality , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/mortality , Time Factors , Blood Gas Analysis , Prospective Studies , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged
8.
Washington; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; Oct. 2020. 44 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1127582

ABSTRACT

La Representación en la República Dominicana trabajó en coordinación con las autoridades nacionales desde la emisión de la alerta de emergencia sanitaria internacional emitida por la OMS el 30 de enero, colaborando en las acciones de preparación ante lo que en ese momento era una eventual epidemia. Para el 1 de marzo de 2020, el país reportó el primer caso de COVID-19, convirtiéndose en el cuarto país de América Latina en confirmar un caso en su territorio. Diez días después, el 11 de marzo, la OMS caracteriza la COVID-19 como una pandemia debido al incremento de casos confirmados y fallecidos en más de 100 países. En este contexto, los esfuerzos de cooperación técnica se concentraron en la elaboración del Plan de Contingencia ante Enfermedad por Coronavirus (COVID-19), el cual tuvo como referencia las líneas de acción planteadas en el Plan estratégico de preparación y respuesta para la enfermedad por coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Social Isolation , Quarantine/organization & administration , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Betacoronavirus , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Dominican Republic/epidemiology
9.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 412-417, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138503

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar o tempo de desocupação e ocupação dos leitos na unidade de terapia intensiva; analisar os intervalos entre os tempos durante o período do dia e da noite, finais de semana e feriados e identificar preditores para os tempos de desocupação e ocupação. Métodos: Estudo transversal, de natureza observacional, descritivo, analítico e inferencial. Foram analisados 700 registros de desocupação-ocupação em 54 leitos na unidade de terapia intensiva adulto de um hospital da rede pública de Sergipe, entre janeiro e dezembro de 2018. O teste não paramétrico de Mann-Whitney foi utilizado para comparações entre grupos. Diversos modelos preditivos de tempo de permanência foram elaborados. A razão de taxa de incidência foi utilizada como estimativa de tamanho do efeito. Resultados: Durante o período do estudo, houve 13.477 solicitações de vaga na unidade de terapia intensiva para os 54 leitos, e apenas 5% (700 pacientes) conseguiram o acesso ao leito. Os tempos de desocupação-ocupação tiveram valores menores quando a ocupação do leito era realizada no período noturno (razão de taxa de incidência de 0,658; IC95% 0,550 - 0,787; p < 0,0001) e oferta nos finais de semana (razão de taxa de incidência de 0,566; IC95% 0,382 - 0,838; p = 0,004). O sexo feminino (razão de taxa de incidência de 0,749; IC95% 0,657 - 0,856; p < 0,0001) foi um preditor de menor tempo de desocupação-ocupação. Esse tempo tende a aumentar com a idade do paciente (razão de taxa de incidência de 1,006; IC95% 1,003 - 1,009; p < 0,0001). Conclusão: Identificaram-se disparidades no tempo de espera para a ocupação do leito, sendo maior no período diurno e em dias úteis. Mulheres e pacientes mais jovens são beneficiados por um processamento mais rápido no tempo de desocupação-ocupação.


Abstract Objective: To evaluate the vacancy and occupancy times of intensive care unit beds; to analyze differences in these times between the day and night shifts and weekdays, weekends, and holidays; and to identify predictors of vacancy and occupancy times. Methods: This was a cross-sectional, observational, descriptive, analytical, inferential study. A total of 700 vacancy-to-occupancy records from 54 beds of an adult intensive care unit of a public hospital in Sergipe, Brazil, dated between January and December 2018 were analyzed. The nonparametric Mann-Whitney test was used for comparisons between groups. Several predictive models of length of stay were constructed. The incidence rate ratio was used to estimate the effect size. Results: During the study period, there were 13,477 requests for the 54 intensive care unit beds, and only 5% (700 patients) were granted. The vacancy-to-occupancy times were shorter when beds were occupied at night (incidence rate ratio of 0.658; 95%CI 0.550 - 0.787; p < 0.0001) or on weekends (incidence rate ratio of 0.566; 95%CI 0.382 - 0.838; p = 0.004). Female sex (incidence rate ratio of 0.749; 95%CI 0.657 - 0.856; p < 0.0001) was a predictor of shorter vacancy-to-occupancy time. This time tended to increase with patient age (incidence rate ratio of 1.006; 95% CI 1.003 - 1.009; p < 0.0001). Conclusion: Disparities in the waiting time for intensive care unit beds were identified, as the time was greater in the daytime and on weekdays, and women and younger patients experienced shorter vacancy-to-occupancy times.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Bed Occupancy/statistics & numerical data , Waiting Lists , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Length of Stay/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil , Sex Factors , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors , Models, Theoretical
10.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 439-443, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138501

