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1.
Rio de Janeiro; s.n; 2021. 270 f p. tab, fig.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1368361

ABSTRACT

As drogas foram construídas como um problema mundial por organismos internacionais, responsáveis pela elaboração de normativas com a finalidade de combater seu consumo, cultivo e comércio, enquanto interpreto esse fenômeno como um problema público, criado a partir da universalização de algo tão específico quanto a compreensão segundo a qual elas devem ser usadas para fins médicos e científicos. Esta visão de mundo mobiliza grandes estruturas burocráticas e moralizantes onde agentes engendram esforços para disputar a hegemonia no Sistema Internacional de Controle de Drogas que, por sua vez, é organizado pela Organização das Nações Unidas. Seus Estados-Membros disputam a hegemonia de um campo que viu seu balizador se quebrar recentemente, qual seja, o Consenso de Viena, o entendimento de que a demanda por drogas deve ser extinta. Mas, na Década da Gestão do Dissenso (2009-2019), o principal argumento, tanto dos agentes hegemônicos, quanto daqueles contra-hegemônicos, persistiu: deve-se proteger a saúde. Com o objetivo de identificar e compreender as estratégias de legitimação adotadas durante a 62ª Sessão da Comissão de Drogas Narcóticas (2019), empregamos uma metodologia que conjugou etnografia de eventos e de documentos, observação participante e realização de entrevistas semiestruturadas. Foram delineadas 15 estratégias, acionadas num contexto de árdua batalha entre delegações de todos os continentes por categorias referentes à Redução de Danos e aos Direitos Humanos, como "atitudes não estigmatizantes" e "mulheres que usam drogas". Esperamos colaborar para debates institucionais em escala global e local mais permeáveis às contribuições das Ciências Sociais e Humanas em Saúde, fortalecendo uma ciência capaz de reformular radicalmente a política de drogas


Drugs were constructed as a global problem by international bodies, responsible for drafting regulations in order to combat their consumption, cultivation and trade, while I interpret this phenomenon as a public problem, created from the universalization of something as specific as understanding that they should be used for medical and scientific purposes. This worldview mobilizes large bureaucratic and moralizing structures where agents engender efforts to dispute hegemony in the International Drug Control System, which, in turn, is organized by the United Nations. Its Member States are vying for the hegemony of a field that has recently seen its beacon broken, namely the Vienna Consensus, the understanding that the demand for drugs should be extinguished. But, in the Decade of Dissent Management (2009-2019), the main argument, from both hegemonic agents and those against hegemonic ones, persisted: health must be protected. In order to identify and understand the legitimation strategies adopted during the 62nd Session of the Commission on Narcotic Drugs (2019), we used a methodology that combined ethnography of events and documents, participant observation and semi-structured interviews. Fifteen strategies were outlined, triggered in a context of an uphill battle between delegations from all continents for categories related to Harm Reduction and Human Rights, such as "non-stigmatizing attitudes" and "women who use drugs". We hope to contribute to institutional debates on a global and local scale that are more permeable to the contributions of the Social and Human Sciences in Health, strengthening a science capable of radically reshaping drug policy.


Subject(s)
Social Control, Formal , International Agencies , Illicit Drugs , Human Rights
2.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1222420

ABSTRACT

Esse artigo tem por objetivo traçar o histórico das relações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) com os atores não estatais desde a sua criação até a aprovação do Marco de Cooperação da Organização Mundial da Saúde com Agentes Não Estatais. foi realizada, uma pesquisa documental exploratória, de abordagem qualitativa, com revisão de literatura e de documentos institucionais encontrados na Biblioteca da OMS. Como resultados, verificou-se um aumento no número de atores no Sistema Internacional e uma redução no poder da OMS e na oferta de recursos financeiros por parte dos Estados ao longo da história da Organização e encontrou-se relação entre a maior diversificação nos tipos de atores no sistema internacio- nal e a menor influência OMS nos processos de governança global em saúde.


This study aims to trace the history of the World Health Organization's engagement with non-state actors from its inception to approval of the World Health Organization's Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors. Exploratory documental research, with a qualitative approach, was carried out, with a review of the literature and institutional documents found in WHO Library. Findings showed an increase in number of actors in the International System and a reduction in the power of the World Health Organization and in the provision of financial resources by its Member States throughout the Organization's history. A relationship was also found between the diversification in the types of actors in the international system and a reduction of World Health Organization's influence in the processes of global health governance.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo rastrear la historia de las relaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) con actores no estatales desde su creación hasta la aprobación del Marco de Cooperación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud con Agentes No Estatales. Se llevó a cabo una investigación documental exploratoria con enfoque cualitativo, con revisión de la literatura y documentos institucionales encontrados en la Biblioteca de la OMS. Los resultados muestran un aumento en el número de actores en el Sistema Internacional y una reducción en el poder de la OMS y en la provisión de recursos financieros por parte de los Estados a lo largo de la historia de la Organización. También se encontró una relación entre la diversificación de los tipos de actores en el sistema internacional y una reducción de la influencia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud en los procesos de gobernanza sanitaria mundial.


