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1.
Braz. J. Vet. Res. Anim. Sci. (Online) ; 59: e186005, fev. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1363195

ABSTRACT

Pythiosis is caused by an aquatic fungus-like organism (Pythium insidiosum). It is considered an important public health issue as it can affect both animals and humans. This paper reports a case of gastrointestinal pythiosis in a dog. The patient was hospitalized for four days, during which the animal received supportive and symptomatic treatment. But the applied treatment was unsuccessful and the dog's clinical condition worsened, culminating in death. Complementary imaging tests such as radiography and ultrasonography, as well as hematological tests, were performed during the hospitalization period. The definitive diagnosis was reached in the postmortem as macroscopic and microscopic characteristics suggested the presence of intestinal granuloma and accentuated multifocal suppurative necrotic enteritis. Additionally, the histological evaluation revealed morphological structures compatible with P. insidiosum. Also, the results of nested PCR performed showed partial amplification (105 bp) of the ITS1 region of the ribosomal gene of P. insidiosum.(AU)


A pitiose é causada por um organismo aquático semelhante a um fungo (Pythium insidiosum) e considerada um importante problema de saúde pública, pois pode afetar animais e humanos. Este artigo relata um caso de pitiose gastrointestinal em um cão. O paciente ficou internado por quatro dias, período em que o animal recebeu tratamento de suporte e sintomático. No entanto, o tratamento aplicado não teve sucesso e o quadro clínico do cão piorou, culminando com a morte. Exames de imagem complementares, como radiografia e ultrassonografia, bem como exames hematológicos, foram realizados durante o período de internação. O diagnóstico definitivo foi feito na autópsia, pois as características macroscópicas e microscópicas sugeriam a presença de granuloma intestinal e acentuada enterite necrótica multifocal supurativa. Além disso, a avaliação histológica revelou estruturas morfológicas compatíveis com P. insidiosum. Além disso, a nested PCR foi realizada e mostrou amplificação parcial (105 pb) da região ITS1 do gene ribossomal de P. insidiosum.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Dogs , Pythiosis/diagnosis , Granuloma/diagnosis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Pythium/genetics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Granuloma/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240386, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249253

ABSTRACT

Abstract Helminths are endoparasites that infect a variety of bird species. Endoparasite infections can cause severe diseases, including kill captive avian hosts and represents a problem to maintenance and conservation. The eggs and larval forms of these parasites are usually eliminated in the host feces. The main interest of this study is to report the occurrence of eggs and oocysts in feces from captive wild birds in Goiânia Zoo and free-living birds in its surroundings. The fecal samples were subjected to parasitological examination to identify the presence of helminths and to classify their eggs based on morphological characteristics. Eggs of nematode parasites (Positive/N) were identified as Ascaridia spp. in Brotogeris chiriri (2/2), Dromaius novaehollandiae (1/1) and Rhea americana (2/2); Ascarididae in Pavo cristatus nigripensis (1/1); Capillaria spp. in Ara chloropterus (1/1) and Penelope jacucaca (1/1); Capillaria plagiaticia in Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1/2) and Ara spp. (2/2); Capillaria venusta in Rhamphastus tucanus (1/2); and unidentified nematode eggs from Amazona amazonica (2/2). Eimeria spp. oocyst was founded in feces from A. hyacinthinus (1/2). Considering free-living birds, Diphyllobothrium spp. eggs were founded in Ardea alba (2/2) and Nycticorax nycticorax (2/3). Co-infection of Eustrongylides spp. was founded in A. alba (1/2). This is the first occurrence of: Ascaridia spp. parasitizing B. chiriri; and C. venusta parasitizing R. tucanus. In conclusion, the helminth eggs found in the abovementioned host bird species are consistent with those reported in the literature, and treatment and control protocols were based on their identification.


