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1.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-154667

ABSTRACT

Background: Periodontal disease is an immune-inflammatory disease characterized by connective tissue breakdown, loss of attachment, and alveolar bone resorption. Under normal physiological conditions, a dynamic equilibrium is maintained between the reactive oxygen species (ROS) and antioxidant defense capacity. Oxidative stress occurs when this equilibrium shifts in favor of ROS. Oxidative stress is thought to play a causative role in the pathogenesis of periodontal diseases. Aim: The present study was designed to estimate and compare the superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione (GSH) levels in the serum of periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy individuals before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Materials and Methods: The present study was conducted in the Department of Periodontics, A. B. Shetty Memorial Institute of Dental Sciences, Deralakatte, Mangalore. The study was designed as a single blinded interventional study comprising 75 subjects, inclusive of both sexes and divided into three groups of 25 patients each. Patients were categorized into chronic periodontitis, gingivitis, and healthy. The severity of inflammation was assessed using gingival index and pocket probing depth. Biochemical analysis was done to estimate the SOD and GSH levels before and after nonsurgical periodontal therapy. Results obtained were then statistically analyzed using ANOVA test and paired t-test. Results: The results showed a higher level of serum SOD and GSH in the healthy group compared to the other groups. The difference was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.0001). The post-treatment levels of SOD were statistically higher than the pre-treatment levels in periodontitis and gingivitis group.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/pharmacokinetics , Female , Glutathione/blood , Humans , Intervention Studies , Male , Patients , Periodontitis , Superoxide Dismutase/blood
2.
Annals of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 4-4, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-63233

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of a comprehensive workplace stress management program consisting of participatory action-oriented training (PAOT) and individual management. METHODS: A comprehensive workplace stress management program was conducted in a medium-sized enterprise. The baseline survey was conducted in September 2011, using the Korean Occupational Stress Scale (KOSS) and Worker's Stress Response Inventory (WSRI). After implementing both organizational and individual level interventions, the follow up evaluation was conducted in November 2011. RESULTS: Most of the workers participated in the organizational level PAOT and made Team-based improvement plans. Based on the stress survey, 24 workers were interviewed by a researcher. After the organizational and individual level interventions, there was a reduction of several adverse psychosocial factors and stress responses. In the case of blue-collar workers, psychosocial factors such as the physical environment, job demands, organizational system, lack of rewards, and occupational climate were significantly improved; in the case of white-collar workers, the occupational climate was improved. CONCLUSIONS: In light of these results, we concluded that the comprehensive stress management program was effective in reducing work-related stress in a short-term period. A persistent long-term follow up is necessary to determine whether the observed effects are maintained over time. Both team-based improvement activities and individual interviews have to be sustainable and complementary to each other under the long-term plan.


Subject(s)
Climate , Data Collection , Follow-Up Studies , Health Promotion , Intervention Studies , Psychology , Reward
4.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-141214

ABSTRACT

Background: Provision of oral health care in India, especially for the underprivileged is limited due to inadequate finances and manpower. Resources of dental colleges in such a scenario can be utilized to provide prevention oriented oral health care. Aim: To improve the oral health status of children at an institute in Nellore district of Andhra Pradesh, India, through prevention based comprehensive dental health care program (CDHP). Design and Setting: A longitudinal institution based interventional study conducted among the primary grade children (n=162). Materials and Methods: Baseline data collection included (i) basic demographic data (ii) body mass index (BMI) (iii) assessment of the dentition status and treatment needs according to WHO 1997 criteria. The CDHP included group based dental health education, professional oral prophylaxis, weekly (0.2%) sodium fluoride mouth rinse program, biannual application of topical fluoride (1.23% APF), pit and fissure sealants for all first permanent molars and provision of all necessary curative services. Results: Mean treatment requirements per child decreased at 18 months. New caries lesions developed among four children. BMI of children with decay was seen to improve significantly after instituting the CDHP. Conclusion: CDHP is effective in overall improvement of general and oral health. In resource limited countries like India, such programs organized by dental schools can improve oral health.


