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1.
Rev. adm. pública (Online) ; 55(1): 243-260, Jan.-Feb. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155655

ABSTRACT

Abstract Globally, policy environments have become increasingly more complex with the growth in the number of wicked problems, such as that posed by the COVID-19 pandemic. In their response to these problems, public administrations have, from necessity, become heavily reliant on their intergovernmental relations systems, as the challenges posed generally require multilevel responses. This paper analyzes the role of intergovernmental relations in shaping the responses of the BRICS countries when confronted with COVID-19. We develop an analytical framework to understand the dynamics of intergovernmental relations in these countries. Based on this we assess the capacity of the state and political systems to manage intergovernmental relations and ensure effective responses to the COVID-19 crisis. This framework is based on an analysis of three dimensions of the policy domain: the political and state system, formal and informal institutions, and the political alignment between them. Whilst state and political systems were found to be instrumental in formulating an immediate response to the crisis, informal institutions and political processes also played a prominent role in determining the extent to which strategies were implemented, particularly in countries that are more decentralized. Countries lacking the robust formal institutions needed to facilitate intergovernmental relations and to ensure swift policy responses, tend to deliver ineffective and inefficient results when confronted with wicked problems.


Resumo Políticas públicas para solução de problemas perversos (wicked problems), como a crise da COVID-19, têm sido dificultadas devido à complexidade dos ambientes institucionais em que elas acontecem. Esses problemas também requerem cada vez mais coordenação multinível, dando um papel fundamental às relações intergovernamentais. Este artigo analisa esse papel na resposta dos países do BRICS (Brasil, Rússia, Índia, China e África do Sul) à crise da COVID-19. Foi desenvolvido um arcabouço analítico para entender a dinâmica dessas relações intergovernamentais, que foi usado para avaliar a capacidade do estado e dos sistemas políticos para dar respostas efetivas à COVID-19. O arcabouço é baseado em três dimensões: o sistema político e do estado, as instituições formais e informais, e o alinhamento político entre os níveis de governo e a administração pública. Apesar da importância dos sistemas políticos e de estado, as instituições informais e os processos políticos foram instrumentais para definir e implementar as estratégias de combate à COVID-19, principalmente nos países mais decentralizados. Países sem instituições formais robustas para facilitar as relações intergovernamentais tendem a oferecer resultados ineficientes e não-efetivos em termos de políticas públicas para atacar problemas perversos.


Resumen Las políticas públicas para resolver problemas perversos ( wicked problems ), como la crisis de COVID-19, se han visto obstaculizadas por la complejidad de los entornos institucionales en los que ocurren. Estos problemas también requieren cada vez más una coordinación multinivel, lo que hace que las relaciones intergubernamentales jueguen un papel fundamental. Este artículo analiza ese papel en la respuesta de los países BRICS (Brasil, Rusia, India, China y Sudáfrica) a la crisis de la COVID-19. Se desarrolló un marco analítico para comprender la dinámica de estas relaciones intergubernamentales, que se utilizó para evaluar la capacidad del estado y de los sistemas políticos para brindar respuestas efectivas a la COVID-19. El marco se basa en tres dimensiones: el sistema político y estatal, las instituciones formales e informales y la alineación política entre los niveles de gobierno y la administración pública. A pesar de la importancia de los sistemas políticos y estatal, las instituciones informales y los procesos políticos fueron fundamentales para definir e implementar estrategias para combatir la COVID-19, especialmente en los países más descentralizados. Los países sin instituciones formales sólidas para facilitar las relaciones intergubernamentales tienden a ofrecer resultados ineficientes e ineficaces en términos de políticas públicas para abordar problemas perversos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Public Policy , Organizational Policy , Internationality , Pandemics , COVID-19
2.
San Salvador; MINSAL; feb. 25, 2021. 13 p. ilus, graf.
Non-conventional in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1281016

ABSTRACT

El Manual de Organización y Funciones de la Oficina de Relaciones Internacionales y Cooperación en Salud del MINSAL (ORIS), es una herramienta administrativa que orienta el quehacer de la dependencia y sirve como instrumento para el desarrollo de la gestión institucional, ya que en su contenido se identifican las funciones de cada uno de los ambientes administrativos que la integran. La descripción del presente manual tiene como propósito servir de referencia y consulta a todo el personal que labora en la institución, así como para otros funcionarios, entidades gubernamentales y no gubernamentales que deseen consultar sobre el funcionamiento de la dependencia. En el presente documento se muestra la organización y funciones de los diferentes ambientes administrativos que componen a la ORIS, se describen y establecen los objetivos generales y específicos, las funciones específicas, las principales relaciones de trabajo internas y externas necesarias para la obtención de resultados y la articulación orgánica de las dependencias de la ORIS