Subject(s)
Humans , World Health Organization/organization & administration , International Agencies/organization & administration , Public Health , Internationality
3.
Rio de Janeiro; Fiocruz; dez. 14, 2020. 363 p. ^emapasgraf..(Série Informação para ação na COVID-19).
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS, BDS | ID: biblio-1140816

ABSTRACT

Organizada por Paulo Marchiori Buss e Luiz Eduardo Fonseca, coordenadores do Centro de Relações Internacionais em Saúde da Fiocruz, esta obra reúne as análises produzidas sobre as respostas do multilateralismo ao novo coronavírus. Dividida em três partes, a coletânea viabiliza o acesso do público a um panorama de ações internacionais promovidas para o enfrentamento da crise sanitária. A publicação engloba renomados pesquisadores das mais diversas áreas de saúde, diplomacia e relações internacionais, examinando as ações de órgãos e agências, como OMS, ONU e OCDE, além de iniciativas multilaterais, como G20 e países do BRICS. Os capítulos abordam ainda as respostas de diferentes países e regiões do mundo, incluindo Brasil, China, Estados Unidos, África, Oriente Médio, Europa, América Latina e Caribe, além de instituições financeiras internacionais,como FMI e Banco Mundial. Primeiro livro da série "Informação para Ação na Covid-19", que tem como objetivo reunir o conjunto de respostas, pesquisas e ações técnicas produzidas pela Fiocruz durante a pandemia causada pelo novo coronavírus. Publicada em coedição por Observatório Covid-19 Fiocruz e Editora Fiocruz, com apoio da Rede SciELO Livros, a série estará disponível exclusivamente em formato digital e acesso aberto.


Subject(s)
Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Biomedical Technology/economics , Financial Resources in Health/economics , Health Diplomacy/policies , International Agencies , Global Health , Health Vulnerability , Syndemic
4.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 610-616, dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134547

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: Las exposiciones médicas con radiación ionizante son actualmente la principal fuente de exposición a la radiación artificial a nivel global, entre ellas, los exámenes dentales corresponden a uno de los más frecuentes. Para prevenir dosis innecesariamente altas a los pacientes durante estas exposiciones, la Comisión Internacional de Protección Radiológica (ICRP) recomienda la utilización de Niveles de Referencia para Diagnóstico (DRLs), como una herramienta efectiva de ayuda a la optimización de la protección radiológica en la exposición médica de pacientes. Dado que la legislación de Chile aún no ha incorporado el uso de los DRLs, el presente trabajo de revisión tuvo como objetivo analizar la publicación N° 135 de la ICRP para generar un documento que sirva de guía para los odontólogos, explicando de manera didáctica y en un lenguaje sencillo, pero técnico, los principales aspectos a tener en cuenta para establecer los DRLs en procedimientos de radiología dental.


SUMMARY: Currently exposure to ionizing radiation is currently the main source of exposure to artificial radiation worldwide, with dental examinations being one of the most frequent events. In order to prevent exposure of unnecessarily high doses in patients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) recommends the use of Diagnostic Reference Levels (DRLs), as an effective tool to help maximize protection from radiation during medical exposure of patients. Given that the Chilean legislation has not yet incorporated the use of DRLs, the purpose of this study was to analyze publication N° 135 of the ICRP to generate a document, to serve as a guide for dentists, didactically outlining in simple but technical language, the main aspects to consider when establishing DRLs in dental radiology procedures.


Subject(s)
Humans , Radiation Protection/standards , Radiography, Dental/methods , Radiation Dosage , Radiation Protection/methods , International Agencies , Practice Guideline , Radiation Exposure/prevention & control , Evaluation Studies as Topic
5.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 156(3): 237-246, may.-jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249900

ABSTRACT

Resumen En este documento se describen los cambios en el Instituto de Diagnóstico y Referencia Epidemiológicos (InDRE) de 2012 a 2019, las modificaciones administrativas y de equipamiento, la nueva sede y las modificaciones jurídicas al Sistema Nacional de Vigilancia Epidemiológica. Se menciona el proceso de mudanza, en especial el cuidadoso traslado del material biológico que resguarda el Instituto y se analiza la nueva forma de estudiar los brotes epidémicos, los padecimientos endémicos y la red negativa. Respecto al ámbito internacional, se describe el fomento de la vinculación con redes globales de la Organización Panamericana de la Salud, la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) y otros organismos internacionales. También se menciona la designación en el InDRE de cuatro centros colaboradores de la OMS. La Red de Laboratorios de la Iniciativa Global para la Seguridad en Salud reconoció el liderazgo del InDRE, cuyo director ocupó la copresidencia del grupo de trabajo en el periodo de estudio.


