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1.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 60(3): e1196, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347391

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La cirugía torácica figura entre los procedimientos quirúrgicos más dolorosos. Objetivo: Describir los resultados de la alcoholización de nervios intercostales para analgesia postoperatoria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio prospectivo, observacional y descriptivo de pacientes tratados quirúrgicamente por afecciones torácicas durante 2018-2019. La muestra incluyó 50 pacientes que cumplieron los criterios de inclusión: operados por el autor principal, mayores de 18 años, acceso intercostal y firmaron el consentimiento informado. Se excluyeron los operados por otros cirujanos o presentaron afectación de la pared torácica. La intensidad del dolor se categorizó en cuatro grupos: leve, moderado, intenso e insoportable, según escala análogo visual. Resultados: Durante la primera noche, predominaron el dolor leve (25/50 por ciento) y moderado (9/18 por ciento). El dolor intenso se presentó en dos (4 por ciento) pacientes y 14(28 por ciento) no necesitaron medicación adicional. Al día siguiente no hubo casos con dolor intenso y solo 9 acusaron dolor moderado. La analgesia peridural solo se utilizó la primera noche y al siguiente día. La tendencia a disminuir el dolor se mantuvo al segundo y tercer día. No hubo casos con dolor insoportable. A largo plazo solo un paciente presentó dolor intenso que necesitó tratamiento con bloqueos. Conclusiones: La alcoholización disminuyó el uso adicional de analgésicos. No hubo complicaciones ni dolor insoportable, por lo que consideramos que este método podría ser una alternativa segura, sobre todo cuando no se dispone de fármacos costosos o personal entrenado en las técnicas modernas de analgesia postoperatoria(AU)


Introduction: Thoracic surgery is among the most painful surgical procedures. Objective: To describe the outcomes of the alcoholization of the intercostal nerves for postoperative analgesia. Methods: A prospective, observational and descriptive study was carried out, with patients treated surgically for thoracic conditions during 2018-2019. The sample included fifty patients who met the inclusion criteria: operated by the corresponding author, older than eighteen years, intercostal access and patients who signed the informed consent. Those operated on by other surgeons or who had chest wall involvement were excluded. Pain intensity was categorized into four groups: mild, moderate, intense and unbearable, according to the analog-visual scale. Results: During the first night, mild (25: 50 percent) and moderate (9: 18 percent) pain predominated. Severe pain occurred in two (4 percent) patients, while 14 (28 percent) did not require any additional medication. The next day, there were no cases of severe pain and only nine reported moderate pain. Epidural analgesia was only used the first night and the next day. The tendency to decrease in pain was maintained on the second and third days. There were no cases with unbearable pain. In the long term, only one patient had severe pain and required, therefore, treatment with blocks. Conclusions: Alcoholization decreased the additional use of analgesics. There were no complications or unbearable pain, a reason why we consider that this method could be a safe alternative, especially when expensive drugs or personnel trained in modern postoperative analgesia techniques are not available(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Pain/drug therapy , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Thoracic Surgery/methods , Analgesia, Epidural/adverse effects , Intercostal Nerves/pathology , Pharmaceutical Preparations/administration & dosage , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prospective Studies , Observational Studies as Topic , Informed Consent
4.
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(4): 452-457, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136230

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY OBJECTIVE The aim of the current study was to compare the efficacy of two different techniques for blocking chest nerves during video-assisted thoracic surgery (VATS) under spontaneous-ventilating anesthesia. METHODS One hundred patients were recruited in this study and divided into two groups. The first, P group, underwent the TPVB approach; the second, I group, underwent the ICNB approach. Then, the rate of clinical efficacy, duration of the block procedure, and its complications were recorded for comparison of the effect of the two approaches. RESULTS No difference was found in the clinical effect of chest nerve blocks between the two groups. Two patients in the ICNB group were converted to general anesthesia due to severe mediastinal flutter (grade three). The number of patients who had grade one mediastinal flutter in the TPVB group was significantly higher than in the ICNB group. Vascular puncture was detected in four patients in the ICNB group and in one patient in the TPVB group. No other complications were observed. CONCLUSIONS No difference was found regarding the clinical efficacy in the two groups. However, ultrasound-guided TPVB was superior to ultrasound-guided ICBN during VATS for pulmonary lobectomy under spontaneous-ventilating anesthesia. Additionally, vascular puncture should receive more attention.


