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2.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e0744-2020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155546

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION Suckling by schistosomotic mice improves anti-ovalbumin (OA) antibody production, while delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH) remains unaffected. This property of milk from schistosomotic mice was investigated in IL-12/IL-23-deficient mice (IL-12p40KO). METHODS We compared anti-OA DTH, IgG2a and cytokines in wild-type and IL-12p40KO mice suckled by infected (SIM) or non-infected (CONTROL) mothers. RESULTS SIM mice showed similar intensity and eosinophils in the DTH, which was abolished in IL-12p40KO and IL-12p40KO-SIM mice. In IL-12p40KO-SIM, IgG2a and TGF-β levels were higher, but IL-6 levels were lower. CONCLUSIONS Milk from schistosomotic mothers may evoke IgG2a without eliciting DTH in IL-12/IL-23 deficiencies, by changing TGF-β/IL-6 levels.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Schistosoma mansoni , Interleukin-12 , Immunoglobulin G , Transforming Growth Factor beta , Interleukin-23 , Mice , Mothers
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888019

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of anemoside B4 on rats with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).Seventy-two SD male rats were randomly divided into blank group and model group.The method of exposure to cigarette smoke and combined with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was used to replicate the rat model of COPD.After the model was maintained for 5 weeks,the rats were randomly divided into model group,dexamethasone group (0.81 mg·kg~(-1)) and anemoside B4 low,medium and high (2,4,8 mg·kg~(-1)) dose groups,a group of 12 animals were administered,and then the administration was started.The administration was maintained until the28th day,and the pulmonary function parameters of rats were measured by an animal pulmonary function instrument.After testing the rat lung function parameters,immediately draw rat alveolar lavage fluid (BALF),and use high-throughput protein chip technology to determined the expression levels of inflammatory cytokines in rat BALF.HE staining was used to observe the general pathological changes of rat lung and tracheal tissue.Masson staining was used to observe the collagen deposition in rat lung tissue.Real-time q PCR method was used to determine the mRNA expression level of related genes in rat lung tissue.Western blot method was used to determine the expression levels of related proteins in rat lung tissues.According to the findings,compared with the model group,the dexamethasone group and the anemoside B4 drug groups had different degrees of increase in the lung function parameters of rats (P<0.01,P<0.05),improved the expression level of inflammatory cytokines in the BALF of rats to varying degrees (P<0.01,P<0.05),and improved the pathological structure of rat lung tissue to varying degrees.Relative mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2),matrix metalloproteinase 12 (MMP-12),matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 (TIMP-1),interleukin-6 (IL-6),and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) were significantly reduced (P<0.01);whereas relative mRNA expressions of matrix metalloproteinase 9(MMP-9) and matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor 2 (TIMP-2) were increased significantly (P<0.01).The mRNA and protein expression levels of T-box transcription factor (T-bet),interleukin-12 (IL-12) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 4(STAT4) reduced to varying degrees (P<0.01,P<0.05).The mRNA of transcription factor GATA3 (binding protein-3),interleukin-4 (IL-4) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 6 (STAT6) in rat lung tissues and the protein expression levels of IL-4 and STAT6 were increased to varying degrees (P<0.01,P<0.05).In conclusion,anemoside B4 has a certain protective effect on COPD rats caused by cigarette smoke exposure and combined with LPS.The mechanism of action may be related to the regulation of IL-12/STAT4 and IL-4/STAT6 signaling pathways.


Subject(s)
Animals , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-4 , Lung/metabolism , Male , Matrix Metalloproteinase 2 , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive/genetics , Rats , STAT4 Transcription Factor/metabolism , STAT6 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Saponins
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828890

