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1.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 85(3): 337-343, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011621

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Burnt sugarcane harvesting requires intense physical exertion in an environment of high temperature and exposure to particulate matter. Objective: To evaluate the effects of burnt sugarcane harvesting on rhinitis symptoms and inflammatory markers in sugarcane workers. Methods: A total of 32 male sugarcane workers were evaluated with questionnaire for rhinitis symptoms, and for inflammatory markers on peripheral blood and nasal lavage, in the non-harvesting, and 3 and 6 months into the sugarcane harvesting period. Weather data and particulate matter fine concentrations were measured in the same day. Results: The particulate matter concentrations in sugarcane harvesting were 27 (23-33 µg/m3), 112 (96-122 µg/m3), and 63 (17-263 µg/m3); 24 h temperatures were 32.6 (25.4-37.4 ºC), 32.3 (26.7-36.7 ºC) and 29.7 (24.1-34.0 ºC) and relative humidities were 45.4 (35.0-59.7%), 47.9 (39.1-63.0%), and 59.9 (34.7-63.2%) in the non-harvesting period, three and 6 months of the harvesting period. The age was 37.4 ± 10.9 years. The prevalence of rhinitis symptoms was significantly higher at 3 months of the harvesting period (53.4%), compared to non-harvesting period (26.7%; p = 0.039) and at 6 months into the harvesting period (20%; p = 0.006). Concentrations of interleukin 6 (IL-6) in nasal lavage increased after 3 months of the harvesting period compared to the non-harvesting period (p = 0.012). The presence of rhinitis symptoms, after 3 months of the harvesting period, was directly associated with blood eosinophils and inversely associated with neutrophils. Conclusions: After 3 months of work in burnt sugarcane harvesting the prevalence of rhinitis symptoms and IL-6 in nasal lavage increased. Furthermore, eosinophil counts were directly associated with the rhinitis symptoms in the period of higher concentration of particulate matter.


Resumo Introdução: A colheita de cana-de-açúcar queimada requer esforço físico intenso em um ambiente com altas temperaturas e exposição a material particulado. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos da colheita de cana-de-açúcar queimada nos sintomas de rinite e marcadores inflamatórios de cortadores de cana-de-açúcar. Método: Foram avaliados 32 cortadores de cana-de-açúcar do sexo masculino por meio de um questionário para sintomas de rinite, e marcadores inflamatórios em sangue periférico e lavado nasal, no período de entressafra, e em 3 e 6 meses após o início da colheita da cana-de-açúcar. Os dados climáticos e as concentrações de material particulado fino foram medidos no mesmo dia. Resultados: O material particulado fino na entressafra e em 3 e 6 meses de safra foi 27 (23-33 µg/m3), 112 (96-122 µg/m3) e 63 (17-263 µg/m3), respectivamente; a temperatura de 24 horas foi 32,6 (25,4º-37,4ºC), 32,3 (26,7º-36,7ºC) e 29,7 (24,1º-340ºC) e a umidade relativa do ar foi 45,4 (35,0%-59,7%), 47,9 (39,1%-63,0%), e 59,9 (34,7%-63,2%), na entressafra, 3 e 6 meses após o início da colheita. A idade foi de 37,4 ± 10,9 anos. A prevalência de sintomas de rinite foi significativamente maior em 3 meses da S (53,4%), comparado com a entressafra (26,7%; p = 0,039) e 6 meses da safra (20%; p = 0,006). As concentrações de interleucina 6 (IL-6) no lavado nasal aumentaram após 3 meses do início da colheita comparado com a entressafra (p = 0,012). A presença de sintomas de rinite, após 3 meses do início da colheita, foi diretamente associada com eosinófilos e inversamente associada com neutrófilos. Conclusões: Após 3 meses do início da colheita da cana-de-açúcar queimada, houve aumento na prevalência de sintomas de rinite e IL-6 em LN. Além disso, as contagens de eosinófilos foram diretamente associadas aos sintomas de rinite no período de maior concentração de material particulado.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Rhinitis/etiology , Saccharum , Air Pollutants, Occupational/adverse effects , Particulate Matter/adverse effects , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Biomarkers/blood , Rhinitis/blood , Prevalence , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Agriculture , Occupational Diseases/blood
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 76(5): 339-345, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950537