The Organization and Functions Manual of the Office of International Relations and Cooperation in Health of the MINSAL (ORIS), is an administrative tool that guides the task of the unit and serves as an instrument for the development of management institutional, since its content identifies the functions of each of the administrative environments that comprise it. The description in this manual is intended to purpose to serve as a reference and consultation to all staff working in the institution, as well as well as for other officials, governmental and non-governmental entities that wish to inquire about the operation of the unit. This document shows the organization and functions of the different administrative environments that make up the ORIS, the objectives are described and established general and specific, specific functions, main work relationships internal and external necessary to obtain results and the organic articulation of the offices of the ORIS


Subject(s)
Health Management , Internationality , Gift Giving
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877656

ABSTRACT

This paper analyzes the development necessity of a series of international technical specification of acupuncture-moxibustion from three aspects, the development status of global


Subject(s)
Acupuncture , Acupuncture Points , Acupuncture Therapy , Internationality , Moxibustion , Reference Standards
4.
Psicol. USP ; 32: e200039, 2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1155147

ABSTRACT

Resumo O objetivo deste artigo é promover o debate sobre as políticas de internacionalização, levando em conta as diferentes psicologias presentes no Brasil e no mundo e a relação que se estabelece entre os conhecimentos produzidos nos países do norte e os produzidos nos países do sul. Destaca-se nesse debate os elementos críticos sobre as assimetrias Norte-Sul na política de internacionalização. Para tanto, recorremos à contribuição de leituras pós-coloniais e descoloniais.


Abstract This article debates on Internationalization Policies, taking into account the different psychologies present in Brazil and worldwide and the relation established between the knowledge produced in the countries of the North and in the countries of the South. This debate focuses on the critical elements about North-South asymmetries in Internationalization Policy. For that, we seek support on the contributions of postcolonial and decolonial theories.


Résumé Cet article vise à promouvoir le débat sur les politiques d'internationalisation, en prenant compte les différentes psychologies présentes au Brésil et dans le monde, ainsi que la relation qui s'établit entre les savoirs produits dans les pays du Nord et ceux produits dans les pays du Sud. À l'intérieur de ce débat, les éléments critiques des asymétries Nord-Sud dans la politique d'internationalisation sont mis en relief. À cet effet, nous profitons de l'apport des lectures post-coloniales et décoloniales.


Resumen El objetivo de este artículo es promover el debate sobre las políticas de internacionalización, teniendo en cuenta las diferentes psicologías presentes en Brasil y en el mundo y la relación que se establece entre el conocimiento producido en los países del Norte y en los países del Sur. Se destacan en este debate los planteamientos críticos sobre las asimetrías Norte-Sur en la política de internacionalización. Para eso, recurrimos a la contribución de las lecturas poscoloniales y decoloniales.


Subject(s)
Psychology , Knowledge , Internationality , National Science, Technology and Innovation Policy , Resources for Research
5.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1222420

ABSTRACT

Esse artigo tem por objetivo traçar o histórico das relações da Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) com os atores não estatais desde a sua criação até a aprovação do Marco de Cooperação da Organização Mundial da Saúde com Agentes Não Estatais. foi realizada, uma pesquisa documental exploratória, de abordagem qualitativa, com revisão de literatura e de documentos institucionais encontrados na Biblioteca da OMS. Como resultados, verificou-se um aumento no número de atores no Sistema Internacional e uma redução no poder da OMS e na oferta de recursos financeiros por parte dos Estados ao longo da história da Organização e encontrou-se relação entre a maior diversificação nos tipos de atores no sistema internacio- nal e a menor influência OMS nos processos de governança global em saúde.


This study aims to trace the history of the World Health Organization's engagement with non-state actors from its inception to approval of the World Health Organization's Framework of Engagement with Non-State Actors. Exploratory documental research, with a qualitative approach, was carried out, with a review of the literature and institutional documents found in WHO Library. Findings showed an increase in number of actors in the International System and a reduction in the power of the World Health Organization and in the provision of financial resources by its Member States throughout the Organization's history. A relationship was also found between the diversification in the types of actors in the international system and a reduction of World Health Organization's influence in the processes of global health governance.


Este artículo tiene como objetivo rastrear la historia de las relaciones de la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) con actores no estatales desde su creación hasta la aprobación del Marco de Cooperación de la Organización Mundial de la Salud con Agentes No Estatales. Se llevó a cabo una investigación documental exploratoria con enfoque cualitativo, con revisión de la literatura y documentos institucionales encontrados en la Biblioteca de la OMS. Los resultados muestran un aumento en el número de actores en el Sistema Internacional y una reducción en el poder de la OMS y en la provisión de recursos financieros por parte de los Estados a lo largo de la historia de la Organización. También se encontró una relación entre la diversificación de los tipos de actores en el sistema internacional y una reducción de la influencia de la Organización Mundial de la Salud en los procesos de gobernanza sanitaria mundial.


