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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981520

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the intervention effect and mechanism of Xiaoyao Kangai Jieyu Recipe(XKJR) on hip-pocampal microglia and neuronal damage in mice with breast cancer related depression. The mouse model of breast cancer related depression was established by inoculation of 4T1 breast cancer cells in axilla and subcutaneous injection of corticosterone(30 mg·kg~(-1)). The successfully modeled mice were randomly divided into a model group, a positive drug group(capecitabine 60 mg·kg~(-1)+fluoxetine 19.5 mg·kg~(-1)), and XKJR group(19.5 mg·kg~(-1) crude drug), with 6 in each group. Another 6 normal mice were taken as a normal group. The administration groups were given corresponding drugs by gavage, while the normal and model groups were given an equal volume of distilled water, once a day for 21 consecutive days. The depressive behavior of mice was assessed by glucose consumption test, open field test and novelty-suppressed feeding test. Hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining and tumor suppression rate were used to evaluate the changes of axillary tumors. The mRNA expressions and the relative protein expressions of interleukin-1β(IL-1β), interleukin-18(IL-18), cyclooxyganese-2(COX-2) and glutamyl-prolyl-tRNA synthetase(EPRs) in the hippocampus of mice were determined by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction(qRT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry, respectively. Immunofluorescence was performed to detect the mean fluorescence intensity of CD11b, a marker of hippocampal microglia activation. Nissler staining and transmission electron microscopy were employed to observe the morphological changes and the ultramorphological changes of hippocampal neurons, respectively. The experimental results indicated that compared with the normal group, the model group had reduced glucose consumption and lowered number of total activities in open field test(P<0.05, P<0.01), prolonged first feeding latency in no-velty-suppressed feeding test(P<0.01), and significant depression-like behavior; the contents of IL-1β, IL-18, COX-2, and EPRs in hippocampus were increased(P<0.05, P<0.01), with hippocampal microglia activation and obvious neuronal damage. Compared with the model group, the positive drug group and the XKJR group presented an improvement in depressive behaviors, a decrease in the contents of IL-1β, IL-18, COX-2 and EPRs in hippocampus, and an alleviation in the activation of hippocampal microglia and neuronal damage; the tumor suppression rates of positive drug and XKJR were 40.32% and 48.83%, respectively, suggesting a lower tumor growth rate than that of the model group. In summary, XKJR may improve hippocampal microglia activation and neuronal damage in mice with breast cancer related depression through activating COX signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , Depression/genetics , Interleukin-18 , Cyclooxygenase 2/genetics , Hippocampus , Glucose , Neoplasms
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981432

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the effect and mechanism of arctigenin(ARC) in the treatment of vascular endothelial injury in rats with pregnancy-induced hypertension(PIH). Fifty SD rats pregnant for 12 days were randomly assigned into a control group, a model group, an ARC group, a rapamycin(RAP, autophagy inducer) group, and an ARC+3-methyladenine(3-MA, autophagy inhibitor) group, with 10 rats in each group. The rats in the other groups except the control group were intraperitoneally injected with nitrosyl-L-arginine methyl ester(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)) to establish the PIH model on the 13th day of pregnancy. On the 15th day of pregnancy, the rats in ARC, RAP, and ARC+3-MA groups were intraperitoneally injected with ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), RAP(1 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), and 3-MA(15 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1))+ARC(50 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1)), respectively. The pregnant rats in the control group and the model group were intraperitoneally injected with the same amount of normal saline. The blood pressure and 24 h urine protein(24 h-UP) of pregnant rats in each group were measured before and after intervention. Cesarean section was performed to terminate pregnancy on day 21, and the body weight and body length of fetal rats were compared among groups. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was employed to observe the pathological changes of placenta. The expression of endothelin-1(ET-1) and endothelial nitric oxide synthase(eNOS) in placenta was detected by immunohistochemistry. The serum levels of ET-1 and nitric oxide(NO) were determined with corresponding kits. The expression of microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3(LC3), Beclin-1, NOD-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3), apoptosis-associated speck-like protein with CARD domain(ASC), caspase-1, interleukin(IL)-1β, and IL-18 was determined by immunofluorescence and Western blot. The level of reactive oxygen species(ROS) in placenta was measured by fluorescence staining. The results showed that on day 12 of pregnancy, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP had no significant differences among groups. On days 15, 19, and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in the model group were higher than those in the control group(P<0.05). On days 19 and 21, the blood pressure and 24 h-UP in ARC group and RAP group were lower than those in the model group(P<0.05), and they were higher in the ARC+3-MA group than in the ARC group(P<0.05). On day 21, the model group had lower body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), higher serum level of ET-1, and lower serum level of NO(P<0.05) than the control group. Moreover, the placental tissue showed typical pathological damage, down-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1 and eNOS(P<0.05), up-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and elevated ROS level. Compared with the model group, ARC and RAP groups showed increased body weight and body length of fetal rats(P<0.05), lowered serum level of ET-1, elevated serum level of NO(P<0.05), reduced pathological damage of placental tissue, up-regulated expression of LC3-Ⅱ/LC3-Ⅰ, Beclin-1, and eNOS(P<0.05), down-regulated expression of ET-1, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18(P<0.05), and lowered ROS level. Compared with ARC group, 3-MA reversed the effects of ARC on the above indicators. In conclusion, ARC can inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and mitigate vascular endothelial damage in PIH rats by inducing autophagy of vascular endothelial cells.