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate whether interleukin-12 (IL-12) over-expression in malignant melanoma B16 cells affects the expression level of programmed death-1 (PD-1) on T cells in mice during immune microenvironment reconstruction.@*METHODS@#B16 cells were transfected with an IL-12 expression lentiviral vector, and IL-12 over-expression in the cells was verified qPCR and ELISA. Plate cloning assay was used to compare the cell proliferation activity between B16 cells and B16/IL-12 cells. The expression of IL-12 protein in B16/IL-12 cells-derived tumor tissue were detected by ELISA. C57BL/6 mice were inoculated with B16 cells or B16/IL-12 cells, and 14 days later the proportion of T cells with high expression of PD-1 in the tumor-draining lymph nodes was detected by flow cytometry. Mouse models of immune reconstitution established by 650 cGy X-ray radiation were inoculated with B16 (B16+RT group) or B16/IL-12 (B16/IL-12+RT group) cells, with the mice without X-ray radiation prior to B16 cell inoculation as controls. Tumor growth in the mice was recorded at different time points, and on day 14, flow cytometry was performed to detect the proportion of T cells with high PD-1 expression in the tumor-draining lymph nodes and in the tumor tissue.@*RESULTS@#B16 cells infected with the IL-12-overexpressing lentiviral vector showed significantly increased mRNA and protein levels of IL-12 ( < 0.001) without obvious changes in cell viability (>0.05). B16/IL-12 cells expressed higher levels of IL-12 than B16 cells ( < 0.01). In the tumor-bearing mouse models, the proportion of CD4 PD-1 T cells was significantly lower in B16/IL-12 group than in B16 group ( < 0.01). In the mice with X-ray radiation-induced immune reconstitution, PD-1 expressions on CD4 T cells ( < 0.05) and CD8+ T cells ( < 0.01) were significantly higher in B16+ RT group than in the control mice and in B16/IL-12+RT group ( < 0.01 or 0.001); the tumors grew more slowly in B16/IL-12+RT group than in B16 + RT group ( < 0.001).@*CONCLUSIONS@#During immune microenvironment reconstruction, overexpression IL-12 in the tumor microenvironment can reduce the percentage of PD-1 T cells and suppress the growth of malignant melanoma in mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Cell Line, Tumor , Immune Reconstitution , Interleukin-12 , Melanoma, Experimental , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Tumor Microenvironment
6.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200080, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135269

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Thrombocytopenia in malaria involves platelet destruction and consumption; however, the cellular response underlying this phenomenon has still not been elucidated. OBJECTIVE To find associations between platelet indices and unbalanced Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokines as a response to thrombocytopenia in Plasmodium vivax infected (Pv-MAL) patients. METHODS Platelet counts and quantification of Th1/Th2/Th17 cytokine levels were compared in 77 patients with uncomplicated P. vivax malaria and 37 healthy donors from the same area (endemic control group - ENCG). FINDINGS Thrombocytopenia was the main manifestation in 55 patients, but was not associated with parasitaemia. The Pv-MAL patients showed increases in the mean platelet volume (MPV), which may be consistent with larger or megaplatelets. Contrary to the findings regarding the endemic control group, MPV and platelet distribution width (PDW) did not show an inverse correlation, due the increase in the heterogeneity of platelet width. In addition, the Pv-MAL patients presented increased IL-1β and reduced IL-12p70 and IL-2 serum concentrations. Furthermore, the reduction of these cytokines was associated with PDW values. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our data demonstrate that an increase in MPV and the association between reductions of IL-2 and IL-12 and PDW values may be an immune response to thrombocytopenia in uncomplicated P. vivax malaria.


Subject(s)
Humans , Plasmodium vivax/immunology , Thrombocytopenia/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/blood , Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/immunology , Malaria, Vivax/pathology , Thrombocytopenia/parasitology , Interleukin-2/blood , Malaria, Vivax/parasitology , Malaria, Vivax/blood , Interleukin-12/blood
7.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 31-39, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719478

