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1.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922565

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To explore the effect of Tangshen Formula (, TSF), a Chinese herbal medicine, on interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) in the colon of diabetic rats.@*METHODS@#Fifty-four male Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal control (NC, n=14) and high-fat diet (HFD) groups (n=40). After 6 weeks, the rats in the HFD group were injected intraperitoneally streptozotocin once (30 mg/kg). Thirty rats with fasting blood glucose higher than 11.7 mmol/L were randomly divided into diabetes (DM) and TSF groups, 15 rats in each group. Rats in the NC and DM groups were intragastrically administered with saline, and those in the TSF group were given with TSF (2.4 g/kg) once daily for 20 weeks. Expression levels of Bax, Bcl-2, and caspase-3 in colonic smooth muscle layer were measured by Western blotting and immunohistochemical staining. The number of ICC was determined by immunohistochemical staining. Immunofluorescence was used for analyzing the ratio of classically activated macrophages (M1) and alternatively activated macrophages (M2) to total macrophages. Electron microscopy was used to observe the epithelial ultrastructure and junctions.@*RESULTS@#TSF appeared to partially prevented loss of ICC in DM rats (P<0.05). Compared with the NC group, expression levels of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3, and TNF-α as well as the ratio of M1 to total macrophages increased in DM rats (all P<0.05), and the ratio of M2 to total macrophages decreased (P<0.05 or P<0.01). Compared with the DM group, TSF decreased the expression levels of abovementioned proteins and restore M2 to total macrophages ratio (P<0.05 or P<0.01). TSF appeared to attenuate the ultrastructural changes of epithelia and improve the tight and desmosome junctions between epithelia reduced in the DM rats.@*CONCLUSION@#Reduced number of ICC in DM rats may be associated with damage of the intestinal barrier. The protective effects of TSF on ICC may be through repair of the epithelial junctions, which attenuates inflammation and inflammation-initiated apoptosis in colon of DM rats.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
2.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 61(2): 51-57, dic. 2020. ilus.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIBOCS | ID: biblio-1179195

ABSTRACT

Los tumores del estroma gastrointestinal (TEGI) son las neoplasias mesenquimales más frecuentes del tracto digestivo con una frecuencia de 0,1 a 3 % de todas las neoplasias gastrointestinales. Son derivadas de las células intersticiales de Cajal, localizadas a lo largo del plexo mioentérico de la pared intestinal. Comprenden leiomisarcomas, leiomioblastomas, leimiomas, schwannomas. Están formadas por células fusiformes, en la mayoría, epitelioides o ambas. Se localizan predominantemente en estómago e intestino delgado. Inmunohistoquimicamente se detecta expresión de receptores KIT (antígeno CD117) que puede ser focal, variable o difusa. Involucran tumores benignos pero con potencial malignidad hasta sarcomas metastizantes. Su pronóstico se basa el tamaño y porcentaje de mitosis. La sintomatología depende del lugar de origen, en este caso como masa palpable abdominal y obstrucción intestinal. El tratamiento es la resección completa con márgenes limpios. En caso de metástasis preoperatoria, esta no cambia la conducta quirúrgica, debido a la posibilidad de obstrucción y sangrado. El Imatinib a dosis de 400 mg controla el crecimiento eventual de enfermedad residual. Se presenta el caso clínico de paciente con masa abdominal y cuadro de obstrucción intestinal que evoluciona a la perforación de un TEGI localizado en yeyuno proximal con cuadro peritoneal y absceso subfrenico. Se procede a resección intestinal con yeyuno yeyuno anastomosis resección completa. La histopatología reporta Tumor estronal gastrointestinal y la inmunohistoquimica Neoplasia Fusocelular. CONCLUSION: Los TEGI son de origen mesenquimal, comprenden espectro grande de tumores desde benignos, hasta carcomas altamente malignos. Los factores pronósticos se asocian al tamaño e índice mitótico del tumor. La inmunohistoquimica reporta su expresión para CD117. La resección quirúrgica completa es el pilar de tratamiento y en casos de resección incompleta o irresecabilidad puede usarse imatinib.


Gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are the most frequent mesenchymal neoplasms of the digestive tract with a frequency of 0.1 to 3% of all gastrointestinal neoplasms. They are derived from the interstitial cells of Cajal, located along the myoenteric plexus of the intestinal wall. They include leiomysarcomas, leiomioblastomas, leimiomas, schwannomas. They are made up of spindle cells, in the majority, epithelioids or both. They are located predominantly in the stomach and small intestine. Immunohistochemically, KIT receptor expression (CD117 antigen) is detected, and they can be focal, variable or diffuse. They involve benign but potentially malignancy tumors up to metastatic sarcomas. Their prognosis is based on the size and percentage of mitosis. The symptoms depend on the place of its origin. Treatment is complete resection with clean margins. In the case of preoperative metastases, this does not change the surgical approach, due to the possibility of obstruction and bleeding. Imatinib at a dose of 400 mg controls the eventual growth of residual disease. We present the clinical case of a patient with an abdominal mass and a small bowel obstruction that progresses to perforation of a GIST located in the proximal jejunum with a peritonitis and subphrenic abscess. Intestinal resection is performed with jejunum jejunoanastomosis and complete resection. Histopathology reports gastrointestinal stromal tumor and immunohistochemistry, Fusocellular neoplasia. Conclusion: GIST are of mesenchymal origin, they include a wide spectrum of tumors from benign to highly malignant sarcomas. Prognostic factors are associated with tumor size and mitotic index. Immunohistochemistry reports its expression for CD117. Complete surgical resection is the mainstay of treatment and in cases of incomplete resection or unresectability imatinib can be used.


Subject(s)
Subphrenic Abscess , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasms , Therapeutics , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 391-398, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-827049

ABSTRACT

Under physiological conditions, the motility of smooth muscle in digestive tract is mainly regulated by enteric nervous system (ENS). However, how neural signal is transmitted to smooth muscle is not fully understood. Autonomic nerve endings in the smooth muscle layer form large number of varicosities which contain neurotransmitters. It was considered that nerve pulses arriving at the varicosities may cause the release of neurotransmitters, which may diffuse to the smooth muscle cells to induce contractile or relaxant responses. Over the past decade, a new understanding of the neurotransmission between ENS and smooth muscle has emerged, which emphasizes the role of a functional syncytium consisting of the interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), the platelet-derived growth factor receptor α positive (PDGFRα) cells and the smooth muscle cells. Within the syncytium, purine neurotransmitters bind to P2Y1 receptors on PDGFRα cells, activating small-conductance calcium activated potassium channel (SK3) to hyperpolarize PDGFRα cells, and thus hyperpolarize smooth muscle cells through gap junction, resulting in relaxation of smooth muscle. In this paper, we review the research progress in the field of inhibitory purinergic neurotransmission in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Muscle, Smooth , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Synaptic Transmission
5.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 56(4): 405-411, Oct.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1055165