RESUMO OBJETIVO O objetivo do presente estudo é comparar a eficácia de duas técnicas diferentes para o bloqueio nervoso torácico durante cirurgia torácica vídeo-assistida (CTVA) e anestesia com ventilação espontânea. METODOLOGIA Cem pacientes foram incluídos no estudo e divididos em dois grupos. Em um (grupo P), foi utilizada a abordagem de BPVT e no outro (grupo I), a abordagem de BIC. Então, a taxa de eficácia clínica, duração do procedimento de bloqueio e suas complicações foram registradas para a comparação do efeito das duas abordagens. RESULTADOS Nenhuma diferença foi observada no efeito clínico do bloqueio nervoso torácico entre os dois grupos. Dois pacientes no grupo de BIC foram convertidos para anestesia geral devido a fibrilação mediastinal grave (grau três). O número de pacientes com fibrilação mediastinal de grau um no grupo de BPVT foi significativamente maior do que no grupo de BIC. Perfuração vascular foi detectada em quatro pacientes do grupo de BIC e em um do grupo de BPVT. Não foram observadas outras complicações. CONCLUSÃO Não houve diferença de eficácia clínica entre os dois grupos. No entanto, BPVT guiado por ultrassom foi superior ao BIC guiado por ultrassom durante CTVA para lobectomia pulmonar com anestesia em ventilação espontânea. Além disso, deve-se prestar mais atenção quanto à perfuração vascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ultrasonography, Interventional , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted , Nerve Block , Pain, Postoperative , Intercostal Nerves
5.
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1258698

ABSTRACT

Introduction :Trauma is one of the most common causes of death in low- and middle-income countries, with thoracic injury accounting for 20­25% of these deaths worldwide. The current management of a life-threatening pre-hospital pneumothorax is with a needle chest decompression, however, definitive care for a pneumothorax and/or haemothorax is still the insertion of an intercostal chest drain. The aim of this study was to seek expert opinion and consensus on the placement of ICDs in the pre-hospital emergency care setting in South Africa. Methods:A three-round modified Delphi study was undertaken with an expert panel drawn from local emergency care experts consisting of physicians and emergency medical service practitioners. Participants supplied opinion statements in round 1 under headings derived from common emerging themes found in the literature. During round 2 participants used a 9-point Likert scale to rate their consensus on each statement and in round 3 they were able to change their position based on the earlier panel distributions. A consensus percentage of 60% was set within a narrow margin of 'strongly agree' or 'strongly disagree'.Results : A total of 22 experts took part as panel members. There were 123 opinion statements produced from round 1, of which 21 (17%) reached consensus in round 2. At the end of round 3 another four statements reached consensus, bringing the total up to 25 (20%).Conclusio:Definitive care of a life-threating pneumothorax and/or haemothorax must be sought emergently.The insertion of an ICD, under select conditions, may be required in the pre-hospital setting in South Africa


Subject(s)
Emergency Medical Services , Intercostal Nerves , Pneumothorax , South Africa , Thoracic Injuries
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759529

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The breast is innervated by the intercostal nerves and the brachial plexus. We propose a technique to perform breast surgery without general anesthesia using the erector spinae plane (ESP) block and selective block of four nerves that arise from the brachial plexus innervate the breast and the axilla (SBP block). CASE: A 77-year-old man with breast cancer was scheduled for radical mastectomy and axillary clearance. He had a previous history of myocardial infarction with dilated cardiomyopathy and severely impaired ejection fraction. The surgery was performed under regional anesthesia with combined ESP and SBP block. The patient did not require opioids or other supplemental analgesics intra- or postoperatively and was discharged uneventfully. CONCLUSIONS: SBP is a novel block that selectively blocks branches of the brachial plexus that innervate the breast.


