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1.
An. bras. dermatol ; 93(6): 829-835, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973620

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Background: Allergic contact dermatitis to ion nickel (Ni+2) is an inflammatory dermatosis, common in industrialized countries. It involves the activation of nickel-specific T-cells, followed by proliferation and induction of a mixed profile of both proinflammatory and regulatory cytokines, suggesting that several T-cell subtypes (helper - Th and cytotoxic - Tc) are involved. A broader understanding of the cytokine profile may lead to new therapeutic approaches. Objectives: This study aimed to analyze the cytokines TNF-α, INF-γ, IL-2, IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, IL-17 and IL-23 using the immunohistochemistry technique in order to try to identify their prevalence in chronic and acute eczema of patients with allergic contact dermatitis to Ni+2. Methods: We performed an immunohistochemical study for eight cytokines in 20 patients with Ni+2 allergic contact dermatitis, biopsied at the site of chronic eczema, triggered by the patient's daily contact with Ni+2, and at the site of acute eczema caused by nickel sulfate, 48 hours after applying the contact test. Results: The stained samples showed positive results for the eight cytokines studied. TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, IL-13 and IL-17 had a higher prevalence in chronic eczema, IL-2 and IL-23 in acute eczema, and IL-10 presented a similar prevalence in both acute and chronic eczema. However, these prevalences were statistically significant only for IL-4 and IL-13. Study Limitations: Small sample size. Conclusions: In chronic and acute eczema, we observed the presence of a mixed cytokine profile of the T cell subtypes (Th/Tc), suggesting that the responses are expressed at the same time.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Cytokines/analysis , Interleukins/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/immunology , Nickel/adverse effects , Biopsy , Immunohistochemistry , Acute Disease , Chronic Disease , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/etiology , Dermatitis, Allergic Contact/pathology , Nickel/immunology
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(1): 129-132, Jan. 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-895546

ABSTRACT

As leishmanioses compreendem um complexo de doenças causadas por parasitos intracelulares obrigatórios pertencentes ao gênero Leishmania. Consideradas como importante problema de saúde pública, sendo os cães domésticos os principais responsáveis pela manutenção da cadeia epidemiológica da doença, estima-se que mais da metade dos cães infectados não manifestam sinais clínicos da enfermidade. Avaliou-se o perfil de IL-10 e INF- γ de cães naturalmente infectados com Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi no município de São Luís-MA. Foram coletadas 50 amostras, sendo 20 de animais positivos e sintomáticos para Leishmaniose Visceral Canina (LVC), 20 de animais positivos e assintomáticos e 10 de animais sabidamente negativos para a LVC. As amostras foram analisadas pelo teste imunocromatográfico rápido Dual Path Platform (DPP/Biomanguinhos®) e pelo ELISA (EIE/Biomanguinhos®) indireto para detecção de anticorpos anti-Leishmania. Após as confirmações dos testes, foi realizado o ELISA de captura para quantificação das citocinas IL-10 e INF-γ através do kit Milliplex MAP. Houve diferença estatística entre os grupos, observando um aumento de IL-10 em soros de cães sintomáticos para LVC, comparado com o grupo de animais assintomáticos, sugerindo que animais com essa expressão de IL-10 podem estar associados à susceptibilidade a doença. Assim como o aumento dos níveis de INF-γ observados em cães assintomáticos, comparado com o grupo de cães sintomáticos, poderiam estar relacionados à cronicidade da doença.(AU)


Leishmaniasis comprise a complex of diseases caused by intracellular mandatory parasites belonging to the genus Leishmania. Considered as an important public health problem, and domestic dogs are primarily responsible for maintaining the epidemiological chain of the disease, it is estimated that more than the half of the dogs infected do not show clinical signs of the disease. The profile of IL-10 and IFN-γ dogs naturally infected with Leishmania (Leishmania) chagasi in São Luís/MA was evaluated. Blood samples were collected from 50 animals, 20 from positive and symptomatic dogs for leishmaniasis canine (CVL), 20 from positive asymptomatic animals and 10 negative. Samples were analyzed by immunochromatographic test Dual Path Platform (DPP/Biomanguinhos®) and by indirect ELISA (EIE/Biomanguinhos®) for detection of anti-Leishmania antibodies. After the confirmation of the tests, the capture ELISA was performed for quantification of IL-10 and IFN-γ cytokines through the Milliplex MAP kit. There was a statistical difference between the groups, observing an increase of IL-10 in blood of symptomatic dogs for CVL, compared to the group of asymptomatic animals, suggesting that animals with this expression of IL-10 may be associated with susceptibility to disease. As well as the increase in IFN-γ levels in asymptomatic dogs, compared to the symptomatic dog group, could be related to chronicity of the disease.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Leishmania infantum/immunology , Immunity
3.
J. appl. oral sci ; 26: e20170291, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954515