Subject(s)
Body Mass Index , Cariostatic Agents/therapeutic use , Child , Child, Orphaned , Child, Preschool , Comprehensive Dental Care , Dental Care for Children , Dental Caries/therapy , Dental Prophylaxis , Female , Fluorides, Topical/therapeutic use , Follow-Up Studies , Health Education, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Status , Humans , India , Intervention Studies , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Mouthwashes/therapeutic use , Needs Assessment , Oral Health , Orphanages , Pit and Fissure Sealants/therapeutic use , Sodium Fluoride/therapeutic use , Vulnerable Populations
5.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 833-842, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-166591

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of spiritual intervention studies by examining biological, psychological, and spiritual outcomes. METHODS: From electronic databases 2522 studies were retrieved, of which 21 studies met the inclusion criteria. These studies had 1411 participants. Two authors independently extracted data from the selected studies and assessed the methodological quality. The data were analyzed using the RevMan 5.1 program of the Cochrane library. RESULTS: Overall effect size of spiritual intervention on spiritual and psychological (depression and anxiety) outcomes were moderate (d=-0.65 to d=-0.76, p<.001). The effects on biological outcomes (pain and functional status) ranged from -0.51 to -0.39, respectively. No publication bias was detected as evaluated by a funnel plot. Spiritual intervention had a moderate effect on psychological and spiritual outcomes and a smaller effect on biological outcomes. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that spiritual intervention can relieve depression and anxiety. Further randomized controlled trials studies are needed to evaluate the effects of spiritual intervention on biological outcomes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anxiety , Databases, Factual , Depression , Intervention Studies , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Spirituality
6.
Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing ; : 269-279, 2012.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-163549

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To develop a expressive writing program for women with breast cancer and to identify its effects on stress physical symptom, cancer symptom, anxiety, depression, and QOL. METHODS: A non-equivalent control pre-post design was used. Participants were recruited from self-help groups in six hospitals and were assigned to the experimental group (29) or control group (29). Data were collected before, after, and at four weeks after the intervention program. Changes in the variables were evaluated to test effects of the developed program, using chi2-test, Fisher's exact test, repeated measures ANOVA, and paired t-test. RESULTS: The expressive writing program was developed for women with breast cancer based on Pennebaker's expressive writing. Significant differences were found between the two groups for stress related to physical symptoms (p<.00) and quality of life (p=.024). No significant differences were found in cancer symptoms, anxiety, or depression between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the expressive writing program designed to express cancer-related deep thoughts and emotions helps in decreasing physical symptoms and improving QOL. Further studies are needed to identify the effect on emotions such as anxiety and depression for women with breast cancer with above average levels of anxiety and depression.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Adaptation, Psychological , Anxiety , Breast Neoplasms/pathology , Demography , Depression , Expressed Emotion , Intervention Studies , Program Development , Program Evaluation , Quality of Life , Republic of Korea , Writing
7.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2010 May; 77(5): 541-546
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-142576

ABSTRACT

Objective. To find usefulness of a package of interventions to improve preschool education through Anganwadi centers on psychosocial development of children. Methods. A case-control study was undertaken to evaluate an intervention. Eight Anganwadi centers were selected using simple random sampling out of sixteen Anganwadi centers in Talegaon PHC area where intervention was done. Ten children in age group of 4-6 years were selected randomly from each of the eight Anganwadi center in intervention arm. For each child from intervention arm, one agematched child was selected from the matched Anganwadi center. For each subject, Intelligence Quotient and Development Quotient were assessed. Results. Mean Development Quotient (DQ) and Intelligence Quotient (IQ) values were higher among children in intervention Anganwadi centers (16.2 points for DQ and 10.2 points for IQ). This difference was found statistically significant (p = <0.01). Mean DQ among boys was found 10.1 points higher than that among the girls in control arm, this was statistically significant. According to multivariate linear regression model, the determinants of DQ were: intervention; age of the child; education of mother; sex of child; and PEM grade and the determinants for IQ were: intervention; age of the child; and income. Conclusions. This study shows that intervention to improve the Early Childhood Education and Development component through Anganwadi centers results in improvement in Developmental and Intelligence Quotient of children.