Subject(s)
Female , Pregnancy , Animals , Rats , Humans , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Hypertension, Pregnancy-Induced/drug therapy , Endothelial Cells , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , Beclin-1 , Cesarean Section , Reactive Oxygen Species , Placenta , Caspase 1 , Autophagy
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981385

ABSTRACT

This study aims to explore the effect of "Trichosanthis Fructus-Allii Macrostemonis" combination(GX) on the activation of NOD-, LRR-, and pyrin domain-containing protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome, the release of inflammatory cytokines, and the level of autophagy in RAW264.7 macrophage damaged by lipopolysaccharide(LPS), and the mechanism of GX against inflammatory response in macrophages. To be specific, LPS was used to induce the injury of RAW264.7 cells. Cell Counting Kit-8(CCK-8) assay was employed to measure the survival rate of cells, and Western blot to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein(ASC), cysteine-aspartic acid protease(caspase)-1, interleukin(IL)-18, IL-1β, microtubule-associated protein light chain 3(LC3)-Ⅱ, and selective autophagy junction protein p62/sequestosome 1 in RAW264.7 macrophages. ELISA was used to measure the levels of IL-18 and IL-1β in RAW264.7 cells. Transmission electron microscopy was applied to observe the number of autophagosomes in RAW264.7 cells. Immunofulourescence staining was used to detect the expression of LC3-Ⅱ and p62 in RAW264.7 cells. The result showed that GX significantly reduced the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 in RAW264.7 cells, significantly increased the protein expression of LC3Ⅱ, decreased the expression of p62, significantly inhibited the secretion of IL-18 and IL-1β, significantly increased the number of autophagosomes, significantly enhanced the immunofluorescence of LC3Ⅱ, and reduced the immunofluorescence of p62. Furthermore, 3-methyladenine(3-MA) could reverse the inhibitory effect of GX on NLRP3, ASC, and caspase-1 and reduce the release of IL-18 and IL-1β. In summary, GX can increase of the autophagy activity of RAW264.7 and inhibit the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome, thereby reducing the release of inflammatory cytokines and suppressing inflammatory response in macrophages.


Subject(s)
Inflammasomes/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Macrophages , Cytokines/metabolism , Caspase 1/metabolism , Autophagy , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981368

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effect of multi-glycosides of Tripterygium wilfordii(GTW) on renal injury in diabetic kidney disease(DKD) rats through Nod-like receptor protein 3(NLRP3)/cysteine-aspartic acid protease-1(caspase-1)/gsdermin D(GSDMD) pyroptosis pathway and the mechanism. To be specific, a total of 40 male SD rats were randomized into the normal group(n=8) and modeling group(n=34). In the modeling group, a high-sugar and high-fat diet and one-time intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin(STZ) were used to induce DKD in rats. After successful modeling, they were randomly classified into model group, valsartan(Diovan) group, and GTW group. Normal group and model group were given normal saline, and the valsartan group and GTW group received(ig) valsartan and GTW, respectively, for 6 weeks. Blood urea nitrogen(BUN), serum creatinine(Scr), alanine ami-notransferase(ALT), albumin(ALB), and 24 hours urinary total protein(24 h-UTP) were determined by biochemical tests. The pathological changes of renal tissue were observed based on hematoxylin and eosin(HE) staining. Serum levels of interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and interleukin-18(IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was used to detect the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related proteins in renal tissue, and RT-PCR to determine the expression of pyroptosis pathway-related genes in renal tissue. Compared with the normal group, the model group showed high levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), low level of ALB(P<0.01), severe pathological damage to kidney, and high protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01). Compared with the model group, valsartan group and GTW group had low levels of BUN, Scr, ALT, and 24 h-UTP and serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18(P<0.01), high level of ALB(P<0.01), alleviation of the pathological damage to the kidney, and low protein and mRNA levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, and GSDMD in renal tissue(P<0.01 or P<0.05). GTW may inhibit pyroptosis by decreasing the expression of NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD in renal tissue, thereby relieving the inflammatory response of DKD rats and the pathological injury of kidney.


Subject(s)
Rats , Male , Animals , Diabetic Nephropathies/genetics , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Glycosides/pharmacology , Tripterygium , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Caspase 1/metabolism , Pyroptosis , Uridine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Kidney , Valsartan/pharmacology , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981329

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to observe the effect of terpinen-4-ol(T4O) on the proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells(VSMCs) exposed to high glucose(HG) and reveal the mechanism via the Krüppel-like factor 4(KLF4)/nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB) signaling pathway. The VSMCs were first incubated with T4O for 2 h and then cultured with HG for 48 h to establish the model of inflammatory injury. The proliferation, cell cycle, and migration rate of VSMCs were examined by MTT method, flow cytometry, and wound healing assay, respectively. The content of inflammatory cytokines including interleukin(IL)-6 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha(TNF-α) in the supernatant of VSMCs was measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA). Western blot was employed to determine the protein levels of proliferating cell nuclear antigen(PCNA), Cyclin D1, KLF4, NF-κB p-p65/NF-κB p65, IL-1β, and IL-18. The KLF4 expression in VSMCs was silenced by the siRNA technology, and then the effects of T4O on the cell cycle and protein expression of the HG-induced VSMCs were observed. The results showed that different doses of T4O inhibited the HG-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs, increased the percentage of cells in G_1 phase, and decreased the percentage of cells in S phase, and down-regulated the protein levels of PCNA and Cyclin D1. In addition, T4O reduced the HG-induced secretion and release of the inflammatory cytokines IL-6 and TNF-α and down-regulated the expression of KLF4, NF-κB p-p65/NF-κB p65, IL-1β, and IL-18. Compared with si-NC+HG, siKLF4+HG increased the percentage of cells in G_1 phase, decreased the percentage of cells in S phase, down-regulated the expression of PCNA, Cyclin D1, and KLF4, and inhibited the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway. Notably, the combination of silencing KLF4 with T4O treatment further promoted the changes in the above indicators. The results indicate that T4O may inhibit the HG-induced proliferation and migration of VSMCs by down-regulating the level of KLF4 and inhibiting the activation of NF-κB signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen/genetics , Cyclin D1/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth, Vascular , Cell Proliferation , Signal Transduction , Cytokines/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-987026