Resumo Helmintos são endoparasitas que infectam uma variedade de espécies de aves. As infecções por endoparasitas podem causar doenças graves, podendo matar aves em cativeiro e representam um problema de manutenção e conservação. Os ovos e as formas larvais desses parasitas são geralmente eliminados nas fezes do hospedeiro. O principal objetivo deste estudo é relatar a ocorrência de ovos e oocistos em fezes de aves silvestres em cativeiro no Zoológico de Goiânia e em aves de vida livre em seu entorno. As amostras fecais foram submetidas a exame parasitológico para identificação da presença de helmintos e classificação dos ovos com base nas características morfológicas. Ovos de nematóides (Positivo/N) foram identificados como Ascaridia spp. em Brotogeris chiriri (2/2), Dromaius novaehollandiae (1/1) e Rhea americana (2/2); Ascarididae em Pavo cristatus nigripensis (1/1); Capillaria spp. em Ara chloropterus (1/1) e Penelope jacucaca (1/1); Capillaria plagiaticia em Anodorhynchus hyacinthinus (1/2) e Ara spp. (2/2); Capillaria venusta em Rhamphastus tucanus (1/2); e ovos de nematóide não identificado de Amazona amazonica (2/2). Oocistos de Eimeria spp. foram encontrados nas fezes de A. hyacinthinus (1/2). Considerando pássaros de vida livre, ovos de Diphyllobothrium spp. foram encontrados em Ardea alba (2/2) e Nycticorax nycticorax (2/3). Coinfecção de Eustrongylides spp. foi encontradada em A. alba (1/2). Esta é a primeira ocorrência de: Ascaridia spp. parasitando B. chiriri; e C. venusta parasitando R. tucanus. Em conclusão, os ovos de helmintos encontrados nas espécies de aves hospedeiras acima mencionadas são consistentes com os relatados na literatura, e os protocolos de tratamento e controle foram baseados em sua identificação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Bird Diseases , Rheiformes , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Feces , Animals, Wild , Animals, Zoo
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e238891, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249229

ABSTRACT

Abstract Food handlers plays a primary role in the transmission of pathogenically important protozoans and helminth parasites. This study was aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal pathogenic protozoans and helminth parasites among food handlers in and around University of Malakand, Lower Dir, Pakistan. Stool samples were collected from 642 food handlers (all of male) in a cross-sectional study from January to November, 2017. Wet Mount Techniques and concentration methods by using salt and formol-ether solutions. Three hundred and eighty four cases (59.8%) were found infected with one more parasites. Most of the individuals were found infected with helminth (47.6%) as compared to intestinal protozoans (0.93%). Seventy two cases (11.2%) of the cases presented mixed infection with both intestinal protozoan and helminth parasites. The order of prevalence for intestinal helminth was Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40.1%), followed by Taeniasa ginata (n=96, 14.9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8.40%) and Trichuris trichura (n=30, 4.60%). For intestinal protozoa, Entamoeba histolytica/dispar (n = 36, 5.64%) was the only protozoan detected. Mono-parasitism was higher than poly-parasitism. Family size income and education level were the factors significantly (P<0.05) associated in the parasites prevalence. Current research showed that IPIs are primarily the foodborne pathogens still an important public health problem in Pakistan. Effective control programs on parasitic diseases transfer and their associated factors are recommended.


Resumo Os manipuladores de alimentos desempenham um papel fundamental na transmissão de protozoários e helmintos parasitas patogenicamente importantes. Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a prevalência de protozoários patogênicos intestinais e helmintos parasitas entre manipuladores de alimentos na Universidade de Malakand, Lower Dir, Paquistão. Amostras de fezes foram coletadas de 642 manipuladores de alimentos (todos do sexo masculino) em um estudo transversal de janeiro a novembro de 2017. Técnicas de montagem úmida e métodos de concentração usando soluções de sal e formol-éter. Trezentos e oitenta e quatro casos (59,8%) foram encontrados infectados com mais um parasita. A maioria dos indivíduos foi encontrada infectada por helmintos (47,6%) em comparação com protozoários intestinais (0,93%). Setenta e dois casos (11,2%) dos casos apresentavam infecção mista com protozoários intestinais e helmintos parasitas. A ordem de prevalência de helmintos intestinais foi Ancylostoma duodenale (n = 258, 40,1%), seguido por Taeniasa ginata (n = 96, 14,9%) Ascaris lumbricoides (n = 54, 8,40%) e Trichuris trichura (n = 30, 4,60 %). Para protozoários intestinais, Entamoeba histolytica / dispar (n = 36, 5,64%) foi o único protozoário detectado. Monoparasitismo foi maior do que poliparasitismo. A renda familiar e o nível de escolaridade foram os fatores significativamente (P <0,05) associados na prevalência de parasitos. A pesquisa atual mostrou que os IPIs são principalmente os patógenos de origem alimentar, ainda um importante problema de saúde pública no Paquistão. Programas eficazes de controle da transferência de doenças parasitárias e seus fatores associados são recomendados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Male , Parasites , Helminths , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Public Health , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces
4.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375813