ABSTRACT

Myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogenous population of immature cells that play a critical role in tumor associated immune suppression. In tumor conditions, the population of MDSCs increases. The main feature of these cells is their ability to suppress the T cell response in antigen specific or nonspecific manners depending on the condition of T cell activation. IL-12 can modulate MDSC in preliminary reports, so we investigated how IL-12 can affect MDSC in a tumor microenvironment. After implanting tumor based cells on syngeneic host, 4T-1/BALB/c or EL4/C57BL6 mice, MDSCs (Gr1+CD11b+) were isolated from splenocytes. Isolated MDSCs were treated with GM-CSF with or without IL-12 and analyzed based on their phenotypes and functions. Treatment of MDSC with IL-12 increased co-stimulatory molecules of CD80, CD86, OX-40L, enhancing the DC phenotype (CD11c) and maturation markers such as p-NF-κB and p-GSK3β. In addition to a change of surface markers, T-cell suppressive function of MDSC after IL-12 treatment was significantly improved compared with the control MDSC. In addition, PD-L1+F4/80+ macrophages, which show aninhibitory effect in phagocytosis, were decreased after IL-12 treatment. The changes of cell surface expression of CD80, CD86, MHC class II were also shown in vivo. Our results showed that the IL-12 can modulate MDSC into APC and recover the macrophage function. These results suggested that IL-12 plays a role in improving the tumor immune microenvironment through MDSC modulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Interleukin-12 , Macrophages , Mice , Phagocytosis , Phenotype , T-Lymphocytes , Tumor Microenvironment
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761763

ABSTRACT

In this study, we carried out extensive in vitro studies on various concentrations of tioxolone along with benzoxonium chloride and their niosomal forms against Leishmania tropica. Niosomes were prepared by the hydration method and were evaluated for morphology, size, release study, and encapsulation efficiency. This study measured leishmanicidal activity against promastigote and amastigote, apoptosis and gene expression levels of free solution and niosomal-encapsulated tioxolone along with benzoxonium chloride. Span/Tween 60 niosome had good physical stability and high encapsulation efficiency (more than 97%). The release profile of the entrapped compound showed that a gradual release rate. The combination of niosomal forms on promastigote and amastigote were more effective than glucantime. Also, the niosomal form of this compound was significantly less toxic than glucantime (P≤0.05). The flowcytometric analysis on niosomal form of drugs showed that higher number of early apoptotic event as the principal mode of action (89.13% in 200 μg/ml). Also, the niosomal compound increased the expression level of IL-12 and metacaspase genes and decreased the expression level of the IL-10 gene, which further confirming the immunomodulatory role as the mechanism of action. We observed the synergistic effects of these 2 drugs that induced the apoptotic pathways and also up regulation of an immunomodulatory role against as the main mode of action. Also, niosomal form of this combination was safe and demonstrated strong anti-leishmaniasis effects highlights further therapeutic approaches against anthroponotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in future planning.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Leishmania tropica , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis, Cutaneous , Liposomes , Methods , Up-Regulation
9.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 607-614, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the inflammatory process has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorder, an important issue emerging is to assess the test-retest reliability of cytokine measurement in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of bead-based multiplex immunoassay technology (BMIT) for cytokine measurement by using a Bland-Altman plot (BAP). METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and twenty patients with schizophrenia were enrolled, and a 17-plex cytokine assay was used to measure inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and two weeks later. The test-retest reliability was examined by BAP, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). RESULTS: In the healthy controls, only interleukin (IL)-2, IL-13, IL-10, IL-17, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed excellent ICC. The BAP with 95% LOA determined that 13 cytokines showed acceptable 95% LOA for a 2-week test-retest reliability, and only IL-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had significant test-retest bias. The CoR of cytokines varied significantly, ranging from 1.72 to 218.1. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α and significantly lower levels of IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Of these six cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α were considered suboptimal reliability. CONCLUSION: The findings from ICC and CoR implied that the test-retest reliability of BMIT for cytokine measurement were suboptimal. However, the BAP with 95% LOA confirmed that BMIT can reliably distinguish schizophrenia from healthy individuals in cytokine measurement, while significant within-subject variation and between-group overlapping were evident in cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoassay , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Loa , Macrophages , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1305-1310, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the characteristic changes of the plasma cytokine profile in Chinese patients with idiopathic multicentric Castleman diseases (iMCD).@*METHODS@#The plasma samples from 22 patients with confirmed diagnosis of iMCD were collected before treatments; Specimens from 17 patients with newly diagnosed multiple myeloma, 10 non Hodgkin's lymphoma, and 15 healthy donors were used as control. Seventeen kinds of cytokines were measured by cytokine beads array (CBA) and ELISA respectively.@*RESULTS@#Six cytokines were measured by ELISA. The concentrations of IL-2, IL-6, IL-21 and VEGF were significantly higher in the plasma of iMCD patients than those of the healthy donors (P<0.01) and the level of IL-21 was highest in the iMCD group. There was no significant difference in the levels of IL-1β and IL-4 between the iMCD and healthy donor groups. Thirteen cytokines were measured by CBA assay, besides IL-6 level was confirmed to be higher in iMCD group than that in healthy controls (P<0.01), IL-12-p70 and IL-33 levels were also higher in iMCD group than those in control group (P<0.05), no significant difference of the rest cytokines was found between iMCD and the control group.@*CONCLUSION@#IL-6 and VEGF has shown to involved in the pathogenesis of iMCD, the results of preliminary study imply the role of IL-2 、IL-21、IL-12-p70 and IL-33 in this rare lymphoproliferative disease. Further studies are needed to elucidate the mechanism of these cytokines, which may shed some light on the identification of novel therapeutic targets against iMCD.