Subject(s)
Humans , World Health Organization/organization & administration , International Agencies/organization & administration , Public Health , Internationality
6.
Cad. Saúde Pública (Online) ; 37(1): e00041420, 2021. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153669

ABSTRACT

Com base em uma pesquisa etnográfica multissituada no campo da implementação da profilaxia pós-exposição (PEP) em serviços de saúde do Estado do Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil, este estudo discute aspectos da micropolítica de oferta das "novas tecnologias de prevenção" mediante conceitos de globalização farmacêutica e cidadania biológica. A prevenção combinada sugere o emprego conjunto de estratégias comportamentais, biomédicas e estruturais para enfrentar o HIV, porém, nas margens (co)construídas dessa política, as ações dos serviços de saúde observados no Rio Grande do Sul evidenciaram a profunda fragmentação dessa combinação na rede, privilegiando-se o acesso à medicação. Estimulada por um cenário de globalização farmacêutica, a forma como a PEP é acessada e ofertada aos usuários enseja a articulação de uma cidadania biológica que implica o direito à prevenção, nesse caso por meio do direito individual de consumir a medicação. Contudo, o acesso a tal direito é perpassado por condicionamentos morais atrelados às categorias de risco e pelo contexto social dos usuários, reproduzindo-se iniquidades em saúde e empobrecendo a abordagem de aconselhamento. Discute-se a necessidade de que estratégias de prevenção combinada fortaleçam a abordagem das dimensões sociais e programáticas da epidemia, o que também potencializará a atenção às vulnerabilidades individuais na perspectiva da saúde integral.


Based on a multicenter ethnographic field survey on the implementation of post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) in the State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, this article discusses aspects of micropolitics in the supply of "new preventive technologies" based on the concepts of pharmaceutical globalization and biological citizenship. Combined prevention suggests the joint use of behavioral, biomedical, and structural strategies to confront HIV, but on the margins of this policy's co-construction, actions by health services in Rio Grande do Sul showed a profound fragmentation of this combination in the network, prioritizing access to medication. Stimulated by a scenario of pharmaceutical globalization, the way PEP is accessed and supplied to users encourages a biological citizenship that involves the right to prevention, in this case through the individual right to consume the medication. However, access to this right is permeated by moral conditioning factors linked to risk categories and by the users' social context, reproducing inequalities in health and impoverishing the counseling approach. The article discusses the need for combined prevention strategies that strengthen the approach of social and program dimensions in the epidemic, which will also bolster the attention to individual vulnerabilities from the perspective of comprehensive health.


Basándose en una investigación etnográfica multisituada en el campo de la implementación de la profilaxia posexposición (PEP) en servicios de salud del Estado de Río Grande do Sul, Brasil, este estudio discute aspectos de la micropolítica de oferta de las "nuevas tecnologías de prevención", a partir de los conceptos de globalización farmacéutica y ciudadanía biológica. La prevención combinada sugiere el empleo conjunto de estrategias comportamentales, biomédicas y estructurales para enfrentar el VIH, sin embargo, en los márgenes (co)construidos de esa política, las acciones de los servicios de salud observados en Río Grande do Sul evidenciaron la profunda fragmentación de esta combinación en red, privilegiándose el acceso a la medicación. Estimulada por un escenario de globalización farmacéutica, la forma como se accede a la PEP y se ofrece a los usuarios da la oportunidad a la creación de una ciudadanía biológica que implica el derecho a la prevención, en este caso mediante el derecho individual a consumir la medicación. No obstante, el acceso a tal derecho es traspasado por condicionamientos morales, vinculados a las categorías de riesgo y por el contexto social de los usuarios, reproduciéndose inequidades en salud y empobreciendo el planteamiento de asesoramiento. Se discute la necesidad sobre qué estrategias de prevención combinada fortalecen el planteamiento de las dimensiones sociales y programáticas de la epidemia, lo que también potencializará la atención a las vulnerabilidades individuales desde la perspectiva de la salud integral.