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Serotonin (5-HT) is present in the epithelial enterochromaffin cells (EC), mast cells of the lamina propria and enteric neurons. The 5-HT is involved in regulating motility, secretion, gut sensation, immune system and inflammation. OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the effects of diabetes and quercetin supplementation on serotoninergic cells and its cell loss by apoptosis in jejunal mucosa of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-rats). METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: normoglycemic (C), normoglycemic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (Q), diabetic (D) and diabetic supplemented with 40 mg/day quercetin (DQ). After 120 days, the jejunum was collected and fixated in Zamboni's solution for 18 h. After obtaining cryosections, immunohistochemistry was performed to label 5-HT and caspase-3. Quantification of 5-HT and caspase-3 immunoreactive (IR) cells in the lamina propria, villi and crypts were performed. RESULTS: The diabetic condition displayed an increase of the number of 5-HT-IR cells in villi and crypts, while decreased number of these cells was observed in lamina propria in the jejunum of STZ-rats. In the diabetic animals, an increased density of apoptotic cells in epithelial villi and crypts of the jejunum was observed, whereas a decreased number of caspase-3-IR cells was observed in lamina propria. Possibly, quercetin supplementation slightly suppressed the apoptosis phenomena in the epithelial villi and crypts of the STZ-rats, however the opposite effect was observed on the 5-HT-IR cells of the lamina propria. Quercetin supplementation on healthy animals promoted few changes of serotoninergic function and apoptotic stimuli. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that quercetin supplementation mostly improved the serotonergic function affected by diabetes maybe due to antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of quercetin.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A serotonina (5-HT) está presente nas células epiteliais enterocromafins (CE), nos mastócitos da lâmina própria e nos neurônios entéricos. A 5-HT está envolvida na regulação da motilidade, secreção, nocepção intestinal, sistema imunológico e inflamação. Objetivo: Avaliar os efeitos do diabetes e da suplementação de quercetina sobre a função serotoninérgica e a perda celular por apoptose na mucosa jejunal de ratos diabéticos induzidos por estreptozotocina (ratos STZ). MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro ratos Wistar machos foram divididos em quatro grupos: normoglicêmico (C), normoglicêmico suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (Q), diabético (D) e diabético suplementado com quercetina 40 mg/dia (DQ). Após 120 dias, o jejuno foi coletado e fixado na solução de Zamboni por 18 horas. Após a obtenção de cortes em criostato, a imuno-histoquímica foi realizada para marcar 5-HT e caspase-3. A quantificação de células imunorreativas (IR) à 5-HT e caspase-3 foram realizadas na lâmina própria, vilosidades e criptas. RESULTADOS: A condição diabética ocasionou um aumento do número de células 5-HT-IR nas vilosidades e criptas, enquanto que na lâmina própria houve uma redução dessas células, no jejuno de ratos STZ. Nos animais diabéticos, foi observada uma densidade aumentada de células apoptóticas no epitélio do jejuno, tanto nas vilosidades quanto nas criptas, por outro lado um número reduzido de células caspase-3-IR foi observado na lâmina própria. Possivelmente, a suplementação de quercetina suprimiu ligeiramente os fenômenos de apoptose no epitélio de vilosidades e criptas do jejuno de ratos STZ, no entanto, o efeito oposto foi observado nas células 5-HT-IR da lâmina própria. A suplementação com quercetina em animais saudáveis promoveu poucas alterações na função serotoninérgica e nos estímulos apoptóticos. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados sugerem que a suplementação de quercetina melhorou principalmente a função serotoninérgica afetada pelo diabetes, talvez devido às propriedades antioxidantes e anti-inflamatórias da quercetina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Quercetin/administration & dosage , Serotonin/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Dietary Supplements , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/drug therapy , Caspase 3/metabolism , Jejunum/pathology , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental/pathology , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Jejunum/drug effects
6.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(10): e8343, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039245

ABSTRACT

The objective was to study the effect of mechanical intestinal obstruction in rats on the phenotype of interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC). Healthy Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham-operation group (C), one day obstruction group (M1), two days obstruction group (M2), and three days obstruction group (M3), with 10 rats in each group. The expression of SCF mRNA and c-Kit protein in intestinal tissue was investigated by RT-PCR and immunohistochemistry. Compared with the sham-operation group, the relative expression of SCF mRNA and the expression of c-Kit protein in intestinal tissue were significantly decreased in both obstruction groups. Levels decreased gradually with the prolongation of obstruction time, and significantly decreased on the 3rd day after obstruction (P<0.05). Immunohistochemical staining of the small intestine showed that the number of ICC in the sham-operation group was the highest, and they were gradually decreased with the extension of obstruction time in the M1 to M3 groups. There was a significant difference between groups (P<0.05). Intestinal obstruction caused a decrease in the concentrations of SCF mRNA and c-Kit protein in ICC. With the prolongation of intestinal obstruction, the number of ICCs gradually decreased.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Stem Cell Factor/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/metabolism , Intestinal Obstruction/metabolism , Phenotype , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology , Intestinal Obstruction/pathology
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813102

