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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811069

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Different characteristics of airway microbiome in asthmatics may lead to differential immune responses, which in turn cause eosinophilic or neutrophilic airway inflammation. However, the relationships among these factors have yet to be fully elucidated.METHODS: Microbes in induced sputum samples were subjected to sequence analysis of 16S rRNA. Airway inflammatory phenotypes were defined as neutrophils (>60%) and eosinophils (>3%), and inflammation endotypes were defined by levels of T helper (Th) 1 (interferon-γ), Th2 (interleukin [IL]-5 and IL-13), Th-17 (IL-17), and innate Th2 (IL-25, IL-33, and thymic stromal lymphopoietin) cytokines, inflammasomes (IL-1β), epithelial activation markers (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor and IL-8), and Inflammation (IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α) cytokines in sputum supernatants was assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay.RESULTS: The numbers of operational taxonomic units were significantly higher in the mixed (n = 21) and neutrophilic (n = 23) inflammation groups than in the paucigranulocytic inflammation group (n = 19; p < 0.05). At the species level, Granulicatella adiacens, Streptococcus parasanguinis, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Veillonella rogosae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, and Neisseria perflava levels were significantly higher in the eosinophilic inflammation group (n = 20), whereas JYGU_s levels were significantly higher in the neutrophilic inflammation group compared to the other subtypes (P < 0.05). Additionally, IL-5 and IL-13 concentrations were correlated with the percentage of eosinophils (P < 0.05) and IL-13 levels were positively correlated with the read counts of Porphyromonas pasteri and V. rogosae (P < 0.05). IL-1β concentrations were correlated with the percentage of neutrophils (P < 0.05). had a tendency to be positively correlated with the read count of JYGU_s (P = 0.095), and was negatively correlated with that of S. pneumoniae (P < 0.05).CONCLUSIONS: Difference of microbial patterns in airways may induce distinctive endotypes of asthma, which is responsible for the neutrophilic or eosinophilic inflammation in asthma.


Subject(s)
Asthma , Colony-Stimulating Factors , Cytokines , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Eosinophils , Haemophilus parainfluenzae , Inflammasomes , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Microbiota , Necrosis , Neisseria , Neutrophils , Phenotype , Pneumonia , Porphyromonas , Sequence Analysis , Sputum , Streptococcus , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Veillonella
2.
Rev. méd. Minas Gerais ; 29: e-2024, 2019.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1048021

ABSTRACT

Este documento é uma revisão do protocolo de asma grave da SMPCT de 2015, que se fez necessária devido à atualização de avanços em pesquisas, principalmente em fenotipagem/genotipagem e terapêutica da asma grave, além de asma grave na pediatria. A maioria da publicações relata que 5% a 10% dos asmáticos podem apresentar asma grave. Porém, levantamento na Holanda encontrou uma prevalência menor, de 3,6% ou 10,4/10000 habitantes, que parece ser mais próximo da realidade. Este protocolo tem como população alvo os pacientes com asma grave, adultos e pediátricos, conforme definições de asma grave da"International ERS/ATS guidelines on definition, evaluation and treatment of severe asthma" de 2014 e GINA 2018.1,3 Seus potenciais utilizadores são especialistas em doenças respiratórias que lidam com asma grave, e que devem ser os responsáveis pela aplicação do protocolo, e também clínicos gerais, pediatras, médicos de cuidados primários, enfermeiros, fisioterapeutas e outros profissionais da saúde. É aconselhável consulta com um especialista em asma nos seguintes casos: asma de difícil diagnóstico, suspeita de asma ocupacional, asma persistente não controlada com exacerbações frequentes, asma com risco de morte, eventos adversos significativos ou suspeita de subtipos de asma grave.4 Este documento não tem a intenção de instituir um tratamento padronizado, mas estabelecer bases racionais para decisões em pacientes com asma grave, pois as recomendações não conseguem abranger toda a complexidade do julgamento clínico em casos individuais. Os autores recomendam sua revisão e atualização no período máximo de 3 anos, ou, se necessário, em tempo menor.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Asthma , Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists , Asthma/diagnosis , Asthma/drug therapy , Asthma/therapy , Interleukin-5/antagonists & inhibitors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/administration & dosage , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/agonists , Chemical Compounds , Adrenergic beta-2 Receptor Agonists/administration & dosage
3.
Asia Pacific Allergy ; (4): e9-2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-750165