Subject(s)
Case-Control Studies , Child , Child Development , Child, Preschool , Educational Measurement , Female , Humans , India , Intelligence Tests , Intervention Studies , Linear Models , Male , Schools, Nursery/standards
8.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135434

ABSTRACT

Adherence to continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) treatment for obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a critical problem. Poor adherence (30-60%) to CPAP is widely recognized as a significant limiting factor in treating OSA, reducing the overall effectiveness of the treatment and leaving many OSA patients at heightened risk for co-morbid conditions, impaired function and quality of life. The extant literature examining adherence to CPAP provides critical insight to measuring adherence outcomes, defining optimal adherence levels, and predicting CPAP adherence. This research has revealed salient factors that are associated with or predict CPAP adherence and may guide the development of interventions to promote CPAP adherence. Over the past 10 years, intervention studies to promote CPAP adherence have incorporated a multitude of strategies including education, support, cognitive behavioural approaches, and mixed strategies. This review of the current status of research on CPAP adherence will (i) synthesize the extant literature with regard to measuring, defining, and predicting CPAP adherence; (ii) review published intervention studies aimed at promoting CPAP adherence; and (iii) suggest directions for future empiric study of adherence to CPAP that will have implications for translational science. Our current understanding of CPAP adherence suggests that adherence is a multi-factorial, complex clinical problem that requires similarly designed approaches to effectively address poor CPAP adherence in the OSA population.


Subject(s)
Clinical Trials as Topic , Cognition , Comorbidity , Continuous Positive Airway Pressure/methods , Female , Humans , Intervention Studies , Male , Patient Compliance , Patient Education as Topic , Quality of Life , Sleep Apnea Syndromes , Social Class , Treatment Outcome
9.
Indian J Pediatr ; 2007 Jun; 74(6): 571-5
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-83654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Inadequate sunlight exposure and calcium intake during rapid growth at puberty lead to hypocalcemia, hypovitaminosis D and eventually to overt rickets. To determine serum biochemical findings of rickets in healthy 11-15 yr old girls, the effect of sunlight exposure and oral vitamin D supplementation on serum 25- hydroxy vitamin D and calcium administration in girls with abnormal findings during December 2002 through March 2003 in Tehran, Iran. METHODS: Healthy middle school girls were selected for estimation of vitamin D, calcium and phosphorus intake by a three-day food recall. And measurement of serum calcium, phosphorus, parathyroid hormone, alkaline-phosphatase and 25- hydroxyvitamin D concentration. The girls with abnormal findings divided in two groups. Hypovitaminosis D girls subdivided into two groups, supplementary sunlight exposure and vitamin- D administrated for them and calcium administration for the second group for 20 days. RESULTS: Of 414 girls, the mean daily vitamin D acquirement and calcium intake were 119 +/- 52 IU and 360 +/- 350 mg among all girls respectively. Mean serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D with two or more abnormal biochemical findings in 15 (3.6%) girls (group I) were 7.8 ng/ml and alkaline phosphatse with normal or low calcium in 29 (7%) girls (group II) was 1187 IU/L. Mean serum calcium was 8.2 mg % in 8 of 29 girls. Serum 25- hydroxyvitamin D before and after sunlight exposure was 7.1 +/- 1.9 ng/ml and 13.9 +/- 2.4 ng/ml and vitamin D administration was 7.4 +/- 1.8 ng/ml (group Ia) and 27.9 +/- 4.2 ng/ml (group Ib) respectively. Serum alkaline phosphatase before and after calcium administration were 1187 IU/L and 666 IU/L respectively. CONCLUSION: We conclude that low daily calcium intake and vitamin D acquirement are two important problems in Iranian girls during rapid growth at puberty; therefore, for prevention of overt rickets calcium and vitamin D Supplementation appear to be necessary.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Calcium, Dietary/metabolism , Cross-Sectional Studies , Developing Countries , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Health Education , Humans , Incidence , Intervention Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Nutritional Requirements , Phosphorus, Dietary/blood , Probability , Prospective Studies , Reference Values , Rickets/diagnosis , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Sunlight , Vitamin D/blood
10.
Indian J Med Microbiol ; 2007 Apr; 25(2): 103-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-53492