ABSTRACT

Abstract Chronic periodontitis (CP) is characterized by gingival inflammation and bone destruction. It has been reported that interferon-gamma (IFN-γ) levels are high in CP patients; however, the IFN-γ receptor (IFN-γR) has not been studied in gingival tissue from these patients. Objective: To evaluate IFN-γ levels and IFN-γR expression in gingival tissue biopsies from chronic periodontitis patients compared with healthy subjects (HS). Material and Methods: Gingival tissues were obtained from all study subjects, CP (n = 18) and healthy subjects (HS) (n = 12). A tissue section of each study subject was embedded in paraffin blocks to determine the expression of IFN-γ R (IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2) through immunohistochemistry. Another section of the tissue was homogenized and IFN-γ was measured by the ELISA technique. Results: No significant differences were found in the IFN-γR1 expression within the cell layers of the gingival tissue of the study groups. When analyzing the IFN-γR2 expression it was found that IFN-γR2 is strongly expressed in the endothelial cells of CP patients when compared to HS (p<0.05). IFN-γ concentrations in the gingival tissue were significantly higher in CP patients than in HS. No significant correlation between IFN-γ levels and the expression of IFN-γR1 and IFN-γR2 was found. However, a positive correlation between IFN-γ levels and clinical parameters [probing depth (PD) and clinical attachment level (CAL)] was found. Conclusion: The study of IFN-γR expression in gingival tissue samples from patients with CP showed an increase only in the IFN-γR2 chain in endothelial cells when compared to HS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Receptors, Interferon/analysis , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Chronic Periodontitis/pathology , Gingiva/pathology , Reference Values , Biopsy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunohistochemistry , Case-Control Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Middle Aged
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 112(8): 561-568, Aug. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894865

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) caused by Leishmania infantum is characterised by the loss of the ability of the host to generate an effective immune response. Chemokines have a direct involvement in the pathogenesis of leishmaniasis, causing a rapid change in the expression of these molecules during infection by Leishmania. OBJECTIVES Herein, it was investigated the role of CXCL10 in controlling infection by L. infantum. METHODS RAW 264.7 macrophages were infected with L. infantum in vitro and treated or not with CXCL10 (25, 50 and 100 ng/mL). Parasite load, as well as nitric oxide (NO), IL-4 and IL-10 production were assessed at 24 and 48 h after infection. In vivo, BALB/c mice were infected and treated or not with CXCL10 (5 μg/kg) at one, three and seven days of infection. Parasite load, IFN-g, IL-4, TGF-β and IL-10 were evaluated one, seven and 23 days post treatment. FINDINGS In vitro, CXCL10 reduced parasitic load, not dependent on NO, and inhibited IL-10 and IL-4 secretion. In vivo, CXCL10 was able to reduce the parasite load in both liver and spleen, four weeks after infection, representing a higher decrease in the number of parasites in these organs, also induced IFN-γ at day 23 after treatment, correlating with the decrease in parasite load, and reduced IL-10 and TGF-β. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study suggests a partial protective role of CXCL10 against L. infantum, mediated by IFN-g, not dependent on NO, and with suppression of IL-10 and TGF-β. These data may provide information for the development of new approaches for future therapeutic interventions for VL.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Organ Size/physiology , Interleukin-4/biosynthesis , Interleukin-10/biosynthesis , Leishmania infantum , Chemokine CXCL10/therapeutic use , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/drug therapy , Liver/pathology , Macrophages/drug effects , Cytokines/immunology , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Mice, Inbred BALB C
5.
Braz. oral res. (Online) ; 31: e75, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952120

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to characterize the dynamics of suppressor of cytokine signaling (SOCS1) expression in a rat model of lipopolysaccharide-induced periodontitis. Wistar rats in the experimental groups were injected three times/week with LPS from Escherichia coli on the palatal aspect of the first molars, and control animals were injected with vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline). Animals were sacrificed 7, 15, and 30 days after the first injection to analyze inflammation (stereometric analysis), bone loss (macroscopic analysis), gene expression (qRT-PCR), and protein expression/activation (Western blotting). The severity of inflammation and bone loss associated with LPS-induced periodontitis increased from day 7 to day 15, and it was sustained through day 30. Significant (p < 0.05) increases in SOCS1, RANKL, OPG, and IFN-γ gene expression were observed in the experimental group versus the control group at day 15. SOCS1 protein expression and STAT1 and NF-κB activation were increased throughout the 30-day experimental period. Gingival tissues affected by experimental periodontitis express SOCS1, indicating that this protein may potentially downregulate signaling events involved in inflammatory reactions and bone loss and thus may play a relevant role in the development and progression of periodontal disease.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Periodontitis/pathology , Alveolar Bone Loss/pathology , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 1 Protein/analysis , Periodontitis/etiology , Periodontitis/metabolism , Time Factors , Immunohistochemistry , Random Allocation , Lipopolysaccharides , Blotting, Western , Alveolar Bone Loss/etiology , Alveolar Bone Loss/metabolism , NF-kappa B/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , STAT1 Transcription Factor/analysis , RANK Ligand/analysis
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 43-50, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-65064