Subject(s)
Aged , Analgesics , Analgesics, Opioid , Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Axilla , Brachial Plexus Block , Brachial Plexus , Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Cardiomyopathy, Dilated , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Mastectomy, Radical , Myocardial Infarction
7.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762249

ABSTRACT

Intercostal neuralgia is neuropathic pain that develops in the thorax and abdomen. It usually occurs as a result of injury or inflammation associated with the intercostal nerve triggered by trauma, surgery, or herpes zoster. Primary intercostal neuroma is a rare cause of intercostal neuralgia. A 69-year-old male patient without a history of thoracic trauma or surgery underwent repeated testing and intermittent treatment for refractory pain in the right chest and abdomen for several years. However, the treatment had limited effect. Abdominal computed tomography performed to diagnose recent pain aggravation revealed schwannoma of the 11th intercostal nerve. The patient's pain was relieved following surgical excision of the tumor.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Aged , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Inflammation , Intercostal Nerves , Male , Neuralgia , Neurilemmoma , Neuroma , Pain, Intractable , Thorax
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report our surgical technique for nonintubated uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) pulmonary resection and early postoperative outcomes at a single center. METHODS: Between January and July 2017, 40 consecutive patients underwent nonintubated uniportal VATS pulmonary resection. Multilevel intercostal nerve block was performed using local anesthesia in all patients, and an intrathoracic vagal blockade was performed in 35 patients (87.5%). RESULTS: Twenty-nine procedures (72.5%) were performed in patients with lung cancer (21 lobectomies, 6 segmentectomies, and 2 wedge resections), and 11 (27.5%) in patients with pulmonary metastases, benign lung disease, or pleural disease. The mean anesthesia time was 166.8 minutes, and the mean operative duration was 125.9 minutes. The mean postoperative chest tube duration was 3.2 days, and the mean hospital stay was 5.8 days. There were 3 conversions (7.5%) to intubation due to intraoperative hypoxemia and 1 conversion (2.5%) to multiportal VATS due to injury of the segmental artery. There were 7 complications (17.5%), including 3 cases of prolonged air leak, 2 cases of chylothorax, 1 case of pleural effusion, and 1 case of pneumonia. There was no in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Nonintubated uniportal VATS appears to be a feasible and valid surgical option, depending on the surgeon’s experience, for appropriately selected patients.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Hypoxia , Arteries , Chest Tubes , Chylothorax , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Intubation , Ion Transport , Length of Stay , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Mastectomy, Segmental , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pleural Diseases , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
9.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(6): 555-564, Nov.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897782

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background Oral opioid analgesics have been used for management of peri- and postoperative analgesia in patients undergoing axillary dissection. The axillary region is a difficult zone to block and does not have a specific regional anesthesia technique published that offers its adequate blockade. Methods After institutional review board approval, anatomic and radiological studies were conducted to determine the deposition and spread of methylene blue and local anesthetic injected respectively into the axilla via the thoracic inter-fascial plane. Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies were then conducted in 15 of 34 patients scheduled for unilateral breast surgery that entailed any of the following: axillary clearance, sentinel node biopsy, axillary node biopsy, or supernumerary breasts, to ascertain the deposition and time course of spread of solution within the thoracic interfascial plane in vivo. Results Radiological and cadaveric studies showed that the injection of local anesthetic and methylene blue via the thoracic inter-fascial plane, using ultrasound guide technique, results in reliable deposition into the axilla. In patients, the injection of the local anesthetic produced a reliable axillary sensory block. This finding was supported by Magnetic Resonance Imaging studies that showed hyper-intense signals in the axillary region. Conclusions These findings define the anatomic characteristics of the thoracic interfascial plane nerve block in the axillary region, and underline the clinical potential of this novel nerve block.


Resumo Justificativa Os analgésicos orais à base de opioides têm sido usados para o manejo da analgesia nos períodos peri e pós-operatório de pacientes submetidos à linfadenectomia axilar. A região axilar é uma zona difícil de bloquear e não há registro de uma técnica de anestesia regional específica que ofereça o seu bloqueio adequado. Métodos Após a aprovação do Conselho de Ética institucional, estudos anatômicos e radiológicos foram feitos para determinar a deposição e disseminação de azul de metileno e anestésico local, respectivamente injetados na axila via plano interfascial torácico. Exames de ressonância magnética foram então feitos em 15 de 34 pacientes programados para cirurgia de mama unilateral que envolveria qualquer um dos seguintes procedimentos: esvaziamento axilar, biópsia de linfonodo sentinela, biópsia de linfonodo axilar ou mamas supranumerárias, para verificar a deposição e o tempo de propagação da solução dentro do plano interfascial torácico in vivo. Resultados Estudos radiológicos e em cadáveres mostraram que a injeção de anestésico local e azul de metileno via plano interfascial torácico com a técnica guiada por ultrassom resulta em deposição confiável na axila. Nos pacientes, a injeção de anestésico local produziu um bloqueio sensitivo axilar confiável. Esse achado foi corroborado por estudos de ressonância magnética que mostraram sinais hiperintensos na região axilar. Conclusões Esses achados definem as características anatômicas do bloqueio da região axilar e destacam o potencial clínico desses novos bloqueios.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/pharmacokinetics , Nerve Block/methods , Axilla , Cadaver , Intercostal Muscles/diagnostic imaging , Ultrasonography , Intercostal Nerves/diagnostic imaging , Middle Aged
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(11): 796-800, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888274