ABSTRACT

To determine the effect of a recombinant lentivirus containing human stem cell leukemia (SCL) gene on the expression of c-kit protein in damaged interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) under high glucose condition.
 Methods: After isolation of ICC, the cells were cultured for 24 hours until the cells were adherent. After identification by inverted microscope and immunofluorescence, ICC cells were divided into two groups: A control group and a high glucose group. The control group was added with a medium containing 5 mmol/L of glucose. The high glucose group was added with a medium containing 20 mmol/L of glucose. After 48 h of continuous cultivation, the high glucose group was divided into 3 subgroups: A blank group, an empty lentivirus group, and an experimental group. The blank group, the empty lentivirus group, and the experimental group were added a medium containing PBS solution, empty lentivirus, and a recombinant lentivirus containing the SCL gene with a glucose concentration of 5 mmol/L, respectively. The cultures were incubated for 24 and 48 h. The expression of c-kit protein in ICC in each group was detected by Western blot.
 Results: After 24 or 48 h, the expression of c-kit protein in ICC was significantly lower in the blank group and the lentivirus group than that in the control group, and the expression of c-kit protein in ICC was significantly higher in the experimental group than that in the blank group and the empty lentivirus group, but it was still lower than that in the control group (all P<0.05).
 Conclusion: The recombinant lentivirus of SCL gene can up-regulate the expression of c-kit protein in functionally impaired ICC under high glucose condition.


Subject(s)
Glucose , Humans , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Lentivirus , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765965

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interstitial cells play important roles in gastrointestinal (GI) neuro-smooth muscle transmission. The underlying mechanisms of colonic dysmotility have not been well illustrated. We established a partial colon obstruction (PCO) mouse model to investigate the changes of interstitial cells and the correlation with colonic motility. METHODS: Western blot technique was employed to observe the protein expressions of Kit, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α (Pdgfra), Ca²⁺-activated Cl⁻ (Ano1) channels, and small conductance Ca²⁺- activated K⁺ (SK) channels. Colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs) and isometric force measurements were employed in control mice and PCO mice. RESULTS: PCO mice showed distended abdomen and feces excretion was significantly reduced. Anatomically, the colon above the obstructive silicone ring was obviously dilated. Kit and Ano1 proteins in the colonic smooth muscle layer of the PCO colons were significantly decreased, while the expression of Pdgfra and SK3 proteins were significantly increased. The effects of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor (L-NAME) and an Ano1 channel inhibitor (NPPB) on CMMC and colonic spontaneous contractions were decreased in the proximal and distal colons of PCO mice. The SK agonist, CyPPA and antagonist, apamin in PCO mice showed more effect to the CMMCs and colonic smooth muscle contractions. CONCLUSIONS: Colonic transit disorder may be due to the downregulation of the Kit and Ano1 channels and the upregulation of SK3 channels in platelet-derived growth factor receptor-α positive (PDGFRα⁺) cells. The imbalance between interstitial cells of Cajal-Ano1 and PDGFRα-SK3 distribution might be a potential reason for the colonic dysmotility.


Subject(s)
Abdomen , Animals , Apamin , Blotting, Western , Chloride Channels , Colon , Down-Regulation , Feces , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Platelet-Derived Growth Factor , Silicon , Silicones , Small-Conductance Calcium-Activated Potassium Channels , Up-Regulation
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765940

ABSTRACT

The internal anal sphincter (IAS) plays an important role in the maintenance of fecal continence since it generates tone and is responsible for > 70% of resting anal pressure. During normal defecation the IAS relaxes. Historically, tone generation in gastrointestinal muscles was attributed to mechanisms arising directly from smooth muscle cells, ie, myogenic activity. However, slow waves are now known to play a fundamental role in regulating gastrointestinal motility and these electrical events are generated by the interstitial cells of Cajal. Recently, interstitial cells of Cajal, as well as slow waves, have also been identified in the IAS making them viable candidates for tone generation. In this review we discuss four different mechanisms that likely contribute to tone generation in the IAS. Three of these involve membrane potential, L-type Ca²⁺ channels and electromechanical coupling (ie, summation of asynchronous phasic activity, partial tetanus, and window current), whereas the fourth involves the regulation of myofilament Ca²⁺ sensitivity. Contractile activity in the IAS is also modulated by sympathetic motor neurons that significantly increase tone and anal pressure, as well as inhibitory motor neurons (particularly nitrergic and vasoactive intestinal peptidergic) that abolish contraction and assist with normal defecation. Alterations in IAS motility are associated with disorders such as fecal incontinence and anal fissures that significantly decrease the quality of life. Understanding in greater detail how tone is regulated in the IAS is important for developing more effective treatment strategies for these debilitating defecation disorders.