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Little is known about the mechanism of desensitization in hypersensitivity drug reactions. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of drug desensitization on some cytokine levels in patients desensitized for drug hypersensitivity reactions. METHODS: Patients with a hypersensitivity reaction to any drug for whom desensitization was planned with the culprit drug, patients who could tolerate the same drugs and healthy subjects who were not exposed to these drugs were enrolled. Bead-based Milliplex MAP multiplex technology was used to determine interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, interferon-γ and IL-10 levels in the sera of the subjects as a baseline and 24 hours after desensitization had been completed in the patients. RESULTS: A total of 26 patients (16 female [61.5%]; mean age 48.46 ± 15.97 years old), 10 control patients (5 female [50%]; mean age 47.4 ± 15.4 years old) and 5 healthy subjects (3 female [60%]; mean age 34.2 ± 5.6 years old) were enrolled. Four of the 26 patients did not tolerate the procedure and were grouped as the ‘unsuccessful desensitization group’ whereas 22 patients successfully completed the procedure and formed the ‘successful desensitization group.’ Baseline cytokine levels in the 3 groups were not statistically different. Postdesensitization IL-10 levels in the successful desensitization group were significantly higher than their initial levels (p = 0.005) whereas none of the cytokine levels significantly changed in the unsuccessful desensitization group. The rise in IL-10 levels was greater in chemotherapeutic desensitizations when compared to other drugs (p = 0.006). CONCLUSION: Successful desensitization independent of the hypersensitivity reaction type seems to be related to the increase of IL-10.


Subject(s)
Drug Hypersensitivity , Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins
4.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761748

ABSTRACT

Innate lymphoid cells (ILCs) are key players during an immune response at the mucosal surfaces, such as lung, skin, and gastrointestinal tract. Giardia lamblia is an extracellular protozoan pathogen that inhabits the human small intestine. In this study, ILCs prepared from the lamina propria of mouse small intestine were incubated with G. lamblia trophozoites. Transcriptional changes in G. lamblia-exposed ILCs resulted in identification of activation of several immune pathways. Secretion of interleukin (IL)-17A, IL-17F, IL-1β, and interferon-γ was increased, whereas levels of IL-13, IL-5, and IL-22, was maintained or reduced upon exposure to G. lamblia. Goup 3 ILC (ILC3) was found to be dominant amongst the ILCs, and increased significantly upon co-cultivation with G. lamblia trophozoites. Oral inoculation of G. lamblia trophozoites into mice resulted in their presence in the small intestine, of which, the highest number of parasites was detected at the 5 days-post infection. Increased ILC3 was observed amongst the ILC population at the 5 days-post infection. These findings indicate that ILC3 from the lamina propria secretes IL-17 in response to G. lamblia, leading to the intestinal pathology observed in giardiasis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastrointestinal Tract , Giardia lamblia , Giardia , Giardiasis , Humans , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Intestine, Small , Lung , Lymphocytes , Mice , Mucous Membrane , Parasites , Pathology , Skin , Trophozoites
5.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763299

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The extract of Hizikia fusiformis is known to exhibit anticancer, antiatopic and antioxidant activities. We aimed to investigate the extract of H. fusiformis on allergic rhinitis inflammation in a mouse model. METHODS: The 4-week-old BALB/c mice were randomly assigned into four groups: group A, control group (n=9); group B, allergic rhinitis group (n=10); group C (n=10) received 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period; group D (n=10) received 600 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during general sensitization period and 300 mg/kg of H. fusiformis during nasal challenging period. Allergic inflammation was made with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum then challenged intranasally with OVA. H. fusiformis was intraperitoneally administered 3 hours before the OVA administration. Allergic symptom score and the levels of immunoglobulin G1 (IgG1), IgG2a, OVA-specific IgE antibodies, levels of cytokines in the nasal mucosa and in spleen cell culture supernatant, such as tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-13, and IL-10 were assessed. The percentage of regulatory T cell was analyzed by flow cytometry. Eosinophilic infiltration and goblet cell hyperplasia were also evaluated. RESULTS: H. fusiformis administered groups C and D showed significant inhibitory effects on nasal symptoms, IL-13 mRNA expression and eosinophil infiltration/goblet cell hyperplasia in the nasal tissue; OVA-specific IgE production in serum (P<0.05). In group D, H. fusiformis treatment downregulated IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, TNF-α, and IL-10 cytokine expression in splenocyte culture as well as significantly decreased IgG2a, IgG1 levels in serum compared with group B (P<0.05). However, the expressions of IL-5, interferon-γ and forkhead box P3 mRNA did not change in groups C and D. CONCLUSION: H. fusiformis could induce antiallergic inflammation by suppressing the T-helper type 2 cytokine production (IL-13) locally and systemically, OVA-specific IgE formation, goblet cell hyperplasia, and eosinophilic infiltration in a mouse model of allergic rhinitis. Thus, H. fusiformis could be considered as a potential therapeutic agent in treating allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Cell Culture Techniques , Cytokines , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Mice , Nasal Mucosa , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Spleen , Th2 Cells , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762158

