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Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 393-399, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927514


Interleukins (ILs) and associated cytokines serve as the means of communication for immune cells and non-immune cells. The use of ILs in harnessing the immune system to cancer treatment has been a promising approach. ILs not only nurture an environment enabling cancer growth but also simultaneously trigger a productive tumor-directed immune response. These properties of ILs are increasingly being explored as a strategy to improve the outcomes of cancer. Here, we describe recently innovative technological approaches that have been developed to improve the pharmacokinetics, safety, and efficacies of IL-2, 15, 10, and 18 in the treatment of melanoma. Furthermore, the combination of ILs and immune checkpoint inhibition may synergize to reshape the tumor environment, thus yielding better clinical benefits in the future.

Cytokines , Humans , Interleukins , Melanoma/drug therapy
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(2): 400-408, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364332


Resumo Fundamento Foi demonstrado que as subunidades de interleucina-35 (IL-35) estão fortemente expressas nas placas ateroscleróticas em humanos. Assim, considera-se que elas têm um papel na aterosclerose. Objetivos Neste estudo, os níveis de IL-35 foram comparados com o grupo controle em pacientes com doença arterial coronariana (DAC) estável, e a associação entre os níveis de IL-35 e o tipo, gravidade e extensão da lesão foram investigadas com o escore Gensini (GS) e o escore Syntax (SS) no grupo de pacientes Métodos Sessenta pacientes (18 mulheres e 42 homens) com DAC, diagnosticados por meio da angiografia coronária, que apresentaram dor no peito típica e teste de esforço não invasivo positivo, e 46 pacientes (18 mulheres e 28 homens) com luminograma normal, foram incluídos no estudo. Tanto o GS quanto o SS foram calculados para o grupo de pacientes, e esses valores foram comparados com os níveis de IL-35. Variáveis com distribuição não normal foram avaliadas com o teste U de Mann-Whitney, enquanto os parâmetros com distribuição normal foram analisados com o teste t de Student. A diferença entre as variáveis categóricas foi avaliada pelo teste de qui-quadrado ou de Fisher. Os valores de p<0,05 foram considerados como estatisticamente sinificativos. Resultados Não foram observadas diferenças significativas entre pacientes e o grupo controle em termos de características demográficas e achados laboratoriais. Em comparação ao grupo controle, os níveis de IL-35 no grupo com DAC foram consideravalmente menores (36,9±63,9 ng/ml vs. 33,2±13,2 ng/ml, p<0,008). Embora não tenha sido estatisticamente significativo, os níveis de IL-35 foram maiores em pacientes com SS mais baixo do que nos com SS mais alto (33,2±13,7 vs. 31,8±8,9, p=0,51). Os valores de IL-35 em pacientes com GS alto foram significativamente mais baixos do que em pacientes com GS baixo (35±17,4 vs. 30,7±8,6, p=0,043). Conclusão Demonstrou-se que os níveis de IL-35 podem ser um novo biomarcador para a DAC estável, e que a IL-35 está associada à extensão da DAC.

Abstract Background It has been shown that interleukin-35 (IL-35) subunits are strongly expressed in atherosclerotic plaques in humans. Therefore, it is considered to play a role in atherosclerosis. Objectives In this study, IL-35 levels were compared with the control group in patients with stable coronary artery disease (CAD), and the association between IL-35 levels and the lesion type, lesion severity and extension was investigated with the Gensini score (GS) and the Syntax score (SS) in the patient group. Methods Sixty patients (18 female and 42 male) with CAD diagnosed by coronary angiography, who presented with typical chest pain and positive noninvasive cardiac stress test, and 46 patients (18 female and 28 male) with normal coronary lumenogram, were included in this study. Gensini and Syntax scores were calculated in the patient group, and these values were compared with IL-35 levels. Non-normally distributed variables were analyzed by the Mann-Whitney U test, whereas normally distributed parameters were assessed by Student's t-test. The difference between categorical variables were evaluated by the Chi-square or Fisher test. P-values<0.05 were considered as statistically significant. Results No significant differences were observed between patients and the control group in terms of demographic characteristics and laboratory findings. Compared to the control group, IL-35 levels of the CAD group were considerably lower (36.9±63.9 ng/ml vs. 33.2±13.2 ng/ml, p<0.008). Although not statistically significant, IL-35 levels were higher in patients with low SS than among those with high SS (33.2±13.7 vs. 31.8±8.9, p=0.51). The IL-35 values of the patients with high GS were significantly lower than in patients with low GS (35±17.4 vs. 30.7±8.6, p=0.043). Conclusion It has been shown that IL-35 levels can be a new biomarker for stable CAD, and IL-35 is associated with the extension of CAD.

Humans , Male , Female , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnosis , Interleukins/blood , Atherosclerosis/diagnosis , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers , Coronary Angiography
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(5): 551-557, Sept.-Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345130