ABSTRACT

Background: The intrinsic sensitivity limitations of basic parasitological methods, along with the particular biological characteristics of parasites, make these methods ineffective to differentiate morphologically indistinguishable species. Molecular detection and characterization techniques could be used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this work was to standardize molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, described in the literature, for the detection and molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa and other pathogens in humans. Methods: DNA was extracted from human or animal feces, previously washed or cultured in Boeck Drbohlav's Modified Medium. DNA extraction was performed with Machery-Nagel extraction kits. The standardization of the PCR, nested-PCR or RFLP techniques was carried out according to the literature. For each molecular technique performed, the sensitivity of the test was determined based on the minimun quantity required of DNA (sensitivity A) and the minimum quantity of life forms that the test detected (sensitivity B). Results: Sensitivity A was 10 fg for G. duodenalis, 12.5 pg for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar, 50 fg for Cryptosporidium spp., 225 pg for Cyclospora spp. and 800 fg or 8 fg for Blastocystis spp. after performing a 1780 bp PCR or 310 bp nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity B was 100 cysts for G. duodenalis, 500 cysts for E. histolytica or E. dispar, 1000 oocysts for Cyclospora spp. and 3600 or four vegetatives forms for PCR or nested PCR of Blastocystis spp., respectively. Conclusions: The molecular detection of protozoa and chromist was achieved and the molecular characterization allowed the genotyping of some of the parasites such as Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis spp. This study summarizes the molecular techniques for epidemiological studies in humans and animals, and helps in the investigation of their transmission sources in countries where intestinal parasites are a public health problem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestines/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Epidemiologic Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Cryptosporidium
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e243150, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1339334

ABSTRACT

Abstract Present study was conducted among school children to recognize the prevalence of IPIs in rural communities of district Dir Lower, Pakistan. A sum of 324 samples of stool were collected (210 boys and 114 girls). Used direct smear method and formol ether sedimentation concentration technique for processing the samples. The result shows that 82% (n=266) were found infected comprised 64.8% male and 35.1% females. Children of the age group 10 to 12 years were found extremely infected 94.2% while 4-6 year age group were having minimum ratio of infection 72%. Current study shows mono parasitism in 50.6% of the students while 22.2% were infected with 2 species and 7.40% were infected with three species of parasites. Seven species of intestinal parasites were reported include Ascaris lumbricoid in male (n=122) 58.0% and in female (n=65) 57.0% followed by Hook worm (n=88) 41.9% and (n=44) 38.5%; Tania saginata (n=44) 20.9% and (n=24) 21.0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n=32) 15.2% and (n=16) 14.0%; Trichuris trichura (n=25) 11.9% and (n=22) 19.2%; Hymenolepis nana (n=24) 11.4% and (n=18) 15.7% and Entameoba histolytica (n=16) 7.61% and (n=14) 12.2% in male and females respectively. The study indicates that most occurring intestinal parasite in the current study were Ascaris lumbricoides 58.0% (n=122) followed by hookworms 41.9% (n=88). Male students were more infected than females in the present study.