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the impact of short-term haze exposure on nasal inflammation in healthy volunteers. METHODS: Thirty-three healthy university students were assessed for nasal symptoms, nasal patency, upper and lower respiratory tract nitric oxide (NO) as well as inflammatory mediators and neuropeptides in nasal secretions before and after a 5-day haze episode. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were stimulated with particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter of less than 2.5 μm (PM(2.5)), and cytokines in the supernatants were examined. RESULTS: Mild nasal symptoms were reported by some participants during the haze episode. Objective measures of nasal patency demonstrated that nasal airway resistance was significantly increased from baseline levels, while nasal cavity volume and minimum cross-sectional area were significantly decreased. Similarly, the levels of nasal and exhaled NO, eotaxin, interleukin (IL)-5, chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 17, IL-8, substance P, nerve growth factor and vasoactive intestinal peptides in nasal secretions were significantly increased from baseline values following the haze episode. In contrast, the levels of interferon-γ, IL-10, transforming growth factor-β and neuropeptide Y were significantly decreased. Incubation with 0.1-10 μg/mL PM(2.5) significantly increased release of IL-1β, IL-4, IL-5, IL-8 and IL-10 from PBMCs. CONCLUSIONS: Short-term haze exposure may lead to nasal inflammation and hypersensitivity in healthy subjects predominantly by Th2 cytokine-mediated immune responses.


Subject(s)
Air Pollution , Airway Resistance , Cytokines , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukin-8 , Interleukins , Nasal Cavity , Nerve Growth Factor , Neuropeptide Y , Neuropeptides , Nitric Oxide , Particulate Matter , Peptides , Respiratory System , Substance P
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762150

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: This study aimed to systemically review literature relating to factors that could potentially predict a favorable response to cyclosporine A (CsA) treatment for chronic spontaneous urticaria (CSU). METHODS: A systematic literature review was done according to Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis recommendations. RESULTS: A total of 13 studies (404 patients with CSU and 200 healthy patients) were included. There were only 1 randomized controlled trial (RCT) and 12 non-RCTs. Our systematic review showed that positive autologous serum skin test results, positive baseline basophil histamine release assays, positive baseline basophil activation test responses, elevated baseline plasma D-dimer levels, elevated baseline serum interleukin (IL)-2, IL-5, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) levels, and low baseline serum IgE levels might assist in predicting favorable CsA responses in CSU patients. Decreased plasma D-dimer levels; and decreased serum IL-2, IL-5, and TNF-α levels were reported to be correlated with clinical improvement after CsA treatment. CONCLUSIONS: Since most positive results were from non-RCT articles and some data were still inconsistent, this systematic review identified no reliable practical biomarker for predicting CsA treatment response in patients with CSU. There were no positive predictors with good consistency and mechanical plausibility.


Subject(s)
Basophils , Cyclosporine , Histamine Release , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-2 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Plasma , Skin Tests , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha , Urticaria
8.
Psychiatry Investigation ; : 607-614, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760969