Abstract This document describes the changes at the Institute of Epidemiological Diagnosis and Reference (InDRE) from 2012 to 2019, the administrative and equipment modifications, the new headquarters and the National System of Epidemiological Surveillance legal modifications. The process of relocation is mentioned, especially the careful transfer of the biological material protected by the Institute, and the new way of studying epidemic outbreaks, endemic diseases and the negative network is analyzed. At the international level, the promotion of links with global networks of the Pan American Health Organization, the World Health Organization (WHO) and other international organizations is described. The designation of four WHO collaborating centres granted to InDRE is also mentioned. The Global Health Security Initiative Laboratory Network acknowledged InDRE's leadership, which co-chaired the working group during the study period.


Subject(s)
Humans , International Agencies/organization & administration , Academies and Institutes/organization & administration , Epidemiological Monitoring , Global Health , Disease Outbreaks , Leadership
6.
Rev. chil. salud pública ; 24(2): 139-144, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1369863

ABSTRACT

Este artículo presenta una síntesis sinóptica de los fundamentos teóricos y la praxis de la Alianza Latinoamericana de Salud Global ­ALASAG­ al cumplir 10 años desde su creación. En él se expone tanto los antecedentes como las diversas actividades realizadas de manera colaborativa e integrada por esta Alianza conformada por 10 instituciones académicas líderes en salud pública que realizan programas de docencia, investigación y relaciones con los entornos nacionales e internacional en Salud Global. Una iniciativa prioritaria a partir del año 2010 ha sido la realización de 6 congresos de alcance e impacto internacional en diferentes países, docencia tanto de pre como de postgrado y recientemente la ejecución de proyectos en temas prioritarios. Igualmente, ALASAG ha participado en congresos y reuniones internacionaes y establecido valiosas colaboraciones con organismos de Naciones Unidas tales como OMS y OPS, multilaterales latinoamericanos y bilaterales a nivel global. El artículo plantea igualmente, según opinión de los autores, las fortalezas y debilidades experimentadas por esta Alianza durante sus 10 años de existencia, y concluye señalando los desafíos en término de las políticas, programas, innovación, investigación y formación de recursos humano, frente a la nueva realidad de salud, social, política y económica que enfrentan nuestros países durante esta pandemia y en la post pandemia. (AU)


This article gives a synoptic synthesis of the theoretical foundations and praxis of the Latin American Alliance for Global Health, or ALASAG - an acronym based on the name of the group in Spanish ­ to mark its 10th anniversary. The authors present the context of the Alliance's creation and the various collaborati-ve and integrative activities carried out by ALASAG, which is made up of ten leading academic public health institution that are dedicated to teaching, researching, and forging relationships with both national and international entities to promote the field of Global Health.Since 2010, Alliance's priorities have included organizing six international global health conferences in different countries, teaching undergraduate and postgradua-te students, and mosty recently, conducting research on priority issues. Similarly, ALASAG has participated in international congresses and meetings and has establi-shed valuable collaborations with United Nations organizations, such as WHO and PAHO, as well as multilateral Latin American and global bilteral partnerships.Finally, the article explores ALASAG's strengths and weaknesses that have been iden-tifed over the past decade, and in light of the new health, social, political, and eco-nomic realities brought on by the pandemic, the article concludes by pointing out the challenges, in the areas of policy-making, program implementation, innovation, research, and capacity building, that our countries will face going foward. (AU)


Subject(s)
International Agencies/history , Global Health , International Cooperation/history , Public Health , Latin America
7.
São Paulo; s.n; 2020. 282 p.
Thesis in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1179704