Subject(s)
Castleman Disease , Cytokines , Humans , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-1beta , Plasma
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742313

ABSTRACT

There is no effective treatment modality available against different forms of leishmaniasis. Therefore, the aim of this study was to improve the penetration and efficacy of selenium and glucantime coupled with niosomes and compared them with their simple forms alone on in vitro susceptibility assays. In this study, the niosomal formulations of selenium and in combination with glucantime were prepared. The size and morphology of the niosomal formulations were characterized and the effectivity of the new formulation was also evaluated using in vitro MTT assay, intra-macrophage model, and gene expression profile. From the results obtained, no cytotoxicity effect was observed for niosomal and simple forms of drugs, as alone or in combination. Niosomal formulations of the drugs significantly showed more inhibitory effects (P≤0.001) than the simple drugs when the selectivity index was considered. The gene expression levels of Interleukin (IL-10) significantly decreased, while the level of IL-12 and metacaspase significantly increased (P≤0.001). The results of the present study showed that selenium plus glucantime niosome possess a potent anti-leishmanial effect and enhanced their lethal activity as evidenced by the in vitro experiments.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-12 , Interleukins , Leishmania tropica , Leishmania , Leishmaniasis , Liposomes , Selenium , Transcriptome
12.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(4): 385-389, Oct.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-983841

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Gastric adenocarcinoma is the fourth most common cause of cancer-associated death worldwide. OBJECTIVE: We evaluated the immunological status of patients with gastric cancer before surgery and circulating cytokines as potential diagnostic biomarkers for gastric cancer. METHODS: We included 90 healthy controls and 95 patients with distal Gastric adenocarcinoma in Mazandaran, Sari, Iran. We measured serum IL-2, IL-10 and IL-12 Levels by a sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay using the IBL international GMBH kit. RESULTS: The serum IL-10 levels in the patients with Gastric adenocarcinoma were significantly higher than those of the healthy controls (P=0.02). There were no significant differences in serum IL-2 and IL-12 levels between patients with gastric cancer and healthy controls. CONCLUSION: Increased levels of IL-10 might be useful as diagnostic biomarkers for Gastric adenocarcinoma; however, this needs to be confirmed with larger number of patients and with control groups other than blood donors, properly age paired. These results suggest that positive expression of IL-10 may be useful as a molecular marker to distinguish stage of gastric cancers which can be more readily controlled.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O adenocarcinoma gástrico é a quarta causa mais comum de morte relacionada ao câncer em todo o mundo. OBJETIVO: Avaliar o status imunológico dos pacientes com câncer gástrico antes da cirurgia e as citocinas circulantes como potenciais biomarcadores diagnósticos para câncer gástrico. MÉTODOS: Incluímos 90 indivíduos controles saudáveis e 95 pacientes com adenocarcinoma gástrico distal em Mazandaran, Sari, Iran. Os níveis de soro Il-2, IL-10 e Il-12 foram medidos por um ensaio de imunoabsorção enzimática pela técnica de sanduíche usando o kit IBL International GmbH. RESULTADOS: Os níveis séricos IL-10 nos pacientes com adenocarcinoma gástrico foram significativamente superiores aos dos controles saudáveis (P=0,2). Não houve diferenças significativas nos níveis de soro IL-2 e IL-12 entre pacientes com câncer gástrico e controles saudáveis. CONCLUSÃO: Níveis aumentados de IL-10 podem ser úteis como biomarcadores diagnósticos para adenocarcinoma gástrico; no entanto, isso precisa ser confirmado com maior número de pacientes e com grupos de controle que não sejam doadores de sangue, adequadamente emparelhado por idade. Estes resultados sugerem que a expressão positiva do IL-10 pode ser útil como um marcador molecular para distinguir a fase de câncer gástrico que pode ser mais facilmente controlada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Stomach Neoplasms/blood , Adenocarcinoma/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-12/blood , Stomach Neoplasms/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Adenocarcinoma/diagnosis , Biomarkers, Tumor/blood , Case-Control Studies , Middle Aged
13.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(12): e7900, 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039240