Subject(s)
Humans , Pharmaceutical Preparations , Post-Exposure Prophylaxis , Brazil , Internationality , Health Services
7.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 27(3): 899-917, set. 2020.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134072

ABSTRACT

Abstract In the history of Latin American social medicine, numerous works have presented a harmonious link between Rudolf Virchow, Max Westenhöfer, and Salvador Allende, which establishes the origin of ideas of Latin American social medicine in a prestigious European source, represented by Virchow. A key to that story is that Allende was a student of Westenhöfer, a disciple of Virchow who lived in Chile three times (1908-1911, 1929-1932, and 1948-1957). Based on primary sources and contextual data, this article problematizes the relationship between Allende and Westenhöfer, and questions the influence of Virchow in Chilean social medicine.


Resumen En el marco de la historia de la medicina social latinoamericana, numerosos trabajos historiográficos han presentado un vínculo armónico entre Rudolf Virchow, Max Westenhöfer y Salvador Allende, afirmando una procedencia virtuosa de las ideas de la medicina social latinoamericana en una prestigiosa fuente europea, como es la que representa Virchow. Un dato crucial en ese relato es que Allende habría sido estudiante de Westenhöfer; un discípulo de Virchow que vivió en Chile en tres ocasiones (1908-1911, 1929-1932 y 1948-1957). Este trabajo problematiza, usando fuentes primarias y datos de contexto, la relación entre Allende y Westenhöfer, y cuestiona la influencia de Virchow sobre el pensamiento médico-social en Chile.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 20th Century , Social Medicine/history , Famous Persons , Chile , Internationality/history , Historiography
8.
Gerais (Univ. Fed. Juiz Fora) ; 13(2): 1-22, maio-ago. 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1133962

ABSTRACT

O sindicalismo teve importante participação e influência na política e nos rumos econômicos do Brasil. As mídias influenciam o senso comum, assim como criam e divulgam representações sociais sobre os fenômenos. Com o objetivo de compreender parte do pensamento social da época sobre o sindicalismo, o presente artigo tem como objetivo analisar os sentidos do sindicalismo disseminados pela revista Veja durante o período da globalização e neoliberalismo (1990 a 2002). Para isso, realizou-se uma pesquisa documental na revista Veja, para tal, adotou-se a teoria das representações sociais como aporte teórico, sendo construídas sete categorias de análise. A pesquisa indica uma diversidade de sentidos do sindicalismo, todavia, observa-se uma tendência da Veja em ancorar os sentidos do sindicalismo em valores e significados concernentes aos aspectos da crise do sindicalismo.


The trade unionism had an important participation and influence in the politics and the economic directions of Brazil. The media influences common sense, as well as creates and disseminates social representations about the phenomena. In order to understand part of the social thought of the time about trade unionism, the present article aims to analyze the meanings of trade unionism disseminated by Veja during the period of globalization and neoliberalism (1990 to 2002). For this, a documentary research was carried out in Veja magazine; for such, the theory of social representations was adopted as a theoretical background and seven categories of analysis have been constructed. The research indicates a diversity of meanings over trade unionism; however, there is a tendency of Veja to anchor the senses of trade unionism in values and meanings concerning the aspects of the crisis of trade unionism.


Subject(s)
Politics , Labor Unions , Work , Internationality , Social Media , Political Activism
9.
Educ. med. super ; 34(1): e1612, ene.-mar. 2020. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1124670

ABSTRACT

El tema de la internacionalización del conocimiento no es nuevo; sin embargo, resulta uno de los más complejos y estratégicos que debe enfrentar la educación superior. A partir de los métodos tradicionales, el intercambio académico en estos momentos tiene un enfoque más abarcador, apoyado en el uso de las nuevas tecnologías de la información y las comunicaciones. En este sentido, el presente artículo tiene el objetivo de analizar las realidades, los desafíos, las oportunidades y las amenazas que la internacionalización del conocimiento impone a la universidad en general. A partir del concepto de internacionalización tradicional, se enfocan los aspectos relacionados con la educación superior y su importancia para generar oportunidades y ampliar los horizontes de producción, almacenamiento y transmisión de conocimientos en esta época, caracterizada por la globalización, como una tarea urgente en un mundo de desigualdades crecientes y grandes crisis sociales y económicas, para vencer barreras culturales, políticas y geográficas. La internacionalización del conocimiento en la época actual constituye un tema relevante, que impone nuevos retos y requiere de una adecuada cultura de internacionalización en el seno de las universidades, así como de la preparación adecuada de los factores involucrados directa o indirectamente en su aplicación(AU)