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of Naoluo Xintong Decoction (NLXTD) on pyroptosis and angiogenesis of brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and explore the possible mechanisms in rats with oxygen-glucose deprivation/ reperfusion (OGD/R).@*METHODS@#Rat BMECs with or without caspase-1 siRNA transfection were cultured in the presence of 10% medicated serum from NLXTD-treated rats (or blank serum) and exposed to OGD/R. CCK-8 assay, Transwell chamber assay, and tube formation assay were used to assess proliferation, migration, and tube-forming abilities of the cells. The activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the culture supernatant was determined using a commercial assay kit, and the levels of inflammatory factors IL-1β and IL-18 were detected with ELISA. The cellular expressions of pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, NLRP3, Gasdermin D, and angiogenesis-related proteins VEGF and VEGFR2 were detected using Western blotting.@*RESULTS@#The BMECs showed obvious injuries after OGD/R exposure. Compared with the blank serum, the medicated serum significantly improved the cell viability, migration ability, and lumen-forming ability (P < 0.01) and lowered the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 and the LDH release (P < 0.01) of the cells with OGD/R exposure. Western blotting showed that in the BMECs exposed to OGD/R, the medicated serum strongly upregulated the expression of VEGF and VEGFR2 proteins (P < 0.01) and reduced the protein expressions of pro-caspase-1, caspase-1, NLRP3, and Gasdermin D (P < 0.01), and transfection of the cells with caspase-1 siRNA further promoted the expressions of VEGFR2 protein in the cells (P < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#NLXTD can improve the proliferation, migration, and tube- forming ability and promote angiogenesis of BMECs with OGD/R injury probably by inhibiting the caspase-1/Gasdermin D pathway in pyroptosis, alleviating cell injury, and upregulating the expressions of VEGF and VEGFR2.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Endothelial Cells , Caspase 1 , Gasdermins , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A , Reperfusion Injury , Brain , Angiogenic Proteins , Glucose
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986946

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects and clinical significance of NOD-like receptor family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome activated by interleukin (IL)-17A in chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). Methods: Patients underwent nasal endoscopic surgery in the Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University from January 2020 to December 2021 were collected, including 28 CRSwNP (including 19 males and 9 females, aged 19 to 67 years), 22 chronic rhinosinusitis without nasal polyps (CRSsNP) and 22 controls. qRT-PCR was used to detect the expressions of IL-17A, NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the three groups, and their correlations were analyzed. The positions of IL-17A, NLRP3 and IL-18 in nasal polys were analyzed by immunofluorescence. Western Blotting and ELISA were employed to detect the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the human nasal epithelial cells after using IL-17A stimulation or IL-17A receptor inhibitor. Immunofluorescence was used to observe the NLRP3, IL-1β, and IL-18 protein expression after IL-17A stimulating human nasal epithelial cells, and after the use of IL-17A receptor inhibitor and NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950. The correlations between NLRP3, IL-1β, IL-18 and CT scores, nasal endoscopic scores, visual analogue scale (VAS) scores, and sino-nasal outcome test (SNOT) 22 scores of CRSwNP patients were analyzed. SPSS 20.0 software was used for statistical analysis. Results: The expressions of IL-17A, NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 in the tissues of CRSwNP patients were significantly higher than those in CRSsNP group(P=0.018,P<0.001,P=0.005, P=0.016) and the control group(all P<0.001). IL-17A was positively correlated with the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, and IL-18(r ralue was 0.643,0.650,0.629,respectively, all P<0.05). IL-17A, NLRP3, and IL-18 were co-localized in the epithelial propria of polyp tissue. IL-17A stimulated the expressions of NLRP3, IL-1β, and IL-18 in human nasal epithelial cells. After the use of IL-17A receptor inhibitor, the expressions of NLRP3, IL-1β, and IL-18 were significantly down-regulated. After the use of NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950, IL-17A was significantly down-regulated to promote the expression of NLRP3, IL-1β, and IL-18. The expressions of NLRP3, IL-1β and IL-18 were positively correlated with CT, nasal endoscopy, VAS, and SNOT22 scores in patients with CRSwNP. Conclusions: IL-17A promotes the release of IL-1β and IL-18 by activating the NLRP3 inflammasome and aggravates the severity of the disease in CRSwNP.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chronic Disease , Clinical Relevance , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-18 , Nasal Polyps/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Rhinitis/metabolism , Sinusitis/metabolism
8.
Chinese Journal of Hepatology ; (12): 594-600, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986176

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the role of Maresin1 (MaR1) in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (HIRI). Methods: The HIRI model was established and randomly divided into a sham operation group (Sham group), an ischemia-reperfusion group (IR group), and a MaR1 ischemia-reperfusion group (MaR1+IR group). MaR1 80ng was intravenously injected into each mouse's tail veins 0.5h before anesthesia. The left and middle hepatic lobe arteries and portal veins were opened and clamped. The blood supply was restored after 1h of ischemia. After 6h of reperfusion, the mice were sacrificed to collect blood and liver tissue samples. The Sham's group abdominal wall was only opened and closed. RAW267.4 macrophages were administered with MaR1 50ng/ml 0.5h before hypoxia, followed by hypoxia for 8h and reoxygenation for 2h, and were divided into the control group, the hypoxia-reoxygenation group (HR group), the MaR1 hypoxia-reoxygenation group (MaR1 + HR group), the Z-DEVD-FMK hypoxia-reoxygenation group (HR+Z group), the MaR1 + Z-DEVD-FMK hypoxia-reoxygenation group (MaR1 + HR + Z group), and the Con group without any treatment. Cells and the supernatant above them were collected. One-way analysis of variance was used for inter-group comparisons, and the LSD-t test was used for pairwise comparisons. Results: Compared with the Sham group, the levels of alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18 in the IR group were significantly higher (P < 0.05), with remarkable pathological changes, while the level in the MaR1 + IR group was lower than before (P < 0.05), and the pathological changes were alleviated. Compared with the Con group, the HR group had higher levels of IL-1β and IL-18 (P < 0.05), while the MaR1 + HR group had lower levels of IL-1β and IL-18 (P < 0.05). Western blot showed that the expressions of caspase-3, GSDME, and GSDME-N were significantly higher in the HR group and IR group than in the other groups; however, the expression was lower following MaR1 pretreatment. The Z-DEVD-FMK exploration mechanism was inhibited by the expression of caspase-3 in HIRI when using MaR1. Compared with the HR group, the IL-1β and IL-18 levels and the expressions of caspase-3, GSDME, and GSDME-N in the HR + Z group were decreased (P < 0.05), while the expression of nuclear factor κB was increased, but following MaR1 pretreatment, nuclear factor κB was decreased. There was no significant difference in the results between the MaR1 + H/R group and the MaR1 + H/R + Z group (P > 0.05). Conclusion: MaR1 alleviates HIRI by inhibiting NF-κB activation and caspase-3/GSDME-mediated inflammatory responses.