ABSTRACT

The impact of food restriction (FR) during 56 days on serum levels of cytokines in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) or high-carbohydrate diet (HCD) were evaluated. The amount of food was reduced 50% for HFD-FR and HCD-FR groups compared to mice receiving free access to HFD (HFD group) or HCD (HCD group). We quantified the serum levels of basic fibroblast growth factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor, inducible protein 10, interferon γ, interleukin 1α (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-2, IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-12, IL-13, IL-17, keratinocyte chemoattractant, macrophage inflammatory protein-1α, monocyte chemotactic protein 1, monokine induced by IFN-γ, and tumor necrosis factor α. Only IL-12 levels were lower (P<0.05), for both HFD-FR (HFD-FR vs HFD) and HCD-FR (HCD-FR vs HCD). Therefore, IL-12 levels could be considered a biological marker of the beneficial effects of FR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Interleukin-12/blood , Caloric Restriction/methods , Diet, High-Fat/methods , Food Deprivation/physiology , Diet, Carbohydrate Loading/methods , Animal Nutritional Physiological Phenomena/physiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Weight , Immunoassay/methods , Biomarkers/blood , Cytokines/blood
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718274

ABSTRACT

Biologics are the most advanced treatment for psoriasis. Ustekinumab, one of the biologics for psoriasis, is a human monoclonal antibody that binds to the p40 subunit of interleukin-12 and interleukin-23. A 41-year-old woman with a 17-year history of plaque psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis presented with worsening lesions. The patient had previously been treated with a number of topical and systemic medications and narrow band ultraviolet B. However, none of the treatments consistently controlled her disease. Thus, treatment with ustekinumab 45 mg via subcutaneous injection was initiated. Approximately 7 days after the first treatment, she experienced a flare with generalized pustules in her whole body. The condition was controlled with systemic steroid treatment. The patient was subsequently treated with adalimumab, and improvement in her plaque and pustular lesions was noted. Herein, we report a case of psoriasis that flared up after ustekinumab therapy, which was accompanied by a morphological change from plaque to pustular lesions.


Subject(s)
Adalimumab , Adult , Arthritis, Psoriatic , Biological Products , Female , Glycogen Storage Disease Type VI , Humans , Injections, Subcutaneous , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-23 , Psoriasis , Ustekinumab
15.
Immune Network ; : e8-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740203

ABSTRACT

Cytokines play a pivotal role in maintaining bone homeostasis. Osteoclasts (OCs), the sole bone resorbing cells, are regulated by numerous cytokines. Macrophage colony-stimulating factor and receptor activator of NF-κB ligand play a central role in OC differentiation, which is also termed osteoclastogenesis. Osteoclastogenic cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α, IL-1, IL-6, IL-7, IL-8, IL-11, IL-15, IL-17, IL-23, and IL-34, promote OC differentiation, whereas anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines, including interferon (IFN)-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ, IL-3, IL-4, IL-10, IL-12, IL-27, and IL-33, downregulate OC differentiation. Therefore, dynamic regulation of osteoclastogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic cytokines is important in maintaining the balance between bone-resorbing OCs and bone-forming osteoblasts (OBs), which eventually affects bone integrity. This review outlines the osteoclastogenic and anti-osteoclastogenic properties of cytokines with regard to osteoimmunology, and summarizes our current understanding of the roles these cytokines play in osteoclastogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Homeostasis , Interferons , Interleukin-1 , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-11 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-27 , Interleukin-3 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-6 , Interleukin-7 , Interleukin-8 , Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Necrosis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , RANK Ligand
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758816