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is one of the parasitic infections that most affects the central nervous system. The knowledge regarding its immunopathogenesis and pathophysiology needs broadening. Taenia crassiceps cysticerci are used as the NCC experimental model. The aim of this work was to describe the general pathological processes and the in situ cytokine profile in C57BL/6 mice inoculated intracranially with viable T. crassiceps cysticerci. The histopathology analysis showed cysticerci in the extraparenchymal and intraventricular region, mononuclear inflammatory infiltration surrounding the parasite, microgliosis and meningitis. The analysis of the in situ immune profiles showed a predominance of the Th2 response. The IL-4 and IL-10 dosages were significantly increased in the infected group. The decrease in the INF-gamma dosage reflects the immunomodulation from the cysticerci. In conclusion, a T. crassiceps NCC infection in C57BL/6 mice triggers an inflammatory response, a predominance of Th2 type in situ profile, with mononuclear inflammatory cell infiltration, meningitis and microgliosis.


RESUMO Neurocisticercose (NCC) é uma das doenças parasitárias que mais afeta o sistema nervoso central. É necessário aprofundar o conhecimento em relação à sua imunopatogênese e patofisiologia. Os cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps são utilizados como modelo experimental para estudos da NCC. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever os processos patológicos gerais e o perfil de citocinas in situ em camundongos C57BL/6 inoculados via intracerebral com cisticercos viáveis de T. crassiceps. A análise histopatológica demonstrou cisticercos nas regiões extra-parenquimatosa e intraventricular, infiltrado inflamatório de células mononucleares ao redor do parasita, microgliose e meningite. A análise in situ do perfil de citocinas mostrou uma predominância da resposta Th2. As dosagens de IL-4 e IL-10 foram significativamente maiores no grupo infectado. Conclui-se que a NCC por T. crassiceps em camundongos C57BL/6 induz uma resposta inflamatória com predominância in situ de citocinas do perfil Th2, com infiltrado inflamatório de células mononucleares, meningite e microgliose.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Interleukin-4/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Th2 Cells/immunology , Neurocysticercosis/immunology , Taenia/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukin-4/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Interleukin-10/immunology , Neurocysticercosis/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Mice, Inbred C57BL
3.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 75(2): 96-102, Feb. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-838865

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is the most severe clinical manifestation of cysticercosis. One of the factors responsible for its symptomatology is the host inflammatory response. Therefore the influence of interleukin 4 (IL-4) on the induction of encephalitis in experimental NCC was evaluated. Methods BALB/c (WT) and BALB/c (IL-4-KO) mice were inoculated intracranially with Taenia crassiceps cysticerci and euthanized at 7, 30, 60 and 90 days later, the encephala removed and histopathologically analyzed. Results The absence of IL-4 induced greater parasitism. In the initial phase of the infection, IL-4-KO showed a lower intensity in the inflammatory infiltration of polimorphonuclear cells in the host-parasite interface and intra-parenquimatous edema. The IL-4-KO animals, in the late phase of the infection, showed lower intensity of ventriculomegaly, encephalitis, and meningitis, and greater survival of the parasites in comparison with the WT animals. Conclusion The absence of IL-4 induced lower inflammatory infiltration, ventriculomegaly and perivasculitis in experimental NCC.


RESUMO A Neurocisticercose (NCC) é a manifestação clínica mais severa da cisticercose, e um dos fatores responsáveis pela sintomatologia é a resposta inflamatória do hospedeiro. Desta forma avaliou-se a influência da interleucina 4 (IL-4) na indução de encefalite na NCC experimental. Métodos Camundongos das linhagens BALB/c (WT) e BALB/c (IL-4-KO) foram inoculados intracranialmente com cisticercos de Taenia crassiceps e eutanasiados aos 7, 30, 60 e 90 dias após a infecção, os encéfalos foram removidos e analisados histopatologicamente. Resultados A ausência da IL-4 induziu um maior parasitismo nos animais. Na fase inicial da infecção os animais IL-4-KO apresentaram menor intensidade tanto de infiltrado inflamatório de polimorfonucleares na interface parasito-hospedeiro quanto de edema intraparenquimatoso. Os animais IL-4-KO, na fase tardia, apresentaram menor intensidade de ventriculomegalia, encefalite, meningite e maior sobrevivência dos cisticercos em relação aos animais WT. Conclusão A ausência da IL-4 induz menos infiltrado inflamatório, ventriculomegalia e perivasculite na NCC experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Brain/parasitology , Interleukin-4/blood , Neurocysticercosis/parasitology , Cysticercus/physiology , Infectious Encephalitis/parasitology , Time Factors , Neurocysticercosis/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Infectious Encephalitis/blood , Host-Parasite Interactions , Mice, Inbred BALB C
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(6): 726-731, Sept. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-763099

