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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928119


Traditional Chinese medicine has unique advantages in the treatment of degenerative bone and joint diseases, and its widely used in clinical practice. In recent years, many scholars have conducted a large number of basic studies on the delay of intervertebral disc degeneration by herbal compound and monomeric components from different perspectives. In order to further elucidate its mechanism of action, this paper summarizes the in vivo and in vitro experimental studies conducted at the level of both herbal compound and single components, respectively, in order to provide references for the basic research on the treatment of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration by Chinese medicine. A summary shows that commonly used herbal compound prescriptions include both classical prescriptions such as Duhuo Jisheng Decoction, as well as clinical experience prescriptions such as Yiqi Huoxue Recipe. Angelicae Sinensis Radix, Chuanxiong Rhizoma, Rehmanniae Radix Praeparata, Achyranthis Bidentatae Radix, and Eucommiae Cortex were used most frequently. Tonic for deficiency and blood stasis activators were used most frequently. The most utilized monomeric components include icariin, ginsenoside Re, salvianolic acid B and aucubin. The main molecular mechanisms by which herbal compound and monomeric components delay of lumbar intervertebral disc degeneration include improving the intervertebral disc microenvironment, promoting the synthesis of aggregated proteoglycans and type Ⅱ collagen in the intervertebral disc, reducing the degradation of the extracellular matrix, and inhibiting apoptosis in the nucleus pulposus cells, etc. The main signaling pathways involved include Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway, MAPK-related signaling pathway, mTOR signaling pathway, Fas/FasL signaling pathway, PI3 K/Akt signaling pathway, NF-κB signaling pathway, JAK/STAT signaling pathway, and hedgehog signaling pathway, etc.

China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/therapeutic use , Hedgehog Proteins/metabolism , Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Wnt Signaling Pathway
Rev Assoc Med Bras (1992) ; 66(7): 986-991, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1136303


SUMMARY OBJECTIVE Nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 (Nrf2)/ antioxidant response element (ARE) is a novel defensive pathway involved in the oxidative and chemical stress of cells. The aim of the study was to explore the role of Nrf2 on the apoptosis of human disc nucleus pulpous cells induced by hydrogen peroxide (H2O2). METHODS The degeneration model of human intervertebral disc nucleus pulpous cells was established. The expression of Nrf2 was interfered with using sulforaphane (SFN); for that end, three groups were established: a blank group (H2O2-/SFN-), control group (H2O2+/SFN-), and an experimental group (H2O2+/SFN+). CCK8, Hoechst 33258 living cell staining was used to detect reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. RESULTS The apoptotic rates of the three groups were [(0.40±0.46)%], [(25.98±11.28)%], and [(3.83±2.06)%, respectively. The difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). The relative content of ROS in the three groups was [(100±7)%], [(1538±91)%], and [(818±63)%]; the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). In Western blotting, Nrf2 content in the experimental group was higher than that in the control group. CONCLUSION Nrf2 exists in the nucleus pulpous cells of human intervertebral discs, which is related to the degeneration of the intervertebral disc. It has negative feedback regulation and can prevent the degeneration of the intervertebral disc by inhibiting the apoptosis of nucleus pulpous cells of human intervertebral discs caused by excessive ROS, which provides a new intervention strategy for the prevention and treatment of the degeneration of intervertebral discs.