Resumo O presente estudo foi conduzido entre crianças em idade escolar para reconhecer a prevalência de IPIs em comunidades rurais do distrito de Dir Lower, Paquistão. Foram coletadas 324 amostras de fezes (210 meninos e 114 meninas). Método de esfregaço direto usado e técnica de concentração de sedimentação de formol éter para processar as amostras. O resultado mostra que 82% (n = 266) dos infectados eram 64,8% do sexo masculino e 35,1% do feminino. Crianças da faixa etária de 10 a 12 anos foram encontradas extremamente infectadas 94,2%, enquanto a faixa etária de 4 a 6 anos apresentava proporção mínima de infecção de 72%. O estudo atual mostra monoparasitismo em 50,6% dos alunos, enquanto 22,2% estavam infectados com 2 espécies e 7,40% estavam infectados com três espécies de parasitas. Sete espécies de parasitas intestinais foram relatadas incluindo Ascaris lumbricoid em machos (n = 122) 58,0% e em fêmeas (n = 65) 57,0% seguido por anzol (n = 88) 41,9% e (n = 44) 38,5%; Tania saginata (n = 44) 20,9% e (n = 24) 21,0%; Entrobius vermicularis (n = 32) 15,2% e (n = 16) 14,0%; Trichuris trichura (n = 25) 11,9% e (n = 22) 19,2%; Hymenolepis nana (n = 24) 11,4% e (n = 18) 15,7% e Entameoba histolytica (n = 16) 7,61% e (n = 14) 12,2% em homens e mulheres, respectivamente. O estudo indica que os parasitas intestinais que mais ocorreram no presente estudo foram Ascaris lumbricoides 58,0% (n = 122), seguidos por ancilóstomos 41,9% (n = 88). Estudantes do sexo masculino foram mais infectados do que do sexo feminino no presente estudo.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Child , Parasites , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Pakistan/epidemiology , Schools , Prevalence , Feces
6.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 734-744, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355746

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Intestinal apicomplexa protozoa are a recognized cause of gastroenteritis. They are endemic in Honduras and their epidemiology varies in different population groups. Objective: To identify risk factors for cyclosporiasis, cryptosporidiosis, and cystoisosporiasis. Materials and methods: We conducted a case-control study in a hospital-based population. We performed the diagnosis using the modifed Ziehl-Neelsen staining technique and collected the information from laboratory records and clinical charts. Results: Cyclosporiasis was associated with diarrhea (OR=2.28; 95%CI: 1.10-4.89), weight loss (OR=12.7; 95%CI: 2.49-122.00), watery stools (OR=2.42; 95%CI: 1.26-4.65), and infection with another protozoan (OR=3.13; 95%CI: 1.66-5.95). Cryptosporidiosis was associated with HIV infection (OR=15.43; 95%CI: 3.34-71.22), diarrhea (OR=3.52; 95%CI: 1.40-9.40), lymphopenia (OR=6.16; 95%CI: 1.99-18.98), and green color stools (OR=3.00; 95%CI: 1.23-7.30). Cystoisosporiasis was associated with HIV infection (OR=11.20; 95%CI: 3.53-35.44), diarrhea (OR=7.30; 95%CI: 1.89-28.52), leukopenia (OR=4.28; 95%CI: 1.33-13.75), green color stools (OR=11.59; 95%CI: 1.16-558.60), and Charcot-Leyden crystals (OR=11.59; 95%CI: 1.16-558.60). Conclusions: In this hospital-based population from Honduras, HIV infection was a risk factor for cryptosporidiosis and cystoisosporiasis, but not for cyclosporiasis.


Resumen | Introducción. Los protozoos Apicomplexa intestinales son causa reconocida de gastroenteritis. Estas parasitosis son endémicas en Honduras y su epidemiologia varia según los grupos poblacionales. Objetivo. Identifcar los factores de riesgo para ciclosporiasis, criptosporidiosis y cistoisosporiasis. Materiales y métodos. Se hizo un estudio de casos y controles en población hospitalaria. El diagnóstico se hizo utilizando la coloración modifcada de Ziehl-Neelsen. La información se obtuvo del registro de laboratorio y las historias clínicas. Resultados. La ciclosporiasis se asoció con diarrea (OR=2,28; IC95% 1,10-4.89), pérdida de peso (OR=12,7; IC95% 2,49-122), heces líquidas (OR=2,42; IC95% 1,26-4,65), infección con otros protozoos (OR=3,13; IC95% 1,66-5,95). La criptosporidiosis se asoció con el HIV (OR=15,43; IC95% 3,34-71,22), la diarrea (OR=3,52; IC95% 1,40-9,40), la linfopenia (OR=6,16; IC 95% 1,99-18,98), las heces de color verde (OR=3,00; IC95% 1,23-7,30). La cistoisosporiasis se asoció con el HIV (OR=11,20; IC95% 3,53-35,44), la diarrea (OR=7,30; IC95% 1,89-28,52), la leucopenia (OR=4,28; IC95% 1,33-13,75), las heces de color verde (OR=11,59; IC95% 1,16- 558,60), y los cristales de Charcot-Leyden (OR=11,59; IC95% 1,16-558,60). Conclusiones. En este estudio de base hospitalaria en Honduras, el HIV fue un factor de riesgo para la criptosporidiosis y la cistoisosporiasis, pero no así para la ciclosporiasis.