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Since the inflammatory process has been implicated in the pathophysiology of psychiatric disorder, an important issue emerging is to assess the test-retest reliability of cytokine measurement in healthy individuals and patients with schizophrenia. The objective of the present study was to investigate the test-retest reliability of bead-based multiplex immunoassay technology (BMIT) for cytokine measurement by using a Bland-Altman plot (BAP). METHODS: Twenty healthy individuals and twenty patients with schizophrenia were enrolled, and a 17-plex cytokine assay was used to measure inflammatory biomarkers at baseline and two weeks later. The test-retest reliability was examined by BAP, 95% limits of agreement (LOA), intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), and coefficient of repeatability (CoR). RESULTS: In the healthy controls, only interleukin (IL)-2, IL-13, IL-10, IL-17, and macrophage inflammatory protein-1β showed excellent ICC. The BAP with 95% LOA determined that 13 cytokines showed acceptable 95% LOA for a 2-week test-retest reliability, and only IL-1β, IL-12 and tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α had significant test-retest bias. The CoR of cytokines varied significantly, ranging from 1.72 to 218.1. Compared with healthy controls, patients with schizophrenia showed significantly higher levels of IL-5, IL-13, and TNF-α and significantly lower levels of IL-4, IL-12, and interferon-gamma (IFN-γ). Of these six cytokines, IL-12 and TNF-α were considered suboptimal reliability. CONCLUSION: The findings from ICC and CoR implied that the test-retest reliability of BMIT for cytokine measurement were suboptimal. However, the BAP with 95% LOA confirmed that BMIT can reliably distinguish schizophrenia from healthy individuals in cytokine measurement, while significant within-subject variation and between-group overlapping were evident in cytokine expression.


Subject(s)
Bias , Biomarkers , Cytokines , Humans , Immunoassay , Inflammation , Interferon-gamma , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-12 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Loa , Macrophages , Reproducibility of Results , Schizophrenia , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739401

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Endotype in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) has been established in the last decade. However, the exact immunologic profile of CRS still has controversy because it has a considerable immunologic heterogeneity. Therefore, we investigated various inflammatory mediators according to different nasal tissues in chronic rhinosinusitis and compared them within the same subject. METHODS: We collected uncinate process mucosa (UP) and nasal polyp (NP) tissues from controls, CRS without NP (CRSsNP) and CRS with NP (CRSwNP). Expression levels of 28 inflammatory mediators including T helper (Th) 1, Th2, Th17, proinflammatory cytokines and remodeling markers were determined by multiplex immunoassay and were analyzed using paired tests as well as principal component analysis (PCA) to investigate endotype in each subtype of CRS. RESULTS: Signature inflammatory mediators are interleukin (IL)-5, C-C motif chemokine ligand (CCL)-24, monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-4, and vascular cell adhesion molecule (VCAM)-1 in eosinophilic NP, whereas IL-17A, IL-1β, and matrix metallopeptidase (MMP)-9 were detected as signature inflammatory markers in non-eosinophilic NP. Despite differences in inflammatory cytokine profile between eosinophilic and non-eosinophilic NP, the common upregulation of IL-5, CCL-11, IL-23, IL-2Rα, VCAM-1, MMP-3 and MMP-9 were shown in NP compared to UP within the same subject. In the PCA, we observed that Th2 immune response was helpful in discriminating between nasal tissues in subtypes of CRS and that there was a partial overlap between non-eosinophilic NP and eosinophilic NP in terms of Th2 mediators. CONCLUSIONS: Commonly upregulated mediators in NP were Th2-associated, compared with UP regardless of CRS subtypes, whereas signature markers were distinct in each NP subtype. These findings imply that Th2 inflammatory responses may play a role in the development of NP regardless of CRSwNP subtypes.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Eosinophils , Immunoassay , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-23 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Monocytes , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Passive Cutaneous Anaphylaxis , Population Characteristics , Principal Component Analysis , Rhinitis , Sinusitis , Up-Regulation , Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739395