RESUMO OBJETIVO O fator 2 relacionado a NF-E2 (Nrf2)/elemento de resposta antioxidante (ARE) é uma nova via defensiva envolvida no estresse oxidativo e químico das células. O objetivo deste estudo foi explorar o papel do Nrf2 na apoptose das células do núcleo pulposo do disco humano induzida pelo peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2). MÉTODOS O modelo de degeneração das células do núcleo pulposo do disco intervertebral humano foi estabelecido. A expressão do Nrf2 foi interferida utilizando-se sulforafano (SFN). Para isso foram estabelecidos três grupos: um grupo vazio (H2O2-/SFN-), um grupo de controle (H2O2+/SFN-), e um grupo experimental (H2O2+/SFN+). Utilizando CCK8 e Hoechst 33258, o conteúdo de espécies reativas de oxigênio (ERO) foi detectado. RESULTADOS As taxas de apoptose dos três grupos foram [(0,40 ± 0,46)%], [(25,98 ± 11,28%)] e [(3,83 ± 2,06)%], respectivamente. A diferença apresentou significância estatística (p < 0,05). O conteúdo relativo de ERO nos três grupos foi [(100±7)%], [(1538±91%)], e [(818±63%); a diferença foi estatisticamente significativa (p < 0,05). O método de Western blotting indicou um maior conteúdo de Nrf2 no grupo experimental do que no grupo de controle. CONCLUSÃO O Nrf2 existe em células do núcleo pulposo do disco intervertebral humano, que estão relacionadas à degeneração do disco intervertebral. Ele apresenta regulação por feedback negativo e pode evitar a degeneração do disco intervertebral inibindo a apoptose de células do núcleo pulposo do disco causada por excesso de ERO. Essa informação proporciona uma nova estratégia de intervenção para a prevenção e o tratamento da degeneração do disco intervertebral.

Humans , Apoptosis , Oxidative Stress , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Hydrogen Peroxide
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 52(9): e8525, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011614


Many compounds of ginsenosides show anti-inflammatory properties. However, their anti-inflammatory effects in intervertebral chondrocytes in the presence of inflammatory factors have never been shown. Increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines are generally associated with the degradation and death of chondrocytes; therefore, finding an effective and nontoxic substance that attenuates the inflammation is worthwhile. In this study, chondrocytes were isolated from the nucleus pulposus tissues, and the cells were treated with ginsenoside compounds and IL-1β, alone and in combination. Cell viability and death rate were assessed by CCK-8 and flow cytometry methods, respectively. PCR, western blot, and immunoprecipitation assays were performed to determine the mRNA and protein expression, and the interactions between proteins, respectively. Monomeric component of ginsenoside Rd had no toxicity at the tested range of concentrations. Furthermore, Rd suppressed the inflammatory response of chondrocytes to interleukin (IL)-1β by suppressing the increase in IL-1β, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-6, COX-2, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression, and retarding IL-1β-induced degradation of chondrocytes by improving cell proliferation characteristics and expression of aggrecan and COL2A1. These protective effects of Rd were associated with ubiquitination of IL-1 receptor accessory protein (IL1RAP), blocking the stimulation of IL-1β to NF-κB. Bioinformatics analysis showed that NEDD4, CBL, CBLB, CBLC, and ITCH most likely target IL1RAP. Rd increased intracellular ITCH level and the amount of ITCH attaching to IL1RAP. Thus, IL1RAP ubiquitination promoted by Rd is likely to occur by up-regulation of ITCH. In summary, Rd inhibited IL-1β-induced inflammation and degradation of intervertebral disc chondrocytes by increasing IL1RAP ubiquitination.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Chondrocytes/drug effects , Ginsenosides/pharmacology , Interleukin-1beta/drug effects , Interleukin-1 Receptor Accessory Protein/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Dinoprostone/metabolism , Cell Survival/drug effects , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Low Back Pain/metabolism , Nitric Oxide Synthase/metabolism , Chondrocytes/cytology , Chondrocytes/metabolism , Ginsenosides/metabolism , Cyclooxygenase 2/metabolism , Aggrecans/metabolism , Interleukin-1beta/metabolism , Ubiquitination , Nucleus Pulposus/cytology , Nucleus Pulposus/drug effects , Nucleus Pulposus/metabolism , Inflammation/metabolism
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 748-753, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-21837