Subject(s)
Honduras , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Parasitic Diseases , Case-Control Studies , HIV Infections , Cryptosporidiosis , Cyclosporiasis
7.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.2): 153-164, oct. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355767

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: HIV infection is still a public health problem worldwide and co-infections with other infectious agents including intestinal parasites are of particular concern, mainly in developing countries like Colombia. Objective: To conduct a cross-sectional study in patients attending an HIV care program in Antioquia given that there have been few intestinal parasites prevalence studies among the HIV population in the country. Material and methods: We evaluated stool samples from 192 patients by direct wet mount and concentration, modified Ziehl Neelsen staining, and agar plate culture. Univariate and correlation analyses were done to explore the association between socio-demographic and clinical characteristics and parasitological data. Results: The overall prevalence of intestinal parasites in HIV-positive subjects was 29.2% (56/192; 95% CI: 22.8% - 35.6%). Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkosvkii with 13.0% (25/192; 95% CI: 8.2% - 17.8%) and Blastocystis with 12.0% (23/192; 95% CI: 7.4% -16.6%) were the most frequent. Opportunistic parasites like Cryptosporidium spp. and Cystoisospora belli were less prevalent, each one with 0.5% of positive samples (1/192; 95% CI: 0.1% - 1.5%). Commensal protozoa were also detected with a prevalence of 18.8% (36/192; 95% CI: 13.3% - 24.3%). Most of the individuals in the study had a controlled viral load and an LTCD4 count greater than 200 cel/µL. A small percentage (9.3%) had diarrhea. Bivariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression showed that only age and having pets had a significant association with intestinal parasites in this cohort. Conclusions: Our results confirmed that the evaluated population is at high risk of intestinal parasite infection, which highlights the need for routine screening of gastrointestinal parasites to provide prompt treatment and reduce possible complications.


Resumen | Introducción. La infección por HIV y las coinfecciones con otros agentes infecciosos, incluidos los parásitos intestinales, son motivo de especial preocupación en países en desarrollo como Colombia. Objetivo. Hacer un estudio transversal en pacientes que asisten a un programa de atención de HIV en el departamento de Antioquia, dado que los estudios de prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en la población con HIV son escasos en el país. Materiales y métodos. Se evaluaron 192 muestras de materia fecal mediante examen coprológico directo y por concentración, tinción de Ziehl-Neelsen modificada, y aislamiento en agar. Se hicieron análisis univariados y de correlación, para explorar la asociación entre las características sociodemográficas y clínicas, y los datos parasitológicos. Resultados. La prevalencia global de parásitos intestinales en pacientes positivos para VIH fue del 29.2 % (56/192; IC95% 22.8-35.6 %), siendo Entamoeba histolytica/dispar/moshkosvkii, con 13.0 % (25/192; IC95% 8.2-17.8 %), y Blastocystis, con 12.0 % (23/192; IC95% 7.4-16.6 %), los mas frecuentes. Los parásitos oportunistas Cryptosporidium spp. Y Cystoisospora belli fueron menos prevalentes, cada uno con 0.5 % (1/192; IC95% 0.1-1.5 %) de muestras positivas. También, se detectaron protozoos comensales, con una prevalencia del 18,8 % (36/192; IC95% 13,3-24,3 %). La mayoría de los individuos tenía una carga viral controlada y un recuento de linfocitos T CD4 superior a 200 células/μl. Un pequeño porcentaje (9,3 %) presentó diarrea. La edad y el tener mascotas mostraron una asociación significativa con la presencia de parásitos intestinales. Conclusión. Se confirmó que la población evaluada tiene un alto riesgo de infección por parásitos intestinales, lo que resalta la necesidad de un protocolo de diagnóstico para el cribado de dichos agentes, con el fin de brindar un tratamiento rápido y reducir las posibles complicaciones.