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Vitamin D is a potent immunomodulator. However, its role in the pathogenesis of allergic rhinitis is unclear. METHODS: The aim of this study was to evaluate the antiallergic effect of intranasally applied vitamin D in an allergic rhinitis mouse model. BALB/c mice were intraperitoneally sensitized with ovalbumin (OVA) and alum before they were intranasally challenged with OVA. Then, they were intranasally administered 1, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (0.02 μg) or solvent. Allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, cytokine mRNA levels (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-10, IL-13 and interferon-γ) in the nasal tissue, and serum total immunoglobulin E (IgE) and OVA-specific IgE, IgG1, and IgG2a were analyzed and compared with negative and positive control groups. Cervical lymph nodes (LNs) were harvested for flow cytometry analysis and cell proliferation assay. RESULTS: In the treatment group, allergic symptom scores, eosinophil infiltration, and mRNA levels of IL-4 and IL-13 were significantly lower in the nasal tissue than in the positive control group. The IL-5 mRNA level, serum total IgE, and OVA-specific IgE and IgG1 levels decreased in the treatment group; however, the difference was not significant. In the cervical LNs, CD86 expression had been down-regulated in CD11c+major histocompatibility complex II-high (MHCIIhigh) in the treatment group. Additionally, IL-4 secretion in the lymphocyte culture from cervical LNs significantly decreased. CONCLUSIONS: The results confirm the antiallergic effect of intranasal 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. It decreases CD 86 expression among CD11c+MHCIIhigh cells and T-helper type 2-mediated inflammation in the cervical LNs. Therefore, topically applied 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 can be a future therapeutic agent for allergic rhinitis.


Subject(s)
Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Anti-Allergic Agents , Calcitriol , Cell Proliferation , Dendritic Cells , Eosinophils , Flow Cytometry , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulin G , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Lymph Nodes , Lymphocytes , Major Histocompatibility Complex , Mice , Models, Animal , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Rhinitis, Allergic , RNA, Messenger , Vitamin D
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739393

ABSTRACT

Reslizumab and mepolizumab are recently approved monoclonal antibodies for the treatment of severe (uncontrolled) eosinophilic asthma. Both are effective in neutralizing the function of interleukin-5 (IL-5). This study is the first to compare the binding affinity and in vitro potency of both antibodies in head-to-head assays. Two assays assessed binding affinity (using the equilibrium dissociation constant [K(D)]) of each drug for human IL-5. In the Biacore surface plasmon resonance assay, the association constant (k(on)) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 3.93 × 10⁶ and 1.83 × 10⁵, respectively. The dissociation constant (k(off)) values were 4.29 × 10⁻⁴ and 2.14 × 10⁻⁴, respectively. Calculated K(D) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 109 and 1,170 pM, respectively, representing an approximately 11-fold stronger binding affinity with reslizumab. In the Kinetic Exclusion Assay, the k(on) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 3.17 × 10⁶ and 1.32 × 10⁵, respectively. The k(off) values were 1.36 × 10⁻⁵ and 1.48 × 10⁻⁵, respectively. Measured K(D) values for human IL-5 for reslizumab and mepolizumab were 4.3 and 112 pM, respectively, representing an approximately 26-fold stronger binding affinity for reslizumab. A human-IL-5-dependent cell proliferation assay was developed to assess in vitro potency, based on a human cell line selected for enhanced surface expression of IL-5 receptor-alpha and consistent proliferation response to IL-5. The concentration at which 50% inhibition occurred (IC₅₀) was determined for both antibodies. Reslizumab and mepolizumab inhibited IL-5-dependent cell proliferation, with IC₅₀ values of approximately 91.1 and 286.5 pM, respectively, representing on average 3.1-fold higher potency with reslizumab. In conclusion, comparative assays show that reslizumab has higher affinity binding for and in vitro potency against human IL-5 compared with mepolizumab. However, these results do not take into consideration the different methods of administration of reslizumab and mepolizumab.


Subject(s)
Antibodies , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Antibody Affinity , Asthma , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Eosinophils , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-5 , Surface Plasmon Resonance
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719615

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide, a muscarinic receptor antagonist, in treatment of asthma have been reported. However, its effect on airway remodeling in chronic asthma of the elderly has not been clearly verified. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of tiotropium and expression of muscarinic receptors as its related mechanism in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma with airway remodeling. METHODS: BALB/c female mice age 6 weeks, 9 and 15 months were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA) for three months. Tiotropium bromide was administered during the challenge period. Airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and pulmonary inflammation were measured. Parameters of airway remodeling, and expression levels of M2 and M3 receptors were examined. RESULTS: Total cell with eosinophils, increased in the OVA groups by age, was decreased significantly after treatment with tiotropium bromide, particularly in the age group of 15 months. AHR and levels of interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and IL-13 were decreased, after tiotropium administration. In old aged group of 9- and 15-months-treated groups, hydroxyproline contents and levels of α-smooth muscle actin were attenuated. Tiotropium enhanced the expression of M2 but decreased expression of M3 in all aged groups of OVA. CONCLUSION: Tiotropium bromide had anti-inflammatory and anti-remodeling effects in an aged mouse model of chronic asthma. Its effects seemed to be partly mediated by modulating expression M3 and M2 muscarinic receptors. Tiotropium may be a beneficial treatment option for the elderly with airway remodeling of chronic asthma.