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Restoration of the sensitivity to sensory stimuli in complete brachial plexus injury is very important. The objective of our study was to evaluate sensory recovery in brachial plexus surgery using the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) as the donor. Methods: Eleven patients underwent sensory reconstruction using the ICBN as a donor to the lateral cord contribution to the median nerve, with a mean follow-up period of 41 months. A protocol evaluation was performed. Results: Four patients perceived the 1-green filament. The 2-blue, 3-purple and 4-red filaments were perceptible in one, two and three patients, respectively. According to Highet's scale, sensation recovered to S3 in two patients, to S2+ in two patients, to S2 in six patients, and S0 in one patient. Conclusion: The procedure using the ICBN as a sensory donor restores good intensity of sensation and shows good results in location of perception in patients with complete brachial plexus avulsion.


RESUMO Objetivo: A restauração da sensibilidade em pacientes com lesão completa do plexo braquial é muito importante. O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar a recuperação sensitiva em cirurgia do plexo braquial utilizando o nervo intercostobraquial (NICB) como doador. Métodos: Onze pacientes foram submetidos a reconstrução sensitiva usando o NICB como doador para a contribuição lateral do nervo mediano, com tempo de acompanhamento pós-operatório médio de 41 meses. Um protocolo de avaliação foi realizado. Resultados: Quatro pacientes perceberam o filamento 1-verde. Os filamentos 2-azul, 3-roxo e 4-vermelho foram percebidos por um, dois e três pacientes, respectivamente. Um paciente não apresentou recuperação sensitiva. Dois pacientes obtiveram recuperação S3, dois S2+, seis S2 e um S0, pela escala de Highet. Conclusão: O procedimento usando o NICB como doador promove boa intensidade de recuperação sensitiva e bons resultados são obtidos quanto ao local de percepção em pacientes com avulsão completa do plexo braquial.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Nerve Transfer/methods , Hand/surgery , Intercostal Nerves/transplantation , Prospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Treatment Outcome , Recovery of Function , Hand/physiology , Nerve Regeneration
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(7): 439-445, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888293

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Few donors are available for restoration of sensibility in patients with complete brachial plexus injuries. The objective of our study was to evaluate the anatomical feasibility of using the intercostobrachial nerve (ICBN) as an axon donor to the lateral cord contribution to the median nerve (LCMN). Methods Thirty cadavers were dissected. Data of the ICBN and the LCMN were collected, including diameters, branches and distances. Results The diameters of the ICBN and the LCMN at their point of coaptation were 2.7mm and 3.7mm, respectively. The ICBN originated as a single trunk in 93.3% of the specimens and bifurcated in 73.3%. The distance between the ICBN origin and its point of coaptation to the LCMN was 54mm. All ICBNs had enough extension to reach the LCMN. Conclusion Transfer of the ICBN to the LCMN is anatomically feasible and may be useful for restoring sensation in patients with complete brachial plexus injuries.


RESUMO Objetivo Poucos doadores estão disponíveis para a restauração da sensibilidade em pacientes com lesões completas do plexo braquial (LCPB). O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a viabilidade anatômica do uso do nervo intercostobraquial (NICB) como doador de axônios para a contribuição do cordão lateral para o nervo mediano (CLNM). Métodos Trinta cadáveres foram dissecados. Os dados do NICB e do CLNM foram coletados: diâmetros, ramos e distâncias. Resultados Os diâmetros do NICB e da CLNM no ponto de coaptação foram 2,7mm e 3,7mm, respectivamente. O NICB originou-se como um único tronco em 93,3% dos espécimes e bifurcou-se em 73,3%. A distância entre a origem do NICB e seu ponto de coaptação com a CLNM foi de 54mm. Todos os NICBs tiveram extensão suficiente para alcançar a CLNM. Conclusão A transferência do NICB para a CLNM é anatomicamente viável e pode ser útil para restaurar a sensibilidade em pacientes com LCPB.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Brachial Plexus/injuries , Nerve Transfer/methods , Intercostal Nerves/transplantation , Sensation , Brachial Plexus/surgery , Cadaver , Feasibility Studies , Intercostal Nerves/anatomy & histology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-16110