Subject(s)
Mice , Animals , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Caspase 3/metabolism , Liver/pathology , Signal Transduction , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970630

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to explore the mechanism of n-butanol alcohol extract of Baitouweng Decoction(BAEB) in the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis(VVC) in mice based on the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome via PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis. In the experiment, female C57BL/6 mice were divided randomly into the following six groups: a blank control group, a VVC model group, high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups(80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1)), and a fluconazole group(20 mg·kg~(-1)). The VVC model was induced in mice except for those in the blank control group by the estrogen dependence method. After modeling, no treatment was carried out in the blank control group. The mice in the high-, medium-, and low-dose BAEB groups were treated with BAEB at 80, 40, and 20 mg·kg~(-1), respectively, and those in the fluconazole group were treated with fluconazole at 20 mg·kg~(-1). The mice in the VVC model group received the same volume of normal saline. The general state and body weight of mice in each group were observed every day, and the morphological changes of Candida albicans in the vaginal lavage of mice were examined by Gram staining. The fungal load in the vaginal lavage of mice was detected by microdilution assay. After the mice were killed, the degree of neutrophil infiltration in the vaginal lavage was detected by Papanicolaou staining. The content of inflammatory cytokines interleukin(IL)-1β, IL-18, and lactate dehydrogenase(LDH) in the vaginal lavage was tested by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA), and vaginal histopathology was analyzed by hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining. The expression and distribution of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were measured by immunohistochemistry(IHC), and the expression and distribution of pNLRC4 and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues were detected by immunofluorescence(IF). The protein expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by Western blot(WB), and the mRNA expression of NLRP3, PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra was detected by qRT-PCR. The results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed redness, edema, and white secretions in the vagina. Compared with the VVC model group, the BAEB groups showed improved general state of VVC mice. As revealed by Gram staining, Papanicolaou staining, microdilution assay, and HE staining, compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed a large number of hyphae, neutrophils infiltration, and increased fungal load in the vaginal lavage, destroyed vaginal mucosa, and infiltration of a large number of inflammatory cells. BAEB could reduce the transformation of C. albicans from yeast to hyphae. High-dose BAEB could significantly reduce neutrophil infiltration and fungal load. Low-and medium-dose BAEB could reduce the da-mage to the vaginal tissue, while high-dose BAEB could restore the damaged vaginal tissues to normal levels. ELISA results showed that the content of inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-18, and LDH in the VVC model group significantly increased compared with that in the blank control group, and the content of IL-1β, IL-18 and LDH in the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups was significantly reduced compared with that in the VVC model group. WB and qRT-PCR results showed that compared with the blank control group, the VVC model group showed reduced protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues of mice and increased protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3. Compared with the VVC model group, the medium-and high-dose BAEB groups showed up-regulated protein and mRNA expression of PKCδ, pNLRC4, and IL-1Ra in vaginal tissues and inhibited protein and mRNA expression of NLRP3 in vaginal tissues. This study indicated that the therapeutic effect of BAEB on VVC mice was presumably related to the negative regulation of NLRP3 inflammasome by promoting PKCδ/NLRC4/IL-1Ra axis.


Subject(s)
Female , Animals , Humans , Mice , Candidiasis, Vulvovaginal/drug therapy , Inflammasomes/genetics , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/genetics , 1-Butanol/pharmacology , Fluconazole/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Candida albicans , Cytokines , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Ethanol , RNA, Messenger , Calcium-Binding Proteins/therapeutic use
10.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970542

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to parallelly investigate the cardioprotective activity of Cinnamomi Ramulus formula granules(CRFG) and Cinnamomi Cortex formula granules(CCFG) against acute myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury(MI/RI) and the underlying mechanism based on the efficacy of "warming and coordinating the heart Yang". Ninety male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham group, a model group, CRFG low and high-dose(0.5 and 1.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups, and CCFG low and high-dose(0.5 and 1.0 g·kg~(-1)) groups, with 15 rats in each group. The sham group and the model group were given equal volumes of normal saline by gavage. Before modeling, the drug was given by gavage once a day for 7 consecutive days. One hour after the last administration, the MI/RI rat model was established by ligating the left anterior descending artery(LAD) for 30 min ischemia followed by 2 h reperfusion except the sham group. The sham group underwent the same procedures without LAD ligation. Heart function, cardiac infarct size, cardiac patho-logy, cardiomyocyte apoptosis, cardiac injury enzymes, and inflammatory cytokines were determined to assess the protective effects of CRFG and CCFG against MI/RI. The gene expression levels of nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain protein 3(NLRP3) inflammasome, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD(ASC), cysteinyl aspartate specific proteinase-1(caspase-1), Gasdermin-D(GSDMD), interleukin-1β(IL-1β), and interleukin-18(IL-18) were determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(RT-PCR). The protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and N-GSDMD were determined by Western blot. The results showed that both CRFG and CCFG pretreatments significantly improved cardiac function, decreased the cardiac infarct size, inhibited cardiomyocyte apoptosis, and reduced the content of lactic dehydrogenase(LDH), creatine kinase MB isoenzyme(CK-MB), aspartate transaminase(AST), and cardiac troponin Ⅰ(cTnⅠ). In addition, CRFG and CCFG pretreatments significantly decreased the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) in serum. RT-PCR results showed that CRFG and CCFG pretreatment down-regulated the mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, ASC, and downstream pyroptosis-related effector substances including GSDMD, IL-18, and IL-1β in cardiac tissues. Western blot revealed that CRFG and CCFG pretreatments significantly decreased the protein expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1, GSDMD, and N-GSDMD in cardiac tissues. In conclusion, CRFG and CCFG pretreatments have obvious cardioprotective effects on MI/RI in rats, and the under-lying mechanism may be related to the inhibition of NLRP3/caspase-1/GSDMD signaling pathway to reduce the cardiac inflammatory response.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Interleukin-18 , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Myocardial Infarction , Caspase 1
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970014