The issue of internationalization of knowledge is not new. However, it is one of the most complex and strategic ones that higher education must face. Based on traditional methods, academic exchange now has a more comprehensive approach, supported by the use of new information and communications technologies. In this respect, this article aims to analyze the realities, challenges, opportunities and threats that the internationalization of knowledge imposes on the university in general. Based on the concept of traditional internationalization, focus is placed on aspects related to higher education and its importance to generate opportunities and expand the horizons of production, storage and transmission of knowledge at this time, characterized by globalization, and as an urgent task in a world of growing inequalities and major social and economic crises, to overcome cultural, political and geographical barriers. Internationalization of knowledge in the current era is a relevant issue, which imposes new challenges and requires an adequate culture of internationalization within universities, as well as the adequate preparation of the actors directly or indirectly involved in its application(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Knowledge , Preparedness , Internationality , Information Technology , Methods
10.
Braz. J. Psychiatry (São Paulo, 1999, Impr.) ; 42(1): 77-86, Jan.-Feb. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055361

ABSTRACT

The multi-faceted phenomenon known as globalization has a particular impact on the conceptual and practical development of mental health disciplines in general, and psychiatry in particular, across different world regions. To be theoretically and functionally effective, global psychiatry requires an integration of its different components. To such objective, and after a brief review of continental European and Anglo-Saxon contributions, this article examines the history, characteristics, and contributions of Latin/Iberian American and Spanish-speaking psychiatry, in order to substantiate its role in world psychiatry. The Latin American proper (including Portuguese-speaking Brazil), Spain, and U.S.-based Hispanic components are described, revealing an identity that is based on a humanistic tradition, a value-based, culturally-determined clinical approach to patient care, and a pragmatic adaptation of different treatment resources and techniques. These may constitute supportive elements of an instrumental inter-regional bond in the present and future of our discipline.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychiatry/trends , Mental Health , Internationality , Spain , Hispanic Americans , Europe , Language , Latin America
12.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 25(1): 25-35, jan. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055783

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo discorre sobre a formação profissional do enfermeiro, implicações da expansão das Instituições de Ensino Superior e a distribuição dessas no Brasil. Considera os resultados da Pesquisa Perfil da Enfermagem no Brasil, realizada com 35.916 profissionais de Enfermagem, em 2013. A análise que caracteriza a trajetória da graduação em enfermagem neste artigo, estrutura-se em três dimensões: a expansão da formação do enfermeiro na graduação e pós-graduação; o boom de escolas de enfermagem e a relação público x privado; e, a distribuição territorial do profissional enfermeiro no Brasil. O crescimento de Instituições de Ensino em Enfermagem implica em uma formação exponencial, com predomínio de escolas privadas na graduação e na pós-graduação; os cursos buscam alinhar-se às mudanças na saúde e sociedade, mas urge equalizar as assimetrias territoriais entre as instituições formadoras na graduação e pós-graduação, a superconcentração e vazios assistenciais decorrentes da insuficiência de enfermeiros por habitantes, bem como qualificar o enfermeiro para o exercício profissional ante as transformações globais.


Abstract The article discusses the professional formation of nurses, implications of the increase in the number of Higher Education Institutions and their distribution in Brazil. It considers the results of the Nursing Profile Survey in Brazil, carried out with 35,916 nursing professionals, in 2013. The analysis that characterizes the trajectory of undergraduate nursing in this article is structured in three dimensions: the increase in the number of undergraduate and postgraduate nursing education institutions; the boom in nursing schools and the public vs. private relationship; and the territorial distribution of the registered nurse in Brazil. The increase in the number of Nursing Education Institutions implies an exponential formation, with a predominance of private schools in undergraduate and postgraduate courses. The courses seek to align themselves with changes in health and society, but it is crucial to equalize the territorial asymmetries between the undergraduate and graduate training institutions, the overconcentration and care gaps resulting from the insufficiency of nurses per inhabitant, as well as to qualify the nurses for the exercise of their professional activities in the face of global changes.


Subject(s)
Brazil , Schools, Nursing , Internationality , Education, Nursing/organization & administration , Education, Nursing/statistics & numerical data , Education, Nursing, Baccalaureate/organization & administration , Education, Nursing, Graduate/organization & administration , Employment
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827258