Subject(s)
HIV , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Prevalence , AIDS-Related Opportunistic Infections , Colombia , Diarrhea
8.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(2): e612, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1347488

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las geohelmintiasis son las parasitosis intestinales causadas por helmintos que hacen su ciclo de vida en la tierra y representan un problema de salud público a nivel mundial, que afecta en especial aquellos estratos socioeconómicos más bajos. Objetivo: Determinar la prevalencia de geohelmintos en comunidades indígenas del estado Zulia, Venezuela. Métodos: Se analizaron 250 muestras fecales, de individuos de ambos sexos con edades entre 1 a 80 años. Las muestras fueron procesadas con examen directo, concentrado (Ritchie) y recuento de huevos (Kato-Katz). Resultados: El 35,20 por ciento de los individuos presentaron huevos de geohelmintos en sus heces (88 casos). El grupo etario más afectado fue el de escolares (7-12 años: 38,64 por ciento ), seguido de adultos (20 o más años: 26,13 por ciento ). Ascaris lumbricoides con 25,20 por ciento se encontró en primer lugar, seguido de Trichuris trichiura con 14,80 por ciento , y los menos frecuentes Ancilostomideos con 4,40 por ciento . La mayoría de los individuos presentaron infecciones de intensidad leve (A. lumbricoides 74,60 por ciento , T. trichiura 81,08 por ciento y Ancilostomideos 90,91 por ciento ). Conclusiones: Se detecta una moderada prevalencia de geohelmintos, con un mayor porcentaje de las infecciones de intensidad leve. La presencia de los geohelmintos se relaciona con el escaso saneamiento ambiental que poseen estas comunidades indígenas(AU)


Introduction: Geohelminthiases are intestinal parasitic diseases caused by helminths which complete their life cycle in the soil. They are a global public health problem mainly affecting the lowest socioeconomic strata. Objective: Determine the prevalence of geohelminths in native communities from Zulia State, Venezuela. Methods: Analysis was performed of 250 stool samples from individuals of both sexes aged between 1 and 80 years. The samples were processed by direct examination, concentration (Ritchie) and egg count (Kato-Katz). Results: Geohelminth eggs were found in 35.20 percent of the stool samples studied (88 cases). The most affected age group was schoolchildren (7-12 years: 38.64 percent), followed by adults (20 years and over: 26.13 percent). The most common helminth was Ascaris lumbricoides with 25.20 percent, followed by Trichuris trichiura with 14.80 percent. The least common genus was Ancylostoma with 4.40 percent. Infection was mild in most subjects (A. lumbricoides 74.60 percent, T. trichiura 81.08 percent and Ancylostoma 90.91 percent). Conclusions: A moderate prevalence of geohelminth infection was observed, most of which was mild. The presence of geohelminths is related to poor environmental sanitation in these native communities(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adult , Parasitic Diseases , Ascaris lumbricoides , Feces , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Life Cycle Stages , Residence Characteristics , Indigenous Peoples , Age Groups
9.
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(supl.1): 35-46, mayo 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285448

ABSTRACT

Abstract | Introduction: Strongyloides venezuelensis is a nematode whose natural host is rats. It is used as a model for the investigation of human strongyloidiasis caused by S. stercoralis. The latter is a neglected tropical disease in Ecuador where there are no specific plans to mitigate this parasitic illness. Objective: To evaluate the stages of S. venezuelensis in an experimental life cycle using Wistar rats. Materials and methods: Male Wistar rats were used to replicate the natural biological cycle of S. venezuelensis and describe its morphometric characteristics, as well as its parasitic development. Furthermore, the production of eggs per gram of feces was quantified using two diagnostic techniques and assessment of parasite load: Kato-Katz and qPCR. Results: Viable larval stages (Lr L2, L3) could be obtained up to 96 hours through fecal culture. Parthenogenetic females were established in the duodenum on the fifth day postinfection. Fertile eggs were observed in the intestinal tissue and fresh feces where the production peak occurred on the 8th. day post-infection. Unlike Kato-Katz, qPCR detected parasitic DNA on days not typically reported. Conclusions: The larval migration of S. venezuelensis within the murine host in an experimental environment was equivalent to that described in its natural biological cycle. The Kato-Katz quantitative technique showed to be quick and low-cost, but the qPCR had greater diagnostic precision. This experimental life cycle can be used as a tool for the study of strongyloidiasis or other similar nematodiasis.