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Verificar se há associação entre o Modified Early Warning Score antes da transferência da emergência para enfermaria e o óbito ou a admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva em 30 dias. Métodos: Trata-se de estudo de coorte histórica desenvolvido em hospital de alta complexidade do Sul do Brasil com pacientes transferidos da emergência para a enfermaria entre os meses de janeiro e junho de 2017. Foram coletados: variáveis sociodemográficas, comorbidades pelo índice de Charlson, motivo da internação hospitalar, pontuação do Modified Early Warning Score no momento da transferência, internação na unidade de terapia intensiva, atendimento pelo Time de Resposta Rápida, mortalidade em 30 dias e mortalidade hospitalar. Resultados: Foram incluídos 278 pacientes no estudo. Em relação ao Modified Early Warning Score, os pacientes com óbito em 30 dias apresentaram escore significativamente maior do que os pacientes sobreviventes nesse período (2,0 [1,0 - 3,0] versus 1,0 [1,0 - 2,0], respectivamente; p = 0,006). As áreas sob a curva Característica de Operação do Receptor para óbito em 30 dias e para admissão na UTI foram 0,67 (0,55 - 0,80; p = 0,012) e 0,72 (0,59 - 0,84; p = 0,02), respectivamente, com ponto de corte do Modified Early Warning Score ≥ 2. Na regressão de Cox, o Modified Early Warning Score apresentou associação independente com mortalidade em 30 dias, após ajuste multivariável (hazard ratio 2,91; intervalo de confiança de 95% 1,04 - 8,13). Conclusão: O Modified Early Warning Score antes da transferência intra-hospitalar da emergência para enfermaria está associado com admissão na unidade de terapia intensiva e óbito em 30 dias. Calcular o Modified Early Warning Score pode ser um indicador importante para acompanhamento desses pacientes, permitindo ações específicas da equipe receptora.


Abstract Objective: To verify whether there is an association between the Modified Early Warning Score before the transfer from the emergency room to the ward and death or admission to the intensive care unit within 30 days. Methods: This is a historical cohort study conducted in a high-complexity hospital in southern Brazil with patients who were transferred from the emergency room to the ward between January and June 2017. The following data were collected: sociodemographic variables; comorbidities, as determined by the Charlson index; reason for hospitalization; Modified Early Warning Score at the time of transfer; admission to the intensive care unit; care by the Rapid Response Team; mortality within 30 days; and hospital mortality. Results: A total of 278 patients were included in the study. Regarding the Modified Early Warning Score, patients who died within 30 days had a significantly higher score than surviving patients during this period (2.0 [1.0 - 3.0] versus 1.0 [1.0 - 2.0], respectively; p = 0.006). The areas under the receiver operating characteristic curve for death within 30 days and for ICU admission were 0.67 (0.55 - 0.80; p = 0.012) and 0.72 (0.59 - 0.84; p = 0.02), respectively, with a Modified Early Warning Score cutoff of ≥ 2. In the Cox regression, the Modified Early Warning Score was independently associated with mortality within 30 days after multivariate adjustment (hazard ratio 2.91; 95% confidence interval 1.04 - 8.13). Conclusion: The Modified Early Warning Score before intrahospital transfer from the emergency room to the ward is associated with admission to the intensive care unit and death within 30 days. The Modified Early Warning Score can be an important indicator for monitoring these patients and can prompt the receiving team to take specific actions.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Patient Transfer/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Mortality , Early Warning Score , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Time Factors , Brazil , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospital Rapid Response Team , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data
11.
Rev. cuba. invest. bioméd ; 39(3): e612, jul.-set. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1138925