ABSTRACT

Em 2015, um aumento incomum do número de bebês nascidos com problemas neurológicos foi detectado no Nordeste do Brasil, suscitando a suspeita de um vínculo entre a infecção pelo vírus Zika em mulheres grávidas e as malformações em seus bebês. O Brasil declarou Emergência Nacional em novembro de 2015 e os dados foram reportados à Organização Pan-Americana da Saúde (OPAS), de acordo com o Regulamento Sanitário Internacional (RSI). Em fevereiro de 2016, a Organização Mundial de Saúde declarou uma Emergência de Saúde Pública de Interesse Internacional (ESPII), apesar de muitos atores da comunidade internacional ainda não estarem convencidos do vínculo entre o vírus Zika e as malformações. Naquele momento de grande turbulência política no Brasil, que desaguou no impeachment da Presidente Dilma Rousseff, assuntos internacionais não eram uma prioridade e a América do Sul perdia paulatinamente a sua centralidade, o que contribuiu para uma crise sem precedentes da integração regional. Como todos os países da região relataram casos de Zika, esperava-se que organizações regionais, como OPAS, União Sul-americana de Nações (Unasul) e Mercado Comum do Sul (Mercosul), colocassem em prática seus planos de resposta a emergências. O objetivo desta tese é avaliar se houve circulação internacional de políticas públicas na resposta à ESPII em nível regional; e se havia um sistema regional de vigilância e resposta, identificando os principais fatores que influenciaram a resposta regional. A metodologia qualitativa foi empregada por meio de levantamento bibliográfico, análise de documentos e entrevistas com os atores-chave do governo brasileiro e das organizações em foco. Concluiu-se que a OPAS destacou-se em relação às outras organizações regionais por ser a mais antiga, por ter grande permeabilidade nos países e por oferecer apoio técnico, facilitando suas ações mesmo em meio a crises políticas. Já a resposta da Unasul e do Mercosul foi prejudicada pela crise política. Nesse contexto, dois processos diferentes foram identificados na resposta regional à ESPII. O primeiro foi a difusão da tese brasileira de que havia um vínculo entre a infecção de gestantes pelo vírus Zika e as malformações congênitas em bebês. O segundo processo foi a circulação do arcabouço normativo do RSI. Estas descobertas comprovam que havia um mecanismo regional de resposta a emergências que operou no caso do Zika na América do Sul. A OPAS, como guardiã do RSI na região, atuou com destaque no reconhecimento de emergências e na ativação de seus mecanismos. Não foi confirmada a hipótese de que um equipamento regional foi operado pela UNASUL.


In 2015, an uncommon increase in the number of babies born with neurological problems was detected in Northeast Brazil, raising suspicious there was a link between infection by the Zika virus in pregnant women and their babies´ malformations. Brazil declared a National Emergency in November 2015, and data was reported to the Pan-American Health Organization (PAHO), according to the International Health Regulations (IHR). In February 2016, the World Health Organization declared the situation a Public Health Emergency of International Concern (PHEIC), even though many actors of the international community were still not convinced that the Zika virus was the agent behind the malformations. At that moment of great political turmoil in Brazil, which lead to the impeachment of President Dilma Rousseff, international affairs were not a priority and the central role of South America was lost progressively, resulting in an unprecedented crisis of the regional integration process. As all countries in the region reported Zika cases, it was expected regional organizations, such as PAHO, the Union of South American Nations (Unasur) and the Common Market of the South (Mercosur) to put in practice their emergency response plans. The aim of this thesis is to assess whether there was international circulation of public policies in the response to the PHEIC at the regional level and whether there was a regional health surveillance and response system in place, identifying the main factors that influenced the regional response. Qualitative methodology was conducted through bibliographic survey, document analysis and interviews with key actors from the Brazilian government and the organizations focused in this thesis. The following conclusions were reach: on the one hand, PAHO stood out in relation to the other regional organizations for being the oldest, having great permeability in the countries and offering countries technical support, facilitating its actions, even during a political crisis. On the other, Unasur and Mercosur had a poor performance in responding due to the political crisis. In this context, two different processes were identified as operating in the regional response to the PHEIC. The first one was the diffusion of the Brazilian thesis of the link between the infection of pregnant women by the Zika virus and the congenital malformations in babies. The second, was the circulation of the IHR normative framework. The above findings show that there was a regional emergency response mechanism that operated in the Zika case in South America. PAHO, being the body that enforces the application of the IHR in the region, acted prominently in both emergency recognition and the activation of its mechanisms. The hypothesis of a regional gear operated by Unasur was not confirmed.


Subject(s)
Global Health , International Agencies , Zika Virus , Zika Virus Infection , South America
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785344

ABSTRACT

The current document is based on a consensus reached by a panel of experts from the Chinese Society of Allergy and the Chinese Society of Otorhinolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery, Rhinology Group. Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) affects approximately 8% of Chinese adults. The inflammatory and remodeling mechanisms of CRS in the Chinese population differ from those observed in the populations of European descent. Recently, precision medicine has been used to treat inflammation by targeting key biomarkers that are involved in the process. However, there are no CRS guidelines or a consensus available from China that can be shared with the international academia. The guidelines presented in this paper cover the epidemiology, economic burden, genetics and epigenetics, mechanisms, phenotypes and endotypes, diagnosis and differential diagnosis, management, and the current status of CRS in China. These guidelines—with a focus on China—will improve the abilities of clinical and medical staff during the treatment of CRS. Additionally, they will help international agencies in improving the verification of CRS endotypes, mapping of eosinophilic shifts, the identification of suitable biomarkers for endotyping, and predicting responses to therapies. In conclusion, these guidelines will help select therapies, such as pharmacotherapy, surgical approaches and innovative biotherapeutics, which are tailored to each of the individual CRS endotypes.