Subject(s)
Actins , Aged , Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Eosinophils , Female , Humans , Hydroxyproline , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Mice , Ovalbumin , Ovum , Pneumonia , Receptors, Muscarinic , Tiotropium Bromide
13.
Medicina (Bogotá) ; 40(1(120)): 128-129, Ene-Mar, 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-910126

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Resiliencia es la habilidad de responder de manera positiva a eventos adversos. Ésta puede ser influenciada por factores como el estrés crónico, la actividad física y afeccio-nes autoinmunes y/o inflamatorias como la esclerosis sistémica (ES) (1). Objetivo: Evaluar un panel de citoquinas y su asociación con resiliencia, severidad de los síntomas y actividad física en pacientes con ES. Métodos: Este fue un estudio exploratorio que incluyó 35 mujeres con ES. Las características clínicas, incluidas la severidad de los síntomas, la actividad física, la resiliencia así como un panel de 15 citoquinas fueron evaluados simultáneamente.


Subject(s)
Scleroderma, Systemic , Cytokines , Interleukin-10 , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-5
14.
Medwave ; 18(6): e7294, 2018.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-948441

ABSTRACT

Resumen INTRODUCCIÓN: La rinosinusitis crónica es la inflamación de la mucosa nasosinusal de duración superior a 12 semanas. Se distinguen dos formas clínicas: rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos y sin pólipos. Los pacientes con rinosinusitis crónica con pólipos presentan niveles elevados de interleukina 5, la cual promueve la diferenciación y supervivencia de eosinófilos, por lo que se ha propuesto minimizar su circulación como una nueva estrategia de tratamiento. Sin embargo, no hay claridad respecto a su real efectividad. MÉTODOS: Para responder esta pregunta utilizamos Epistemonikos, la mayor base de datos de revisiones sistemáticas en salud, la cual es mantenida mediante búsquedas en múltiples fuentes de información, incluyendo MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, entre otras. Extrajimos los datos desde las revisiones identificadas, reanalizamos los datos de los estudios primarios, realizamos un metanálisis y preparamos una tabla de resumen de los resultados utilizando el método GRADE. RESULTADOS Y CONCLUSIONES: Identificamos tres revisiones sistemáticas que en conjunto incluyeron tres estudios primarios, todos correspondientes a ensayos aleatorizados. Concluimos que los inhibidores de interleukina 5 podrían disminuir el puntaje de pólipos nasales. Si bien podrían asociarse a efectos adversos, estos serían poco frecuentes y de baja severidad. Sin embargo, la certeza de la evidencia es baja.


Abstract INTRODUCTION: Chronic rhinosinusitis is the inflammation of sinonasal mucosa lasting longer than 12 weeks. Two clinical forms are distinguished: chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps and without polyps. Patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with polyps exhibit high levels of interleukin 5, which promotes differentiation and survival of eosinophils. So, minimizing their circulation has been proposed as a new treatment strategy. However, there is no clarity regarding its real effectiveness. METHODS: To answer this question we used Epistemonikos, the largest database of systematic reviews in health, which is maintained by screening multiple information sources, including MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane, among others. We extracted data from the systematic reviews, reanalyzed data of primary studies, conducted a meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings table using the GRADE approach. RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: We identified three systematic reviews included three primary studies overall, all corresponding to randomized trials. We concluded inhibitors of interleukin 5 might decrease nasal polyps score. Although they might be associated with adverse effects, these would be infrequent and of low severity. However, the certainty of the evidence is low.