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones asociadas a los cuidados sanitarios en los servicios de atención al paciente crítico se asocian a un alto riesgo de muerte y costos significativos. Objetivo: Identificar los gérmenes más frecuentes en los cultivos y su resistencia a los antimicrobianos en la terapia intensiva del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Provincial Dr. Joaquín Albarrán. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, retrospectivo, en la terapia intensiva del Hospital Clínico Quirúrgico Provincial Dr. Joaquín Albarrán, de enero del 2015 a diciembre del 2018, el universo estuvo constituido por 1847 cultivos realizados seleccionándose 654 en los que se obtuvo crecimiento; para el análisis estadístico se utilizó el SPSS 22.0. Resultados: De los gérmenes aislados, la Klebsiella spp fue la más frecuente (31 por ciento), seguida del Staphylococcus spp (24,5 por ciento) y de la E. coli (9,8 por ciento). En los esputos se mantuvo la Klebsiella spp (45,1 por ciento), en los hemocultivos el Staphylococcus spp (53,6 por ciento) y en los urocultivos la Candida (41,1 por ciento), seguida de la E. coli (27 por ciento). De los antimicrobianos usados en terapia para tratar la Klebsiella spp, la E. coli, el Acinetobacter y la pseudomona spp, el más recomendado es la colistina (0-25 por ciento de resistencia) y para el Staphylococcus spp, la vancomicina (1,8 por ciento). Conclusiones: Los gérmenes Gram negativos siguen siendo los más frecuentemente aislados en los cultivos de los pacientes hospitalizados en terapia, con un alto nivel de resistencia para la mayoría de los antibióticos(AU)


Introduction: Infections related to critical care settings are associated to high death risk and significant costs. Objective: Identify the germs most commonly found in cultures and their resistance to antimicrobials in the intensive care service of Dr. Joaquín Albarrán Provincial Clinical Surgical Hospital. Methods: A retrospective descriptive study was conducted at the intensive care service of Dr. Joaquín Albarrán Provincial Clinical Surgical Hospital from January 2015 to December 2018. The study universe was 1 847 cultures, from which 654 were selected in which growth was obtained. Data were processed with the statistical software SPPS 22.0. Results: Of the germs isolated, Klebsiella spp. were the most common (31 percent, followed by Staphylococcus spp. (24.5 percent) and E. coli (9.8 percent). Klebsiella spp. were frequent in sputum cultures (45.1 percent), Staphylococcus spp. in blood cultures (53.6 percent) and Candida in urine cultures (41.1 percent), followed by E. coli (27 percent). Among the antimicrobials used to treat Klebsiella spp., E. coli, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas spp., the most recommended is colistin (0-25 percent resistance) and vancomycin for Staphylococcus spp. (1.8 percent). Conclusions: Gram-negative germs continue to be the most commonly isolated in cultures from intensive care patients, with a high level of resistance to most antibiotics(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Klebsiella Infections/prevention & control , Vancomycin/therapeutic use , Cross Infection/prevention & control , Colistin/therapeutic use , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Retrospective Studies
12.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; sept. 8, 2020. 20 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119008

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 24.042 pacientes (24,8%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.254 pacientes (1,3%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.105 en sala general y 149 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 69.661 casos (71,8%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
13.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 40(3): 84-89, sept. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1128897