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#At the end of 2019, the outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) severely damaged and endangered people's lives. The public health emergency management system in China has played an essential role in handling the response to the outbreak, which has been appreciated by the World Health Organization and some countries. Hence, it is necessary to conduct an overall analysis of the development of the health emergency management system in China. This can provide a reference for scholars to aid in understanding the current situation and to reveal new research topics.@*METHODS@#We collected 2247 international articles from the Web of Science database and 959 Chinese articles from the China National Knowledge Infrastructure database. Bibliometric and mapping knowledge domain analysis methods were used in this study for temporal distribution analysis, cooperation network analysis, and co-word network analysis.@*RESULTS@#The first international article in this field was published in 1991, while the first Chinese article was published in 2005. The research institutions producing these studies mainly existed in universities and health organizations. Developed countries and European countries published the most articles overall, while eastern China published the most articles within China. There were 52 burst words for international articles published from 1999-2018 and 18 burst words for Chinese articles published from 2003-2018. International top-ranked articles according to the number of citations appeared in 2005, 2007, 2009, 2014, 2015, and 2016, while the corresponding Chinese articles appeared in 2003, 2004, 2009, and 2011.@*CONCLUSIONS@#There are differences in the regional and economic distribution of international and Chinese cooperation networks. International research is often related to timely issues mainly by focusing on emergency preparedness and monitoring of public health events, while China has focused on public health emergencies and their disposition. International research began on terrorism and bioterrorism, followed by disaster planning and emergency preparedness, epidemics, and infectious diseases. China considered severe acute respiratory syndrome as the starting research background and the legal system construction as the research starting point, which was followed by the mechanism, structure, system, and training abroad for public health emergency management.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , China , Epidemiology , Communicable Disease Control , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Internationality , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology
14.
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 593-604, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827009

ABSTRACT

An epidemic of acute respiratory syndrome in humans, which appeared in Wuhan, China in December 2019, was caused by a novel coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2). This disease was named as "Coronavirus Disease 2019" (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 was first identified as an etiological pathogen of COVID-19, belonging to the species of severe acute respiratory syndrome-related coronaviruses (SARSr-CoV). The speed of both the geographical transmission and the sudden increase in numbers of cases is much faster than SARS and Middle East respiratory syndrome (MERS). COVID-19 is the first global pandemic caused by a coronavirus, which outbreaks in 211 countries/territories/areas. The vaccine against COVID-19, regarded as an effective prophylactic strategy for control and prevention, is being developed in about 90 institutions worldwide. The experiences and lessons encountered in the previous SARS and MERS vaccine research can be used for reference in the development of COVID-19 vaccine. The present paper hopes to provide some insights for COVID-19 vaccines researchers.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Biomedical Research , Coronavirus Infections , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , Humans , Internationality , Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus , Allergy and Immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral , Epidemiology , Allergy and Immunology , Virology , SARS Virus , Allergy and Immunology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome , Allergy and Immunology , Viral Vaccines , Allergy and Immunology
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-811288

ABSTRACT

An increase in the number of patients with infectious diseases in Korea, can be attributed to various factors, such as the prevalence of new infectious diseases of the 21st century, the re-emergence of past infectious diseases, an increase in the number of elderly individuals, patients with chronic diseases, immune deficiency, and globalization. In this context, vaccination becomes vital for the adult population. Although, the guidelines for adult immunization are currently being updated, the rate of adult vaccination remains lower than that of infant vaccination. At present, the major challenges for increasing the rate of adult immunization include negative views on the need for some immunizations and a lack of understanding of group immunity among the youth. Consequently, a successful immunization program will be required to direct efforts towards educating patients and spreading awareness. Based on the current guidelines and practical applications, varicella zoster; Japanese encephalitis; tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis; pneumococcus; measles, mumps, and rubella; and hepatitis A vaccines could effectively be considered for adult vaccination.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Chickenpox , Chronic Disease , Communicable Diseases , Diphtheria , Encephalitis, Japanese , Hepatitis A Vaccines , Herpes Zoster , Humans , Immunization Programs , Immunization , Infant , Internationality , Korea , Measles , Mumps , Pneumococcal Vaccines , Prevalence , Rubella , Streptococcus pneumoniae , Tetanus , Vaccination , Whooping Cough
16.
Interface (Botucatu, Online) ; 24: e190029, 2020.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056558

ABSTRACT

O trabalho aborda a ética global em sua perspectiva aplicada, voltada à prática educativa, objetivando analisar, a partir de investigação teórica sustentada no campo da Bioética, a legitimidade para definição de metas globais para seu ensino. Considerando que a produção do conhecimento se relaciona ao lócus geopolítico a partir do qual se desenvolve, a pesquisa utiliza os referenciais da Bioética de Intervenção, uma abordagem teórica identificada com o pensamento crítico do "sul global", para analisar a possibilidade de definição de consensos éticos universais, propondo duas categorias a serem consideradas em programas para o ensino da ética global: o imperialismo moral e a colonialidade da vida. Conclui defendendo um pressuposto axiológico crítico - baseado na universalidade do corpo - a partir do qual poderiam ser definidos objetivos comuns para programas de ensino da ética global.(AU)