Subject(s)
Adult , Asians , Biomarkers , China , Consensus , Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Drug Therapy , Eosinophils , Epidemiology , Epigenomics , Genetics , Humans , Hypersensitivity , Inflammation , International Agencies , Medical Staff , Neck , Phenotype , Precision Medicine
9.
Rev. cuba. pediatr ; 92(supl.1): e1128, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156609

ABSTRACT

En diciembre de 2019 se reporta un brote de infección respiratoria aguda de etiología desconocida, en la ciudad de Wuhan, China, cuya causa se atribuyó poco después a un nuevo virus denominado SARS-CoV-2. En marzo de 2020 la enfermedad causada por este virus: COVID-19, fue declarada pandemia por la OMS. Como consecuencia, se recomendó restringir las intervenciones quirúrgicas, limitándolas a aquellas urgentes y las que no debían diferirse por comprometer la salud del paciente. Organismos internacionales y sociedades científicas han emitido recomendaciones para la asistencia sanitaria y la actividad quirúrgica. Se requeriría adecuarlas al contexto social y geográfico donde se desarrollará la actividad de salud en Cuba. Atendiendo a estas circunstancias se elaboraron recomendaciones adaptadas a las condiciones propias de las instituciones hospitalarias de perfil pediátrico más comunes de nuestro país, con el objetivo de contribuir a organizar la asistencia médico quirúrgica de urgencia a pacientes pediátricos positivos o sospechosos de tener COVID-19, cumpliendo las condiciones de seguridad para el paciente y el personal sanitario a su cargo(AU)


In December 2019, it was reported the outbreak of an acute respiratory infection of unknown etiology, in the city of Wuhan, China, whose cause was shortly after attributed to a new virus called SARS-CoV-2. In March 2020 the disease caused by this virus, COVID-19, was declared a pandemic by the WHO. As a consequence, it was recommended to restrict surgical interventions, limiting them to those that are priorities and the ones that should not be deferred since can be compromised the health of the patient. International agencies and scientific societies have issued recommendations for the health care and surgical activities. It is needed to suit them to the social and geographical context where the health activity is developed in Cuba. This is the reason to conform recommendations adapted to the conditions of pediatric medical institutions in our country, with the aim of contributing to organize the emergency surgical care to pediatric patients positive or suspected of having COVID-19, while accomplishing the safety requirements for the patient and the health personnel in charge(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative , World Health Organization , International Agencies , Coronavirus Infections , Emergencies , Betacoronavirus
11.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(supl.1): e386, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126665

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El concepto de improntas sociales retardatarias de la buena salud, alude a los comportamientos instaurados en las personas y decisores, que tienden a retrasar el advenimiento de prácticas beneficiosas, tanto para la convivencia interpersonal, como respecto al medio circundante. Objetivo: Disertar acerca de los elementos sociales que retardan la buena salud, en el ámbito social y universitario. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión bibliográfica basada en el análisis de 28 fuentes documentales, seleccionadas como determinantes en el curso de la construcción teórica de la definición en cuestión. Los documentos citados fueron en su mayoría, artículos de revistas científicas publicados en los últimos cinco años, y accesibles a través de Pubmed, Scielo y ScienceDirect. Conclusiones: Las improntas retardatarias de la buena salud en el ámbito social y universitario, constituyen idearios sociales que condicionan los cambios de comportamientos orientados a la buena adaptación y el autocuidado, de frente a las propuestas a cargo de organismos internacionales respecto a la promoción de la salud(AU)


Introduction: The concept of delayed social imprints of good health, refers to behaviors established in people and decision makers, which tend to delay the upcoming of beneficial practices, both for interpersonal coexistence and the surrounding environment. Objective: To talk about the social elements that delay good health, in the social and university environment. Methods: A bibliographic review was made based on the analysis of 28 documentary sources, selected as determinants in the course of the theoretical construction of the definition in question. The documents were, in most cases, articles of scientific journals published in the last five years, and accessible through Pubmed, Scielo and ScienceDirect. Conclusions: The delayed imprints of good health in the social sphere and the university, constitute social ideologies that allow changes of behaviors oriented to the good adaptation and the self-care, in front of the proposals in charge of international organisms regarding to the promotion of the health(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Periodicals as Topic , Universities , International Agencies
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764315

ABSTRACT

Based on epidemiological studies, an International Agency for Research on Cancer Working Group determined that strong inorganic acid mists containing sulfuric acid are carcinogenic to human even though, sulfuric acid, per se, is not. Accumulative studies indicate that there is a link between chronic occupational exposure to sulfuric acid mists and an increased risk of laryngeal cancer. Unintended, acute exposure to sulfuric acid mists can cause corrosive damage to target tissues depending on the route of exposure. This review compares the toxicity and carcinogenicity of sulfuric acid mists compared to other strong inorganic acid mists. It also examines the routes and duration of exposure (short-term, prolonged, and long-term). In vivo evidence does not support or refute the carcinogenicity of sulfuric inorganic mists even though its co-carcinogenic or promoting potential has been considered. On the basis of existing evidence on sulfuric acid mist toxicity, we suggested a putative adverse outcome pathway (AOP) relevant to carcinogenicity caused by mists containing sulfuric acid. A possible key factor involved in sulfuric acid mist carcinogenesis is the genotoxic effects of low pH since it can increase instability in chromosomes and DNA. A putative AOP for sulfuric acid mist carcinogenicity would help generate better risk assessments and more accurate predictions regarding the risk of developing cancer due to prolonged exposure. Establishing an AOP would also be useful for future studies examining the carcinogenicity of other strong inorganic mists.