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la discontinuación de la ventilación mecánica invasiva en las Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos es un objetivo fundamental y primario, en pos de evitar las complicaciones asociadas a ella. El uso de ventilación no invasiva en este contexto resulta de utilidad en tres escenarios específicos: a) como prevención de fallo de extubación, b) como cambio de interface, c) en fallo instalado. No existe evidencia suficiente sobre el tiempo de uso habitual de la VNI en esta subpoblación, las variables que se utilizan para elegirla, las causas de fallo de la VNI y la mortalidad asociada en estos pacientes. Objetivos: describir epidemiológicamente a los pacientes adultos con uso de VNI posextubación y su evolución hasta el alta hospitalaria. Describir la indicación de VNI, el tiempo de uso, las tasas de reintubación y mortalidad intrahospitalaria. Materiales y métodos: cohorte retrospectiva de pacientes internados en la UCI de adultos del Hospital Italiano de San Justo que utilizaron VNI posextubación. A partir de la historia clínica electrónica se registraron variables epidemiológicas previas al ingreso en la UCI y datos evolutivos durante la internación. El período analizado abarca desde el 17 de diciembre de 2016 hasta el 01 de agosto de 2018. Resultados: se incluyeron 48 pacientes en el presente estudio. La mediana de edad fue de 76 años (RIQ 62,75-83,25). El 58,33% eran hombres. El índice de comorbilidad de Charlson tuvo un valor de mediana de 5 (RIQ 3-6). Del total de pacientes reclutados, 33 utilizaron VNI como prevención de fallo de extubación (68,75%), 13 como cambio de interface (27,08%) y solo 2 como fallo instalado (4,16%). La mediana de días de uso de VNI fue 1 (RIQ 0-5) en prevención de fallo, 1 (RIQ 1-2) en cambio de interface y en fallo instalado 13,5 días (RIQ 8,75-18,25). Ocho pacientes fueron reintubados (16,66%). La mortalidad fue del 9,1% en el grupo de prevención de fallo y 7,7% en el grupo de cambio de interface, respectivamente. En cuanto al grupo que la usó a partir del fallo instalado, la tasa de mortalidad fue del 50% (total de dos pacientes). Conclusiones: la VNI como método de discontinuación de la VMI se utiliza principalmente tanto para la prevención de fallo como para cambio de interfaz. El tiempo de uso de VNI posextubación es, en general, limitado. Se necesitan futuros trabajos que identifiquen las horas requeridas de uso de VNI posextubación. (AU)


Introduction: the discontinuation of invasive mechanical ventilation in the intensive care unit is a fundamental and primary objective, both of which aim to avoid the complications associated with it. The use of non-invasive ventilation in this context may follow three specific scenarios: a) as prevention of extubation failure, b) as interface change, c) in overt failure. There is not enough evidence on the time of use of NIV in this subpopulation, the variables used to guide its use, the causes of NIV failure and the associated mortality in these patients. Objectives: to describe the use of NIV after extubation in adult critically ill patients. Further, we aim to describe the time of NIV use, the mortality and reintubation rate of each subgroup. Materials and methods: retrospective cohort study including adult patients admitted to the ICU at Hospital Italiano de San Justo, who received NIV post-extubation. Using the electronic health database, epidemiological variables were recorded prior to admission to the ICU and follow-up data during the hospitalization. The period analyzed was from December 17, 2016 to August 1, 2018. Results: 48 patients were included in the present analysis. Median age was 76 years (RIQ 62.75-83.25) and 58.33% were men. The Charlson comorbidity index had a median value of 5 (RIQ 3-6). Of the total number of patients recruited, 33 used NIV as prevention of extubation failure (68.75%), 13 as interface change (27.08%). ) and only 2 as overt extubation failure (4.16%).The median number of days of NIV use was 1 (RIQ 0-5) in failure prevention and 1 (RIQ 1-2) in the change of interface group. 8 patients were reintubated (16.66%). 9.1% and 7.7% of patients died in the groups that used NIV as prevention of extubation failure and change of interface respectively. Conclusions: NIV is frequently used in adult patients following extubation in our centre. Further studies are warranted to depict the necessary time of use to better allocate resources within the intensive care unit. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Airway Extubation/statistics & numerical data , Noninvasive Ventilation/statistics & numerical data , Patient Discharge , Argentina/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Mortality , Airway Extubation/instrumentation , Airway Extubation/mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation/instrumentation , Noninvasive Ventilation/mortality , Noninvasive Ventilation/trends , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Intubation, Intratracheal/statistics & numerical data
14.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 80(5): 425-432, ago. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1287193