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To determine the levels of TNFa and IL-1beta in tracheal aspirates of neonates with meconium aspiration syndrome (MAS) and to ascertain whether the use of steroids by systemic or nebulized routes suppresses the levels of these inflammatory markers. METHODS: This was a double blind, randomized, controlled, prospective, interventional study done over one year period in the neonatal unit of the Lady Hardinge Medical College. Fifty-one babies of MAS which were randomly distributed into three groups; control, systemic and nebulized steroids; were included in the study. Methyl prednisolone was given intravenously in the dosage of 0.5 mg/kg/day in two divided doses while nebulized budecort was given in a dosage of 50 mcg/dose twice daily. Tracheal aspirates were taken on day 1, 3 and 4 and were analyzed for TNFa and IL-1b by ELISA technique. RESULTS: TNFa in tracheal aspirates showed an increasing trend in babies of MAS in first four days, thereby signifying an inflammatory process underlying the condition. The levels of TNFa were suppressed by use of steroids. Higher levels of TNFa were associated with longer stay in hospital. IL-1b did not show any significant correlation. CONCLUSIONS: TNFa is associated with meconium-associated inflammation. Its level is suppressed with the use of steroids and can also be used to assess prognosis of neonates with MAS.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Biomarkers/analysis , Body Fluids/chemistry , Double-Blind Method , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Inflammation/drug therapy , Interleukin-1/analysis , Intervention Studies , Meconium Aspiration Syndrome/drug therapy , Steroids/administration & dosage , Trachea/chemistry , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/analysis
11.
J Health Popul Nutr ; 2007 Mar; 25(1): 3-13
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-588

ABSTRACT

To promote physical and mental development of children, parenting education programmes in developing countries focus on specific practices such as age-appropriate responsive stimulation and feeding. A programme delivered to groups of poor mothers of children, aged less than three years, in rural Bangladesh was evaluated using an intervention-control post-test design. Mothers (n=170) who had attended a year of educational sessions and their children were compared with those (n=159) from neighbouring villages who did not have access to such a programme. After covariates were controlled, the parenting mothers obtained higher scores on a test of child-rearing knowledge and on the Home Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME) inventory of stimulation. The parenting mothers did not communicate differently with their children while doing a picture-talking task, and children did not show benefits in nutritional status or language comprehension. Parenting sessions offered by peer educators were informative and participatory, yet they need to include more practice, problem-solving, and peer-support if information is to be translated into behaviour.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bangladesh , Child Development , Child, Preschool , Female , Health Behavior , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Health Promotion , Humans , Intervention Studies , Male , Mothers/education , Parenting/psychology , Parents/education , Program Evaluation , Social Support
12.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37804