Subject(s)
Carcinogenesis , Chemical Hazard Release , DNA , Epidemiologic Studies , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , International Agencies , Laryngeal Neoplasms , Occupational Exposure , Risk Assessment , Sulfur , Sulfuric Acids
13.
Intestinal Research ; : 317-329, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764159

ABSTRACT

Globally, colorectal cancer (CRC) is a substantial public health burden, and it is increasingly affecting populations in Asian countries. The overall prevalence of CRC is reported to be low in Asia when compared with that in Western nations, yet it had the highest number of prevalent cases. This review described the prevalence of CRC in Asia according to the International Agency for Research on Cancer from World Health Organization (WHO) database and summarized its major risk factors. Non-modifiable factors include genetic factors, ethnicity, age, gender, family history and body height; smoking, alcohol drinking, weight, Westernized diet, physical inactivity, chronic diseases and microbiota were involved in environmental factors. These risk factors were separately discussed in this review according to published literature from Asian countries. CRC screening has been playing an important role in reducing its disease burden. Some recommendations on its screening practices have been formulated in guidelines for Asia Pacific countries.


Subject(s)
Alcohol Drinking , Asia , Asians , Body Height , Chronic Disease , Colorectal Neoplasms , Diet , Epidemiology , Humans , International Agencies , Mass Screening , Microbiota , Prevalence , Public Health , Risk Factors , Smoke , Smoking , World Health Organization
14.
Trab. educ. saúde ; 17(2): e0017928, 2019. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-986165

ABSTRACT

Resumo Considerando a dispersão de sentidos que constitui a nomeação da área 'Saúde do Trabalhador', buscou-se compreender o que está em jogo nas constantes mudanças da nomenclatura nesse campo. Essas alterações ocorrem em uma linha do tempo, mas concomitantemente. Seu marco inaugural foi encontrado na estabilidade do nome 'medicina do trabalho', nome institucionalizado pela Organização Internacional do Trabalho, no início da segunda metade do século XX. Desse primeiro gesto de nomeação, seguem outros, estabelecidos em relações tensas e contraditórias de substituição, recobrimento e concorrência como: saúde ocupacional, saúde e segurança no trabalho, e, mais contemporaneamente, em meio a estas variações, encontrou-se o acréscimo do termo 'Saúde do Trabalhador'. O penúltimo nome é o mais estável e acionado pelas instâncias internacionais e empresariais.


Abstract Based on the dispersal of meanings that constitutes the naming of the 'Health of the Worker' field, we sought to comprehend what is at stake in the constant changes in nomenclature in this field. These changes occur within a timeline, but they happen concomitantly. Its inaugural landmark was found in the stability of the name 'occupational medicine,' a name institutionalized by the International Labour Organization in the beginning of the second half of the 20th century. This first gesture of naming was followed by other gestures, established in tense and contradictory relationships of replacement, recovering and concurrence, such as: occupational health, health and safety at work, and, more recently, among these variations, we found the addition of the term 'Health of the Worker.' The second-to-last name is the most stable one, and it is used by international and entrepreneurial organizations.


Resumen Partiendo de la dispersión de sentidos que constituye la designación del área 'Salud del Trabajador', se buscó comprender lo que está en juego en los constantes cambios de la nomenclatura en este campo. Estos cambios se producen en una línea de tiempo, pero de forma concomitante. Su marco inaugural se encuentra en la estabilidad del nombre 'medicina del trabajo', institucionalizado por la Organización Internacional del Trabajo a comienzos de la segunda mitad del siglo XX. A este primer gesto de designación le siguen otros, establecidos en relaciones tensas y contradictorias de sustitución, enmascaramiento y competencia, tales como: salud ocupacional, salud y seguridad en el trabajo, y más recientemente, en medio de estas variaciones, se encontró el agregado del término 'Salud del Trabajador'. El penúltimo nombre es el más estable y utilizado por las instancias internacionales y empresariales.