ABSTRACT

The protective effect of infectious agents against allergic reactions has been thoroughly investigated. Current studies have demonstrated the ability of some helminths to modulate the immune response of infected hosts. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between Toxocara canis infection and the development of an allergic response in mice immunised with ovalbumin (OVA). We determined the total and differential blood and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid cells using BALB/c mice as a model. To this end, the levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5 and IL-10 and anti-OVA-IgE were measured using an ELISA. The inflammatory process in the lungs was observed using histology slides stained with haematoxylin and eosin. The results showed an increase in the total number of leukocytes and eosinophils in the blood of infected and immunised animals at 18 days after infection. We observed a slight lymphocytic inflammatory infiltrate in the portal space in all infected mice. Anti-OVA-IgE levels were detected in smaller proportions in the plasma of immunised and infected mice compared with mice that were only infected. Therefore, we concluded that T. canis potentiates inflammation in the lungs in response to OVA, although anti-OVA-IgE levels suggest a potential reduction of the inflammatory process through this mechanism.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid/parasitology , Hypersensitivity/parasitology , Lung/immunology , Toxocara canis/immunology , Toxocariasis/immunology , Antibodies/blood , Biopsy , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils/parasitology , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Inflammation/physiopathology , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-5/blood , Leukocyte Count , Lung/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Ovalbumin/immunology , Toxocariasis/blood
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-184029

ABSTRACT

Several factors can affect the perioperative immune function. We evaluated the effect of propofol and desflurane anesthesia on the surgery-induced immune perturbation in patients undergoing breast cancer surgery. The patients were randomly assigned to receive propofol (n = 20) or desflurane (n = 20) anesthesia. The total and differential white blood cell counts were determined with lymphocyte subpopulations before and 1 hr after anesthesia induction and at 24 hr postoperatively. Plasma concentrations of interleukin (IL)-2 and IL-4 were also measured. Both propofol and desflurane anesthesia preserved the IL-2/IL-4 and CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio. Leukocytes were lower in the propofol group than in the desflurane group at 1 hr after induction (median [quartiles], 4.98 [3.87-6.31] vs. 5.84 [5.18-7.94] 10(3)/microL) and 24 hr postoperatively (6.92 [5.54-6.86] vs. 7.62 [6.22-9.21] 10(3)/microL). NK cells significantly decreased 1 hr after induction in the propofol group (0.41 [0.34-0.53] to 0.25 [0.21-0.33] 10(3)/microL), but not in the desflurane group (0.33 [0.29-0.48] to 0.38 [0.30-0.56] 10(3)/microL). Our findings indicate that both propofol and desflurane anesthesia for breast cancer surgery induce a favorable immune response in terms of preservation of IL-2/IL-4 and CD4+/CD8+ T cell ratio in the perioperative period. With respect to leukocytes and NK cells, desflurane anesthesia is associated with less adverse immune responses than propofol anesthesia during surgery for breast cancer. (Clinical trial registration at https://cris.nih.go.kr/cris number: KCT0000939)


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Anesthetics, Inhalation/therapeutic use , Anesthetics, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Breast Neoplasms/immunology , CD4-CD8 Ratio , Female , Humans , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Isoflurane/analogs & derivatives , Middle Aged , Postoperative Period , Propofol/therapeutic use , Young Adult
6.
Indian J Dermatol Venereol Leprol ; 2013 Nov-Dec; 79(6): 772-776
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154677