ABSTRACT

Our objective was to assess the efficiency of a home-visit invitation aimed to increase uptake of cervical cancer screening in women between 35 and 60 years of age. From May, 2006, we conducted a quasi-randomized trial to determine if an in-home education and invitation intervention would increase uptake of cervical cancer screening. We randomly recruited 304 women from the Samliem inner-city community, Khon Kaen, Northeast Thailand, and assigned participants to either the intervention or control zone. Baseline screening coverage interviews were then performed: 58 of 158 women in the intervention zone and 46 of 146 in the control zone were excluded from the study because of having had a Pap smear within 5 years, but these were included in the final analysis. First, 100 women in the intervention group were visited in their homes by one of the researchers, who provided culturally-sensitive health education that emphasized the need for screening. Four months later, post-intervention, screening-coverage interviews were again performed in both groups, in combination with the same health education for 100 women in the control group for a comparison. There was no difference in the baseline Pap smear screening-coverage rate in the intervention vs. control zones (36.7 vs. 31.5%, p=0.339). One hundred women in the intervention group completed the intervention interviews and after four months, 100 women in the intervention group and 100 in the control group also completed the post-intervention interviews. The increased screening-coverage rate in the intervention zone was similar to that of the control zone (43.6 vs. 34.9%, p=0.119); however, there was a borderline significant increase in the intervention zone compared with baseline (36.7 to 43.6%, p=0.070). Therefore, home visit education and invitation intervention produced only a nominal effect on increasing Pap smear coverage within a 4-month study period.


Subject(s)
Adult , Community Participation , Female , Health Behavior , Health Education , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , House Calls , Humans , Intervention Studies , Mass Screening/statistics & numerical data , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Thailand , Uterine Cervical Neoplasms/diagnosis , Vaginal Smears
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37613

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer deaths in the United States and the third most common malignant neoplasm worldwide. Chinese Americans are one of the ethnic minority groups who have the lowest rates of CRC screening. The purpose of this study was to describe CRC screening among less acculturated Chinese Americans and to identify factors associated with CRC screening. METHODS: We performed a review of 383 patients' medical records at a large community health clinic in Seattle's metropolitan area between July 2003 and September 2004. Outcome measurements included receiving fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) in the last 12 months, sigmoidoscopy in the previous 5 years and/or colonoscopy in the past 10 years. Compliance with CRC screening was assessed by documentation in patients' medical records. RESULTS: The overall use of CRC screening per guidelines was 40%. Only 72(19%) patients had their FOBT test in the last 12 months. Eighty one patients (21%) had colonoscopy in the last 10 years and eleven (3%) of the patients had sigmoidoscopy in the last 5 years. Chi-square analyses revealed no significant differences between users and non-users of FOBT, sigmoidoscopy, and colonoscopy in terms of age, gender, insurance status or language. DISCUSSION: Participation in CRC screening among less acculturated Chinese Americans was lower than rates derived from previous self-reported surveys. Research of effective preventive programs promoting annual FOBT is vital to increasing the use of CRC screening among this population.


Subject(s)
Acculturation , Aged , Asian/statistics & numerical data , Chi-Square Distribution , China/ethnology , Colonoscopy , Colorectal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Intervention Studies , Male , Mass Screening/methods , Middle Aged , Occult Blood , Patient Participation , Retrospective Studies , Sigmoidoscopy , United States/epidemiology , Washington/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42689

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Anxiety, a psychological response to stress, can affect a child undergoing medical procedures, and their family members. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the benefit of detailed systematic information using a set of real photograph-based technical illustrations provided to both parents and patients before performing endoscopy on the level of anxiety. MATERIAL AND METHOD: All children eligible for gastrointestinal endoscopy were consecutively enrolled from December 2003 to May 2004. Before and after providing systematic psychological preparation, the parents and patients older than five years of age were asked to score their anxiety on the procedures using visual analogue scale (VAS). RESULTS: There were fifty-four patients enrolled during the study period Of these, twenty-five children were older than five years of age. The most common indication of gastrointestinal endoscopy was lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and both upper and lower endoscopies were performed in 50%, 37%, and 13% of the cases, respectively. The mean and standard deviation of VAS on anxiety of the parents (n = 54) before and after providing systematic information were 3.89 +/- 3.45 and 1.90 +/- 2.46, respectively (p < 0.001). These values on anxiety of the children older than 5 years of age before and after providing systematic information were 4.38 +/- 3.72 and 3.36 +/- 3.69, respectively (p = 0.143). There was no statistically significant impact of types ofp rocedure, level of education, family s income, age of children, and birth order on the level of anxiety. CONCLUSION: The preparatory intervention using systematic visual illustration of the technical procedures in children undergoing gastrointestinal endoscopy could significantly reduce the parents' anxiety.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anxiety/physiopathology , Child , Child, Preschool , Cohort Studies , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal/methods , Female , Humans , Intervention Studies , Male , Parent-Child Relations , Parents/psychology , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Probability , Risk Assessment , Sensitivity and Specificity , Thailand
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-37857