Subject(s)
Humans , Work , Public Health , Occupational Health , International Agencies
15.
Int. j. cardiovasc. sci. (Impr.) ; 31(1): f:71-l:78, jan.-mar. 2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-883775

ABSTRACT

As doenças cardiovasculares (DCVs) representam 38% do total das doenças não transmissíveis (DNTs), seguidas de câncer com 27%. Os países de baixa e média renda (PBMRs) são particularmente afetados pelas DCVs, já que mais de 75% de todas as mortes por DCV ocorrem nesses países. Os dados prognósticos globais são alarmantes, pois estima-se que 23,6 milhões de pessoas morrerão por ano devido a DCVs até 2030. Por esse motivo, a Agenda de Desenvolvimento Sustentável das Nações Unidas, com seus Objetivos de Desenvolvimento Sustentável (ODSs), visa a reduzir a mortalidade precoce por DNT em 30% até 2030. Dentro da família das Nações Unidas, a Agência Internacional de Energia Atômica (AIEA) está encarregada de promover o uso seguro e pacífico das tecnologias nucleares. A AIEA está fortemente melhorando a qualidade da prática clínica, estabelecendo sistemas de gerenciamento de qualidade e aconselhando sobre como cumprir os padrões internacionais, além de usar a tecnologia de forma adequada e segura. Esta revisão abrangerá as atividades da AIEA para promover, implementar e apoiar aplicações nucleares em cardiologia em PBMRs empenhada em realizar a Agenda das Nações Unidas de 2030 e, através da Divisão de Saúde Humana, contribuir para o sucesso dos ODSs. Um dos principais objetivos da Divisão de Saúde Humana é apoiar os Estados Membros para enfrentar o ônus das DCVs através do seu subprograma de Medicina Nuclear e Diagnóstico por Imagem. Isto é conseguido apoiando o estabelecimento e o fortalecimento das capacidades dos Estados Membros para oferecer o uso apropriado e seguro de aplicações clínicas de cardiologia nuclear. O apoio consiste em ajudar os países nos estágios de planejamento e implementação, fornecendo treinamento, mantendo e


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Biomedical Technology/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/mortality , International Agencies , Nuclear Energy , Nuclear Medicine , Cardiology , Coronary Artery Disease/diagnostic imaging , Coronary Artery Disease/mortality , Diabetes Mellitus , Diagnostic Imaging , Myocardium , Noncommunicable Diseases , Radionuclide Imaging/methods , Research Design , Risk Factors , Sedentary Behavior
16.
Gut and Liver ; : 615-622, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-718126

ABSTRACT

Despite the well-proven, safe and effective therapies for hepatitis B infection, delivery of treatment remains a significant challenge in resource-poor settings. Geopolitical and economic restrictions present additional difficulties in providing care in North Korea. However, treatment of patients with chronic hepatitis B remains a top priority for both the North Korean Ministry of Public Health and international agencies working in North Korean hepatitis healthcare facilities. Working in partnership, a path was created to institute this much-needed program. A consortium of United States and Australian humanitarian non-governmental organizations along with generous individual and corporate donors working in concert with local and national health authorities have succeeded in establishing the first hepatitis B treatment program in North Korea. The essential elements of this program include renovation of existing hepatitis hospitals, access to antiviral medications, establishment of laboratory facilities, creation of medical documentation and record-keeping, training of local health care professionals, and quarterly visits by international volunteer physicians and laboratory experts. Management and treatment decisions are made bilaterally. To date, nearly 1,500 patients have been evaluated, and over 800 have been started on long-term antiviral therapy. It is envisioned that this program will eventually be managed and funded by the Democratic People's Republic of Korea Ministry of Public Health. This program's success demonstrates a potential model for delivery of antiviral therapy for patients suffering from hepatitis B in other developing countries.


Subject(s)
Delivery of Health Care , Democratic People's Republic of Korea , Developing Countries , Fibrosis , Financial Management , Hepatitis B , Hepatitis B, Chronic , Hepatitis , Humans , International Agencies , Public Health , Tissue Donors , United States , Volunteers
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762542

ABSTRACT

Crystalline silica has been classified as a definite carcinogen (Group 1) causing lung cancer by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC). In Korea, crystalline silica has been the most common causal agent for workers to apply to the Korea Workers' Compensation and Welfare Service (KWCWS). We used KWCWS data to evaluate workers' crystalline silica exposure levels according to their occupations and industries, and reviewed research papers describing the dose-response relationship between cumulative exposure levels and lung cancer incidence. In addition, we reviewed lung cancer cases accepted by the KWCWS, and suggest new criteria for defining occupational cancer caused by crystalline silica in Korea. Rather than confining to miners, we propose recognizing occupational lung cancer whenever workers with pneumoconiosis develop lung cancer, regardless of their industry. Simultaneous exposure and lag time should also be considered in evaluations of work-relatedness.