ABSTRACT

Background: Combating Mycobacterium leprae is known to be via T-helper1 response. However, other T-helper effector cells; T-helper17 and T-helper2; play a role, particularly in the context of disease type. Aims: We aimed to evaluate serum levels of interleukin (IL)-17 (T-helper17 cytokine) and IL-4 (T-helper2 cytokine) in untreated patients with different types of leprosy, compared to controls. Methods: Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, serum IL-17 and IL-4 levels were estimated in 43 leprotic patients and 43 controls. Patients were divided into six groups; tuberculoid, borderline cases, lepromatous, erythema nodosum leprosum (ENL), type 1 reactional leprosy, and pure neural leprosy. Patients were also categorized according to bacillary load and the presence or absence of reactions. Results: Serum IL-17 was signifi cantly lower in cases (4-61.5 pg/mL; median 19), compared to controls (26-55 pg/mL; median 36) (P < 0.001), and was signifi cantly lower in each type of leprosy compared to controls, with the lowest level in lepromatous leprosy (4-61.5 pg/mL; median 12.5). Signifi cantly elevated serum IL-4 was found in patients (1.31-122.4 pg/mL; median 2.31) compared to controls (1.45-5.72 pg/mL; median 2.02) (P = 0.008), with the highest level among lepromatous leprosy patients (2-87.2 pg/mL; median 28.9), and the lowest in type 1 reactional leprosy (1.4-2.5 pg/mL; median 1.87) (P = 0.006). Conclusion: Defective secretion of IL-17 is related to disease acquisition as well as progression toward lepromatous pole in leprosy patients. The overproduction of IL-4 in patients with lepromatous leprosy may infer their liability to develop ENL. Nevertheless, the small number of the studied population is a limitation.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Biomarkers/blood , Comprehension , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Interleukin-17/blood , Interleukin-17/metabolism , Interleukin-4/blood , Leprosy/blood , Leprosy/diagnosis , Leprosy/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-103945

ABSTRACT

Neospora caninum is the etiologic agent of bovine neosporosis, which affects the reproductive performance of cattle worldwide. The transmembrane protein, NcSRS2, and dense-granule protein, NcGRA7, were identified as protective antigens based on their ability to induce significant protective immune responses in murine neosporosis models. In the current study, NcSRS2 and NcGRA7 genes were spliced by overlap-extension PCR in a recombinant adenovirus termed Ad5-NcSRS2-NcGRA 7, expressing the NcSRS2-NcGRA7 gene, and the efficacy was evaluated in mice. The results showed that the titer of the recombinant adenovirus was 10(9)TCID50/ml. Three weeks post-boost immunization (w.p.b.i.), the IgG antibody titer in sera was as high as 1:4,096. IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels were significantly different from the control group (P<0.01). This research established a solid foundation for the development of a recombinant adenovirus vaccine against bovine N. caninum.


Subject(s)
Adenoviridae/genetics , Animals , Antibodies, Fungal/blood , Antigens, Fungal/genetics , Drug Carriers , Fungal Proteins/genetics , Fungal Vaccines/administration & dosage , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Neospora/genetics , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/administration & dosage
8.
Payavard-Salamat. 2012; 6 (4): 293-299
in Persian | IMEMR | ID: emr-155730

ABSTRACT

Human Giardisis infection is caused by the flagellate protozoa. Giardia lamblia, which lives in the small intestine, causing damage and may also cause gastrointestinal symptoms. This parasitic disease has a worldwide distribution and prevalence varies from 5% to 30%. The role of both humeral and cellular immune response in the host defense against parasites has proven. Since an immune response is directly affected by cytokine, study of cytokines changes in patients with giardiosis is of particular importance. In this study the serum levels of IL-2 - 4 - 6 to 17 and 23 in patients and healthy subjects were measured and compared. Fasting blood samples were taken from the volunteers, ELISA was performed to measure cytokines. In this study, the amount of IL-2 and IL-6 in infected patients was significantly more than the controls, but IL-4 levels were significantly lower in infected individuals [P=0.0001]. Also for the first time in people with giardiasis IL- 17 and IL-23 was measured and there was a significant aifference in these cytokines between the infected patients healthy controls[respectively P=0.044 and P=0.03]. Host defense response against parasitic infections, is directly and affected by cytokines. Increased interleukin 2, 6, 17 and 23 in patients with Giardiosis was probably caused by immune response and local intestinal inflammation


Subject(s)
Humans , Giardia lamblia , Cytokines/blood , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Interleukin-17/blood , Interleukin-23/blood
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-45627