ABSTRACT

Asking smokers about their smoking status, followed by advice to quit smoking, assessing the intention to quit, assistance with cessation, and arrange of follow-up (5A) is recommended for induction of smoking cessation. To obtain preliminary data on effects of "5A" , we investigated the smoking cessation rate with two modes in the phase I: 1) self-administered questionnaire and 2) doctor's interview at respiratory disease clinics of three general hospitals in Japan, and another mode in phase II: 3) doctor's interview with an additional pamphlet at one of the three hospitals. The interviews for smokers were conducted by doctors in charge of treatment. Subject smoking habits were followed up by postal surveys three months after the enrollment. In phase I, 359 outpatients were recruited and 189 smokers responded, among whom 27 patients (7.5% of 359 outpatients) had quit smoking at the three months after the enrollment. The cessation rate of the self-administered questionnaire group (8.4% of 238 smokers) did not differ significantly from that of doctors' interview group (5.8% of 121 smokers). Age and intention to quit at enrollment were found to be independent predictors of smoking cessation. Patients aged 50 years or older (odds ratio=5.05, 95% confidence interval 1.89-13.54), and participants with an intention to quit (odds ratio=6.78, 95% confidence interval 2.66-17.30) were more likely to be successful in quitting. In phase II, another 212 smokers of one hospital were interviewed by doctors in charge and provided with an additional pamphlet describing how to practice to dislike smoking. No significant difference in the cessation rate was observed between phase I and phase II (5.8% vs. 8.0%). In conclusion, there were no differences among the three modes of "5A", but 7.7% of the 571 outpatients visiting respiratory divisions quit smoking with this simple "5A". The findings may indicate that this simple practice at clinics is useful for smoking cessation strategy, although randomized trials are now required.


Subject(s)
Adult , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Ambulatory Care Facilities , Confidence Intervals , Directive Counseling/methods , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Helping Behavior , Humans , Intervention Studies , Japan , Male , Middle Aged , Odds Ratio , Patient Compliance , Patient Education as Topic/methods , Pilot Projects , Probability , Risk Factors , Sex Factors , Smoking/adverse effects , Smoking Cessation/methods
16.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-115968

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Ultrasonography is an important tool for evaluating the posterior segment in eyes with opaque media. AIM: To study the incidence of posterior segment pathology in eyes with advanced cataract and to see whether certain features could be used as predictors for an abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound. SETTING: Tertiary care hospital in South India. METHODS AND MATERIALS: In this prospective study conducted over a 6-month period, all eyes with dense cataracts precluding visualization of fundus underwent assessment with ultrasound. Presence of certain patient and ocular "risk" factors believed to be associated with a higher incidence of abnormal posterior segment on ultrasound were looked for and the odds ratio (OR) for posterior segment pathology in these eyes was calculated. RESULTS: Of the 418 eyes assessed, 36 eyes (8.6%) had evidence of posterior segment pathology on ultrasound. Retinal detachment (17 eyes; 4.1%) was the most frequent abnormality detected. Among patient features, diabetes mellitus (OR= 4.9, P= 0.003) and age below 50 years (OR= 15.4, P= 0.001) were associated with a high incidence of abnormal ultrasound scans. In ocular features, posterior synechiae (OR= 20.2, P= 0.000), iris coloboma (OR= 34.6, P= 0.000), inaccurate projection of rays (OR= 15.1, P= 0.002), elevated intraocular pressure (OR= 15.1, P= 0.004) and keratic precipitates (OR= 22.4, P= 0.004) were associated with high incidence of posterior segment pathology. Only four eyes (1.5%) without these features had abnormal posterior segment on ultrasonography. CONCLUSIONS: Certain patient and ocular features are indicative of a high risk for posterior segment pathology and such patients should be evaluated by ultrasonography prior to cataract surgery. In the absence of these risk factors, the likelihood of detecting abnormalities on preoperative ultrasonography in eyes with advanced cataracts is miniscule.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Cataract/epidemiology , Cataract Extraction , Female , Humans , Incidence , India/epidemiology , Intervention Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Preoperative Care/methods , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors
17.
Korean Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine ; : 1-14, 2006.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-72704