PURPOSE: The pathophysiology of discogenic low back pain is not fully understood. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are associated with primary sensory nerve transmission, and the NaV1.7 channel has emerged as an analgesic target. Previously, we found increased NaV1.7 expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating injured discs. This study aimed to examine the effect of blocking NaV1.7 on sensory nerves after disc injury. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Rat DRG neurons innervating the L5/6 disc were labeled with Fluoro-Gold (FG) neurotracer. Twenty-four rats underwent intervertebral disc puncture (puncture group) and 12 rats underwent sham surgery (non-puncture group). The injury group was divided into a saline infusion group (puncture+saline group) and a NaV1.7 inhibition group, injected with anti-NaV1.7 antibody (puncture+anti-NaV1.7 group); n=12 per group. Seven and 14 days post-surgery, L1 to L6 DRGs were harvested and immunostained for calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) (an inflammatory pain marker), and the proportion of CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) DRG neurons of all FG-positive neurons was evaluated. RESULTS: The ratio of CGRP-IR DRG neurons to total FG-labeled neurons in the puncture+saline group significantly increased at 7 and 14 days, compared with the non-puncture group, respectively (p<0.05). Application of anti-NaV1.7 into the disc significantly decreased the ratio of CGRP-IR DRG neurons to total FG-labeled neurons after disc puncture at 7 and 14 days (40% and 37%, respectively; p<0.05). CONCLUSION: NaV1.7 antibody suppressed CGRP expression in disc DRG neurons. Anti-NaV1.7 antibody is a potential therapeutic target for pain control in patients with lumbar disc degeneration.

Animals , Antibodies , Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Ganglia, Spinal/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc/drug effects , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Low Back Pain/physiopathology , Lumbar Vertebrae/injuries , Male , /metabolism , Neurons/metabolism , Pain/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Stilbamidines
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 807-812, 2013.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-218493


Intervertebral disc (IVD) degeneration is implicated as a major cause of low back pain. The alternated phenotypes, reduced cell survival, decreased metabolic activity, loss of matrix production and dystrophic mineralization of nucleus pulposus (NP) cells may be key contributors to progressive IVD degeneration. IVD is the largest avascular structure in the body, characterized by low oxygen tension in vivo. Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is a master transcription factor that is induced upon hypoxia and directs coordinated cellular responses to hypoxic environments. This review summarizes relevant studies concerning the involvement of HIF in the regulation of biological behaviors of NP cells. We describe current data on the expression of HIF in NP cells and further discuss the various roles that HIF plays in the regulation of the phenotype, survival, metabolism, matrix production and dystrophic mineralization of NP cells. Here, we conclude that HIF may be a promising target for the prevention and treatment of IVD degeneration.

Animals , Basic Helix-Loop-Helix Transcription Factors/genetics , Cell Survival , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Humans , Hypoxia-Inducible Factor 1/genetics , Intervertebral Disc/cytology , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism
Clinics ; 68(2): 225-230, 2013. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-668811


OBJECTIVES: Herniated discs and degenerative disc disease are major health problems worldwide. However, their pathogenesis remains obscure. This study aimed to explore the molecular mechanisms of these ailments and to identify underlying therapeutic targets. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Using the GSE23130 microarray datasets downloaded from the Gene Expression Omnibus database, differentially co-expressed genes and links were identified using the differentially co-expressed gene and link method with a false discovery rate ,0.25 as a significant threshold. Subsequently, the underlying molecular mechanisms of the differential co-expression of these genes were investigated using Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway enrichment analysis. In addition, the transcriptional regulatory relationship was also investigated. RESULTS: Through the analysis of the gene expression profiles of different specimens from patients with these diseases, 539 differentially co-expressed genes were identified for these ailments. The ten most significant signaling pathways involving the differentially co-expressed genes were identified by enrichment analysis. Among these pathways, apoptosis and extracellular matrix-receptor interaction pathways have been reported to be related to these diseases. A total of 62 pairs of regulatory relationships between transcription factors and their target genes were identified as critical for the pathogenesis of these diseases. CONCLUSION: The results of our study will help to identify the mechanisms responsible for herniated discs and degenerative disc disease and provides a theoretical basis for further therapeutic study.

Humans , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/genetics , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/genetics , Gene Expression , Gene Expression Profiling , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/metabolism , Protein Array Analysis , Signal Transduction , Transcription Factors/analysis