ABSTRACT

In fascioliasis, T-helper 2 (Th2) responses predominate, while little is known regarding early immune phenomenon. We herein analyzed early immunophenotype changes of BALB/c, C57BL/6, and C3H/He mice experimentally infected with 5 Fasciola hepatica metacercariae. A remarkable expansion of CD19+ B cells was observed as early as week 1 post-infection while CD4+/CD8+ T cells were down-regulated. Accumulation of Mac1+ cells with time after infection correlated well with splenomegaly of all mice strains tested. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha mRNA in splenocytes significantly decreased while that of IL-4 up-regulated. IL-1beta expression was down-modulated in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice, but not in C3H/He. Serum levels of transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were considerably elevated in all mice during 3 weeks of infection period. These collective results suggest that experimental murine fascioliasis might derive immune suppression with elevated levels of TGF-beta and IL-4 during the early stages of infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Down-Regulation , Fasciola hepatica/immunology , Fascioliasis/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Immunosuppression , Interleukin-4/blood , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C3H , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Spleen/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194085

ABSTRACT

Orai1 is the key subunit of the Ca2+-release-activated Ca2+ channel. Our previous report has demonstrated that Orai1 expression in the airway was upregulated in the ovalbumin (OVA)-induced allergic rhinitis (AR) mouse models. To observe whether inhibition of Orai1 expression in the airway could suppress symptoms in a murine model of AR and to assess the impacts of this inhibition on the responses of local and systemic immunocytes, we administered recombinant lentivirus vectors that encoded shRNA against ORAI1 (lenti-ORAI1) into the nostrils of OVA-sensitized mice before the challenges, and analyzed its effect on allergic responses, as compared with the unsensitized mice and untreated AR mice. Administration of lenti-ORAI1 into the nasal cavity successfully infected cells in the epithelial layer of the nasal mucosa, and significantly decreased the frequencies of sneezing and nasal rubbing of the mice. Protein levels of leukotriene C4, OVA-specific IgE, and IL-4 in the nasal lavage fluid and serum and eosinophil cation protein in the serum were also significantly reduced by lenti-ORAI1, as were the mRNA levels of these factors in the nasal mucosa and spleen. These data suggested that administration of lenti-ORAI1 into the nasal cavity effectively decreased Orai1 expression in the nasal mucosa, alleviated AR symptoms, and partially inhibited the hyperresponsiveness of the local and systemic immune cells including T cells, B cells, mast cells and eosinophils that are involved in the pathogenesis of AR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium Channels/analysis , Down-Regulation , Eosinophil Cationic Protein/blood , Glutathione Transferase/blood , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Lentivirus/genetics , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Nasal Mucosa/immunology , Ovalbumin/immunology , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Small Interfering/administration & dosage , Rhinitis, Allergic, Perennial/genetics , Spleen/immunology , Transfection
11.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 715-722, 2012.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14595

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The nephrotic syndrome (NS) is characterized by the favorable response to glucocorticoid therapy and the development of NS may be associated with dysfunctional immune systems. In order to investigate the serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) levels and cytokines activity in pediatric NS, the total of 32 steroid responsive NS patients and 5 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: All patients were divided into two groups according to the initial serum IgE levels, such as normal and high IgE group, and their clinical characteristics were evaluated. In addition, serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, IL-10 and transforming growth factor (TGF)-beta were compared and correlated with serum albumin, proteinuria by means of disease severity, and cytokines. RESULTS: In the high IgE group, the higher comorbidity of allergic diseases and relapsing rate, the longer duration of steroid therapy before initial remission, and the higher serum IL-4 and IL-5 levels were found. In all patients, initially higher serum levels of IL-4 and IL-5 declined to normal levels after steroid therapy, whereas the serum IL-10 levels showed no significant difference between nephrotic phase (heavy proteinuria) and remission phase (no proteinuria) of NS. The serum TGF-beta levels of the nephrotic phase were significantly lower than those of remission phase or control group, and returned to normal control levels after steroid therapy. CONCLUSION: This study indicates that initial IgE level is associated with steroid responsiveness and disease severity, and cytokine activities may also be related to the pathogenesis of pediatric steroid responsive NS.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Immunoglobulin M/blood , Infant , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-5/blood , Male , Nephrotic Syndrome/blood , Steroids/therapeutic use , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
12.
Ain-Shams Journal of Forensic Medicine and Clinical Toxicology. 2011; 17: 89-97
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-135622