ABSTRACT

To provide insights into the role of innate immune responses in vaccine-mediated protection, we investigated the effect of Marek's disease (MD) vaccine, CVI988/Rispens, on the expression patterns of selected genes associated with activation of macrophages in MD-resistant and MD-susceptible chicken lines. Upregulation of interferon γ, interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-8, and IL-12 at different days post-inoculation (dpi) revealed activation of macrophages in both chicken lines. A strong immune response was induced in cecal tonsils of the susceptible line at 5 dpi. The highest transcriptional activities were observed in spleen tissues of the resistant line at 3 dpi. No increase in the population of CD3³ T cells was observed in duodenum of vaccinated birds at 5 dpi indicating a lack of involvement of the adaptive immune system in the transcriptional profiling of the tested genes. There was, however, an increase in the number of macrophages in the duodenum of vaccinated birds. The CVI988/Rispens antigen was detected in the duodenum and cecal tonsils of the susceptible line at 5 dpi but not in the resistant line. This study sheds light on the role of macrophages in vaccine-mediated protection against MD and on the possible development of new recombinant vaccines with enhanced innate immune system activation properties.


Subject(s)
Animals , Birds , Chickens , Duodenum , Immune System , Immunity, Innate , Interferons , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Macrophages , Marek Disease , Palatine Tonsil , Spleen , T-Lymphocytes , Up-Regulation , Vaccines, Synthetic
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-713561

ABSTRACT

Although commercialization of mobile phones has raised much concerns about the effects of radiofrequency radiation on the human body, few experimental studies have been conducted on the effects of radiofrequency radiation on physiological homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses. Therefore, we presently investigated the effect of 835 MHz radiofrequency radiation on spontaneous wheel exercise, hormone and cytokines levels in the plasm of mice. Mice were divided into 4 groups as control, exercise, radiofrequency radiation, radiofrequency radiation & exercise group. The body weight, corticosterone and blood cytokine levels were checked for 10 weeks. Followed by the exposure to radiofrequency radiation for 6 hours a day, the more increase in body weight was observed in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group than in the spontaneous exercise group. When the amount of spontaneous exercise was measured for 10 weeks, the amount of exercise was increased in the both control and spontaneous exercise group, while the amount of exercise was decreased in the radiofrequency radiation group. To determine whether the homeostasis, immune and inflammatory responses are indirectly affected by radiofrequency radiation exposure, IL-1β, IL-6, IL-12 (p70), TNF-α, IFNγ, and GM-CSF were measured by ELISA kit, respectively. As a result, the blood levels of IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α in the spontaneous exercise group were higher than that of control group, and each cytokine levels in the radiofrequency radiation & exercise group were lower than that of control group. However, the corticosterone, IL-1β, IFNγ and GM-CSF didn't show statistically significant differences in all groups. It has been confirmed that exposure to high frequency electromagnetic waves for a long time can affect the amount of exercise, body weight, and some inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12 (p70) and TNF-α.


Subject(s)
Animals , Body Weight , Cell Phone , Corticosterone , Cytokines , Electromagnetic Radiation , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Granulocyte-Macrophage Colony-Stimulating Factor , Homeostasis , Human Body , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-6 , Mice , Radiation Exposure
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742267