ABSTRACT

Resumen La pandemia de COVID-19 ha llevado a medidas de aislamiento social, restricciones laborales, fuerte campaña mediática y suspensión de las actividades médicas programadas. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue relevar el impacto de estas medidas sobre las internaciones en Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos Cardiovasculares, con la hipótesis de que se ha generado un comportamiento social que puede disminuir la demanda de consultas, aun las de enfermedades graves. Comparamos las internaciones de marzo-abril de 2010-2019 con las del mismo bimestre de 2020 sobre la base del registro prospectivo multicéntrico Epi-Cardio® en seis instituciones, tres públicas y tres privadas, que utilizan la epicrisis computarizada para las altas. Fueron incluidos 6839 egresos de ese bimestre en los 11 años. El promedio del número de internaciones en ese bimestre del decenio 2010-19 fue 595 (intervalo de confianza 95%: 507-683) y se redujo a 348 en 2020 (caída del 46.8%, p < 0.001). En la agrupación por 11 causas de internación, la reducción observada fue: cirugía cardiovascular 72.3%, intervenciones electrofisiológicas 67.8%, síndrome coronario agudo sin elevación del ST 52.6%, angio-plastias 47.6%, arritmias 48.7%, insuficiencia cardíaca 46%, fibrilación auricular 35.7%, infarto con elevación del ST 34.7%, dolor no coronario 31.8% y otros 51.6%. Solo se incrementaron las consultas por crisis hipertensivas (89%), aunque la prevalencia fue baja. La caída observada en la internación de entidades clínicas críticas ha sido un "efecto adverso" de las medidas adoptadas ante la pandemia, con consecuencias potencialmente graves, que podrían revertirse con un ajuste de las políticas y la comunicación pública.


Abstract The COVID-19 pandemic has led to measures of social isolation, labor restrictions, a strong information campaign and the suspension of scheduled medical activities. The aim of this study was to describe the impact of these measures on the number of hospitalizations in Cardiovascular Intensive Care Units, with the hypothesis that the social behavior generated by this emergency promotes a decreased demand for medical care, even when severe cardiovascular disease is involved. We compared the number of admissions in March-April 2010-2019 versus March-April 2020, based on a prospective study including six institutions (three public and three private) that use Epi-Cardio® as a multicenter registry of cardiovascular care unit discharge. Altogether, we included 6839 patients discharged during the 11-year study period (2010-2020). The average number of patient admissions on March-April 2010-19 was 595 (CI 95%: 507-683) and decreased to 348 in 2020 (fall of 46.8%, p < 0.001). The reasons for hospitalization were classified into 11 groups and a statistically significant reduction was seen in 10 of these groups: cardiovascular surgery 72.3%, electrophysiological interventions 67.8%, non-ST acute coronary syndromes 52.6%, angioplasties 47.6%, arrhythmias 48.7%, heart failure 46%, atrial fibrillation 35.7%, ST elevation myocardial infarction 34.7%, non cardiac chest pain 31.8%, others 51.6%. Although with low prevalence, hypertensive crisis increased in 89%. The abrupt decrease observed in the number of admissions due to critical pathologies may be considered an "adverse effect" related to the measures adopted, with potentially severe consequences. This trend could be reversed by improving public communication and policy adjustment.