Abstract Background: Alopecia areata (AA) is a hair disease that causes hair loss without scarring. The etiopathogenesis of AA has not been fully understood yet. Objective: To determine serum interleukin levels (IL-2, IL-4, IL-15, and IL-17) in patients diagnosed with alopecia areata and to investigate the relationship of IL levels with the duration and severity of alopecia areata and the response to tofacitinib therapy. Methods: Patients (≥16 years old) diagnosed with alopecia areata and healthy individuals as a control group was enrolled. Baseline serum interleukin levels of the patients and controls were measured. In the patient group receiving tofacitinib therapy, serum interleukin levels were measured again after 6 months. Disease severity for alopecia areata was assessed using the Severity of Alopecia Tool. Results: Sixty-one AA patients and 30 healthy individuals were included; they were comparable regarding age and sex. The mean disease duration for AA was 7 ± 6 years and the baseline mean Severity of Alopecia Tool score was 71 ± 30 (range, 20-100). Baseline IL-2, IL-4 and IL-15 levels were significantly higher in the patient group than those in the control group (p < 0.001 for each). No significant correlation was found between the baseline interleukin levels and either disease duration or disease severity (baseline Severity of Alopecia Tool score). Among the patients receiving tofacitinib (n = 22), all interleukin levels significantly decreased after treatment. However, no significant relationship between the change in interleukin levels and the change in the Severity of Alopecia Tool scores was observed after tofacitinib treatment. Study limitations: This is a monocentric study conducted in a single university hospital. Conclusion: High interleukin levels in alopecia areata patients and the significant decrease with treatment support the idea that interleukins have a role in pathogenesis. Nevertheless, no relationship could be demonstrated between IL levels and disease duration or severity.

Humans , Adolescent , Interleukin-2 , Alopecia Areata/drug therapy , Severity of Illness Index , Interleukins , Interleukin-4 , Interleukin-15 , Interleukin-17
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(4): 416-421, July-Aug. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285085


Abstract Background: Interferon (IFN)-λ1, also named Interleukin (IL)-29, is a new member of the Type III IFN or IFN-λ family. IL-29 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of many types of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases. Objective: To study the role of IL-29 in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris. Methods: The authors detected the serum levels of IL-29 in forty-one patients with psoriasis vulgaris, twenty-three patients with atopic dermatitis and thirty-eight age and gender-matched controls by sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA). The effects of IL-29 on the expression of cytokines, such as IL-6, IL-17, IL-8, IL-4, IL10, Interferon (IFN-γ) and Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α), in PBMCs and HaCat cells were determined by real-time quantitative PCR. Results: Our data indicated that serum IL-29 levels were significantly elevated in patients with psoriasis vulgaris when compared with atopic dermatitis patients and the control group. Moreover, Serum levels of IL-29 were closely associated with the severity of psoriasis vulgaris. Furthermore, IL-29 up-regulated the mRNA expression levels of IL-6, IL-17 and TNF-α in PBMCs from psoriasis vulgaris patients. In addition, IL-29 enhanced the IL-6 and IL-8 expression from the HaCat cells. Conclusion: This study provides the first observations on the association of IL-29 and psoriasis vulgaris and showed elevated IL-29 serum levels. The authors suggest that IL-29 may play a role in the pathogenesis of psoriasis vulgaris.

Humans , Psoriasis , Interferon-gamma , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Cytokines , Interleukins , Interferons
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(spe2): 54-57, Apr.-June 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280093


ABSTRACT Soft tissue injury is the most common disease in orthopedics, and it is also the most easily neglected disease in sports. Without timely and effective treatment, it is easy to develop into malignant strain and seriously affect life and sports. In view of this, the aim of this study is to analyze the effect and mechanism of traditional Chinese medicine gel in treating such injuries in the light of the characteristics of sports-related soft tissue injury. The right gastrocnemius muscle injury was simulated in 36 adult male rats. Chinese medicine gel and tincture were used to treat it. The contents of interleukin, alanine aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen and prostaglandin E2 in the blood of rats under different courses of treatment were analyzed to explore recovery in four rats. The results showed that the levels of interleukin and prostaglandin E2 in the blood of rats treated with drugs were significantly lower than those in the control group (p<0.05), indicating that both drugs have obvious therapeutic effects on soft tissue injury. The content of interleukin in the blood of the Chinese medicine gel group was slightly lower than that of the tincture group, indicating that the Chinese medicine gel could affect the recovery of soft tissue injury by affecting leukocyte interleukin. This result is helpful in the treatment of soft tissue injury in sports and to further improve the therapeutic effect of traditional Chinese medicine gel.

RESUMO A lesão dos tecidos moles é a doença mais comum na ortopedia, e é também a doença mais facilmente negligenciada nos esportes. Sem tratamento ágil e eficaz, facilmente evolui para luxações malignas, afetando seriamente a vida e a prática de esportes. Em vista disso, o objetivo deste estudo é analisar o efeito e o mecanismo do gel da medicina tradicional chinesa no tratamento de tais lesões, com base nas características da lesão dos tecidos moles relacionada à prática esportiva. Estimulou-se lesão do músculo gastrocnêmio direito em 36 ratos adultos. O gel e a tintura chinesa foram usados para o tratamento. Foram analisados os conteúdos de interleucina, alanina aminotransferase, ureia sanguínea azoto e prostaglandina E2 no sangue dos ratos sob diferentes tratamentos, de modo a explorar a recuperação de quatro ratos. Os resultados mostraram que os níveis de interleucina e prostaglandina E2 no sangue dos ratos tratados com medicamentos eram significativamente inferiores aos do grupo controle (p<0.05), indicando que ambos os fármacos têm efeitos terapêuticos óbvios sobre lesões dos tecidos moles. O teor de interleucina no sangue do grupo gel chinês medicinal mostrou-se ligeiramente inferior ao do grupo tintura, indicando que o gel medicinal chinês pode afetar a recuperação da lesão nos tecidos moles, afetando o leucócito interleucina. Este resultado é útil para o tratamento de lesões dos tecidos moles relacionadas à prática esportiva e para melhorar ainda mais o efeito terapêutico do gel da medicina chinesa tradicional.