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#There is a paucity of information on the cytokine, complement, endothelial activation, and coagulation profiles of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in adults (MIS-A), a rare but serious complication following recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. We aim to examine the immune biomarker and coagulation profiles in association with the clinical presentation and course of MIS-A.@*METHOD@#The clinical features of MIS-A patients admitted to our tertiary hospital were documented. Their levels of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17, IL-18, interferon-α (IFN-α), IFN-γ, interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP-10), tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1, complement activation product (complement 5a [C5a]), and endothelial biomarker intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) levels were assayed. The haemostatic profile was assessed with standard coagulation testing and thromboelastography.@*RESULTS@#Three male patients were diagnosed with MIS-A at our centre from January to June 2022 with a median age of 55 years. All had tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 12-62 days prior to MIS-A presentation, with gastrointestinal and cardiovascular systems as the most commonly involved. Levels of IL-6, IL-10, IL-18, IP-10 and MCP-1 were raised whereas IL-1β, IFN-α, IFN-γ, IL-17 and TNF-α remained normal. Markedly elevated levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), ferritin and ICAM-1 were present in all. C5a was elevated in 2 patients. A hypercoagulable state was demonstrated by raised levels of D-dimer, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor antigen, and ristocetin cofactor with corresponding raised parameters in thromboelastography in the 2 patients who had their coagulation profile assessed.@*CONCLUSION@#MIS-A patients demonstrate activation of pro-inflammatory cytokines, endotheliopathy, complement hyperactivation and hypercoagulability.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Male , Middle Aged , COVID-19/complications , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-18 , Intercellular Adhesion Molecule-1 , Interleukin-17 , Chemokine CXCL10 , Interleukin-6 , SARS-CoV-2 , Connective Tissue Diseases , Hemostatics
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-969990

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on NLRP3 inflammasome and its downstream protein gastermin D (GSDMD) in rats with primary dysmenorrhea (PDM), and to explore the potential mechanism of EA on the treatment of PDM.@*METHODS@#Forty healthy female SD rats without pregnancy were randomly divided into a control group, a model group, an EA group and an ibuprofen group, 10 rats in each group. PDM model was prepared by injection of estradiol benzoate and oxytocin. Except the control group, the rats in each group were subcutaneously injected with estradiol benzoate for 10 days, and oxytocin was injected on the 11th day. The rats in the EA group were intervened with EA (dense wave, frequency of 50 Hz) at "Guanyuan" (CV 4) and "Sanyinjiao" (SP 6) at the same time of modeling, once a day, 20 min each time, for 10 consecutive days. The rats in the ibuprofen group were treated with 0.8 mL of ibuprofen by gavage (concentration of ibuprofen solution was 1.25 mg/mL) for 10 consecutive days. After modeling, the writhing reaction was observed. After intervention, the HE staining method was used to observe the histological morphology of uterus and evaluate the pathological damage score of uterus; ELISA method was used to detect the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and prostaglandin F2α (PGF2α); Western blot method was used to detect the protein expression of NLRP3, apoptosis related spot like protein (ASC), caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N and inflammatory factors (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-18) in uterine tissue.@*RESULTS@#In the model group, a large number of vacuolar degeneration and death of endometrial epithelial cells, spiral arterioles congestion in lamina propria and neutrophil infiltration were observed. In the EA group, there was a small amount of vacuolar degeneration and death of endometrial epithelial cells, a small amount of spiral arterioles congestion in the lamina propria, and a small amount of neutrophils infiltration. In the ibuprofen group, there was very small number of degeneration and death of endometrial epithelial cells, and no obvious arterial congestion was found in lamina propria, and neutrophil infiltration was occasionally seen. Compared with the control group, in the model group the number of writhing was increased (P<0.01), the writhing reaction score and serum level of PGF2α and PGF2α/PGE2 value were increased (P<0.01), the level of PGE2 was decreased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, in the EA group and the ibuprofen group the number of writhing were decreased (P<0.05), the latency of writhing was prolonged (P<0.01), the writhing reaction scores and serum levels of PGF2α and PGF2α/PGE2 values were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the levels of PGE2 were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the control group, the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N, IL-1β and IL-18 in the uterine tissues of rats was increased in the model group (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the protein expression of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, GSDMD, GSDMD-N, IL-1β and IL-18 in the uterine tissues of rats was decreased in the EA group and the ibuprofen group (P<0.01, P<0.05). There was no significant difference between the EA group and the ibuprofen group in the above indexes (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#EA could alleviate pain and uterine tissue injury in rats with PDM. The mechanism may be related to the inhibition of the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in rat uterine tissues, thereby inhibiting pyroptosis and its inflammatory factors release.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Rats , Caspases , Dinoprost , Dinoprostone , Dysmenorrhea , Electroacupuncture , Ibuprofen , Inflammasomes , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Oxytocin , Phosphate-Binding Proteins , Pyroptosis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Uterus
13.
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 513-517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982624