ABSTRACT

Although the sternalis muscle has been well known to anatomists, it is quite unfamiliar to clinicians. During routine educational dissection, we came across a well-defined bilateral double sternalis muscle innervated by the intercostal nerve, respectively. The right sternalis muscle 1) became tendinous to insert into the sternum and 2) crossed midline and then intermingled with the left pectoralis major muscle, which could be classified into a double with single cross based on Snosek et al.'s criteria. The left sternalis muscle was composed of two bellies, which were combined at the midway, and became tendinous to insert into the contralateral manubrium, which could be classified into a bicipital diverging with double cross based on Snosek et al.'s criteria. The detailed knowledge on the sternalisis is important for clinicians as well as for anatomists, since the clinical importance of the sternalis muscle has been highlighted in recent years.


Subject(s)
Anatomists , Cadaver , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Manubrium , Sternum
13.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-908135

ABSTRACT

Introducción: la finalidad es ponderar el conocimiento anatómico indispensable de la pared torácica para la recolección segura de cartílago costal en rinoplastia. Materiales y métodos: Se dividió en dos fases. Esta presentación corresponde a la Fase I, de tipo descriptiva observacional. La Fase II (actualmente en curso) tiene un diseño prospectivo y experimental para una futura presentación. Primera instancia: recolección de información bibliográfica, de no más de 5 años de antigüedad en bases de datos médicos y textos específicos. Segunda instancia: representación del acto quirúrgico en 3 especímenes cadavéricos humanos. En cada espécimen se realizaron 4 abordajes (2 submamarios y 2 subcostales inferiores) se hizo hincapié en la descripción de aquellas estructuras anatómicas importantes para respetar en el abordaje de la pared torácica. Resultados: Fue posible recrear las diferentes técnicas de abordaje de la pared costal. Se pudo constatar que la ubicación del paquete vasculonervioso dentro del surco costal fue constante inter especímenes e intra espécimen. La relación entre el pericondrio interno, la fascia endotorácica y la hoja parietal de la pleura resultó ser un sistema fibroadhesivo complejo y variable. Coincidimos con la bibliografía acerca de que la técnica se dificulta cuando se realiza la recolección a nivel costal más proximal. Conclusiones: Creemos que el conocimiento de la anatomía torácica es indispensable para realizar una correcta técnica de disección y posterior recolección de cartílago costal; esto disminuiría las complicaciones y la morbilidad en el sitio dador. El neumotórax y el dolor neuropático provienen del daño de estructuras anatómicas constantes.


Introduction: the purpose is to weight the anatomical knowl edge essential to the chestwall for the safe collection of costal cartilage in rhinoplasty. Materials and methods: It is divided in to two phases. This presentation corresponds to Phase I, of an observational descriptive type. Phase II (currently underway) has a prospective and experimental design for future presentation. First instance: collection of bibliographic information, not more than 5 years old in medical databases and specific texts. Second instance: representation of the surgical act in 3 human cadaveric specimens. In each specimen, 4 approaches (2 sub mamarios and 2 lower subcostals) were performed, emphasizing the description of those anatomical structures important to respect in the thoracic wall approach. Results: It was possible to recreate the different techniques of approaching the costal wall. It was observed that the location of the vasculo nervioso package with in the costal groove was constant between specimens and intra specimen. The relationship between the internal perichondrium, the endothoracic fascia and the parietal leaf of the pleura turned out to be a complex and variable fibro adhesive system. We agree with the bibliography that the technique is difficult twhen the collection is carried out at the most proximal costal level. Conclusions: We believe that knowl edge of the thoracic anatomy is essential to perform a correct technique of dissection and later collection of costal cartilage, this would reduce complications and morbidity in the donor site. Pneumothorax and neuropathic painarise from the damage of constant anatomical structures.