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to develop a worksite-based, post-examination, health care management system for continuous and systematic management of workers with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and abnormal LFT detected by periodic health examination and to assess the effectiveness such a system as an intervention study. METHODS: Study subjects were selected from workers with hypertension, diabetes mellitus, hyperlipidemia, and abnormal LFT according to the selection criteria. The intervention group, but not the control group, received medical treatment of disease, follow up examination, and health education which consisted of information about the disease and the importance of life-style modification through periodic interview using the resources of occupational health service center in the worksite. To assess the effectiveness of this system, we compared follow up examination data from the intervention group with periodic examination data from the worksite control group. RESULTS: In the intervention group a significant reduction trend was recorded for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, fasting blood sugar, postprandial 2 hour glucose, total cholesterol, triglyceride, LDL-cholesterol, AST, ALT, and gamma-GTP, and a rising trend for HDL-cholesterol. Significant group differences ware recorded for fasting blood sugar, postprandial 2 hour glucose, total cholesterol, AST, and ALT. CONCLUSIONS: The worksite-based, post-examination, health care management system was effective for the continuous and systematic management of workers who had abnormal findings detected by periodic health examination.


Subject(s)
Blood Glucose , Blood Pressure , Cholesterol , Delivery of Health Care , Diabetes Mellitus , Fasting , Follow-Up Studies , Glucose , Health Education , Hyperlipidemias , Hypertension , Intervention Studies , Occupational Health Services , Patient Selection , Triglycerides , Workplace
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-46830

ABSTRACT

In developing countries, inappropriate, inefficient and ineffective use of pharmaceuticals have resulted into the poor health and medical cares for the community people. For improving the situation, various interventions have been tested and proved effective in different settings. In Nepal also, various strategies have been tested and found effective to improve the prescribing and dispensing practices. This paper has examined the process and results of different studies. The educational intervention, the training has not been effective in improving the prescribing practices but has limited effect on dispensing practices in the public sector. However, it becomes effective in improving prescribing practices if combined with a managerial intervention e.g. peer-group discussion. In private sector, training alone is effective in changing the drug recommendation practices of retailers. But none of interventions have been found to be effective in improving dispensing practices. After examining the effectiveness of different interventions, training combined with peer-group discussion is recommended for piloting in all Primary Health Care (PHC) outlets of a district to improve the prescribing practices. For improving the dispensing practices in both public and private sector, additional studies have to be carried out using different strategies.


Subject(s)
Child, Preschool , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Education, Pharmacy , Health Policy , Humans , Intervention Studies , Nepal , Primary Health Care , Private Sector , Public Sector
19.
Indian Pediatr ; 2005 May; 42(5): 425-32
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-9993