Subject(s)
Anal Canal , Defecation , Fecal Incontinence , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Membrane Potentials , Motor Neurons , Muscle, Smooth , Muscles , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle , Myofibrils , Quality of Life , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha , Tetanus
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765931

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: It is now recognised that gastric dysrhythmias are best characterised by their spatial propagation pattern. Hyperglycemia is an important cause of gastric slow wave dysrhythmia, however, the spatiotemporal patterns of dysrhythmias in this context have not been investigated. This study aims to investigate the relationship between hyperglycemia and the patterns of dysrhythmias by employing high-resolution (multi-electrode) mapping simultaneously at the anterior and posterior gastric serosa. METHODS: High-resolution mapping (8 × 16 electrodes per serosal) was performed in 4 anesthetized hounds. Baseline recordings (21 ± 8 minutes) were followed by intravenous injection of glucagon (0.5 mg per dose) and further recordings (59 ± 15 minutes). Blood glucose levels were monitored manually using a glucose sensing kit at regular 5-minute intervals. Slow wave activation maps, amplitudes, velocity, anisotropic ratio, and frequency were calculated. Differences were compared between baseline and post glucagon injection. RESULTS: Baseline slow waves propagated symmetrically and antegrade. The blood glucose levels were increased by an average of 112% compared to the baseline by the end of the recordings. All subjects demonstrated elevated incidence of slow wave dysrhythmias following injection compared to the baseline (48 ± 23% vs 6 ± 4%, P < 0.05). Dysrhythmias arose simultaneously or independently on anterior and posterior serosa. Spatial dysrhythmias occurred before and persisted after the onset and disappearance of temporal dysrhythmias. CONCLUSIONS: Infusion of glucagon induced gastric slow wave dysrhythmias, which occurred across a heterogeneous range of patterns and frequencies. The spatial dysrhythmias of gastric slow waves were shown to be more prevalent and persisted over a longer period of time compared to the temporal dysrhythmias.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Electrodes , Electrophysiology , Gastrointestinal Tract , Glucagon , Glucose , Hyperglycemia , Incidence , Injections, Intravenous , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , Serous Membrane
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and their special calcium-activated chloride channel, anoctamin-1 (ANO1) play pivotal roles in regulating colonic transit. This study is designed to investigate the role of ICC and the ANO1 channel in colonic transit disorder in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-treated colitis mice. METHODS: Colonic transit experiment, colonic migrating motor complexes (CMMCs), smooth muscle spontaneous contractile experiments, intracellular electrical recordings, western blotting analysis, and quantitative polymerase chain reaction were applied in this study. RESULTS: The mRNA and protein expressions of c-KIT and ANO1 channels were significantly decreased in the colons of DSS-colitis mice. The colonic artificial fecal-pellet transit experiment in vitro was significantly delayed in DSS-colitis mice. The CMMCs and smooth muscle spontaneous contractions were significantly decreased by 5-nitro-2-(3-phenylpropylamino)benzoic acid (NPPB), an ANO1 channel blocker, and NG-Nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride (L-NAME), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase activity, in DSS-colitis mice compared with that of control mice. Intracellular electrical recordings showed that the amplitude of NPPB-induced hyperpolarization was more positive in DSS-colitis mice. The electric field stimulation-elicited nitric-dependent slow inhibitory junctional potentials were also more positive in DSS-colitis mice than those of control mice. CONCLUSION: The results suggest that colonic transit disorder is mediated via downregulation of the nitric oxide/ICC/ANO1 signalling pathway in DSS-colitis mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blotting, Western , Chloride Channels , Colitis , Colon , Dextrans , Down-Regulation , In Vitro Techniques , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Myoelectric Complex, Migrating , NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger , Sodium
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(7): e7372, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951733