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of hydrogen gas on NOD-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasomes in the cerebral cortex of rats with traumatic brain injury (TBI).@*METHODS@#120 adult male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rates were randomly divided into 5 groups (n = 24): sham operation group (S group), TBI model group (T group), TBI+NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 group (T+M group), TBI+hydrogen gas group (T+H group), TBI+hydrogen gas+MCC950 group (T+H+M group). TBI model was established by controlled cortical impact. NLRP3 inhibitor MCC950 (10 mg/kg) was intraperitoneally injected for 14 consecutive days before TBI operation in T+M and T+H+M groups. 2% hydrogen inhalation was given for 1 hour at 1 hour and 3 hours after TBI operation in T+H and T+H+M groups. At 6 hours after TBI operation, the pericontusional cortex tissues were obtained, the content of Evans blue (EB) was detected to evaluate the permeability of the blood-brain barrier. Water content in brain tissue was detected. The cell apoptosis was detected by TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) and the neuronal apoptosis index was calculated. The expressions of Bcl-2, Bax, NLRP3, apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing CARD (ASC) and caspase-1 p20 were detected by Western blotting. The levels of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-18) were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).@*RESULTS@#Compared with the S group, the content of EB in cerebral cortex, water content in brain tissue, apoptosis index and the expressions of Bax, NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1 p20 in T group were significantly increased, the expression of Bcl-2 was down-regulated, the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were increased [the content of EB (μg/g): 87.57±6.89 vs. 10.54±1.15, water content in brain tissues: (83.79±2.74)% vs. (74.50±1.19)%, apoptotic index: (62.66±5.33)% vs. (4.61±0.96)%, Bax/β-actin: 4.20±0.44 vs. 1, NLRP3/β-actin: 3.55±0.31 vs. 1, ASC/β-actin: 3.10±0.26 vs. 1, caspase-1 p20/β-actin: 3.28±0.24 vs. 1, Bcl-2/β-actin: 0.23±0.03 vs. 1, IL-1β (ng/g): 221.58±19.15 vs. 27.15±3.27, IL-18 (ng/g): 87.26±7.17 vs. 12.10±1.85, all P < 0.05]. Compared with the T group, the T+M, T+H and T+H+M groups had significant reductions in the content of EB and water content in brain tissue, apoptotic index of the cerebral cortex, the expressions of Bax, NLRP3, and caspase-1 p20 in the brain tissue and the levels of IL-1β and IL-18, significant increases in the expression of Bcl-2. However, there was no significant difference in ASC expression. Compared with the T+H group, the content of EB in the cerebral cortex, water content in brain tissue, and apoptotic index, and the expressions of Bax, NLRP3 and caspase-1 p20 were further down-regulated in T+H+M group, the expression of Bcl-2 was further up-regulated, the levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were further decreased [the content of EB (μg/g): 40.49±3.15 vs. 51.96±4.69, water content in brain tissue: (76.58±1.04)% vs. (78.76±1.16)%, apoptotic index: (32.22±3.44)% vs. (38.54±3.89)%, Bax/β-actin: 1.92±0.16 vs. 2.56±0.21, NLRP3/β-actin: 1.94±0.14 vs. 2.37±0.24, caspase-1 p20/β-actin: 1.97±0.17 vs. 2.31±0.19, Bcl-2/β-actin: 0.82±0.07 vs. 0.52±0.04, IL-1β (ng/g): 86.23±7.09 vs. 110.44±10.48, IL-18 (ng/g): 40.18±3.22 vs. 46.23±4.02, all P < 0.05], but there were no statistical significance in all the indicators between T+M group and T+H group.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The mechanism by which hydrogen gas alleviates TBI may be related to inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasomes in the cerebral cortex of rats.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Actins , Interleukin-18 , Inflammasomes , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Cerebral Cortex , Caspases
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-980796

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To observe the effect of Tongdu Tiaoshen (promoting the circulation of the governor vessel and regulating the spirit) electroacupuncture (EA) pretreatment on pyroptosis mediated by peroxisome proliferators-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) of the cerebral cortex in rats with cerebral ischemia reperfusion injury (CIRI) and explore the potential mechanism of EA for the prevention and treatment of CIRI.@*METHODS@#A total of 110 clean-grade male SD rats were randomly divided into a sham-operation group, a model group, an EA group, an EA + inhibitor group and an agonist group, 22 rats in each group. In the EA group, before modeling, EA was applied to "Baihui" (GV 20), "Fengfu" (GV 16) and "Dazhui" (GV 14), with disperse-dense wave, 2 Hz/5 Hz in frequency, 1 to 2 mA in intensity, lasting 20 min; once a day, consecutively for 7 days. On the base of the intervention as the EA group, on the day 7, the intraperitoneal injection with the PPARγ inhibitor, GW9662 (10 mg/kg) was delivered in the EA + inhibitor group. In the agonist group, on the day 7, the PPARγ agonist, pioglitazone hydrochloride (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. At the end of intervention, except the sham-operation group, the modified thread embolization method was adopted to establish the right CIRI model in the rats of the other groups. Using the score of the modified neurological severity score (mNSS), the neurological defect condition of rats was evaluated. TTC staining was adopted to detect the relative cerebral infarction volume of rat, TUNEL staining was used to detect apoptosis of cerebral cortical nerve cells and the transmission electron microscope was used to observe pyroptosis of cerebral cortical neural cells. The positive expression of PPARγ and nucleotide-binding to oligomerization domain-like receptor protein 3 (NLRP3) in the cerebral cortex was detected with the immunofluorescence staining. The protein expression of PPARγ, NLRP3, cysteinyl aspartate specific protease-1 (caspase-1), gasdermin D (GSDMD) and GSDMD-N terminal (GSDMD-N) in the cerebral cortex was detected with Western blot. Using the quantitative real-time fluorescence-PCR, the mRNA expression of PPARγ, NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD of the cerebral cortex was detected. The contents of interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-18 in the cerebral cortex of rats were determined by ELISA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the sham-operation group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were increased (P<0.01), pyroptosis was severe, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ, NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were elevated (P<0.01); and the protein expression of GSDMD-N and contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were increased (P<0.01) in the model group. When compared with the model group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were decreased (P<0.01), pyroptosis was alleviated, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ were increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of GSDMD-N was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were lower (P<0.01) in the EA group and the agonist group; while, in the EA + inhibitor group, the protein expression of PPARγ was increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01, P<0.05), the mRNA expression of caspase-1 was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were lower (P<0.01). When compared with the EA + inhibitor group, the mNSS, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), pyroptosis was alleviated, the protein and mRNA expression levels of PPARγ were increased (P<0.01), the protein and mRNA expression levels of NLRP3, caspase-1 and GSDMD were decreased (P<0.01), the protein expression of GSDMD-N was reduced (P<0.01); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were declined (P<0.01) in the EA group. Compared with the agonist group, in the EA group, the relative cerebral infarction volume and the TUNEL positive cells rate were increased (P<0.05, P<0.01), the mRNA expression of PPARγ was decreased (P<0.01) and the protein expression of GSDMD-N was elevated (P<0.05); and the contents of IL-1β and IL-18 were higher (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Tongdu Tiaoshen EA pretreatment can attenuate the neurological impairment in the rats with CIRI, and the underlying mechanism is related to the up-regulation of PPARγ inducing the inhibition of NLRP3 in the cerebral cortex of rats so that pyroptosis is affected.