Subject(s)
Humans , Cardiovascular Diseases/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Patient Admission/statistics & numerical data , Argentina/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , Betacoronavirus , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19
15.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(4): 335-339, Jul.-Aug. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249921

ABSTRACT

Abstract The disease caused by the new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) spread rapidly from China to the entire world. Approximately one third of SARS-CoV-2-infected patients have neurological disorders, especially those classified as severe cases and that require mechanical ventilation. On the other hand, almost nine out of 10 patients admitted to an Intensive Care Unit could not breathe spontaneously, thus requiring invasive and non-invasive ventilatory support. So far, whether early neurological disorders such as hyposmia or anosmia, dysgeusia or ageusia, headache and vertigo are significant in the progression to the severe form of the disease or whether they are related to entry to the central nervous system via peripheral nerves has not been determined. Considering the great similarity between SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2, and that the severity of the condition that leads to death cannot be explained solely by lung involvement, it is important to determine whether SARS-CoV-2 potential invasion to the central nervous system is partially responsible for the severe respiratory component observed in patients with COVID-19.


Resumen La enfermedad (COVID-19) producida por el nuevo coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 se extendió rápidamente desde China a todo el mundo. Aproximadamente una tercera parte de los pacientes infectados de SARS-CoV-2 presenta alteraciones neurológicas, con mayor frecuencia los clasificados como graves que requirieron ventilación mecánica. Por otro lado, casi nueve de cada 10 pacientes admitidos en una unidad de cuidados intensivos no podían respirar espontáneamente, por lo que ameritaron apoyo ventilatorio invasivo y no invasivo. Hasta el momento no se ha determinado si las alteraciones neurológicas tempranas como la hiposmia o anosmia, disgeusia o ageusia, cefalea y vértigo son significativas en la progresión a la forma grave de la enfermedad y se relacionan con la entrada al sistema nervioso central a través de los nervios periféricos. Considerando la gran similitud entre SARS-CoV y SARS-CoV-2 y que la severidad del cuadro que conduce a la muerte no puede ser explicado únicamente por la afección pulmonar, es importante determinar si la invasión potencial del SARS-CoV-2 al sistema nervioso central es parcialmente responsable del componente respiratorio severo que presentan los pacientes con COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Nervous System Diseases/virology , Pneumonia, Viral , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Severity of Illness Index , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Progression , Viral Tropism , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Nervous System Diseases , Nervous System Diseases/physiopathology
16.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; ago. 11, 2020. 32 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1117100

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 22.450 pacientes (29,4%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.669 pacientes (2,2%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.509 en sala general y 160 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 50.665 casos (66,3%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Ventilators, Mechanical/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
17.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 19(2): e598, mayo.-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126356

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La desnutrición en pacientes ingresados en una sala de terapia intensiva es elevada, pero en el anciano crítico es aún mayor, con repercusión sobre el aparato respiratorio, prolongación de la ventilación y otras complicaciones. Objetivo: Caracterizar el estado nutricional en pacientes geriátricos con ventilación mecánica en una unidad de cuidados intensivos. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio descriptivo, prospectivo y de corte transversal durante el periodo de enero de 2017 a marzo de 2019 en la unidad de cuidados intensivos del Hospital General Docente "Orlando Pantoja Tamayo". Se estudiaron 83 pacientes con edades mayor o igual a 60 años, los cuales requirieron del uso de ventilación mecánica más de 24 h. El estado nutricional fue evaluado con el empleo del índice de control nutricional. Resultados: Predominó el sexo masculino, el grupo de edades de 60 a 74 años, y las enfermedades tipo quirúrgicas. Solo 9,1 % de los que recibieron ventilación mecánica invasiva no estaban desnutrido. Los que fallecieron tenían desnutrición moderada o severa. Conclusiones: En los pacientes geriátricos ventilados, ingresados en la unidad de cuidados intensivos, se encontró un alto grado de malnutrición. La desnutrición moderada o severa predominó en la mayoría de los que recibieron ventilación mecánica invasiva y en el grupo de fallecidos(AU)