ABSTRACT

The effect of bisacodyl on the treatment of rats with slow transit constipation (STC) was studied. Forty-five female Wister rats were divided into control group, STC group, and STC bisacodyl group. The immunohistochemical method was used to determine interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) and the expression of c-Kit protein. Body mass and the number of defecations were significantly decreased in the STC group compared with the control group on the 100th day after diphenoxylate administration, while dry weight of feces was significantly increased and the intestinal transit time was prolonged. There were significant differences in the number of defecations, dry weight of feces, and intestinal transit time among the three groups. The number of defecations was higher, dry weight of feces was lower, and intestinal transit time was shorter in the STC bisacodyl group compared to the STC group. In addition, ICC basement membrane dissolution occurred in the colon wall of the STC group. The connection between ICC and surrounding cells was destroyed, and the nucleus shrunken to different degrees. Moreover, c-Kit expression in the STC group was significantly lower than the control group. The connection between ICC and surrounding cells in the STC bisacodyl group was significantly stronger than the STC group, and the number of ICC and the expression of c-Kit were increased. Bisacodyl could reduce the severity of STC in rats by increasing the number of ICC and the expression of c-Kit.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Bisacodyl/therapeutic use , Gastrointestinal Transit/drug effects , Cathartics/therapeutic use , Colon/metabolism , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/metabolism , Constipation/drug therapy , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Transit/physiology , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar , Colon/drug effects , Colon/pathology , Constipation/physiopathology , Constipation/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/pathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a common disease characterized by intestinal dysmotility, the mechanism of which remains elusive. We aim to determine whether the high-affinity choline transporter 1 (CHT1), a determinant of cholinergic signaling capacity, modulates intestinal motility associated with stress-induced IBS. METHODS: A rat IBS model was established using chronic water avoidance stress (WAS). Colonic pathological alterations were evaluated histologically and intestinal motility was assessed by intestinal transit time and fecal water content (FWC). Visceral sensitivity was determined by visceromotor response to colorectal distension. RT-PCR, western blotting, and immunostaining were performed to identify colonic CHT1 expression. Contractility of colonic muscle strips was measured using isometric transducers. enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay was used to measure acetylcholine (ACh). We examined the effects of MKC-231, a choline uptake enhancer, on colonic motility. RESULTS: After 10 days of WAS, intestinal transit time was decreased and fecal water content increased. Visceromotor response magnitude in WAS rats in response to colorectal distension was significantly enhanced. Protein and mRNA CHT1 levels in the colon were markedly elevated after WAS. The density of CHT1-positive intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons in WAS rats was higher than in controls. Ammonium pyrrolidine dithiocarbamate partly reversed CHT1 upregulation and alleviated colonic hypermotility in WAS rats. Pharmacological enhancement of CHT1 activity by MKC-231 enhanced colonic motility in control rats via upregulation of CHT1 and elevation of ACh production. CONCLUSION: Upregulation of CHT1 in intramuscular interstitial cells of Cajal and myenteric plexus neurons is implicated in chronic stress-induced colonic hypermotility by modulation of ACh synthesis via nuclear factor-kappa B signaling.


Subject(s)
Acetylcholine , Ammonium Compounds , Animals , Blotting, Western , Choline , Colon , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Irritable Bowel Syndrome , Models, Animal , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Rats , RNA, Messenger , Transducers , Up-Regulation , Water
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-740725