Subject(s)
Humans , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Rhinitis/drug therapy , Interleukin-5/immunology , Sinusitis/immunology , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Rhinitis/immunology , Nasal Polyps/immunology , Nasal Polyps/drug therapy , Chronic Disease , Databases, Factual , Interleukin-5/antagonists & inhibitors
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739385

ABSTRACT

Eosinophilic inflammation in combination with immunoglobulin E (IgE) production is a characteristic feature of atopic dermatitis. Although activated T-helper type (Th) 2 cells play critical roles in the local accumulation and activation of eosinophils, whether they induce eosinophilic skin inflammation, independent of the IgE-mediated pathway has been unclear. To address the functional role of T cells in allergic skin diseases, we herein transferred Th1/Th2-differentiated or naive DO11.10 T cells into unprimed BALB/c mice. Ovalbumin-specific Th2 cells, as well as eosinophils, accumulated in the skin upon antigen challenge, despite the absence of antigen-specific IgE. Neither antigen-specific Th1 nor naive T cells induced eosinophil accumulation, although Th1 cells by themselves migrated into the skin. Interleukin (IL)-4, IL-5, and eotaxin were specifically produced in the skin of antigen-challenged, Th2 cell-transferred mice, whereas interferon (IFN)-γ and regulated on activation, normal T cell expressed and secreted (RANTES) were preferentially produced in Th1 cells-transferred mice. Production of monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 and MCP-3 was enhanced by both Th1 and Th2 cells. The accumulation of eosinophils and Th2 cells in the skin was suppressed by both dexamethasone and FK506, indicating an essential role of Th2 cells in eosinophil recruitment. We conclude that Th2 cells can induce eosinophilic infiltration into the skin in the absence of antigen-specific IgE.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chemokines , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Dexamethasone , Eosinophils , Immunoglobulin E , Immunoglobulins , Inflammation , Interferons , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Mice , Monocytes , Skin Diseases , Skin , T-Lymphocytes , Tacrolimus , Th1 Cells , Th2 Cells
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714725

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Asthma is a chronic inflammatory airway disease characterized by airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR), inflammation, and remodeling. There is emerging interest in the involvement of the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel in the pathophysiology of asthma. This study examined whether TRPV1 antagonism alleviates asthma features in a murine model of chronic asthma. METHODS: BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged by ovalbumin to develop chronic asthma. Capsazepine (TRPV1 antagonist) or TRPV1 small interfering RNA (siRNA) was administered in the treatment group to evaluate the effect of TPV1 antagonism on AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling. RESULTS: The mice displayed increased AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling. Treatment with capsazepine or TRPV1 siRNA reduced AHR to methacholine and airway inflammation. Type 2 T helper (Th2) cytokines (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, and IL-13) were reduced and epithelial cell-derived cytokines (thymic stromal lymphopoietin [TSLP], IL-33, and IL-25), which regulate Th2 cytokine-associated inflammation, were also reduced. Airway remodeling characterized by goblet cell hyperplasia, increased α-smooth muscle action, and collagen deposition was also alleviated by both treatments. CONCLUSIONS: Treatment directed at TRPV1 significantly alleviated AHR, airway inflammation, and remodeling in a chronic asthma murine model. The TRPV1 receptor can be a potential drug target for chronic bronchial asthma.


Subject(s)
Airway Remodeling , Animals , Asthma , Collagen , Cytokines , Goblet Cells , Hyperplasia , Inflammation , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Methacholine Chloride , Mice , Ovalbumin , RNA, Small Interfering
17.
Immune Network ; : e9-2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-714171

ABSTRACT

Although atopic dermatitis (AD) is characterized by cytokine production predominantly mediated by T helper (Th) 2 cells, AD pathogenesis also involves innate immune and Th1 cells. To optimize the cytokine milieu required for accurate reproduction of AD-related gene expression profile in vitro, we evaluated the expression pattern of CCL22, CCL17, IL5, IL13, IL33, IL25, TSLP, FLG, and LOR in human lesional AD skin and cytokine-stimulated HaCaT cells. An increase in Th2 mediators (IL5, IL13, CCL22, CCL17, IL25, IL33, and TSLP) and a decrease in genes related to cornified cell envelope (filaggrin and loricrin) were observed in human AD lesions. Innate (tumor necrosis factor-α) and/or Th1/Th2 adaptive cytokines (interferon-γ/IL-4) were required for inducing these inflammatory changes in HaCaT cells, implying that a complex network of innate, Th1, and Th2 cytokines drives AD-like changes. Therefore, stimulation with various combinations of cytokines, beyond Th2 polarization, is necessary when HaCaT cell line is used to study genetic changes implicated in AD pathogenesis.