The article approaches global ethics in its applied perspective, targeted at educational practice, aiming to analyze, based on a theoretical investigation supported by the field of Bioethics, legitimacy for the definition of global goals to its teaching. Understanding that knowledge production is related to the geopolitical locus from which it develops, the study uses the framework of Intervention Bioethics, a theoretical approach identified with the critical thought of the "global south", to analyze the possibility of defining universal ethical consensuses. It proposes two categories to be considered in programs for the teaching of global ethics: moral imperialism and the coloniality of life. In conclusion, the study defends a critical axiological presupposition - based on the universality of the body - from which common objectives for global ethics teaching programs can be defined.(AU)


El trabajo aborda la ética global en su perspectiva aplicada, enfocada en la práctica educativa, con el objetivo de analizar, a partir de investigación teórica sostenida en el campo de la Bioética, la legitimidad para definición de metas globales para su enseñanza. entendiendo que la producción del conocimiento se relaciona al locus geopolítico a partir del cual se desarrolla, utiliza las referencia de la Bioética de Intervención, un abordaje teórico identificado con el pensamiento crítico del "sur global", para analizar la posibilidad de definición de consensos éticos universales, proponiendo dos categorías a considerar en programas para la enseñanza de la ética global: el imperialismo moral y la colonialidad de la vida. Concluye defendiendo una presuposición axiológica crítica, con base en la universalidad del cuerpo, a partir de la cual podrían definirse objetivos comunes para programas de enseñanza de la ética global.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Teaching/trends , Bioethics/education , Internationality , Ethics
17.
Rev. polis psique ; 10(1): 227-245, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1102621

ABSTRACT

A investigação ora apresentada objetivou averiguar quais as noções de internacionalização perpassam as reflexões empreendidas sobre tal processo no âmbito da Pós-Graduação brasileira em Psicologia. Analisou-se documentos de eventos da Associação Nacional de Pesquisa e Pós-graduação em Psicologia (ANPEPP), responsável por discutir os rumos da pós-graduação na área. Entre os principais resultados, identificou-se que são diversas as formas de conceber a internacionalização: como conjunto de atividades para ampliar a interação entre os pesquisadores nacionais e estrangeiros; como inserção internacional das publicações; como qualidade do conhecimento produzido, dentre outras noções. É relacionada, ainda, com o uso de outro idioma além do nacional, principalmente o inglês. Subjacente a essas ideias, a internacionalização é entendida ora como meio para o desenvolvimento científico e social, ora como um fim em si mesmo. Discute-se as implicações dessas noções para o próprio processo de internacionalização e para a ciência desenvolvida no âmbito da pós-graduação em Psicologia.


The present study aimed at determining which concepts of internationalization are present in the reflections used in this process in Brazilian graduate studies in Psychology. Documents were analyzed from National Association for Research and Graduate Studies in Psychology (ANPEPP) events, which discuss the direction of graduate studies in the area. The primary results demonstrate that there are several forms of conceiving internationalization, such as activities to broaden interaction between national and foreign researchers; publish in international journals; and improve the quality of the knowledge produced, in addition to using languages other than Portuguese, mainly English. Underlying these ideas, internationalization is understood as both a means for scientific and social development and an end in itself. The implications of these concepts for the internationalization process and the science developed in graduate studies in Psychology are also discussed


La investigación presentada tuvo como objetivo investigar qué nociones de internacionalización impregnan las reflexiones sobre tal proceso en el Posgrado Brasileño en Psicología. Se analizaron documentos de la Asociación Nacional de Investigación y Posgrado en Psicología (ANPEPP), encargada de discutir las orientaciones del posgrado en el área. Entre los principales resultados, se identificó que existen varias formas de concebir la internacionalización: como conjunto de actividades para ampliar la interacción entre investigadores nacionales y extranjeros; como inserción internacional de publicaciones; como calidad del conocimiento producido, entre otras nociones. También se relaciona con el uso de un idioma distinto al brasileño, especialmente el inglés. Subyacente a estas ideas, la internacionalización se entiende o como un medio para el desarrollo científico y social, o como un fin en sí mismo. Se discuten las consecuencias de estas nociones para el p


Subject(s)
Psychology , Internationality , Education, Graduate , Scientific Research and Technological Development , Brazil
18.
Ciênc. Saúde Colet ; 24(12): 4459-4473, dez. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055730

ABSTRACT

Resumo Nas últimas décadas, o sistema capitalista, transformado por meio de crises mais agressivas e globais, tem submetido a sociedade à austeridade fiscal e tensionado a garantia dos direitos à saúde, como imposição para ampliar a eficiência e efetividade dos sistemas de saúde. A equidade em saúde, por outro lado, opera como fator protetor em relação aos efeitos nocivos da austeridade sobre a saúde da população. O objetivo deste artigo é analisar o efeito da crise financeira global quanto à valorização da equidade em saúde frente à efetividade nas comparações internacionais de eficiência dos sistemas de saúde na literatura científica. Realizada revisão integrativa, com busca nas bases de dados PubMed e BVS, de 2008-18, com análise cross-case. O equilíbrio entre equidade e efetividade deve ser buscado desde o financiamento até os resultados em saúde, de modo eficiente, como forma de fortalecimento dos sistemas de saúde. A escolha entre alteridade ou austeridade deve ser feita de forma explícita e transparente, com resiliência dos valores societais e princípios de universalidade, integralidade e equidade.