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: We investigated the role of representative endoplasmic reticulum proteins, stromal interaction molecule 1 (STIM1), and store-operated calcium entry-associated regulatory factor (SARAF) in pacemaker activity in cultured interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) isolated from mouse small intestine. METHODS: The whole-cell patch clamp technique applied for intracellular calcium ions ([Ca²+]i) analysis with STIM1 or SARAF overexpressed cultured ICCs from mouse small intestine. RESULTS: In the current-clamping mode, cultured ICCs displayed spontaneous pacemaker potentials. External carbachol exposure produced tonic membrane depolarization in the current-clamp mode, which recovered within a few seconds into normal pacemaker potentials. In STIM1-overexpressing cultured ICCs pacemaker potential frequency was increased, and in SARAF-overexpressing ICCs pacemaker potential frequency was strongly inhibited. The application of gadolinium (a non-selective cation channel inhibitor) or a Ca2+-free solution to understand Orai channel involvement abolished the generation of pacemaker potentials. When recording intracellular Ca²+ concentration with Fluo 3-AM, STIM1-overexpressing ICCs showed an increased number of spontaneous intracellular Ca²+ oscillations. However, SARAF-overexpressing ICCs showed fewer spontaneous intracellular Ca2+ oscillations. CONCLUSION: Endoplasmic reticulum proteins modulated the frequency of pacemaker activity in ICCs, and levels of STIM1 and SARAF may determine slow wave patterns in the gastrointestinal tract.


Subject(s)
Animals , Calcium , Carbachol , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Gadolinium , Gastrointestinal Motility , Gastrointestinal Tract , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Intestine, Small , Ions , Membranes , Mice
17.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 63-71, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-739310

ABSTRACT

Purinergic receptors play an important role in regulating gastrointestinal (GI) motility. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are pacemaker cells that regulate GI smooth muscle activity. We studied the functional roles of external adenosine 5′-triphosphate (ATP) on pacemaker activity in cultured ICCs from mouse small intestines by using the whole-cell patch clamp technique and intracellular Ca²⁺ ([Ca²⁺]ᵢ) imaging. External ATP dose-dependently depolarized the resting membrane and produced tonic inward pacemaker currents, and these effects were antagonized by suramin, a purinergic P2 receptor antagonist. ATP-induced effects on pacemaker currents were suppressed by an external Na⁺-free solution and inhibited by the nonselective cation channel blockers, flufenamic acid and niflumic acid. The removal of external Ca²⁺ or treatment with thapsigargin (inhibitor of Ca²⁺ uptake into endoplasmic reticulum) inhibited the ATP-induced effects on pacemaker currents. Spontaneous [Ca²⁺]ᵢ oscillations were enhanced by external ATP. These results suggest that external ATP modulates pacemaker activity by activating nonselective cation channels via external Ca²⁺ influx and [Ca²⁺]ᵢ release from the endoplasmic reticulum. Thus, it seems that activating the purinergic P2 receptor may modulate GI motility by acting on ICCs in the small intestine.


Subject(s)
Adenosine , Adenosine Triphosphate , Animals , Endoplasmic Reticulum , Flufenamic Acid , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Intestine, Small , Membranes , Mice , Muscle, Smooth , Niflumic Acid , Pacemaker, Artificial , Receptors, Purinergic , Receptors, Purinergic P2 , Suramin , Thapsigargin
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 51(6): e7065, 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889100

ABSTRACT

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon where intestinal motility is disturbed. Interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC) are required to maintain normal intestinal motility. In the present study, we assessed the effect of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) on viability and apoptosis of ICC, as well as on the expression of stem cell factor (SCF), ghrelin, and substance P. ICC were derived from the small intestines of Swiss albino mice. Cell viability and apoptosis were measured using CCK-8 assay and flow cytometry, respectively. ELISA was used to measure the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-6, ghrelin, substance P, and endothelin-1. Quantitative RT-PCR was used to measure the expression of SCF. Western blotting was used to measure the expression of apoptosis-related proteins, interleukins, SCF, and NF-κB signaling pathway proteins. TNF-α induced inflammatory injury in ICC by decreasing cell viability and increasing apoptosis and levels of IL-1β and IL-6. TNF-α decreased the levels of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P, but had no effect on endothelin-1. TNF-α down-regulated expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P by activating the NF-κB pathway in ICC. In conclusion, TNF-α down-regulated the expressions of SCF, ghrelin, and substance P via the activation of the NF-κB pathway in ICC.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Ghrelin/metabolism , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/drug effects , NF-kappa B/metabolism , Stem Cell Factor/metabolism , Substance P/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Ghrelin/antagonists & inhibitors , Interstitial Cells of Cajal/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Signal Transduction/drug effects
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-14788