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii is an apicomplexan zoonotic protozoan parasite that infects most species of warm-blooded animals, including humans. The heavy incidence and severe or lethal damage caused by T. gondii infection clearly indicate a need for the development of an effective vaccine. T. gondii GRA8 is a member of the dense granules protein family and is used as a marker of acute infection. In the present study, we evaluated the protective immunity induced by DNA vaccination based on a recombinant eukaryotic plasmid, pDsRed2-GRA8, against acute toxoplasmosis in mice. BALB/c mice were intramuscularly immunized with the pDsRed2-GRA8 plasmid and then challenged by infection with the highly virulent GFP-RH strain of T. gondii. The specific immune responses and protective efficacy against T. gondii of this vaccine were analyzed by measuring cytokine and serum antibody titers, splenocyte proliferation assays, and the survival times of mice after challenge. Our results showed that mice immunized with pDsRed2-GRA8 demonstrated specific humoral and cellular responses, induced higher IgG antibody titers with predominant IgG2a production; increased levels of IL-10, IL-12 (p70), IFN-γ, TNF-α, and splenocyte proliferation; and prolonged survival times compared to those of control mice. The present study showed that DNA immunization with pDsRed2-GRA8 induced humoral and cellular immune responses, and all immunized mice showed greater Th1-type immune responses and longer survival times than those of control mice. These results indicated that T. gondii GRA8 DNA immunization induces a partial protective effect against acute toxoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , DNA , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunization , Immunoglobulin G , Incidence , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Mice , Parasites , Plasmids , Toxoplasma , Toxoplasmosis , Vaccination
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742127

ABSTRACT

The treatment of inflammatory bowel disease has evolved with the development of anti-TNF agents. In spite of long-term effectiveness, many patients do not respond or no longer responds to these drugs. Therefore, the development of new drugs that act on different inflammatory pathways has become necessary. Vedolizumab, a gut-specific biological agent, inhibits interaction α4β7 integrin with mucosal addressin cell adhesion molecule-1 without inhibiting systemic immune responses. Long-term vedolizumab therapy in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis was safe and effective. Additionally, vedolizumab can be used in patients already failed an anti-TNF therapy. Ustekinumab is a fully human immunoglobulin G1 kappa monoclonal antibody that blocks the p40 subunit of IL-12 and IL-23. Ustekinumab will be a clinically effective agent to use in medically-refractory Crohn's disease especially as a second line drug. Tofacitinib is an oral, small molecule that inhibits JAK1, JAK3 and in a lesser extent, JAK2. Perhaps the most attractive things of these JAK inhibitors is that they are given orally instead of parenterally. Early results showed that patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis receiving tofacitinib were more likely to achieve remission at 8 weeks than those receiving placebo. However, these results have not been as robust in Crohn's disease. Much of the positioning will depend on the safety profile such as opportunistic infection and atherogenic risk. The challenges for the future are to determine the therapeutic drug monitoring-guided dose optimization, optimal timing and drug combinations to produce the most effective, and safest outcomes for IBD patients.


Subject(s)
Cell Adhesion , Colitis, Ulcerative , Crohn Disease , Drug Combinations , Humans , Immunoglobulins , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-23 , Opportunistic Infections , Ustekinumab
20.
Annals of Dermatology ; : 150-157, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Contact immune modulating therapy with diphenylcyclopropenone (DPCP) is a topical treatment option for extensive alopecia areata (AA). Because the response to DPCP treatment varies according to the patient, and it takes several months to evaluate the clinical effectiveness of the treatment, it is necessary to identify the factors that can predict the prognosis of the disease while treating with topical DPCP. OBJECTIVE: In this study, cytokine levels in the scales of alopecic patches were investigated to identify whether they could predict response to DPCP during the early treatment period. METHODS: Scale samples were taken from the alopecic patches in eight AA patients at 1 week, 2 months, and 4 months after DPCP sensitization. The patients were divided into responders and non-responders according to the clinical responses of DPCP treatment. Interferon (IFN)-gamma, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12 and IL-10 levels of the subjects were compared in several perspectives. RESULTS: Cytokine levels after 1 week of DPCP sensitization showed no statistically significant difference between two groups. After 4 months of treatment, IFN-gamma levels were significantly lower in responders than in non-responders. CONCLUSION: The results of this study show IFN-gamma levels in the scales of alopecic patches might possibly reflect the clinical response in AA patients treated with DPCP. However, initial cytokine levels could not predict the treatment response.


Subject(s)
Alopecia Areata , Alopecia , Cytokines , Humans , Interferons , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukins , Prognosis , Treatment Outcome , Weights and Measures
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