RESUMEN La lesión de los tejidos blandos es la enfermedad más común en la ortopedia, y es también la enfermedad más fácilmente descuidada en los deportes. Sin tratamiento ágil y eficaz, fácilmente evolucionan a luxaciones malignas, afectando seriamente la vida y la práctica de deportes. En vista de eso, el objetivo de este estudio es analizar el efecto y el mecanismo del gel de la medicina tradicional china en el tratamiento de tales lesiones, con base en las características de la lesión de los tejidos blandos relacionada a la práctica deportiva. Se estimuló lesión del músculo gastrocnemio derecho en 36 ratones adultos. El gel y la tintura china fueron usados para el tratamiento. Fueron analizados los contenidos de interleucina, alanina aminotransferasa, urea sanguínea, nitrógeno y prostaglandina E2 en la sangre de los ratones bajo diferentes tratamientos, de modo de explorar la recuperación de cuatro ratones. Los resultados mostraron que los niveles de interleucina y prostaglandina E2 en la sangre de los ratones tratados con medicamentos eran significativamente inferiores a los del grupo control (p<0.05), indicando que ambos fármacos tienen efectos terapéuticos obvios sobre lesiones de los tejidos blandos. El tenor de interleucina en la sangre del grupo gel chino medicinal se mostró ligeramente inferior al del grupo tintura, indicando que el gel medicinal chino puede afectar la recuperación de la lesión en los tejidos blandos, afectando el leucocito interleucina. Este resultado es útil para el tratamiento de lesiones de los tejidos blandos relacionadas a la práctica deportiva y para mejorar aún más el efecto terapéutico del gel de la medicina china tradicional.

Animals , Rats , Ointments/therapeutic use , Muscle, Skeletal/injuries , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Athletic Injuries/drug therapy , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Dinoprostone/blood , Interleukins/blood , Treatment Outcome , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(2): 163-170, Mar.-Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1248745


Abstract Background: Psoriasis and periodontitis are immunologically mediated chronic inflammatory diseases. Epidemiologic evidence has linked both; however, the change of markers in gingival crevicular fluid has been poorly evaluated. Objective: To evaluate the levels of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, S100A7, S100A8, and S100A9 in gingival crevicular fluid of psoriatic and healthy subjects with and without periodontitis and their relations to psoriasis severity. Methods: Cross-sectional study. Sample comprised the following groups: healthy controls without periodontitis or with mild periodontitis (n = 21), healthy controls with moderate or severe periodontitis (n = 18), individuals with psoriasis without or mild periodontitis (n = 11), and individuals with psoriasis and moderate or severe periodontitis (n = 32). Levels of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, S100A8, and S100A9 were determined by multiplex assay and S100A7 was measured by ELISA. Results: No inter-group differences in the levels of IL-17A, IL-22, IL-23, and S100A7 were found. S100A8 levels were higher in psoriatic patients than controls (p < 0.05). S100A8 was positively correlated with psoriasis severity in the group with psoriasis (p < 0.05). S100A9 exceeded the detection limits. Study limitations: This pilot study presents a small sample size. Conclusions: The concentrations of S100A8 were highest in psoriatic patients regardless of periodontal health/status. S100A8 was associated with the severity of psoriasis. The concentrations of interleukins and S100A7 were similar in psoriatic patients with or without periodontitis vs. healthy controls.

Humans , Periodontitis , Gingival Crevicular Fluid , S100 Proteins , Pilot Projects , Cross-Sectional Studies , Interleukins , Interleukin-17 , Calgranulin A , Interleukin-23 Subunit p19
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 115(6): 1104-1111, dez. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152929


Resumo Fundamento Pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio podem apresentar uma grande área infartada e disfunção ventricular mesmo com trombólise e revascularização precoces. Objetivo Investigar o comportamento das citocinas circulantes em pacientes com infarto agudo do miocárdio com supradesnivelamento do segmento ST (IAMCSST) e a relação delas com a função ventricular. Métodos No estudo BATTLE-AMI (Avaliação dos Linfócitos Tipos B e T no Infarto Agudo do Miocárdio), os pacientes com IAMCSST foram tratados com uma estratégia farmacoinvasiva. Os níveis de citocinas (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10 e IL-18) no plasma foram testados através de ensaio de imunoadsorção enzimática (ELISA) no início do estudo e após 30 dias. A massa infartada e a fração de ejeção ventricular esquerda (FEVE) foram examinadas por ressonância magnética cardíaca 3-T. Valores de p menores que 0,05 foram considerados significativos. Resultados Na comparação com o início do estudo, níveis mais baixos foram detectados para IL-1β (p = 0,028) e IL-18 (p < 0,0001) após 30 dias do IAMCSST, enquanto níveis mais altos foram observados para IL-4 (p = 0,001) e IL-10 (p < 0,0001) no mesmo momento. Em contrapartida, nenhuma mudança foi detectada nos níveis de IL-6 (p = 0,63). Os níveis da proteína C-reativa de alta sensibilidade e de IL-6 se correlacionaram no início do estudo (rho = 0,45, p < 0,0001) e 30 dias após o IAMCSST (rho = 0,29, p = 0,009). No início do estudo, a correlação entre os níveis de IL-6 e FEVE também foi observada (rho = -0,50, p = 0,004). Conclusões Durante o primeiro mês pós-infarto agudo do miocárdio, observamos uma melhora significativa no balanço das citocinas pró e anti-inflamatórias, exceto da IL-6. Esses achados sugerem risco inflamatório residual. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Abstract Background Patients with acute myocardial infarction may have a large infarcted area and ventricular dysfunction despite early thrombolysis and revascularization. Objective To investigate the behavior of circulating cytokines in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) and their relationship with ventricular function. Methods In the BATTLE-AMI (B and T Types of Lymphocytes Evaluation in Acute Myocardial Infarction) trial, patients with STEMI were treated with a pharmacoinvasive strategy. The plasma levels of cytokines (IL-1 β , IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, and IL-18) were tested using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) at baseline and after 30 days. Infarcted mass and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) were examined by 3-T cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All p-values < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results Compared to baseline, lower levels were detected for IL-1 β (p = 0.028) and IL-18 (p < 0.0001) 30 days after STEMI, whereas higher levels were observed for IL-4 (p = 0.001) and IL-10 (p < 0.0001) at that time point. Conversely, no changes were detected for IL-6 levels (p = 0.63). The levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein and IL-6 correlated at baseline (rho = 0.45, p < 0.0001) and 30 days after STEMI (rho = 0.29, p = 0.009). At baseline, correlation between IL-6 levels and LVEF was also observed (rho = -0.50, p = 0.004). Conclusions During the first month post-MI, we observed a marked improvement in the balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines, except for IL-6. These findings suggest residual inflammatory risk. (Arq Bras Cardiol. 2020; [online].ahead print, PP.0-0)