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To identify new immunogenic HLA-A*33;03-restricted epitopes from the human papillomavirus (HPV) 16 E7 protein for immunotherapy against cervical cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We synthesized fourteen overlapping 15-amino acid peptides and measured intracellular interferon-γ (IFN-γ) production in PBMC and CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) after sensitization with these peptides using flow cytometry and ELISpot assay. The immunogenicity of epitopes was verified using a ⁵¹Cr release assay with SNU1299 cells. RESULTS: Among the fourteen 15-amino acid peptides, E7₄₉₋₆₃ (RAHYNIVTFCCKCDS) demonstrated the highest IFN-γ production from peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs), and CD8+ CTLs sensitized with E7₄₉₋₆₃ showed higher cytotoxic effect against SNU1299 cells than did CD8+ CTLs sensitized with other peptides or a negative control group. Thirteen 9- or 10-amino acid overlapping peptides spanning E7₄₉₋₆₃, E7₅₀₋₅₉ (AHYNIVTFCC), and E7₅₂₋₆₁ (YNIVTFCCKC) induced significantly higher IFN-γ production and cytotoxic effects against SNU1299 cells than the other peptides and negative controls, and the cytotoxicity of E7₅₀₋₅₉- and E7₅₂₋₆₁-sensitized PBMCs was induced via the cytolytic effect of CD8+ CTLs. CONCLUSION: We identified E7₅₀₋₅₉ and E7₅₂₋₆₁ as novel HPV 16 E7 epitopes for HLA-A*33;03. CD8+ CTL sensitized with these peptides result in an antitumor effect against cervical cancer cells. These epitopes could be useful for immune monitoring and immunotherapy for cervical cancer and HPV 16-related diseases including anal cancer and oropharyngeal cancer.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes/immunology , Female , HLA-A Antigens , Human papillomavirus 16/immunology , Humans , Immunotherapy , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Cytotoxic/immunology , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/therapy
7.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 36(4): 345-350, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-787571

ABSTRACT

A gestação é um estado fisiológico que exige adaptações imunológicas para que transcorra normalmente. Nesse período a mãe e o feto apresentam uma relação imunológica, ou seja, a interface materno fetal. A enzima indoleamina 2,3 dioxigenase (IDO) desempenha um papel importante na tolerância materno fetal, por ser responsável pela metabolização do triptofano, impedindo por diversas vias a proliferação principalmente de linfócitos TCD8. Diversos tipos celulares estão presentes na interface materno fetal e vários deles podem expressar a IDO. Os leucócitos com perfil Th1 produzem uma citocina conhecida: o interferon γ que estimula a expressão da IDO em vários tipos celulares. Os linfócitos são divididos em subpopulações de acordo com sua função e fenótipo. Seus tipos incluem linfócitos T, linfócitos B e as células natural killer (NK). Hormônios também atuam nesse processo a progesterona que exerce função determinante sobre a resposta imunológica materna podendo alterar o prognóstico gestacional e o estrógeno essencial para a tolerância materno fetal e manutenção da prenhez. Dessa maneira este trabalho tem por objetivo principal identificar os linfócitos presentes na placenta bovina em cultivo que expressam IDO (linfócitos T, linfócitos B e células NK), frente a estimulação por progesterona, estrógeno e interferon γ nas diversas fases gestacionais utilizando a citometria de fluxo. Segundo os resultados no período de 67,5 a 77, 5 dias com a adição de interferon γ a expressão da enzima IDO aumentou discretamente nos linfócitos TCD3, TCD4, e diferente dos linfócitos T CD8 apresentaram uma elevada expressão da enzima (4,48 ± 2,12 - 8,65± 4,91)....


Pregnancy is a physiological state that requires immune adaptation in order to be successfully carried on. During this period, mother and fetus establish an immune tolerance status at the maternal fetal interface. Indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase (IDO) plays an important role in maternal-fetal tolerance by metabolizing tryptophan, impairs by several pathways, mainly T CD8 cells proliferation. Several cell types are present in the maternal fetal interface and several of them can express IDO. Leucocytes with Th1 produce a cytokine known as interferon γ that stimulates the expression of IDO in several cell types. Lymphocytes are divided into sub-populations according to their function and phenotype: T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes and natural killer cells (NK). Hormones also involved in this process where progesterone exerts decisive role on maternal immune response that may change gestational outcome and estrogen is essential for fetal maternal tolerance and maintenance of pregnancy. Therefore, the main objective of this study was to identify lymphocytes in the bovine placental cell culture that are sensitive to progesterone, estrogen and interferon γ, IDO expression in various gestational stages using flow cytometry. According to the results in the gestational period from 67.5 to 77.5 days with the addition of interferon γ expression IDO was slightly increased in TCD3 lymphocytes, CD4, and differently from the other T cells CD8 displayed an higher expression of the enzyme (4.48±2.12 to 8.65±4.91)...