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a major public health problem affecting millions of people worldwide. There is an increasing concern that the prevalence of the disease could be attributed to new or modified patterns of exposures to chemicals, including insecticides. Organophosphates insecticides [OPs] account for 50% of all insecticides used. Chlorpyrifos is the third most commonly used among all pesticides applied by homeowners and commercial applicators. Interlukin-4 [IL-4] is one of the most important cytokines underlying the development of the allergic asthma. The aim of this work was to evaluate the relationship between the immunomodulatory effects of the environmental exposure to organophosphate insecticides and allergic asthma in preschool children living in rural areas. The current study was conducted in the period from October, 2008 to October 2010. 200 children were classified into 2 groups: Group I: 100 diseased preschool children, living in rural areas and diagnosed as allergic asthma, selected from the pediatrics outpatient clinic, Zagazig University Hospitals. Group II: Control group, 100 healthy children matching the diseased group in the age, sex and residency, selected from the outpatient clinic of minor surgeries, Zagazig University Hospitals. There was a non-significant difference between males and females or between different age categories of the asthmatic group as regard severity of asthma. Serum interleukin-4 and concentration were significantly higher in the asthmatic group as compared to the control group. A significant positive correlation was found between either IL-4 level and clorpyriphos concentration and the severity of asthma. Moreover, there was a significant positive correlation between chlorpyrifos concentration and IL-4 level in the asthmatic children. It was concluded that exposure to organophosphate insecticides [OPs] is associated with elevated serum IL-4 which plays important role in the pathogenesis of allergic asthma. This immunomodulating effect of OPs can explain the increased prevalence of allergic asthma among rural preschool children exposed to these insecticides


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Asthma , Child, Preschool , Interleukin-4/blood , Rural Population , Chlorpyrifos
13.
Journal of Clinical Laboratory [The]. 2011; 6 (2): 9-16
in Arabic | IMEMR | ID: emr-180758

ABSTRACT

Leishmania tropica is a protozoan parasite that causes cutaneous disease in the old world. The study aimed to determine cell-mediated immunity by measuring serum IFN-gamma and IL-4 levels, in BALB/C mice immunized with 107 mitomycin-c treated live leishmania promastigotes [inhl], combined with 2microg IL-12, or immunized with 2 microg IL-12 only[controls], or immunized with 107 wild type leishmania promastigotes. We found that inhl induce significantly higher levels of IFN-gamma 360.62 pg/ml than controls 4.36 pg/ml and then WT 41.72 pg/ml. beside of this, inhl induce significantly lower IL-4 levels 3.18 pg/ml than WT 69.82 pg/ml and then controls [lower than 2pg/ml]. Our study revealed that inhl induce cellular mediated immunity comparable with controls and WT


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Leishmania tropica/immunology , Immunization , Mitomycin , Interleukin-4/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood
14.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2011; 41 (1): 17-28
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-110687

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasmosis is a disease affecting 500 million people worldwide. The seroprevalence varies [from 5% to 90%], depending on geographical location, age, habit of eating raw meat or unwashed fruit and vegetables, and general level of hygiene. The incidence of infections is higher in warmer and humid climate and increases with age. The disease can be congenital or acquired. Cell response [TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma secreted by Th1 cells] and humoral response [IL-4, and IL-10 secreted by Th2 cells] were evaluated. This study assessed the effect of T. gondii on chosen indices of the immune response. The study involved 45 women infected with T. gondii [aged 18-42 years] proven have a chronic toxoplasmosis [IgG positive and IgM negative]. The control group consisted of 25 healthy women [aged 18-45 years] [IgG and IgM negative]. The results showed that patients infected with T. gondii had increased production of theTh-1 cytokines involved TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma that responsible for the cellular response compared to controls. Also, increased production of Th2 cytokines involved IL-4 and IL-10 that responsible for humoral response compared to controls


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , /immunology , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-10/blood , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , Chronic Disease
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-127691

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the Child-Turcotte-Pugh (CTP) classification system and the model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score in predicting the severity of the systemic inflammatory response in living-donor liver transplantation patients. Recipients of liver graft were allocated to a recipient group (n = 39) and healthy donors to a donor group (n = 42). The association between the CTP classification, the MELD scores and perioperative cytokine concentrations in the recipient group was evaluated. The pro-inflammatory cytokines measured included interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha; the anti-inflammatory cytokines measured included IL-10 and IL-4. Cytokine concentrations were quantified using sandwich enzyme-linked immunoassays. The IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IL-10 concentrations in the recipient group were significantly higher than those in healthy donor group patients. All preoperative cytokine levels, except IL-6, increased in relation to the severity of liver disease, as measured by the CTP classification. Additionally, all cytokine levels, except IL-6, were significantly correlated preoperatively with MELD scores. However, the correlations diminished during the intraoperative period. The CTP classification and the MELD score are equally reliable in predicting the severity of the systemic inflammatory response, but only during the preoperative period.