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Neuronal degeneration and changes in interstitial cells of Cajal (ICCs) are important mechanisms of age-related constipation. This study aims to compare the distribution of ICCs and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) with regard to age-related changes between the ascending colon (AC) and descending colon (DC) in 6-, 31-, and 74-week old and 2-year old male Fischer-344 rats. METHODS: The amount of fecal pellet and the bead expulsion times were measured. Fat proportion in the muscle layer of the colon was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Proto-oncogene receptor tyrosine kinase (KIT) and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expression were analyzed with Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Isovolumetric contractile measurements and electrical field stimulation were used to assess smooth muscle contractility. RESULTS: Colon transit and bead expulsion slowed with senescence. Fat in the muscle layer accumulated with age in the AC, but not in the DC. The proportion of KIT-immunoreactive ICCs in the submucosal and myenteric plexus was higher in the DC than in the AC, and it declined with age, especially in the AC. In contrast, the proportion of NOS-immunoreactive neurons in the myenteric plexus was higher in the AC than in the DC, and both decreased in older rats. Nitric oxide levels declined with age in the DC. Muscle strip experiments showed that the inhibitory response mediated by nitric oxide in the circular direction of the DC was reduced in 2-year old rats. CONCLUSION: The AC and DC differ in their distribution of ICCs and nNOS, and age-related loss of nitrergic neurons more severely affects the DC than the AC.


Subject(s)
Aging , Animals , Blotting, Western , Colon , Colon, Ascending , Colon, Descending , Constipation , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Hematoxylin , Humans , Immunohistochemistry , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Male , Muscle, Smooth , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitrergic Neurons , Nitric Oxide Synthase Type I , Nitric Oxide , Protein-Tyrosine Kinases , Proto-Oncogenes , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-110253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Myenteric plexus interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC-MY) are involved in the generation of gut pacemaker activity and neuronal communication. We performed patch clamp on ICC-MY in situ to observe the changes of pacemaker activity in response to neural modulations. METHODS: A fresh longitudinal muscle with myenteric plexus (LMMP) from mouse jejunum was prepared. ICC-MY and ganglion neurons embedded in the layer of longitudinal muscles were targeted by patch clamping in whole-cell configuration in a model of current or voltage clamp. Neurogenic modulators were applied to evaluate their effects on ICC pacemaker activity. RESULTS: In situ ICC-MY showed spontaneous and rhythmical voltage oscillations with a frequency of 27.2 ± 3.9 cycles/min, amplitude of 32.6 ± 6.3 mV, and resting membrane potential of −62.2 ± 2.8 mV. In situ neurons showed electrically evocable action potential in single or multiple spikes. Pacemaker activity was modulated by neuronal activators through receiving a neuronal input. Application of tetrodotoxin depolarized pacemaker potentials in a dose dependent manner, and decreased the amplitude at tetrodotoxin 0.3 μM for about 40 ± 10%; capsaicin (1 μM) ameliorated ICC-MY K+ current for about 49 ± 14.8%; and, nitric oxide hyperpolarized pacemaker potential and decreased the amplitude and frequency. CONCLUSIONS: The in situ preparation patch clamp study further demonstrates that the pacemaker activity is an intrinsic property of ICC. The neurogenic activators change and shape pacemaker potential and activity in situ. LMMP preparation in situ patch clamp provides an ideal platform to study the functional innervation of the ICC and the enteric neural system, thereby, for evaluating the neural regulation of pacemaker activity, especially in disorder models.


Subject(s)
Action Potentials , Animals , Capsaicin , Constriction , Enteric Nervous System , Ganglion Cysts , Interstitial Cells of Cajal , Jejunum , Membrane Potentials , Mice , Muscles , Myenteric Plexus , Neurons , Nitric Oxide , Tetrodotoxin
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