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Cattle , Immunophenotyping/veterinary , /analysis , Lymphocytes/classification , Lymphocytes/immunology , Placenta , Placenta/physiology , Immune Tolerance/physiology , B-Lymphocytes , Estrogens/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Killer Cells, Natural , Progesterone/analysis , T-Lymphocytes
8.
J. appl. oral sci ; 24(1): 67-75, Jan.-Feb. 2016. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-777353

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT An increasing body of evidence suggests that the use of probiotic bacteria is a promising intervention approach for the treatment of inflammatory diseases with a polymicrobial etiology. P. gingivalis has been noted to have a different way of interacting with the innate immune response of the host compared to other pathogenic bacteria, which is a recognized feature that inhibits CXCL8 expression. Objective The aim of the study was to determine if P. gingivalis infection modulates the inflammatory response of gingival stromal stem cells (G-MSSCs), including the release of CXCL8, and the expression of TLRs and if immunomodulatory L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 could prevent CXCL8 inhibition in experimental inflammation. Material and Methods G-MSSCs were pretreated with L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 and then stimulated with P. gingivalis ATCC33277. CXCL8 and IL-10 levels were investigated with ELISA and the TLR-4 and 2 were determined through flow cytometer analysis. Results CXCL8 was suppressed by P. gingivalis and L. rhamnosus ATCC9595, whereas incubation with both strains did not abolish CXCL8. L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 scaled down the expression of TLR4 and induced TLR2 expression when exposed to P. gingivalis stimulation (p<0.01). Conclusions These findings provide evidence that L. rhamnosus ATCC9595 can modulate the inflammatory signals and could introduce P. gingivalis to immune systems by inducing CXCL8 secretion.


Subject(s)
Humans , Young Adult , Interleukin-8/analysis , Porphyromonas gingivalis/immunology , Probiotics/pharmacology , Lactobacillus rhamnosus/physiology , Mesenchymal Stem Cells/microbiology , Periodontitis/microbiology , Bacterial Adhesion/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Cells, Cultured , Interleukin-8/immunology , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10 , Statistics, Nonparametric , Toll-Like Receptor 4/analysis , Toll-Like Receptor 4/immunology , Flow Cytometry , Immunity, Innate
9.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 48(12): 1095-1100, Dec. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-762920

ABSTRACT

In DNA vaccines, the gene of interest is cloned into a bacterial plasmid that is engineered to induce protein production for long periods in eukaryotic cells. Previous research has shown that the intramuscular immunization of BALB/c mice with a naked plasmid DNA fragment encoding the Mycobacterium leprae 65-kDa heat-shock protein (pcDNA3-Hsp65) induces protection against M. tuberculosis challenge. A key stage in the protective immune response after immunization is the generation of memory T cells. Previously, we have shown that B cells capture plasmid DNA-Hsp65 and thereby modulate the formation of CD8+ memory T cells after M. tuberculosis challenge in mice. Therefore, clarifying how B cells act as part of the protective immune response after DNA immunization is important for the development of more-effective vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms by which B cells modulate memory T cells after DNA-Hsp65 immunization. C57BL/6 and BKO mice were injected three times, at 15-day intervals, with 100 µg naked pcDNA-Hsp65 per mouse. Thirty days after immunization, the percentages of effector memory T (TEM) cells (CD4+ and CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow) and memory CD8+ T cells (CD8+/CD44high/CD62Llow/CD127+) were measured with flow cytometry. Interferon γ, interleukin 12 (IL-12), and IL-10 mRNAs were also quantified in whole spleen cells and purified B cells (CD43−) with real-time qPCR. Our data suggest that a B-cell subpopulation expressing IL-10 downregulated proinflammatory cytokine expression in the spleen, increasing the survival of CD4+ TEM cells and CD8+ TEM/CD127+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Heat-Shock Proteins/immunology , Immunomodulation/genetics , /genetics , RNA, Messenger/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Flow Cytometry , Gene Expression/genetics , Heat-Shock Proteins/therapeutic use , Immunologic Memory/physiology , Immunophenotyping/classification , Inflammation Mediators/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /immunology , /analysis , Mice, Knockout , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/genetics , Spleen/cytology , Spleen/immunology , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/classification , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, DNA/therapeutic use
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-149088

ABSTRACT

Silica nanoparticles (SNPs) are widely used in many scientific and industrial fields despite the lack of proper evaluation of their potential toxicity. This study examined the effects of acute exposure to SNPs, either alone or in conjunction with ovalbumin (OVA), by studying the respiratory systems in exposed mouse models. Three types of SNPs were used: spherical SNPs (S-SNPs), mesoporous SNPs (M-SNPs), and PEGylated SNPs (P-SNPs). In the acute SNP exposure model performed, 6-week-old BALB/c female mice were intranasally inoculated with SNPs for 3 consecutive days. In the OVA/SNPs asthma model, the mice were sensitized two times via the peritoneal route with OVA. Additionally, the mice endured OVA with or without SNP challenges intranasally. Acute SNP exposure induced significant airway inflammation and airway hyper-responsiveness, particularly in the S-SNP group. In OVA/SNPs asthma models, OVA with SNP-treated group showed significant airway inflammation, more than those treated with only OVA and without SNPs. In these models, the P-SNP group induced lower levels of inflammation on airways than both the S-SNP or M-SNP groups. Interleukin (IL)-5, IL-13, IL-1beta and interferon-gamma levels correlated with airway inflammation in the tested models, without statistical significance. In the mouse models studied, increased airway inflammation was associated with acute SNPs exposure, whether exposed solely to SNPs or SNPs in conjunction with OVA. P-SNPs appear to be relatively safer for clinical use than S-SNPs and M-SNPs, as determined by lower observed toxicity and airway system inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma/chemically induced , Female , Inflammation/chemically induced , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukins/analysis , Lung/drug effects , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nanoparticles/adverse effects , Ovalbumin/adverse effects , Polyethylene Glycols/adverse effects , Silicon Dioxide/adverse effects , Surface Properties
11.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(11): 940-946, 11/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-723907