Humans , ST Elevation Myocardial Infarction , Myocardial Infarction , Stroke Volume , Biomarkers , Ventricular Function, Left , Interleukins
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 66(11): 1583-1588, Nov. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143646


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE: The role of interleukins, such as IL-17 and IL-34, in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases has been established in the literature. In the current study, we aimed to identify the concentrations of IL-17 (IL-17A, IL-17F) and IL-34 in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy (CIDP) and acute inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDN). METHODS: We included in this study 8 patients with CIDP (none of them receiving immunomodulatory or immunosuppressant therapy), 7 patients with Guillain-Barre syndrome (GBS, AIDN), and 7 control subjects. The CIDP and AIDN diagnoses were made by clinical evaluation and electrophysiological investigations according to international criteria. CSF samples were obtained appropriately, and the levels of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-34 were measured by ELISA kits. RESULTS: The concentrations of IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-34 were higher in those with CIDP and AIDN compared to the controls (p=0.005, p=0.01, and p=0.001, respectively). While IL-34 levels were significantly higher in AIDN patients than in CIDP patients (p=0.04), there were no significant differences between the AIDN and CIDP groups with regard to the levels of IL-17A and IL-17F (p=0.4 and p=0.2, respectively) CONCLUSION: Our results indicate that IL-17A, IL-17F, and IL-34 levels may have a role in CIDP and AIDN. Furthermore, the difference in the IL-34 levels of patients with AIDN and CIDP may indicate an important difference between the pathogenesis of these two sets of the disease.

RESUMO OBJETIVO: O papel das interleucinas, como IL-17 e IL-34, na patogênese da doença auto-imune foi estabelecido na literatura. No presente estudo, objetivamos identificar as concentrações de IL-17 (IL-17A, IL-17F) e IL-34 no líquido cefalorraquidiano (LCR) de pacientes com polineuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória crônica (CIDP) e neuropatia desmielinizante inflamatória aguda (AIDN). MÉTODOS: incluímos neste estudo 8 pacientes com CIDP (nenhum deles recebendo terapia imunomoduladora ou imunossupressora), 7 pacientes com síndrome de Guillain-Barre (GBS, AIDN) e 7 indivíduos controle. Os diagnósticos CIDP e AIDN foram feitos por avaliação clínica e investigações eletrofisiológicas de acordo com critérios internacionais. As amostras de LCR foram obtidas adequadamente e os níveis de IL-17A, IL-17F e IL-34 foram medidos através de kits ELISA. RESULTADOS: As concentrações de IL-17A, IL-17F e IL-34 foram maiores naqueles com CIDP e AIDN em comparação aos controles (p = 0,005, p = 0,01 ep = 0,001, respectivamente). Enquanto os níveis de IL-34 foram significativamente mais altos nos pacientes com AIDN do que nos pacientes com CIDP (p = 0,04), não houve diferenças significativas entre os grupos com AIDN e CIDP em relação aos níveis de IL-17A e IL-17F (p = 0,4 ep = 0,2, respectivamente) CONCLUSÃO: Nossos resultados indicam que os níveis de IL-17A, IL-17F e IL-34 podem ter um papel no CIDP e no AIDN. Além disso, a diferença nos níveis de IL-34 de pacientes com AIDN e CIDP pode indicar uma diferença importante entre a patogênese desses dois conjuntos de doenças.

Humans , Polyradiculoneuropathy, Chronic Inflammatory Demyelinating , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Interleukins , Interleukin-17 , Guillain-Barre Syndrome
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 521-527, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131132


ABSTRACT Objectives Graves' disease (GD) is an autoimmune disease causing the overproduction of the thyroid hormone from thyroid gland. This disease is mainly the result of the production of antibodies against TSH receptors. Cytokines play an important role in orchestrating the pathophysiology in autoimmune thyroid disease. The regulatory role of IL-12 on TH1 cells has been proven. IL-27 and IL-35, members of IL-12 cytokine family, are two cytokines that have been newly discovered. IL-35 has been identified as a novel immunosuppressive and anti-inflammatory cytokine while IL-27 has both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory functions. The objective of the current study was to examine the changes in the serum level of the foregoing cytokines in GD patients in comparison to healthy controls. Materials and methods In this study, serum levels of IL-27 and IL-35 were determined by an ELISA method; anti TPO and anti Tg were measured by an RIA method in 40 new cases of Graves's disease. The findings were compared with 40 healthy controls. Results The results showed a significant difference between IL-27 and IL-35 regarding their serum levels with P values of 0.0001 and 0.024, respectively; anti TPO and anti Tg levels of the cases were also significantly different from controls (p < 0.001). Conclusion The reduction in the serum levels of IL-27 and IL-35 in GD patients compared to normal subjects suggests the possible anti-inflammatory role of these cytokines in GD.