Subject(s)
Male , Animals , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , PPAR gamma/genetics , Pyroptosis , Interleukin-18 , Electroacupuncture , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein , Cerebral Cortex , Cerebral Infarction/therapy , Caspases , RNA, Messenger
16.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 66(1): 3-11, Jan.-Feb. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364308

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: Our aim was to analyze levels of proinflammatory biomarker interleukin-18 (IL-18) in healthy controls and patients with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) focusing on its association with obesity, clinical, hormonal, and metabolic characteristics. Subjects and methods: Fifty-eight patients with PCOS were enrolled in the study fulfilling the Rotterdam criteria and were matched for age, body mass index (BMI), and ethnicity with 30 healthy controls. Detailed anthropometric measurements, clinical investigations, hormonal and biochemical tests were obtained between the 3rd and 5th day of a menstrual cycle. A subanalysis of the PCOS group was performed separating patients into several groups according to a waist-to-height ratio (WHtR), insulin resistance (IR), and free androgen index (FAI). Serum IL-18 levels were measured using the ELISA method. Results: Levels of IL-18 were similar between PCOS patients and controls. IL-18 was higher in overweight/obese women compared to normal-weight women when analyzing all participants together and separately PCOS or controls group (p < 0.001, p < 0.001, p = 0.01, respectively). Additionally, IL-18 levels were higher in high-WHtR and IR subgroups compared to low-WHtR (p < 0.001) and non-IR PCOS women (p < 0.001). PCOS women with high FAI had greater serum IL-18 levels than normal-FAI patients (p = 0.002). Levels of IL-18 correlated positively with most of the anthropometric and metabolic parameters. In multiple linear regression, age, waist circumference, and fasting insulin were independently related factors with IL-18. Conclusion: Elevated levels of IL-18 were related to several indices of general and visceral adiposity and insulin resistance in PCOS.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Polycystic Ovary Syndrome , Insulin Resistance , Interleukin-18 , Body Mass Index , Adiposity , Waist Circumference , Insulin
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922356

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To investigate the clinical value of urine interleukin-18 (IL-8), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL) and kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) for the early diagnosis of acute kidney injury (AKI) in patients with ureteroscopic lithotripsy (URL) related urosepsis.@*METHODS@#A retrospective study was carried out in 157 patients with urosepsis after URL. The patients were divided into AKI group and non-AKI group according to the Kidigo guideline and urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 levels were detected by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay at 0, 4, 12, 24 and 48 h after the surgery. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) was used to evaluate the diagnostic value of these three biomarkers for postoperative AKI.@*RESULTS@#The level of urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 in AKI group was significantly higher than that in non-AKI group at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h (p < 0.01). The ROC analysis showed the combined detection of urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 at 12 h had a larger area under curve (AUC) than a single marker (0.997, 95% CI: 0.991-0.998), and the sensitivity and specificity were 98.2% and 96.7%, respectively. Pearson correlation analysis showed that the levels of urine NGAL at 4, 12, 24 and 48 h in AKI patients were positively correlated with the levels of urine KIM-1 and IL-18 (p < 0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#AKI could be quickly recognized by the elevated level of urine IL-8, NGAL and KIM-1 in patients with URL-related urosepsis. Combined detection of the three urine biomarkers at 12 h after surgery had a better diagnostic performance, which may be an important reference for the early diagnosis of AKI.


Subject(s)
Humans , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Biomarkers , Early Diagnosis , Hepatitis A Virus Cellular Receptor 1 , Interleukin-18 , Interleukin-8 , Lipocalin-2 , Lithotripsy , Retrospective Studies , Ureteroscopy
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-939784