Abstract In recent decades, the global and aggressive crises-transformed capitalist system has subjected society to fiscal austerity and strained the assurance of its right to health, as an imposition to increase health systems efficiency and effectiveness. Health equity, on the other hand, provides protection against the harmful effects of austerity on population health The aim of this article is to analyse the effect of the global financial crisis on how health equity is considered against effectiveness in international comparisons of health systems efficiency in the scientific literature. Integrative review, based on PubMed and VHL databases searches, 2008-18, and cross-case analysis. The balance between equity and effectiveness must be sought from health financing to results, in an efficient way, as a means to strengthening health systems. The choice between alterity or austerity must be made explicitly and transparently, with resilience of societal values and the principles of universality, integrality and equity.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Care Reform/economics , Health Equity/economics , Internationality , Economic Recession , Healthcare Financing , Efficiency, Organizational , Capitalism , Delivery of Health Care/economics , Resource Allocation/economics , Social Determinants of Health , Right to Health , Health Services Accessibility/economics , Health Services Accessibility/standards
19.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 26(4): 1243-1262, out.-dez. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1056268

ABSTRACT

Abstract As doctors sought state support to regulate professional training and practice after Independence, Mexicans also developed different attitudes toward foreign ideas, influences, and professionals. Leveraging the allure of the foreign among Mexicans, homeopaths strategically used work, products, and organizations from abroad to establish their practices and fight changing professional policies in the country that threatened homeopathic institutions. Homeopaths inhabited the blurry and shifting boundary between professional and lay medical practice during the early Republican period, the Porfiriato, and the post-revolutionary era, and used the ambivalent feelings about medical licensing, and foreign influence in Mexican society to consolidate their position.


Resumo Após a independência do país, enquanto os médicos buscavam apoio do Estado para regulamentar o treinamento e a prática profissionais, os mexicanos desenvolveram atitudes diferentes em relação a ideias, influências e profissionais estrangeiros. Aproveitando o encanto dos mexicanos com o estrangeiro, os homeopatas usaram estrategicamente o trabalho, os produtos e as organizações de fora do país para implantar suas práticas e combater as políticas que ameaçavam as instituições ligadas à homeopatia. Os homeopatas ocuparam a barreira nebulosa entre as práticas médicas profissional e leiga no início do período republicano, no Porfiriato e na era pós-revolucionária, usando sentimentos ambivalentes sobre licenciamento médico e influência estrangeira para consolidar sua posição.


Subject(s)
Humans , History, 19th Century , History, 20th Century , Government Regulation/history , Professionalism/history , Homeopathy/history , Licensure, Medical/history , Physicians/history , Attitude of Health Personnel , Attitude to Health , Internationality/history , Homeopathy/legislation & jurisprudence , Licensure, Medical/legislation & jurisprudence , Mexico
20.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 117(6): S277-S309, dic. 2019. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1051694

ABSTRACT

La seguridad del paciente es una de las dimensiones de la atención. Los avances médicos han tornado los procesos de atención cada vez más complejos, y, usualmente, hay una conjunción de circunstancias que confluyen para que ocurran errores. Los eventos adversos constituyen un problema grave de salud pública al ocasionar daños de diversos grados al paciente y a su familia, lo cual, además, lleva a incrementar el costo del proceso de atención y la estancia hospitalaria.La mayoría de los eventos adversos se producen en los hospitales, ya que, por su complejidad, su población está sometida a un mayor riesgo asociado a la atención. Se presenta este consenso con el objetivo de ofrecer herramientas cuya implementación contribuya a brindar una atención más segura.


Patient safety is one of the dimensions of care. Medical advances have made assistance processes more and more complex, and there isusually a combination of circumstances that converge for errors to occur. Adverse events constitute a serious public health problem, causing damages of varying degrees to the patient and his family, which also leads to an increase in the cost of the care process and hospital stay. Most of the adverse events occur in hospitals because their complexity is subject to a greater risk associated with care. That is why we present this consensus with the aim of offering tools whose implementation can contribute to provide a safer healthcare.


Subject(s)
Humans , Clinical Protocols , Internationality , Patient Safety/standards , Goals , Organizational Objectives , Medical Errors/prevention & control
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