Humans , Graves Disease , Hashimoto Disease , Receptors, Thyrotropin , Cytokines , Interleukins
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 35(5): 697-705, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1137330


Abstract Objective: To investigate the association between interleukin-35 (IL-35) levels and single nucleotide polymorphisms (rs3761548, rs3761547) of the FoxP3 gene in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients. Methods: We conducted a prospective study including 140 patients, who were scheduled for elective isolated on-pump CABG with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) from January 2017 to September 2018 in the Jorjani heart center. Blood samples were collected before and 12 hours after the operation. Serum levels of IL-35 were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and the pattern of genetic variations was assessed using single specific primer-polymerase chain reaction. Results: The serum concentrations of IL-35 after surgery were significantly higher than pre-surgery levels (18.4±8.3 vs. 9.89±3.2, respectively, P=0.002). There was no significant association between genotype frequencies of rs3761548 and rs3761547 and elevated IL-35 levels (P>0.05). There were significant associations between IL-35 levels and preoperative variables, including age (r=-0.34, P=0.047) and body mass index (r=-0.41, P=0.045), and intraoperative variables, including CPB time (r=0.4, P=0.02) and mean arterial pressure (r=-0.38, P=0.046), in carriers of the rs3761548 AA genotype. Conclusion: Serum IL-35 concentrations were significantly increased in CPB patients, which may contribute to the post-CPB compensatory anti-inflammatory response syndrome. IL-35 increased levels were not influenced by FoxP3 promoter polymorphisms (rs3761548, rs3761547).

Humans , Male , Female , Cardiopulmonary Bypass , Coronary Artery Bypass , Interleukins/blood , Forkhead Transcription Factors/blood , Prospective Studies , Interleukins/genetics , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Forkhead Transcription Factors/genetics
Rev. argent. reumatolg. (En línea) ; 31(3): 40-50, set. 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1149675


Introducción: La artritis reumatoidea se caracteriza por inflamación de la membrana sinovial debido al infiltrado de células inmunitarias que secretan citocinas relacionadas a perfil Th17 como IL-22 e IL-6. La dinámica de estas citocinas durante el tratamiento permanece incomprendida. El objetivo fue evaluar los niveles séricos y en líquido sinovial (LS) de IL-22 e IL-6, correlacionarlos con diferentes parámetros bioquímicos y clínicos y medir sus cambios post-tratamiento. Material y métodos: Se estudiaron 77 pacientes con AR y 30 controles. A 30 pacientes se los evaluó nuevamente luego de 3 meses de tratamiento y a 12 se les extrajo LS. Se midió VSG, PCR, FR, anti-CCPhs, IL-22 e IL-6. Se evaluó la actividad con DAS28 y respuesta al tratamiento con criterios EULAR. Resultados: IL-22 e IL-6 fueron similares entre pacientes y controles. Sus niveles disminuyeron luego del tratamiento, principalmente en pacientes respondedores. IL-22 fue menor e IL-6 mayor en LS que en sangre. IL-6 correlacionó positivamente con PCR y anti-CCPhs. Los niveles de VSG, PCR y DAS28 fueron mayores en pacientes con valores dosables de IL-6 que en no dosables. Conclusión: En pacientes con valores basales dosables de IL-22 e IL-6, los niveles de estas citocinas podrían utilizarse como marcador adicional de respuesta al tratamiento.

Introduction: Rheumatoid arthritis is characterized by synovium inflammation due to the infiltration of immune cells that secrete Th17 cytokines like IL-22 and IL-6. The dynamics of these cytokines during the treatment remain unknown. The aim of this study was to evaluate the levels of IL-22 and IL-6 serum and synovial fluid (SF) in correlation with different biochemical and clinical parameters and treatment-associated changes. Material and methods: Seventy-seven RA patients and 30 controls were recruited. Thirty patients were evaluated after 3 months of treatment and SF was collected of 12 patients. ESR, CRP, RF, anti-CCP hs, IL-22 e IL-6 were measured. DAS28 was used to assess disease activity and response to treatment followed EULAR criteria. Results: There were not differences in serum IL-22 and IL-6 levels between patients and controls. Cytokine levels decreased after treatment, mainly in responder patients. IL-22 was decreased and IL-6 was increased in SF compared to serum. IL-6 correlated positively with CRP and anti-CCPhs. ESR, CRP and DAS28 were increased in patients with detectable IL-6 compared to those with undetectable IL-6. Conclusion: In patients with detectable serum IL-22 and IL-6 levels before treatment initiation, follow-up of cytokine levels could be an useful additional tool to evaluate treatment response.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid , Therapeutics , Interleukins , Interleukin-6 , Inflammation
Brasília; s.n; 25 jul. 2020.
Non-conventional in Portuguese | LILACS, BRISA, PIE | ID: biblio-1117709


O Informe Diário de Evidências é uma produção do Ministério da Saúde que tem como objetivo acompanhar diariamente as publicações científicas sobre tratamento farmacológico e vacinas para a COVID-19. Dessa forma, são realizadas buscas estruturadas em bases de dados biomédicas, referentes ao dia anterior desse informe. Não são incluídos estudos pré-clínicos (in vitro, in vivo, in silico). A frequência dos estudos é demonstrada de acordo com a sua classificação metodológica (revisões sistemáticas, ensaios clínicos randomizados, coortes, entre outros). Para cada estudo é apresentado um resumo com avaliação da qualidade metodológica. Essa avaliação tem por finalidade identificar o grau de certeza/confiança ou o risco de viés de cada estudo. Para tal, são utilizadas ferramentas já validadas e consagradas na literatura científica, na área de saúde baseada em evidências. Cabe ressaltar que o documento tem caráter informativo e não representa uma recomendação oficial do Ministério da Saúde sobre a temática. Foram encontrados 13 artigos e 8 protocolos.

Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Technology Assessment, Biomedical , Immunoglobulins/therapeutic use , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cohort Studies , Interleukins/antagonists & inhibitors , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Interleukin 1 Receptor Antagonist Protein/therapeutic use , Leflunomide/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Neuromuscular Blocking Agents/therapeutic use
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 3(2)30 abril 2020. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1095895


No hay tratamiento antiviral específico para el COVID-19. Sin embargo, conocimientos adquiridos durante los brotes del SARS y el MERS, en conjunto con la información obtenida con COVID-19, han permitido detectar varios objetivos terapéuticos en el ciclo de replicación del virus, y en su patogénesis. Se incluye la evidencia actual con respecto a los principales tratamientos propuestos para COVID-19, reutilizados o experimentales, mediante una revisión de la literatura científica a la fecha. Debido a la falta de ensayos controlados aleatorios, se incluyeron: informes de casos, series de casos y artículos de revisión. Globalmente se están llevando a cabo múltiples estudios con el fin de identificar agentes que sean efectivos ante COVID-19, en los siguientes objetivos estratégicos: inhibición de la entrada/fusión del virus (anticuerpos neutralizantes, inhibidores de proteasa de serina transmembrana 2, cloroquina, hidroxicloroquina y umifenovir); interrupción de la replicación viral (remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir e ivermectina) y supresión de la respuesta inflamatoria excesiva (corticosteroides, tocilizumab, e inmunoglobulina). Aún no existe un tratamiento efectivo y seguro contra COVID-19; los fármacos descritos en esta revisión se administran como uso compasivo de drogas, o bien, como parte de un ensayo clínico. La terapia de soporte continúa siendo el pilar del manejo de COVID-19.(AU)

There is no specific antiviral treatment for COVID-19. However, knowledge acquired during the SARS and MERS outbreaks, together with the information obtained with COVID-19, have allowed the detection of various therapeutic targets in the virus replication cycle, and in its pathogenesis. The current evidence regarding the leading treatments proposed for COVID-19, reused or experimental, is included through a review of the scientific literature to date. Due to the lack of randomized controlled trials, the following were involved: case reports, case series and review articles. Globally, multiple studies are being carried out in order to identify agents that are effective against COVID-19, upon the following strategic objectives: inhibition of viral entry/fusion (neutralizing antibodies, transmembrane serine protease 2 inhibitors, chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, and umifenovir); interruption of viral replication (remdesivir, favipiravir, lopinavir/ritonavir and ivermectin), and suppression of excessive inflammatory response (corticosteroids, tocilizumab, and immunoglobulin). There is still no effective and safe treatment against COVID-19; the medications described in this review are given as compassionate drug use, or as part of a clinical trial. Support therapy continues to be COVID-19 management cornerstone.(AU)

Humans , Interleukins/therapeutic use , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Lopinavir/therapeutic use , Hydroxychloroquine/therapeutic use , Drug Combinations
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 86(1): 23-29, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089369


Abstract Introduction Obstrutive sleep apnea syndrome is characterized by repeated episodes of upper airway obstruction, associated with intermittent hypoxia and hypercapnia, and the main risk factor in childhood is adenotonsillar hypertrophy. The lymphocytes in these structures are responsible for local and systemic immune responses. Objective Verify the levels of the inflammatory markers, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, CRP and α1-GP, in the tonsils of children with and without obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. Methods This cross-sectional prospective study included 34 children with complains of snoring, difficulty breathing during sleep or recurrent tonsillitis. Patients underwent to a complete otorhinolaryngological examination, nasal endoscopy and polysomnography and were divided into two groups with 17 children each: obstructive sleep apnea syndrome group and control group. All underwent an adenotonsillectomy. Cytokines were measured in the collected tonsils (ELISA and Multiplex methods). Results Statistically significant increasing were observed between IL-8 and IL-10 cytokines of patients with obstructive sleep apnea when compared to the control group; also between c-reactive protein and α1-GP of the tonsils cortical region in children with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome when compared with the medullary region. There were no statistically significant differences for the remaining inflammatory mediators. Conclusion After the analysis of the levels of pro and anti-inflammatory markers (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, CRP, α1-GP) in the tonsils, we observed higher levels of markers IL-8 and IL-10 in pediatric patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome.