ABSTRACT

Stimulation by a number of conditions, including infection, cytokines, mechanical injury, and hypoxia, can upregulate inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) in hepatocytes. We observed that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulated the transcription of the hepatic iNOS gene. The aim of this study was to confirm our preliminary data, and to further investigate the distribution of the iNOS protein in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. ICR mice were exposed to +3 Gz for 1 h. We investigated the time course of change in the iNOS expression. Hepatic iNOS mRNA expression progressively increased in centrifuged mice from 0 to 12 h, and then decreased rapidly by 18 h. iNOS mRNA levels in the livers of centrifuged mice was significantly higher at 3, 6, and 12 h than in uncentrifuged control mice. The pattern of iNOS protein expression paralleled that of the mRNA expression. At 0 and 1 h, weak cytoplasmic iNOS immunoreactivity was found in some hepatocytes surrounding terminal hepatic venules. It was noted that at 6 h there was an increase in the number of perivenular hepatocytes with moderate to strong cytoplasmic immunoreactivity. The number of iNOS-positive hepatocytes was maximally increased at 12 h. The majority of positively stained cells showed a strong intensity of iNOS expression. The expression levels of iNOS mRNA and protein were significantly increased in the livers of mice exposed to hypergravity. These results suggest that exposure to hypergravity significantly upregulates iNOS at both transcriptional and translational levels.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gene Expression/physiology , Hypergravity , Liver/enzymology , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Hypergravity/adverse effects , Immunohistochemistry , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , /analysis , Liver/anatomy & histology , Liver/physiology , Mice, Inbred ICR , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type II/genetics , Protein Biosynthesis/physiology , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Transcription, Genetic/physiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Up-Regulation/physiology
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(10): 911-916, 10/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722166

ABSTRACT

Anastomotic dehiscence is the most severe complication of colorectal surgery. Metalloproteinases (MMPs) and interleukins (ILs) can be used to analyze the healing process of anastomosis. To evaluate the effects of bromopride on MMP and cytokine gene expression in left colonic anastomoses in rats with or without induced abdominal sepsis, 80 rats were divided into two groups for euthanasia on the third or seventh postoperative day (POD). They were then divided into subgroups of 20 rats for sepsis induction or not, and then into subgroups of 10 rats for administration of bromopride or saline. Left colonic anastomosis was performed and abdominal sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. A colonic segment containing the anastomosis was removed for analysis of gene expression of MMP-1α, MMP-8, MMP-13, IL-β, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). On the third POD, bromopride was associated with increased MMP-1α, MMP-13, IL-6, IFN-γ, and IL-10 gene expression. On the seventh POD, all MMP transcripts became negatively modulated and all IL transcripts became positively modulated. In the presence of sepsis, bromopride administration increased MMP-8 and IFN-γ gene expression and decreased MMP-1, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-10 gene expression on the third POD. On the seventh POD, we observed increased expression of MMP-13 and all cytokines, except for TNF-α. In conclusion, bromopride interferes with MMP and IL gene expression during anastomotic healing. Further studies are needed to correlate these changes with the healing process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Antiemetics/pharmacology , Colon, Descending/surgery , Gene Expression/drug effects , Interleukins/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Metoclopramide/analogs & derivatives , Anastomosis, Surgical , Cecum/surgery , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Interleukins/genetics , Ligation , Matrix Metalloproteinase 1/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Matrix Metalloproteinases/genetics , Metoclopramide/pharmacology , Punctures , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sepsis/etiology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Wound Healing/drug effects
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-163082