Introdução: o objetivo é avaliar o conhecimento anatômico essencial da parede torácica para a recolha de cartilagem costal em rinoplastia. Materiais e métodos: dividido em duas fases. Esta apresentação corresponde à Fase I, observacional descritivo. Fase II (em curso) tem um desenho prospectivo e experimental para uma apresentação futuro. Primeira instância: recolha de informação bibliográfica, não mais de 5 anos de idade em bancos de dados médicos e textos específicos. Segunda instância: a representação da cirurgia em 3 espécimes de cadá- veres humanos. Em cada espécime 4 abordagens (2 submamária e 2 inferior subcostal) enfatizou a descrição dessas estruturas anatômicas importantes a respeitar no tratamento da parede torácica foram realizadas. Resultados: Foi possível recriar as diferentes técnicas de abordagem parede torácica. Verificou-se que a localização do feixe neurovascular no sulco costal foi constante espécimes inter e intra espécime. A relação entre o pericôndrio interno, a fáscia e a folha intratorácica pleura parietal provou ser um sistema de fibro adhesive complexa e variável. Estamos de acordó com a literatura que a técnica é difícil quando a coleção é composta nível costal mais proximal. Conclusão: Acreditamos que o conhecimento da anatomia torácica é essencial para uma correta técnica de dissecção e subsequenterecolha de cartilagem costal, este iria diminuir as complicações e morbidade no sítiodoador. Pneumotórax e dorneuropática vem de danos causados por estrutura sanatômicas constantes.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Humans , Costal Cartilage/anatomy & histology , Costal Cartilage/surgery , Costal Cartilage/transplantation , Autografts/physiopathology , Intercostal Nerves/anatomy & histology , Postoperative Complications , Pneumothorax/prevention & control , Rhinoplasty , Transplantation, Autologous
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132563

ABSTRACT

Regional anesthesia for non-obstetric surgery in parturients is a method to decrease patient and fetal risk during general anesthesia. Thoracic interfascial nerve block can be used as an analgesic technique for surgical procedures of the thorax. The Pecs II block is an interfascial block that targets not only the medial and lateral pectoral nerves, but also the lateral cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve. Pecto-intercostal fascial block (PIFB) targets the anterior cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve. The authors successfully performed a modified Pecs II block and PIFB without complications in a parturient who refused general anesthesia for breast surgery.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Breast , Female , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Methods , Nerve Block , Pregnant Women , Thoracic Nerves , Thorax
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-132558

ABSTRACT

Regional anesthesia for non-obstetric surgery in parturients is a method to decrease patient and fetal risk during general anesthesia. Thoracic interfascial nerve block can be used as an analgesic technique for surgical procedures of the thorax. The Pecs II block is an interfascial block that targets not only the medial and lateral pectoral nerves, but also the lateral cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve. Pecto-intercostal fascial block (PIFB) targets the anterior cutaneous branch of the intercostal nerve. The authors successfully performed a modified Pecs II block and PIFB without complications in a parturient who refused general anesthesia for breast surgery.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Conduction , Anesthesia, General , Breast , Female , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Methods , Nerve Block , Pregnant Women , Thoracic Nerves , Thorax
16.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 66(5): 475-484, Sept.-Oct. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-794815