Introduction: Malnutrition in patients hospitalized in an intensive care room is high, but it is even higher in the critically-ill elderly patient, with repercussions on the respiratory system, prolonged ventilation, and other complications. Objective: To characterize the nutritional status of geriatric patients under mechanical ventilation in an intensive care unit. Methods: A descriptive, prospective and cross-sectional study was carried out during the period from January 2017 to March 2019, in the intensive care unit of Orlando Pantoja Tamayo General Teaching Hospital. 83 patients aged 60 or older were studied; they required mechanical ventilation for more than 24 hours. The nutritional status was evaluated with the use of the nutritional control score. Results: There was a predominance of the male sex, the age group 60-74 years, and of surgical diseases. Only 9.1% of those who received invasive mechanical ventilation were not undernourished. Those who died had moderate or severe undernutrition. Conclusions: In ventilated geriatric patients hospitalized in the intensive care unit, a high degree of malnutrition was found. Moderate or severe malnutrition predominated in the majority of those who received invasive mechanical ventilation and in the group of the deceased(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Malnutrition/complications , Malnutrition/epidemiology , Nutrition Surveys/standards , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Critical Care Outcomes , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data
18.
s.l; Organización Panamericana de la Salud; jul. 29, 2020. 23 p.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1104472

ABSTRACT

A la fecha, se reportan 23.271 pacientes (37,4%) en aislamiento domiciliario, 1.422 pacientes (2,3%) se encuentran hospitalizados (1.274 en sala general y 148 en Unidades de Cuidado Intensivo -UCI). Se informan 36.181 casos (58,1%) como recuperados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Betacoronavirus , Hospital Bed Capacity/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Panama/epidemiology
19.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 229-234, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138493

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Mostrar o quadro clínico e os desfechos de uma coorte de pacientes críticos com câncer esofágico. Métodos: Conduzimos um estudo multicêntrico retrospectivo que incluiu pacientes com câncer esofágico admitidos a unidades de terapia intensiva em razão de doença aguda entre setembro de 2009 e dezembro de 2017. Colhemos os dados demográficos e as características clínicas de todos os pacientes incluídos, assim como as medidas de suporte a órgãos e os desfechos no hospital. Realizamos uma análise de regressão logística para identificar os fatores associados de forma independente com mortalidade hospitalar. Resultados: Dentre os 226 pacientes incluídos no estudo, 131 (58,0%) faleceram antes de receber alta hospitalar. O carcinoma espinocelular foi mais frequente do que o adenocarcinoma, e 124 (54,9%) pacientes tinham câncer metastático. As principais razões para admissão foram sepse/choque séptico e insuficiência respiratória aguda. Uso de ventilação mecânica (RC = 6,18; IC95% 2,86 - 13,35) e doença metastática (RC = 7,10; IC95% 3,35 - 15,05) tiveram associação independente com mortalidade hospitalar. Conclusão: Nesta coorte de pacientes com câncer esofágico admitidos à unidades de terapia intensiva em razão de doença aguda, a taxa de mortalidade hospitalar foi muito elevada. A necessidade de utilizar ventilação mecânica invasiva e a presença de doença metastática foram fatores independentes de prognóstico e devem ser levados em conta nas discussões a respeito dos desfechos destes pacientes em curto prazo.