Resumo Introdução A síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono é caracterizada por episódios repetidos de obstrução das vias aéreas superiores, associados a hipóxia intermitente e hipercapnia, e o principal fator de risco na infância é a hipertrofia adenotonsilar. Os linfócitos nessas estruturas são responsáveis por respostas imunes locais e sistêmicas. Objetivo Dosar os marcadores inflamatórios, IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, IL-15, TNF-α, PCR e α1-GP, nas tonsilas de crianças com e sem síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono. Método Estudamos prospectivamente 34 crianças que se queixavam de ronco, dificuldade para respirar durante o sono ou tonsilites recorrentes. Os pacientes foram submetidos a exame otorrinolaringológico completo, endoscopia nasal e polissonografia e foram divididos em dois grupos com 17 crianças cada: síndrome de apneia obstrutiva do sono e controle. Todos foram submetidos à adenotonsilectomia. As citocinas foram medidas nas tonsilas coletadas (métodos ELISA e Multiplex). Resultados Com diferenças estatisticamente significantes, observou-se aumento das citocinas IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes com apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação ao grupo controle, assim como aumento dos níveis de proteína C reativa e de α1-GP na região cortical das tonsilas de crianças portadoras de síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono em comparação com a região medular. Não houve diferenças estatisticamente significantes para o restante dos mediadores inflamatórios. Conclusão Após a análise dos níveis de marcadores pró e anti-inflamatórios (IL-1β, IL-4, IL-6, IL-8, IL-10, Il-15, TNF-α, PCR, α1-GP) nas tonsilas, observamos níveis mais altos de marcadores IL-8 e IL-10 em pacientes pediátricos com síndrome da apneia obstrutiva do sono.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Palatine Tonsil/immunology , Sleep Apnea, Obstructive/immunology , Palatine Tonsil/pathology , Tonsillectomy , C-Reactive Protein/analysis , Orosomucoid/analysis , Biomarkers , Cross-Sectional Studies , Prospective Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Interleukins/analysis , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis , Inflammation/immunology
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 53(1): e8669, Jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055478


This study aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of fasudil on treating experimental autoimmune neuritis (EAN). Twenty-four EAN mice were randomly assigned to fasudil treatment (Fasudil group) or saline treatment (EAN model group) for 28 days. Clinical symptom score was evaluated every other day; inflammatory cell infiltration, demyelination, anti-myelin basic protein (MBP), inflammatory cytokines, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), and arginase-1 were detected in sciatic nerves at day 28. Th1, Th2, Th17, and Tregs proportions in splenocytes were detected at day 28. Clinical symptom score was found to be attenuated in the Fasudil group compared to the EAN model group from day 12 to day 28. Sciatic nerve inflammatory cell counts by HE staining and demyelination by luxol fast blue staining were both reduced, while MBP was increased in the Fasudil group compared to the EAN model group at day 28. Interferon γ (IFN-γ) and interleukin (IL)-17 were reduced, while IL-4 and IL-10 were elevated in the Fasudil group at day 28. Sciatic nerve M1 macrophages marker iNOS was decreased while M2 macrophages marker arginase-1 was increased in the Fasudil group at day 28. CD4+IFN-γ+ (Th1) and CD4+IL-17+ (Th17) cell proportions were both decreased, CD4+IL-4+ (Th2) cell proportion was similar, while CD25+FOXP3+ (Treg) cell proportion in splenocytes was increased in the Fasudil group. In summary, fasudil presented a good therapeutic effect for treating EAN by attenuating Th1/Th17 cells and promoting Tregs activation as well as M2 macrophages polarization.

Animals , Female , Rabbits , Interleukins/blood , Interferon-gamma/blood , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/drug effects , Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental/drug therapy , Sciatic Nerve/drug effects , Sciatic Nerve/metabolism , Time Factors , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Mitochondrial , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neuritis, Autoimmune, Experimental/blood
Araçatuba; s.n; 2020. 50 p. ilus, tab.
Thesis in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1399483


Introdução: O uso do laser infravermelho (LIV) através da fotobiomodulação, tem demonstrado efeitos benéficos aos tecidos. Objetivos: Avaliar a influência do LIV sobre o processo inflamatório, por meio da imunomarcação da interleucina próinflamatória IL-23, e sobre a angiogênese, por meio da imunomarcação do fator induzível por hipóxia-1 alfa (HIF-1α), no tecido pulpar de dentes clareados. Materiais e métodos: Quarenta ratos Wistar foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em 4 grupos de 20 hemi-maxilas cada: Grupo Controle ­ recebeu o tratamento com o gel placebo; Grupo Cla - recebeu 30 minutos do gel clareador H2O2 a 35%; Grupo LIV ­ recebeu uma aplicação de LIV (808 nm, 30 segundos, 3J); Grupo Cla-LIV ­ imediatamente após a aplicação do H2O2 a 35%, recebeu uma aplicação de LIV, como descrito no grupo LIV. Após 2 e 30 dias (n = 10), os animais foram eutanasiados e as maxilas removidas e processadas para avaliação histológica (H.E.) e imunoistoquímica. Forma de análise: Os cortes teciduais seriados e com espessura de 5 µm corados em H.E. foram avaliados por escores atribuídos à inflamação, e a análise imunoistoquímica foi realizada através de escores atribuídos à imunomarcação. Os dados foram submetidos aos testes de Wilcoxon e Mann Whitney (p < 0,05). Resultados: Aos 2 dias, houve inflamação severa e necrose nos terços oclusal e médio do tecido pulpar no grupo Cla, diferente do grupo Cla-LIV com inflamação leve à moderada (p < 0,05). No terço cervical, houve inflamação moderada a severa no grupo Cla, e leve no grupo Cla-LIV (p < 0,05). Aos 30 dias, houve ausência de inflamação e os grupos clareados apresentaram deposição de dentina terciária. Em relação à IL-23, aos 2 dias foi observada imunomarcação severa no grupo Cla e moderada no grupo Cla-LIV (p < 0,05); aos 30 dias, houve redução na imunomarcação de IL-23 nos grupos clareados, onde o grupo Cla apresentou imunomarcação moderada, e o grupo Cla-LIV leve imunomarcação, sem diferença significante (p > 0,05). HIF-1α foi mais presente aos 2 dias no grupo Cla, sem diferença significativa com Cla-LIV (p > 0,05). Foi observada diferença entre os grupos clareados e seus respectivos controles, que não apresentaram imunomarcação (p < 0,05); aos 30 dias, o grupo Cla apresentou redução na imunomarcação para HIF-1α, enquanto o grupo Cla-LIV apresentou aumento da imunomarcação, mas a diferença permaneceu apenas entre os grupos clareados e seus controles (p > 0,05). Conclusão: O laser infravermelho minimizou o infiltrado inflamatório e a imunomarcação de IL-23 no tecido pulpar após a clareação dentária, mas não influenciou a imunomarcação de HIF-1α(AU)