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a nutrition education intervention designed to improve infant growth and feeding practices. DESIGN: An intervention study using monthly nutrition education delivered by locally trained counsellors targeted at caregivers of infants aged 5-11 months. Comparison of outcomes for 2 groups--one non-intervention group of infants enrolled in 1997 that did not receive the intervention in the first year of life, and an intervention group of infants enrolled 1998-1999 that received the nutrition education. SETTING: 11 randomly selected and 2 purposively selected villages of south Karnataka. SUBJECTS: 138 Infants (n = 69 intervention) aged 5-11 months. METHODS: Families were administered a monthly questionnaire on feeding and child care behavior, and study infants were weighed at this time, using the SECA solar scales, developed for UNICEF. Logistic regression was used to examine differences between intervention and non-intervention infants in infant feeding behavior outcomes. RESULTS: Statistically significant improvement was found in weight velocity for female infants in the intervention group. These infants were also more likely to exhibit at least four positive feeding behaviors--intervention infants had a higher mean daily feeding frequency (more likely to be fed solids at least four times a day (OR = 4.35, 95% CI = 1.96, 10.00), higher dietary diversity (more likely to receive a more diverse diet OR = 3.23, 95% CI = 1.28, 7.69), and were more likely to be fed foods suggested by the counsellors such as bananas (OR = 10.00, 95% = 2.78, 33.3) compared to non-intervention infants. CONCLUSION: Nutrition education and counselling was significantly associated with increased weight velocity among girls and improved feeding behavior among both boys and girls. These results provide further evidence that community-based nutrition programs that emphasise appropriate feeding and care behavior can be used to prevent and address early childhood malnutrition in poor households.


Subject(s)
Adult , Body Weight , Female , Health Education , Humans , India , Infant , Infant Nutrition Disorders/prevention & control , Infant Nutritional Physiological Phenomena , Intervention Studies , Logistic Models , Male , Mothers , Rural Health Services , Sex Distribution
20.
Southeast Asian J Trop Med Public Health ; 2005 Mar; 36(2): 512-22
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-32778

ABSTRACT

An ergonomics intervention program (EIP) was conducted with male employees working in the pressing and storage sections of a metal autoparts factory in Samut Prakan Province, Thailand. The objectives of this study were to assess the causes of injuries in the pressing and storage sections of that factory, and to improve working conditions by reducing worker injuries from accidents and low back muscular discomfort, using an EIR The study design used a participatory research approach which was quasi-experimental with pretest-posttest evaluations, with a non-equivalent control group. A total of 172 male participants working in Building A were the target group for assessing causes of injury. A retrospective study of official accident information, and questionnaires for general information, health and muscular discomfort, injury frequency rate (IFR), injury severity rate (ISR), medical expenses, and EIP design. Two groups of employees volunteered for the study on muscular back discomfort. The first group of 35 persons volunteered to participate in the EIP (EIP group), and the second 17 persons from Building B did not (non-EIP group). The EIP was composed of 4 major categories: (1) engineering improvement, (2) change in personal protective equipment, (3) environmental improvement, (4) administrative intervention, training, and health education. Low back muscular discomfort was measured through questionnaires on subjective feelings of muscular discomfort, and by surface electromyography (sEMG). Muscle activities were measured by sEMG of the left and right erector spinae and multifidus muscles, and evaluated by multivariate test for dependent samples (paired observation), and multivariate test for two independent samples. After EIP, IFR decreased 65.46%, ISR decreased 41.02%, and medical expenses decreased 42.79%. The low back muscular loads of the EIP group were significantly reduced, with a 95% confidence level (p < 0.05) while those of the non-EIP group were not. Subjective feelings of muscular discomfort, determined by Wilcoxon Signed Ranks test, showed that after applying the EIP to the EIP group, the mean scores for general bodily discomfort and low back muscular discomfort in the EIP group had significantly reduced, while those of the non-EIP group increased, (p < 0.05).


Subject(s)
Accidents, Occupational/prevention & control , Adult , Anthropometry , Automobiles , Back Injuries/physiopathology , Electromyography , Environment Design , Ergonomics/methods , Humans , Intervention Studies , Lifting/adverse effects , Low Back Pain/etiology , Male , Metallurgy , Middle Aged , Posture/physiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Thailand
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