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To determine whether Schisandrin B (Sch B) attenuates early brain injury (EBI) in rats with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH).@*METHODS@#Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into sham (sham operation), SAH, SAH+vehicle, and SAH+Sch B groups using a random number table. Rats underwent SAH by endovascular perforation and received Sch B (100 mg/kg) or normal saline after 2 and 12 h of SAH. SAH grading, neurological scores, brain water content, Evan's blue extravasation, and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) staining were carried out 24 h after SAH. Immunofluorescent staining was performed to detect the expressions of ionized calcium binding adapter molecule 1 (Iba-1) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) in the rat brain, while the expressions of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bax, Caspase-3, nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain-like receptor family pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3), apoptosis-associated specklike protein containing the caspase-1 activator domain (ASC), Caspase-1, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brains were detected by Western blot.@*RESULTS@#Compared with the SAH group, Sch B significantly improved the neurological function, reduced brain water content, Evan's blue content, and apoptotic cells number in the brain of rats (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Moreover, Sch B decreased SAH-induced expressions of Iba-1 and MPO (P<0.01). SAH caused the elevated expressions of Bax, Caspase-3, NLRP3, ASC, Caspase-1, IL-1β, and IL-18 in the rat brain (P<0.01), all of which were inhibited by Sch B (P<0.01). In addition, Sch B increased the Bcl-2 expression (P<0.01).@*CONCLUSION@#Sch B attenuated SAH-induced EBI, which might be associated with the inhibition of neuroinflammation, neuronal apoptosis, and the NLRP3 inflammatory signaling pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Apoptosis , Brain/pathology , Brain Injuries/pathology , Caspase 3/metabolism , Cyclooctanes , Evans Blue , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18/metabolism , Lignans , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Polycyclic Compounds , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/drug therapy , Water , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-936360

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of interference of P2X4 receptor expression in tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) on invasion and migration of glioma cells.@*METHODS@#C57BL/6 mouse models bearing gliomas in the caudate nucleus were examined for glioma pathology with HE staining and expressions of Iba-1 and P2X4 receptor with immunofluorescence assay. RAW264.7 cells were induced into TAMs using conditioned medium from GL261 cells, and the changes in mRNA expressions of macrophage polarization-related markers and the mRNA and protein expressions of P2X4 receptor were detected with RT-qPCR and Western blotting. The effect of siRNA-mediated P2X4 interference on IL-1β and IL-18 mRNA and protein expressions in the TAMs was detected with RT-qPCR and Western blotting. GL261 cells were cultured in the conditioned medium from the transfected TAMs, and the invasion and migration abilities of the cells were assessed with Transwell invasion and migration experiment.@*RESULTS@#The glioma tissues from the tumor-bearing mice showed a significantly greater number of Iba-1-positive cells, where an obviously increased P2X4 receptor expression was detected (P=0.001), than the brain tissues of the control mice (P < 0.001). The M2 macrophage markers (Arg-1 and IL-10) and M1 macrophage markers (iNOS and TNF-α) were both significantly up-regulated in the TAMs derived from RAW264.7 cells (all P < 0.01), but the up-regulation of the M2 macrophage markers was more prominent; the expression levels of P2X4 receptor protein and mRNA were both increased in the TAMs (P < 0.05). Interference of P2X4 receptor expression significantly lowered the mRNA(P < 0.01)and protein (P < 0.01, P < 0.05)expression levels of IL-1β and IL-18 in the TAMs and obviously inhibited the ability of the TAMs to promote invasion and migration of the glioma cells (P < 0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Interference of P2X4 receptor in the TAMs suppresses the migration and invasion of glioma cells possibly by lowering the expressions of IL-1β and IL-18.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Culture Media, Conditioned , Glioma , Interleukin-18 , Mice, Inbred C57BL , RNA, Messenger , Receptors, Purinergic P2X4/metabolism , Tumor-Associated Macrophages
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927890

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the effects of the pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome inhibitor MCC950 on nerve injury in rats with intracerebral hemorrhage(ICH). Methods: Seventy-two SD rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=24): Sham group, ICH group and MCC950 group. ICH group and MCC950 group rats were injected with autogenous non-anticoagulant blood to establish ICH model, and then the rats in MCC950 group were intraperitoneally injected with MCC950 at the dose of 10 mg/kg(2 mg/ml) for 3 days after ICH model was established. Seventy-two hours after the establishment of the model, the forelimb placement test, the corner test and mNSS score were performed to observe the neurological function of the rats with ICH. The volume of hematoma was observed in fresh brain tissue sections. HE staining was used to observe the pathological changes of brain tissue. The dry-wet weight ratio was calculated to evaluate the changes of brain tissue edema. The degeneration of neurons was observed by FJC staining. The neuronal apoptosis was observed by TUNEL staining. The protein expression and activation levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, IL-1β, IL-18 and GSDMD were determined by Western blot. Results: Compared with sham group, the percentage of successful placement of left forelimb and left turn was decreased significantly (P<0.01, P<0.05), mNSS score was increased significantly (P<0.01) in ICH group. Hematoma volume was increased significantly, the number of microglial cells around the hematoma was increased, the number of neurons was decreased, nerve cell swelled, some cells showed pyknotic necrosis, and the staining was deepened. The water content of the right base was increased significantly (P<0.05). The number of FJC positive and TUNEL positive cells around the hematoma was increased significantly (P<0.05). The levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1/pro-caspase-1 ratio, GSDMD-N, GSDMD, GSDMD-N/GSDMD ratio, IL-1β and IL-18 were increased significantly (P<0.01, P< 0.05). Compared with ICH group, the percentage of successful placement of left forelimb and left turn was increased significantly in MCC950 group (P<0.05), while the mNSS score and the volume of hematoma were decreased significantly (P<0.01), the swelling degree of nerve cells around the hematoma was reduced significantly, and the number of pyrotic necrotic cells was decreased. The water content of the right base was decreased significantly (P<0.05), and the number of FJC positive and TUNEL positive cells around the hematoma was decreased significantly (P<0.05). The levels of NLRP3, ASC, caspase-1, pro-caspase-1, caspase-1/pro-caspase-1 ratio, GSDMD-N, GSDMD, GSDMD-N/GSDMD ratio, IL-1β and IL-18 were decreased significantly (P<0.05). Conclusion: MCC950 can ameliorate nerve injury after ICH by inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome mediated inflammation and pyroptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Caspase 1/metabolism , Cerebral Hemorrhage/pathology , Furans , Hematoma , Indenes , Inflammasomes/metabolism , Interleukin-18 , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Sulfonamides , Water
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