Introduction: The use of infrared laser (IRL) through photobiomodulation has shown beneficial effects on tissues. Objectives: To evaluate the influence of LLL on the inflammatory process, by immunolabeling IL-23 pro-inflammatory interleukin, and on angiogenesis, by immunolabeling hif-1 alpha inducible factor (HIF-1α) in the pulp tissue of bleached teeth (HIF-1α). Materials and methods: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 4 groups of 20 hemimaxilla each: control group - received treatment with placebo gel; Ble group - received 30 minutes of 35% H2O2 bleaching gel; IRL group - received one application of IRL (808 nm, 30 seconds, 3 J); Ble-IRL group - immediately after application of 35% H2O2, received an application of IRL, as described in the IRL group.. After 2 and 30 days (n = 10), the rats were euthanized and the jaws removed and processed for histological evaluation (H.E.) and immunohistochemistry. Form of analysis: Serial tissue sections with thickness of 5 µm stained in H.E. were evaluated by scores attributed to inflammation, and immunohistochemical analysis was performed by scores attributed to immunolabeling. The data were submitted to the Wilcoxon and Mann Whitney tests (P < 0.05). Results: At 2 days, there was a severe inflammation and the presence of necrosis in the occlusal and middle thirds of the pulp tissue in the Ble group, different compared to the Ble-IRL group with moderate to mild inflammation (P < 0.05). In the cervical third, there was moderate to severe inflammation in the Ble group, and mild in the Ble-IRL group (P < 0.05). At 30 days, there was absence of inflammation and bleached groups had an extensive deposition of tertiary dentin. Regarding IL-23, at 2 days was observed severe immunolabeling in the Ble group and moderate in the Ble-IRL group (P < 0.05); at 30 days, there was a reduction in IL-23 immunolabeling in the bleached groups, where Ble group had moderate immunolabeling, and Ble-IRL group had mild immunolabeling, without significant difference (P > 0.05). HIF-1α was more evident at 2 days in the Ble group, without significant difference with Ble-IRL (P > 0.05). The difference was observed between the bleached groups and their respective controls, which had no immunolabeling (P < 0.05); at 30 days, the Ble group had a reduction in HIF-1α immunolabeling, while the Ble-IRL group had an increase in immunolabeling from moderate to severe; however, the difference remained only between the bleached groups and their controls (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Infrared laser minimized the inflammatory infiltrate and IL-23 immunolabeling in the pulp tissue after dental bleaching, but did not influenced HIF-1α immunolabeling(AU)

Animals , Rats , Tooth Bleaching , Low-Level Light Therapy , Dental Pulp , Interleukin-23 , Inflammation/therapy , Hypoxia , Wounds, Penetrating , Interleukins , Rats, Wistar , Laser Therapy , Inflammation
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785339


PURPOSE: Osteitis refers to the development of new bone formation and remodeling of bone in chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) patients; it is typically associated with eosinophilia, nasal polyps (NPs), and recalcitrant CRS. However, the roles of ossification in CRS with or without NPs remain unclear due to the lack of appropriate animal models. Thus, it is necessary to have a suitable animal model for greater advances in the understanding of CRS pathogenesis.METHODS: BALB/c mice were administered ovalbumin (OVA) and staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB). The numbers of osteoclasts and osteoblasts and bony changes were assessed. Micro computed tomography (micro-CT) scans were conducted to measure bone thickness. Immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were performed to evaluate runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2), osteonectin, interleukin (IL)-13, and RUNX2 downstream gene expression. Gene set enrichment analysis was performed in mucosal tissues from control and CRS patients. The effect of resveratrol was evaluated in terms of osteogenesis in a murine eosinophilic CRS NP model.RESULTS: The histopathologic changes showed markedly thickened bones with significant increase in osteoblast numbers in OVA/SEB-treated mice compared to the phosphate-buffered saline-treated mice. The structural changes in bone on micro-CT were consistent with the histopathological features. The expression of RUNX2 and IL-13 was increased by the administration of OVA/SEB and showed a positive correlation. RUNX2 expression mainly co-localized with osteoblasts. Bioinformatic analysis using human CRS transcriptome revealed that IL-13-induced bony changes via RUNX2. Treatment with resveratrol, a candidate drug against osteitis, diminished the expression of IL-13 and RUNX2, and the number of osteoblasts in OVA/SEB-treated mice.CONCLUSIONS: In the present study, we found the histopathological and radiographic evidence of osteogenesis using a previously established murine eosinophilic CRS NP model. This animal model could provide new insights into the pathophysiology of neo-osteogenesis and provide a basis for developing new therapeutics.

Animals , Computational Biology , Core Binding Factor Alpha 1 Subunit , Enterotoxins , Eosinophilia , Eosinophils , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interleukin-13 , Interleukins , Mice , Models, Animal , Mucous Membrane , Nasal Polyps , Nose , Osteitis , Osteoblasts , Osteoclasts , Osteogenesis , Osteonectin , Ovalbumin , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sinusitis , Transcription Factors , Transcriptome