Subject(s)
Crystallins , Incidence , International Agencies , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Miners , Occupations , Pneumoconiosis , Silicon Dioxide , Workers' Compensation
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762539

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The objective of this study is to suggest revised recognition standards for occupational disease due to chromium (VI) by reflecting recent domestic and international research works and considering domestic exposure status with respect to target organs, exposure period, and cumulative exposure dose in relation to the chromium (VI)-induced occupational disease compensation. METHODS: In this study, the reports published by major international institutions such as World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) (2012), Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) (2006), National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) (2013), American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) (2004), National Toxicology Program (NTP) (2014), and Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ASTDR) (2012) were reviewed and the recent research works searched by PubMed were summarized. RESULTS: Considering the recent research works and the domestic situation, only lung cancer is conserved in the legislative bill in relation to chromium (VI), and the exposure period is not included in the bill. Nasal and paranasal sinus cancer was excluded from the list of cancers that are compensated as the chromium (VI)- induced occupational disease, while lung cancer remains in the list. In the view of legislative unity, considering the fact that only the cancers having sufficient evidence are included in the conventional list of cancers compensated as occupational disease, nasal and paranasal sinus cancer having limited evidence were excluded from the list. The exposure period was also removed from the legislative bill due to the insufficient evidence. Recent advices in connection with cumulative exposure dose were proposed, and other considerable points were provided with respect to individual occupational relevance. CONCLUSIONS: It is suggested that the current recognition standard which is “Lung cancer or nasal and paranasal sinus cancer caused by exposure to chromium (VI) or compounds thereof (exposure for two years or longer), or nickel compounds” should be changed to “Lung cancer caused by exposure to chromium (VI) or compounds thereof, and lung cancer or nasal and paranasal sinus cancer caused by exposure to nickel compounds”.


Subject(s)
Chromium , Compensation and Redress , International Agencies , Korea , Lung Neoplasms , Nickel , Occupational Diseases , Occupational Exposure , Paranasal Sinus Neoplasms , Toxicology , United States Occupational Safety and Health Administration , World Health Organization
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762536

ABSTRACT

Comprehensive consideration is necessary for setting guidelines to evaluate evidence of occupational cancer in painters due to work-related exposure to carcinogens in paint (a phenomenon termed herein as “work-relatedness”). The aim of the present research is to perform a comprehensive review and to suggest criteria for the provision of compensation for occupational neoplasm among painters in Korea. In order to perform a comprehensive review, this study assessed and evaluated scientific reports of carcinogenicities from the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) and the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC), as well as reviewed the existing literature about occupational exposure among painters in Korea and the epidemiologic investigations of claimed cases of cancer among painters in Korea. The IARC declares that occupational exposures in commercial painting are classified as Group 1 carcinogens for lung cancer and bladder cancer among painters. The epidemiologic studies show consistent causal relationships between occupational exposure in painters and cancers such as lung cancer [meta relative risk: 1.34 (95% confidence intervals (CIs): 1.23-1.41)] and bladder cancer [meta relative risk: 1.24 (95% CIs: 1.16-1.33)]. In reviewing occupational cancer risks for commercial painters, the Industrial Injuries Advisory Council (IIAC) confirms occupational cancer risks for lung and bladder cancer among commercial painters. According to the IIAC, however, the elevated cancer risks reported in existing literature are not doubled in either lung or bladder cancer in commercial painters relative to the risks of these cancers in the general population. Based on our review of existing Korean articles on the topic, painters are exposed to potential carcinogens including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), benzene, hexavalent chrome, crystalized silica, asbestos, and other agents, and relative levels are estimated within commercial painting processes. However, the cancer risks of occupational exposure to Group 1 carcinogens for lung and bladder cancer in painters per se are not fully assessed in existing Korean articles. Total work duration, potential carcinogens in paint, mixed exposure to paints across various industries such as construction and shipbuilding, exposure periods, latent periods, and other factors should be considered on an individual basis in investigating the work-relatedness of certain types of cancer in commercial painters.


Subject(s)
Asbestos , Benzene , Carcinogens , Compensation and Redress , Epidemiologic Studies , International Agencies , Korea , Lung , Lung Neoplasms , Occupational Exposure , Occupations , Paint , Paintings , Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons , Silicon Dioxide , Urinary Bladder Neoplasms
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762535

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the International Agency for Research on Cancer classified shift work that involves circadian disruption as “probably carcinogenic to humans,” there has been growing concern on the relationship between night work and breast cancer. In Korea, about 10–15% of workers are engaged in night-shift work, and breast cancer is one of the most common cancers in women. The purpose of this study was to review epidemiologic evidence on the relationship between night work and breast cancer. METHODS: We reviewed 21 original articles and 5 meta analyses on relationship between nightwork and breast cancer, and investigated the compensation criteria of Denmark. RESULTS: The association between breast cancer and night work has been reported by numerous epidemiologic studies, including cohort studies, case-control studies, and meta-analysis. However, a dose-response relationship has not clearly emerged among workers exposed to less than 20 years of night work. CONCLUSION: Although there are some limitations to the epidemiological studies so far, further consideration of breast cancer cases in patients with high exposure to night work is needed to assess breast cancer as a work-related disease.


Subject(s)
Breast Neoplasms , Breast , Carcinogens , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Compensation and Redress , Denmark , Epidemiologic Studies , Female , Humans , International Agencies , Korea
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