ABSTRACT

Background: Brucellosis is a major zoonotic disease that is endemic in Saudi Arabia and it remains a major health problem that has not been eradicated in the country yet. Place and Duration of Study: This retrospective study was conducted in a Saudi Hospital at Al Madinah city during the period of 1 November, 2010 to 31 October, 2011. Methodology: All sera of patients suspected to have brucellosis (n= 65) and 18 healthy subjects were tested for brucella antibody using slide latex agglutination (SAT) and ELISA. Quantitation of IFN-ɣ was also done using ELISA. Results: Brucellosis was detected in all age groups but the incidence was higher and reached 33.3% in age group (40- <50) years with average of 43.9±2.53 years. Male to female ratio in infected patients was 2:1 by using SAT. The incidence of seropositive cases was high (80.1%) in the three months (April, May and June), with the highest peak in May (46.7%). Drinking raw milk was the most encountered risk factor with a prevalence of 66.1% followed by consumption of milk products (11.9%). The most prevalent species among the examined cases was B. melitensis (93.3%). Among the studied cases, 60 cases (92.3%) were serologically positive for brucellosis by SAT. Among the 60 cases yielding significant titers against brucella, 14 sera (23.3%) had agglutinin levels of 1:80, 34 sera (56.7%) had titers of 1:160 and 12 sera (20%) had titers of 1:320. By estimating IgM and IgG levels in the sera of examined cases using ELISA, 52 cases (80%) had brucellaIgM while 42 cases (64.6%) had brucella IgG. Sensitivities of SAT, IgM ELISA and IgG ELISA were 91.5%, 88.1% and 71.2%, respectively compared with combined ELISA. Mean IFN-ɣ levels ± SD in the subacute phase was 136.7±70.07pg/ml, 120.2±54.25pg/ml in the acute phase, and 121.3±51.09 pg/ml in the chronic phase of brucellosis. Conclusion: The sensitivity and specificity of ELISA to diagnose human brucellosis was higher when combined ELISA (IgM/IgG or both) was used. Mean IFN-ɣ levels were lower, but not significantly, in the chronic phase of the disease than in the sub acute phase and healthy subjects.


Subject(s)
Agglutination Tests , Brucella abortus/epidemiology , Brucella abortus/immunology , Brucella melitensis/epidemiology , Brucella melitensis/immunology , Brucellosis/epidemiology , Brucellosis/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma/blood , Saudi Arabia
14.
Clinics ; 69(12): 799-803, 2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-732392

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Our previous study demonstrated that superoxide dismutase levels were higher in tuberculous pleural effusions than in malignant pleural effusions, but that this difference could not be used to discriminate between the two. The objective of the present study was to investigate the levels of superoxide dismutase 2 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural effusion superoxide dismutase 2. METHODS: Superoxide dismutase 2 concentrations were determined in pleural effusions from 54 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion and 33 with malignant pleural effusion using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kit. Pleural effusion interferon gamma and tumor necrosis factor alpha levels were also analyzed by ELISA. The Mann-Whitney U test was used to evaluate the significance of differences. Associations between superoxide dismutase 2 concentrations and sex, age and smoking habits were assessed using Spearman's or Pearson's correlation coefficient analysis. Receiver operator characteristic analysis was performed to evaluate the value of superoxide dismutase 2 levels in the discrimination of tuberculous pleural effusion from malignant pleural effusion. RESULTS: Superoxide dismutase 2 levels were significantly higher in patients with tuberculous pleural effusion compared with those with malignant pleural effusion ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Clinical Enzyme Tests , Pleural Effusion, Malignant/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis , Biopsy , Biomarkers/analysis , Diagnosis, Differential , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Statistics, Nonparametric , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
15.
Biol. Res ; 47: 1-10, 2014. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Declining immune function poses an important clinical challenge worldwide and supplementation with natural products that possessing immune enhancing properties is a promising approach for preventing or delaying immune function decline. Cocoons from yellow silkworms are a significant source of lutein, and this unexplored silk extract could be a viable alternative source for dietary lutein. This study assessed immunomodulatory activities of the silk lutein extract. Female BALB/c mice orally received lutein, either as silk or marigold extracts (10 or 20 mg/kg daily), or vehicle only (1% tween 80 in PBS pH 7.4) for 4 weeks. Natural killer (NK) cell activity, specific antibody production, lymphocyte subpopulations, mitogen-induced lymphocyte proliferation, and cytokine production were examined. RESULTS: Silk lutein extract increased NK cell activity, and the effect was dose-related whereas marigold lutein extract was ineffective. Silk lutein extract dose-dependently enhanced antibody production in pre-immunized mice but marigold lutein extract had no effect. Feeding with silk lutein extract increased the populations of CD3+ and CD4 + CD3 + cells. Silk lutein extract also stimulated concanavalin A- and lipopolysaccharide-induced proliferations of T and B lymphocytes, respectively. Moreover, silk lutein extract increased IL-2 and IFN-γ production while the effect of marigold lutein extract was undetectable. CONCLUSIONS: Together, silk lutein extract enhanced both innate and adaptive immune functions. This preparation may prove to be an effective supplement for strengthened immunity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Bombyx/immunology , Tissue Extracts/immunology , Lutein/immunology , Silk/immunology , Animal Shells/chemistry , Immunologic Factors/analysis , Pupa/immunology , Pupa/metabolism , Bombyx/metabolism , Tissue Extracts/pharmacology , Lutein/isolation & purification , Antibodies, Heterophile/blood , Plant Extracts/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/drug effects , Killer Cells, Natural/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/drug effects , Interleukin-4/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interleukin-2/analysis , Interleukin-10/analysis , Tagetes/immunology , Flowers/immunology , Silk/chemistry , Cell Proliferation/drug effects , Flow Cytometry , Mice, Inbred BALB C
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-51383