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Several locoregional techniques have been described for the management of acute and chronic pain after breast surgery. The optimal technique should be easy to perform, reproducible, with little discomfort to the patient, little complications, allowing good control of acute pain and a decreased incidence of chronic pain, namely intercostobrachial neuralgia for being the most frequent entity. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the paravertebral block with preoperative single needle prick for major breast surgery and assess initially the control of postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) and acute pain in the first 24 h and secondly the incidence of neuropathic pain in the intercostobrachial nerve region six months after surgery. Methods: The study included 80 female patients, ASA I-II, aged 18-70 years, undergoing major breast surgery, under general anesthesia, stratified into 2 groups: general anesthesia (inhalation anesthesia with opioids, according to hemodynamic response) and paravertebral (paravertebral block with single needle prick in T4 with 0.5% ropivacaine + adrenaline 3 µg mL−1 with a volume of 0.3 mL kg−1 preoperatively and subsequent induction and maintenance with general inhalational anesthesia). In the early postoperative period, patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) was placed with morphine set for bolus on demand for 24 h. Intraoperative fentanyl, postoperative morphine consumption, technique-related complications, pain at rest and during movement were recorded at 0 h, 1 h, 6 h and 24 h, as well as episodes of PONV. All variables identified as factors contributing to pain chronicity age, type of surgery, anxiety according to the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS), preoperative pain, monitoring at home; body mass index (BMI) and adjuvant chemotherapy/radiation therapy were analyzed, checking the homogeneity of the samples. Six months after surgery, the incidence of neuropathic pain in the intercostobrachial nerve was assessed using the DN4 scale. Results: The Visual Analog Scale (VAS) values of paravertebral group at rest were lower throughout the 24 h of study 0 h 1.90 (±2.59) versus 0.88 (±1.5) 1 h 2.23 (±2.2) versus 1.53 (±1.8) 6 h 1.15 (±1.3) versus 0.35 (±0.8); 24 h 0.55 (±0.9) versus 0.25 (±0.8) with statistical significance at 0 h and 6 h. Regarding movement, paravertebral group had VAS values lower and statistically significant in all four time points: 0 h 2.95 (±3.1) versus 1.55 (±2.1); 1 h 3.90 (±2.7) versus 2.43 (±1.9) 6 h 2.75 (±2.2) versus 1.68 (±1.5); 24 h 2.43 (±2.4) versus 1.00 (±1.4). The paravertebral group consumed less postoperative fentanyl (2.38 ± 0.81 µg kg−1 versus 3.51 ± 0.81 µg kg−1) and morphine (3.5 mg ± 3.4 versus 7 mg ± 6.4) with statistically significant difference. Chronic pain evaluation of at 6 months of paravertebral group found fewer cases of neuropathic pain in the intercostobrachial nerve region (3 cases versus 7 cases), although not statistically significant. Conclusions: Single-injection paravertebral block allows proper control of acute pain with less intraoperative and postoperative consumption of opioids but apparently it cannot prevent pain chronicity. Further studies are needed to clarify the role of paravertebral block in pain chronicity in major breast surgery.


Resumo Justificativa: Estão descritas várias técnicas locorregionais para a abordagem da dor aguda e dor crônica após cirurgia de mama. O ideal seria uma técnica fácil de fazer, reprodutível, com pouco desconforto para as doentes, com poucas complicações e que permitirá um bom controle da dor aguda e uma diminuição da incidência de dor crônica, notadamente dor neuropática do intercostobraquial, por ser a entidade mais frequente. Objetivos: Estudar a aplicação de bloqueio paravertebral com picada única no pré-operatório de cirurgia mamária de grande porte. Avaliar numa primeira fase o controle de dor aguda e náuseas-vômitos no pós-operatório (NVPO) nas primeiras 24 horas e numa segunda fase a incidência de dor neuropática na região do nervo intercostobraquial seis meses após a cirurgia. Métodos: Foram incluídas 80 doentes do sexo feminino, ASA I-II, entre 18 e 70 anos, submetidas a cirurgia mamária de grande porte sob anestesia geral, estratificadas em dois grupos: anestesia geral (anestesia geral inalatória com opioides segundo resposta hemodinâmica) e paravertebral (bloqueio paravertebral com picada única em T4 com ropivacaína 0,5% + adrenalina 3 µg/mL com um volume de 0,3 mL/kg pré-operatoriamente e posterior indução e manutenção com anestesia geral inalatória). No pós-operatório imediato foi colocada PCA (Patient-controlled analgesia) de morfina programada com bolus a demanda durante 24 horas. Foram registados fentanil intraoperatório, consumo de morfina pós-operatória, complicações relacionadas com as técnicas, dor em repouso e ao movimento a 0, 1 h, 6 h e 24 h, assim como os episódios de NVPO. Foram analisadas todas as variáveis identificadas como fatores de cronificação da dor idade, tipo de cirurgia, ansiedade segundo escala de HADS (Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale), dor pré-operatória; acompanhamento no domicílio; índice de massa corporal (IMC), tratamentos adjuvantes de quimioterapia/radioterapia e foi verificada a homogeneidade das amostras. Aos seis meses da cirurgia foi avaliada, segundo escala DN4, a incidência de dor neuropática na área do nervo intercostobraquial. Resultados: O grupo paravertebral teve valores de VAS (Escala Visual Analógica) em repouso mais baixos ao longo das 24 horas de estudo 0 h 1,90 (± 2,59) versus 0,88 (± 1,5); 1 h 2,23 (± 2,2) versus 1,53 (± 1,8); 6 h 1,15 (± 1,3) versus 0,35 (± 0,8); 24 h 0,55 (± 0,9) versus 0,25 (± 0,8) com significado estatístico às 0 e às 6 horas. Em relação ao movimento o grupo paravertebral teve valores de VAS mais baixos e com significância estatística nos quatro momentos de avaliação: 0 h 2,95 (± 3,1) versus 1,55 (± 2,1); 1 h 3,90 (± 2,7) versus 2,43 (± 1,9) 6 h 2,75 (± 2,2) versus 1,68 (± 1,5); 24 h 2,43 (± 2,4) versus 1,00 (± 1,4). O grupo paravertebral consumiu menos fentanil (2,38 ± 0,81 µg/Kg versus 3,51 ± 0,81 µg/Kg) e menos morfina no pós-operatório (3,5 mg ± 3,4 versus 7 mg ± 6,4), com diferença estatisticamente significativa. Na avaliação de dor crônica aos seis meses no grupo paravertebral houve menos casos de dor neuropática na região do nervo intercostobraquial (três versus sete) embora sem significância estatística. Conclusões: O bloqueio paravertebral com picada única permite um adequado controle da dor aguda com menor consumo de opioides intraopreatórios e pós-operatórios, mas aparentemente não consegue evitar a cronificação da dor. Mais estudos são necessários para esclarecer o papel do bloqueio paravertebral na cronificação da dor em cirurgia mamária de grande porte.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Brachial Plexus , Breast/surgery , Pain Management/methods , Intercostal Nerves , Nerve Block , Neuralgia/drug therapy , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Postoperative Nausea and Vomiting/drug therapy , Anesthesia, General , Middle Aged , Neuralgia/etiology
17.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 185-188, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-125485