Subject(s)
Cell Line , Cytokines , Dermatitis, Atopic , Gene Expression , Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-33 , Interleukin-5 , Keratinocytes , Necrosis , Reproduction , Skin , Th1 Cells , Transcriptome
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742441

ABSTRACT

Asthma, remains symptomatic despite ongoing treatment with high doses of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in conjunction with long-acting beta-agonists (LABA), is classified as “severe” asthma. In the course of caring for those patients diagnosed with severe asthma, stepping up from ICS/LABA to more aggressive therapeutic measures would be justified, though several aspects have to be checked in advance (including inhaler technique, adherence to therapy, and possible associated comorbidities). That accomplished, it would be advisable to step up care in accordance with the Global Initiative for Asthma (GINA) recommendations. Possible strategies include the addition of a leukotriene receptor antagonist or tiotropium (to the treatment regimen). The latter has been shown to be effective in the management of several subgroups of asthma. Oral corticosteroids have commonly been used for the treatment of patients with severe asthma in the past; however, the use of oral corticosteroids is commonly associated with corticosteroid-related adverse events and comorbidities. Therefore, according to GINA 2017 these patients should be referred to experts who specialize in the treatment of severe asthma to check further therapeutic options including biologics before starting treatment with oral corticosteroids.


Subject(s)
Adrenal Cortex Hormones , Asthma , Biological Products , Comorbidity , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Interleukin-5 , Nebulizers and Vaporizers , Receptors, Leukotriene , Tiotropium Bromide
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716677

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: T helper (Th) 17 cells play a critical role in the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanism of how interleukin (IL)-17 is regulated in allergic airway inflammation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of Bcl11b on Th17 response in asthma. METHODS: Blood samples from patients with mild asthma (MA) and severe asthma (SA) were collected. Expression of Bcl11b, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17A and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were determined in CD4+ T cells and plasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Relative mRNA and protein levels of Bcl11b, IL-17A and genes involved in the TGF/Smad signaling pathway were examined by PCR, ELISA and western blot analysis in house dust mite (HDM)-challenged mice. Ectopic expression of Bcl11b in HDM-stimulated primary mouse splenocytes was achieved by nucleofection of Bcl11b expression plasmid. RESULTS: We found significantly decreased Bcl11b but increased IL-17A and TGF-β1 expression in patients with asthma and a strongly negative correlation between Bcl11b and these 2 cytokines in SA patients. Similar expression patterns of Bcl11b, IL-17A and TGF-β1 were also found in mice with HDM-induced allergic airway inflammation. We demonstrated further that Smad2/3 phosphorylation was increased in HDM-challenged mice and that ectopic expression of Bcl11b in HDM-stimulated primary mouse splenocytes reduced Smad2 phosphorylation and IL-17 expression. CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate a potential effect of Bc111b in controlling IL-17-mediated inflammation in asthma and suggest that Bc111b may be a useful therapeutic target for asthma.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Blotting, Western , Cytokines , Ectopic Gene Expression , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-17 , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-5 , Interleukins , Mice , Phosphorylation , Plasma , Plasmids , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Pyroglyphidae , RNA, Messenger , T-Lymphocytes , Transforming Growth Factors
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773627

ABSTRACT

Bamboo salt (BS) is a traditional Korean food, and has been reported to have anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, and anti-metastatic effects. However, the anti-atopic dermatitis (AD) activity of BS has not been described yet. In the present study, we examined the preventive effect of BS on AD. The effect of oral administration of BS was tested in a 2, 4-dinitrofluorobenzene (DNFB)-induced AD animal model, by histological analysis, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, caspase-1 assay, and Western blotting analysis. BS administration reduced the total clinical severity and scratching frequencies, compared with the AD group. In the serum of DNFB-induced AD mice, the levels of IgE, histamine, thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP), interleukin (IL)-5, and IL-13 were significantly reduced by BS treatment. BS significantly reduced the protein and mRNA expression of TSLP, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α in the AD skin lesions. BS markedly reduced the infiltration of inflammatory cells. Furthermore, the activation of caspase-1 was reduced by BS in the AD skin lesions. Our results suggested that BS should be considered as a candidate treatment for allergic inflammatory diseases including AD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspase 1 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Dermatitis, Atopic , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Dinitrofluorobenzene , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Histamine , Allergy and Immunology , Humans , Immunoglobulin E , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-13 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Interleukin-5 , Genetics , Allergy and Immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Sodium Chloride, Dietary
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