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the usefulness of the interferon-gamma release assay (IGRA) for diagnosing tuberculosis (TB)-related uveitis (TRU). METHODS: Records from 181 patients with ocular signs and symptoms suggestive of TRU and intraocular inflammation of unknown etiology were reviewed. All subjects underwent clinical and laboratory testing, including IGRA, to rule out presence of underlying disease. A diagnosis of presumed TRU was made based on an internist's TB diagnosis and a patient's response to anti-TB therapy. Sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive values of IGRA for TRU diagnosis were calculated. Clinical characteristics were compared between patients with positive and negative IGRA results. RESULTS: The sensitivity and specificity of IGRA for TRU were 100% and 72.0%, respectively. Mean age, percentage of patients with retinal vasculitis, and the anatomic type of uveitis were significantly different between patients with positive and negative IGRA results (all p < or = 0.001). Positive IGRA rates and false-positive rates were significantly different between age and anatomic type groups (both p = 0.001). The positive predictive value of the IGRA among patients with intraocular inflammation was high (70%) when all of younger age (< or =40 years), posterior uveitis, and retinal vasculitis were present. CONCLUSIONS: The IGRA is useful for diagnosing TRU in the Korean population, especially when it is used as a screening test. Clinical characteristics, including younger age (< or =40 years), posterior uveitis, and retinal vasculitis in IGRA-positive patients, increase the likelihood of the patient having TRU.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Incidence , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma Release Tests/methods , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Reproducibility of Results , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Tuberculosis, Ocular/diagnosis , Uveitis/diagnosis , Young Adult
17.
West Indian med. j ; 62(9): 803-807, Dec. 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1045760

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Pleural effusion is a common diagnostic and clinical problem. Neoplasms and tuberculosis are the most frequent diagnostic causes of such effusions. Conventional laboratory methods for diagnosis of such effusion are inefficient because tubercle bacilli are rarely seen in direct examinations of pleural fluid. The present study evaluates interleukin-6 (IL-6), gamma interferon (IFN-γ) and adenosine deaminase (ADA) as diagnostic tools in pleural effusion. METHODS: Interleukin-6, IFN-γ and ADA were measured in pleural fluid from the patients, with exudative pleural effusion from tuberculous, malignant and postpneumonic origin and transudative pleural effusion ofsystemic origin in order to evaluate the diagnostic utility ofthese. RESULTS: The three markers were detectable in all effusions with significantly high levels in exudative as compared to transudative effusions. There was a statically significant difference noticed in tuberculous as compared to malignant andpostpneumonic origin and transudative pleural effusion. CONCLUSION: We concluded that IL-6, IFN-γ and ADA levels in pleural effusion are sensitive parameters to differentiate an exudate from a transudate and they can also differentiate exudates of different aetiology. Finally, the results suggest that there is a remarkable difference in production of these three markers in exudative pleural effusions as compared to transudative pleural effusions.


OBJETIVO: El derrame pleural es un problema diagnóstico y clínico común. Las neoplasias y la tuberculosis son las causas más frecuentes en los diagnósticos de tales derrames. Los métodos de laboratorio convencionales para el diagnóstico de tales derrames son ineficientes, porque los bacilos de la tuberculosis raramente se ven en los exámenes directos del líquido pleural. El presente estudio evalúa la interleucina-6, el interferón gamma (IFN-γ) y la adenosina desaminasa (ADA) como herramientas de diagnóstico en el derrame pleural. MÉTODOS: La interleucina-6, el IFN-γ, y la ADA fueron medidos en el líquido pleural de los pacientes con derrame pleural exudativo de origen tuberculoso, maligno y post-pneumónico, y el derrame pleural trasudativo de origen sistémico, con el fin de evaluar la utilidad diagnóstica de éstos. RESULTADOS: Los tres marcadores eran observables en todos los derrames, con niveles significativamente altos en los exudativos en comparación con los trasudativos. Se notó una diferencia estadísticamente significativa en los derrames de origen tuberculoso en comparación con los de origen maligno y postpneumónico, y los derrames pleurales trasudativos. CONCLUSIÓN: Llegamos a la conclusión de que los niveles de IL-6, IFN-Correspondence: Dr M Marie, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Clinical Laboratory Department, King Saud University, PO Box 10219, Riyadh 11433, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia. E-mail: drmmarie.2000@ gmail.com *Equally contributed to the manuscript YADA en el derrame pleural, son parámetros sensibles para diferenciar un derrame pleural exudado de uno trasudado, pudiendo por otra parte ayudar también a distinguir exudados de diferentes etiologías. Finalmente, los resultados sugieren que existe una diferencia notable en la forma en que se producen estos tres marcadores en los derrames efusiones pleurales exudativos en comparación con los derrames pleurales trasudativos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Interleukin-6/analysis , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Exudates and Transudates/chemistry , Biomarkers/analysis
18.
J. bras. med ; 101(5): 21-23, set.-out. 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-706142