ABSTRACT

The 12th rib syndrome is a disease that causes pain between the upper abdomen and the lower chest. It is assumed that the impinging on the nerves between the ribs causes pain in the lower chest, upper abdomen, and flank. A 74-year-old female patient visited a pain clinic complaining of pain in her back, and left chest wall at a 7 on the 0-10 Numeric Rating scale (NRS). She had a lateral fixation at T12-L2, 6 years earlier. After the operation, she had multiple osteoporotic compression fractures. When the spine was bent, the patient complained about a sharp pain in the left mid-axillary line and radiating pain toward the abdomen. On physical examination, the 10th rib was not felt, and an image of the rib-cage confirmed that the left 10th rib was severed. When applying pressure from the legs to the 9th rib of the patient, pain was reproduced. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with 9th rib syndrome, and ultrasound-guided 9th and 10th intercostal nerve blocks were performed around the tips of the severed 10th rib. In addition, local anesthetics with triamcinolone were administered into the muscles beneath the 9th rib at the point of the greatest tenderness. The patient's pain was reduced to NRS 2 point. In this case, it is suspected that the patient had a partial resection of the left 10th rib in the past, and subsequent compression fractures at T8 and T9 led to the deformation of the rib cage, causing the tip of the remaining 10th rib to impinge on the 9th intercostal nerves, causing pain.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Abdominal Pain , Aged , Anesthetics, Local , Female , Fractures, Compression , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Leg , Muscles , Neuralgia , Pain Clinics , Physical Examination , Ribs , Spine , Thoracic Wall , Thorax , Triamcinolone
19.
The Korean Journal of Pain ; : 148-152, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-88452

ABSTRACT

The goal of cancer treatment is generally pain reduction and function recovery. However, drug therapy does not treat pain adequately in approximately 43% of patients, and the latter may have to undergo a nerve block or neurolysis. In the case reported here, a 42-year-old female patient with lung cancer (adenocarcinoma) developed paraplegia after receiving T8-10 and 11th intercostal nerve neurolysis and T9-10 interlaminar epidural steroid injections. An MRI results revealed extensive swelling of the spinal cord between the T4 spinal cord and conus medullaris, and T5, 7-11, and L1 bone metastasis. Although steroid therapy was administered, the paraplegia did not improve.


Subject(s)
Adult , Conus Snail , Drug Therapy , Female , Humans , Injections, Epidural , Intercostal Nerves , Lung Neoplasms , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Neoplasm Metastasis , Nerve Block , Paraplegia , Recovery of Function , Spinal Cord
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