Subject(s)
Adult , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Interleukin-10/blood , Interleukin-1beta/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Interleukin-6/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/classification , Liver/pathology , Liver Transplantation , Living Donors , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Severity of Illness Index , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/diagnosis , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood
16.
IJI-Iranian Journal of Immunology. 2010; 7 (2): 109-116
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-123706

ABSTRACT

Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory and multifactorial disease, with a high prevalence rate in Pakistan. To find a relation between serum IL-4 and IgE levels with oxidized LDL in atherosclerosis. In this observational, cross sectional study 99 male patients, between forty and sixty years of age, with a history of ischemic heart disease [IHD] and established atherosclerotic plaques and angiography were recruited. The study was completed within three years [Jan 2007 to Jan 2009]. One hundred and on age and gender matched healthy subjects with no known history of IHD were also recruited. All the study participants were non-diabetics. Serum IL-4, IgE and oxidized LDL [ox-LDL] levels were measured by quantitative ELISA technique. Serum IL-4 levels were generally undetectable or very low, but were higher in the patient group compared to the control subjects. Similarly, oxidized LDL and serum IgE levels were also increased in the patient group compared to the control, but the differences were not statistically significant. Our study could not detect any relationship between IL-4 and IgE levels with LDL oxidation in atherosclerosis


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Interleukin-4/blood , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Lipoproteins, LDL/blood , Oxidation-Reduction , Antioxidants , Oxidative Stress
17.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2009; 39 (3): 907-916
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145622

ABSTRACT

Forty of eighty mice [10 each group] were infected with S. mansoni cercariae and sacrificed at 3 weeks [G-A], 6 weeks [G-B], 12 weeks [G-C] and 16 weeks [G-D] post infection [P.I]. The other forty mice were used as control groups of ten mice each. There were highly significant difference between egg counts after 12 weeks and 16 weeks of infection compared to 6 weeks P.I. The maximum egg count and mature eggs were in 6[th] week P.I while dead eggs reached the peak at 16[th] weeks P.I. Liver egg counts showed maximum followed by intestinal and then, stool egg counts. A highly significant differences in hydroxy-proline, TGF-Bland DL-4 of infected than in controls and their peak at 16 weeks P.I. A significant difference in the EFN-gamma in the infected than in controls with peak occurred at 6 weeks P.I. and declined after that reaching a low level at 16 weeks P.I. A highly significant positive correlation was between TGF-Bland IL4 and significant negative correlation between IFN- gamma and both IL4 and TGF-B1. A highly significant and significant negative correlation between TGF-B1 and egg count at 12 and 16 weeks P.I respectively. Negative correlation was between IL-4 and egg count at 16 weeks P.I. But, significant positive correlation was between IFN- gamma with the egg count at 16 weeks P.I. A significant negative correlation was between TGF-B1 and oogram at 6 and 16 weeks P.I, but highly significant positivity was between IFN- gamma and oogram at 16 weeks P.I. A significant negative correlation was between IL-4 and oogram at 16 weeks P.I. A significant positive correlation was between levels of hydroxyproline and TGF-B1 at 12 and 16 weeks P.I. Highly significant negative correlation between hydroxyproline and IFN- gamma was at 12 weeks P.I with significant and highly significant positive correlation between hydroxyproline and IL4 at 12 and 16 weeks-P.I


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Schistosoma mansoni , Cytokines/blood , Mice , Parasite Egg Count/methods , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Transforming Growth Factor beta/blood
18.
Journal of the Egyptian Society of Parasitology. 2009; 39 (3): 1015-1032
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-145630

ABSTRACT

The effect of sodium benzoate [SB] on the pathogenesis of Hymenolepis nana [H. nana] and its neurological manifestations was studied in the present work. One hundred and thirty five mice were classified into three groups. GI: received SB alone, GII: received SB before and after infection with H. nana and GIII: infected with H. nana. All groups were subjected to parasitological, histopathological, immunohistochemical and biochemical assays. The results revealed a significant decrease in TL-4 serum level with a significant increase in gamma amino butyric acid [GABA] and decrease in zinc brain levels in GI, while GII showed non significant increase in IL-4 level that resulted in a highly significant increase in the mean number of cysticercoids and adult worms with delayed expulsion as compared to GIII. This was reflected on histopathological and immunohistochemical changes in the brain. Also, there was a highly significant increase in GABA and decrease in zinc brain levels in GII to the degree that induced behavioral changes. This emphasizes the possible synergistic effect of SB on the neurological manifestations of H. nana and could, in part, explain the increased incidence of behavioral changes in children exposed to high doses of SB and unfortunately have H. nana infection