ABSTRACT

Atualmente o diagnóstico de tuberculose pleural pode ser realizado com a dosagem de biomarcadores diagnósticos no líquido pleural, especificamente com a dosagem da enzima adenosina desaminase. Os quadros clínico, laboratorial, imagem e citopatologia sugestivos sempre devem ser valorizados no conjunto do diagnóstico. Tal abordagem elege somente o procedimento de toracocentese como necessário para início do diagnóstico. Na maioria das apresentações clínicas, procedimentos cirúrgicos mais invasivos (biopsias pleurais), com complicações potencialmente fatais, não precisam ser realizados para exame histopatológico


Currently the diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis can be performed with the dosage of diagnostic biomarkers in pleural fluid, specifically the enzyme adenosine deaminase. The clinical, imaging and cytology suggestive should always be valued in the set of diagnosis together laboratory measurements. This approach selects only a thoracentesis procedure for early diagnosis. In most clinical presentations, more invasive surgical procedures (pleural biopsies) with life-threatening complications for histopathological examination


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pleural Effusion/diagnosis , Pleural Effusion/enzymology , Biomarkers/analysis , Adenosine Deaminase/analysis , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures , Clinical Enzyme Tests/methods , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Paracentesis/methods , Tuberculosis, Pleural/diagnosis
19.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 46(10): 839-843, 24/set. 2013. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-688562

ABSTRACT

Paracoccidioidomycosis (PCM) is a chronic systemic mycosis caused by the inhalation of the thermally dimorphic fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis as well as the recently described P. lutzii. Because the primary infection occurs in the lungs, we investigated the differential involvement of the right and left lungs in experimental P. brasiliensis infection. Lungs were collected from C57BL/6 mice at 70 days after intravenous infection with 1×106 yeast cells of a virulent strain of P. brasiliensis (Pb18). The left lung, which in mice is smaller and has fewer lobes than the right lung, yielded increased fungal recovery associated with a predominant interleukin-4 response and diminished synthesis of interferon-γ and nitric oxide compared with the right lung. Our data indicate differential involvement of the right and left lungs during experimental PCM. This knowledge emphasizes the need for an accurate, standardized protocol for tissue collection during studies of experimental P. brasiliensis infection, since experiments using the same lungs favor the collection of comparable data among different mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Lung Diseases, Fungal/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Paracoccidioides , Paracoccidioidomycosis/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Interferon-gamma/analysis , /analysis , /analysis , Nitric Oxide/analysis , Time Factors
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 28(supl.1): 8-12, 2013. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-663885

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effect of corticosteroids on intestinal and liver interleukin profile in an experimental model of gastroschisis in fetal rats. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats at 19.5 days of gestation had its fetuses operated for the creation of gastroschisis. Two groups of fetuses were studied with and without maternal administration of dexamethasone. Each group was composed of fetuses who underwent gastroschisis (G), control fetuses without manipulation (C) and sham fetuses (S). A dosage of the following interleukins was carried out in fetal intestinal and liver tissues: IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). The differences between the groups and subgroups were tested by ANOVA with Tukey post-test, with significant values of p<0.05. RESULTS: Dexamethasone led to an increase in intestinal and liver IL-6 (p<0.05) and a decrease in intestinal TNF-α (p<0.001) in fetuses with gastroschisis. CONCLUSION: Corticosteroids had an effect on the intestinal interleukin profile and a small effect on the liver interleukin profile due to immunological immaturity of the fetus, and also of fetuses with gastroschisis. The steroid action may not be exclusively anti-inflammatory, but also pro-inflammatory, varying with time of pregnancy.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a ação do corticosteroide no perfil de interleucinas intestinais e hepáticas no modelo experimental de gastrosquise em fetos de ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratas Sprague-Dawley com 19,5 dias de gestação tiveram fetos operados para criação de gastrosquise. Dois grupos de fetos foram estudados: com e sem administração materna de dexametasona. Cada grupo foi composto por fetos submetidos a gastrosquise (G), fetos controles sem manipulação (C) e fetos sham (S). Realizou-se a dosagem das seguintes interleucinas no tecido intestinal e hepático fetal: IL-1, IL-6, IL-10, fator de necrose tumoral-alfa (TNF-α) e interferon-gama (IFN-γ). As diferenças entre os grupos e subgrupos foram testadas pelo teste de ANOVA com pós-teste de Tukey, com valores significativos de p<0,05. RESULTADOS: A dexametasona levou a um aumento da IL-6 intestinal e hepática (p<0,05) e a uma diminuição do TNF-α intestinal (p<0,001) em fetos com gastrosquise. CONCLUSÃO: O corticosteróide apresentou efeito sobre o perfil de IL intestinal e pouco na hepática, devido a imaturidade imunológica dos fetos e também dos fetos com gastrosquise a ação do esteróide pode não ser exclusivamente anti-inflamatória, mas também pró inflamatória.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Cytokines/analysis , Dexamethasone/pharmacology , Gastroschisis/drug therapy , Glucocorticoids/pharmacology , Intestines/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Gastroschisis/embryology , Gastroschisis/metabolism , Interferon-gamma/analysis , Interferon-gamma/metabolism , Interleukins/analysis , Interleukins/metabolism , Intestines/metabolism , Liver/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
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