ABSTRACT Objective: To depict the clinical presentation and outcomes of a cohort of critically ill patients with esophageal cancer. Methods: We carried out a multicenter retrospective study that included patients with esophageal cancer admitted to intensive care units with acute illness between September 2009 and December 2017. We collected the demographic and clinical characteristics of all included patients, as well as organ-support measures and hospital outcomes. We performed logistic regression analysis to identify independent factors associated with in-hospital mortality. Results: Of 226 patients included in the study, 131 (58.0%) patients died before hospital discharge. Squamous cell carcinoma was more frequent than adenocarcinoma, and 124 (54.9%) patients had metastatic cancer. The main reasons for admission were sepsis/septic shock and acute respiratory failure. Mechanical ventilation (OR = 6.18; 95%CI 2.86 - 13.35) and metastatic disease (OR = 7.10; 95%CI 3.35 - 15.05) were independently associated with in-hospital mortality. Conclusion: In this cohort of patients with esophageal cancer admitted to intensive care units with acute illness, the in-hospital mortality rate was very high. The requirement for invasive mechanical ventilation and metastatic disease were independent prognostic factors and should be considered in discussions about the short-term outcomes of these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Esophageal Neoplasms/therapy , Critical Illness , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Prognosis , Respiration, Artificial/statistics & numerical data , Respiratory Insufficiency/epidemiology , Shock, Septic/epidemiology , Esophageal Neoplasms/mortality , Acute Disease , Retrospective Studies , Cohort Studies , Hospital Mortality , Sepsis/epidemiology
20.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 268-276, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138484

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar um inquérito nacional com profissionais de terapia intensiva para determinar as práticas de promoção do sono em unidades de terapia intensiva para adultos no Brasil, e descrever suas percepções sobre a importância do sono para os pacientes. Métodos: Um questionário eletrônico foi distribuído pela rede de cooperação em pesquisa clínica da Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira aos médicos e enfermeiros registrados na associação e pela Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network. O questionário avaliou o perfil dos respondedores, de suas unidades de terapia intensiva, se estavam presentes protocolos de promoção do sono, quais as medidas farmacológicas e não farmacológicas usualmente empregadas na unidade e a percepção dos profissionais em relação ao sono nos pacientes críticos. Resultados: Foram avaliados 118 questionários. A Região Sudeste foi a mais representada (50 questionários; 42,4%). A maioria apresentava perfil clínico-cirúrgico (93 questionários; 78,8%) e 26 possuíam política de visita contínua (22,0%). Apenas 18 unidades de terapia intensiva (15,3%) referiram apresentar protocolos de promoção do sono. A medida mais citada para promoção de sono foi a redução da luminosidade no período noturno (95 questionários; 80,5%), sendo mais executada em unidades de terapia intensiva privadas. Quase a totalidade dos respondedores (99%) acreditou que o sono com qualidade ruim tinha impacto negativo na recuperação do paciente. Conclusão: Nas respostas deste inquérito brasileiro, poucas unidades apresentaram um programa de promoção de sono na unidade de terapia intensiva, embora a quase totalidade dos participantes reconhecesse a importância do sono na recuperação do paciente.


ABSTRACT Objective: To conduct a national survey of intensive care professionals to identify the practices for promoting sleep in adult intensive care units in Brazil and describe the professionals' perceptions of the importance of sleep for patients. Methods: An electronic questionnaire was distributed by the clinical research cooperation network of the Associação de Medicina Intensiva Brasileira and by the Brazilian Research in Intensive Care Network to physicians and nurses registered with the association. The questionnaire evaluated the profile of the respondents, the profile of their intensive care units, whether protocols for promoting sleep were present, the pharmacological and nonpharmacological measures typically employed in the unit, and the professionals' perceptions regarding sleep in critically ill patients. Results: A total of 118 questionnaires were evaluated. The Southeast region of the country was the most represented (50 questionnaires, 42.4%). The majority of units had a clinical-surgical profile (93 questionnaires; 78.8%), and 26 had a continuous visitation policy (22.0%). Only 18 intensive care units (15.3%) reported having protocols for promoting sleep. The most cited measure for sleep promotion was reducing light during the night (95 questionnaires; 80.5%), which was more often performed in private intensive care units. Almost all of the responders (99%) believed that poor-quality sleep has a negative impact on patient recovery. Conclusion: The responses to this Brazilian survey revealed that few intensive care units had a program for promoting sleep, although almost all participants recognized the importance of sleep in patient recovery.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Sleep/physiology , Critical Illness , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Physicians/statistics & numerical data , Brazil , Health Care Surveys , Nurses/statistics & numerical data
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