Subject(s)
Animals, Laboratory , Hymenolepiasis/physiopathology , Food Additives/adverse effects , Sodium Benzoate/adverse effects , Interleukin-4/blood , gamma-Aminobutyric Acid/blood , Zinc , Immunohistochemistry/methods , Mice
19.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32074

ABSTRACT

Parasitemia patterns, survival and cytokine levels of Plasmodium berghei NK65-infected BALB/c mice, treated orally with the alkaloidal mixture of febrifugine and isofebrifugine at a dose of 1 mg/kg twice a day for 4 consecutive days were monitored. Whereas the untreated mice showed a progressive increase in parasitemia and ultimate death, the alkaloid mixture-treated group showed a transient suppression of parasitemia during the course of treatment. However, the parasitemia increased on discontinuation of treatment, leading to earlier death of mice in the treated group than in the infected but untreated controls. Mice in the infected but untreated group displayed a significant elevation in serum IFN-gammay levels during the first week post-infection (pI) and from Day 14 pI, relative to the levels in the uninfected controls. In contrast, although mice in the alkaloid mixture-treated group displayed no significant elevation in serum IFN-gamma levels during the first week pI, they showed considerable levels on Day 14 pI. There were no significant differences in serum IL-4 levels among the groups. The titers of the parasite-specific IgG1, IgG2a, IgG2b and IgG3 were significantly elevated from Day 11 pI in both the treated and untreated groups. There was a significant difference in survival duration between the IFN-gamma-/- mutant and BALB/c mice. IFN-gamma-/- mutant mice showed a decrease in parasitemia levels while receiving medication, which was significantly lower than those of the treated BALB/c mice. The results of the present study suggest that although IFN-gamma is significant for protective immunity in mice with malaria infection, it may play an adverse role post-medication, causing earlier mortality of treated BALB/c mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Protozoan/blood , Antigens, Protozoan/blood , Antimalarials/therapeutic use , Interferon-gamma/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Malaria/drug therapy , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasitemia/drug therapy , Piperidines/therapeutic use , Plasmodium berghei , Quinazolines/therapeutic use
20.
EJB-Egyptian Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology [The]. 2008; 26 (2): 135-152
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-86397

ABSTRACT

Bronchial asthma is a chronic immuno inflammatory reversible lung disease with airway responsiveness to various stimuli which relived by proper therapy using inhaled steroids or the highly expensive recombinant interferon gamma [IFN-gamma]. This study undertaken to investigate for the first time a novel treatment method using inhaled tuberculin [PPD] to determine whether PPD inhalation could be safely and effectively delivered into the airways of bronchial asthmatic patients in attempt to bring immune deviation away from atopy via inhaling an economic dose of tuberculin. Sixty patients suffering from mild atopic bronchial asthma along with twenty healthy volunteers were included in our study. Patients were randomly categorized into three equally-sized groups received 2, 5 and 10 PPD units respectively. Treatment doses taken every 72 hours for two weeks. Respiratory function tests were examined before and after treatment regime. Interleukin 2 [IL-2], IL-4 and immunoglobulin E [IgE] were measured by ELISA technique in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage fluid [BALF] samples before and after treatment regime. Eosinophil count in BALF was also examined. The results showed that PPD treatment doses caused a significant increase in lung function standards [FEV1 and FEV1/FVC ratio] as compared with before treatment values. Also, the different doses of PPD resulted in a highly significant increase in the levels of serum and BALF IL-2 with a concomitant significant decrease in BALF IL-4 levels when compared with before treatment values. A highly significant decrease in serum and BALF IgE along with eosinophil count was obtained with PPD inhaled doses as compared with before treatment values. To conclude, PPD treatment could be safely, economically and effectively used as a potential therapeutic drug for patients with atopic bronchial asthma. A marked improvement in our laboratory results was observed with 5 and 10 units of PPD


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Tuberculin , Interleukin-2/blood , Interleukin-4/blood , Immunoglobulin E/blood , Respiratory Function Tests
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