Resumen | Introducción. Strongyloides venezuelensis es un nematodo cuyo huésped natural son las ratas. Se utiliza como modelo para la investigación de la estrongiloidiasis humana producida por S. stercoralis. Esta última es una enfermedad tropical desatendida que afecta al Ecuador, donde no existen planes específicos para mitigar esta parasitosis. Objetivo. Evaluar experimentalmente los estadios del ciclo de vida de S. venezuelensis utilizando ratas Wistar. Materiales y métodos. Se emplearon ratas Wistar macho para replicar el ciclo biológico natural de S. venezuelensis y describir sus características morfométricas y su desarrollo parasitario. Además, se cuantificó la producción de huevos por gramo de heces mediante dos técnicas de diagnóstico y valoración de carga parasitaria: Kato-Katz y qPCR. Resultados. Se obtuvieron estadios larvarios viables (L1, L2, L3) hasta las 96 horas del cultivo fecal. En el duodeno se establecieron hembras partenogenéticas a partir del quinto día de la infección. Se observaron huevos fértiles en el tejido intestinal inspeccionado y en las heces frescas, en las que el pico de producción ocurrió al octavo día de la infección. A diferencia del método Kato-Katz, la qPCR detectó ADN parasitario en días que usualmente no se reportan. Conclusiones. La migración larvaria de S. venezuelensis dentro del ratón en un ambiente experimental fue equivalente al descrito en un ciclo biológico natural. El método cuantitativo de Kato-Katz dio resultados inmediatos a más bajo costo, pero la qPCR tuvo mayor precisión diagnóstica. Este ciclo de vida experimental puede usarse como una herramienta para el estudio de la estrongiloidiasis u otras nematodiasis similares.


Subject(s)
Strongyloides , Rats, Wistar , Ecuador , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Life Cycle Stages , Nematoda
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3249-3256, mar.-abr. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251942

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El Blastocystis sp. es un parásito frecuente en el humano, identificado por el laboratorio en muestras de heces fecales. Se presentó el caso de un paciente de 5 años atendido en consulta de Gastroenterología en el Hospital Pediátrico Docente Provincial Eliseo Noel Caamaño, de Matanzas, por presentar dolor abdominal, heces pastosas, náuseas y vómitos desde hacía un año. Llevó tratamiento con ranitidina, omeprazol y domperidona, sin mejoría clínica. Se realizó estudio coproparasitológico en muestras de heces fecales seriadas, con la presencia del Blastocystis hominis. Se indicó tratamiento con metronidazol, sin mejoría clínica, y posteriormente se indicó como alternativa la nitazoxanida. Se evaluó a los 15 días, sin sintomatología y con negativización de las heces fecales seriadas. Resulta frecuente el desconocimiento y la poca importancia que los profesionales sanitarios muestran ante esta infestación, aunque cada vez más se confirma la participación del parásito en manifestaciones clínicas (AU).


ABSTRACT Blastocystis sp. is a frequent parasite in humans, identified in the laboratory in samples of fecal feces. The case of a 5-year-old patient is presented; he assisted the consultation of Gastroenterology in the Provincial Teaching Pediatric Hospital Eliseo Noel Caamaño in Matanzas, suffering abdominal pain, mash feces, nauseas and vomits for one year, and was treated with ranitidine, omeprazole and domperidone without clinical improvement. A coproparasitological study was carried out in serial fecal feces samples with the presence of Blastocystis hominis. Treatment with metronidazole was indicated without clinical improvement and them, as an alternative, nitazoxanide was indicated. He was evaluated at 15 days without symptoms and with negative serial fecal feces. The ignorance and the little importance that health professionals show towards this infestation are frequent, although more and more frequently it is confirmed the participation of the parasite in clinical manifestations (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Abdominal Pain/diagnosis , Child , Blastocystis hominis/pathogenicity , Signs and Symptoms , Specimen Handling/methods , Clinical Diagnosis , Feces/parasitology , Gastroenterology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/complications
11.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 73(1): e376, tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1280322

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La fascioliasis es causada por el trematodo Fasciola hepatica que afecta a animales herbívoros, omnívoros y al humano. Los niños de edad escolar son los más afectados y el órgano más dañado es el hígado. Este parásito requiere de reservorio y huésped intermediario para completar su ciclo biológico. Objetivo: Determinar la asociación de la fascioliasis con el estado nutricional y coinfección enteroparasitaria en niños. Métodos: La investigación se realizó entre septiembre de 2016 y abril de 2017 en el distrito de Santa María de Chicmo, región Apurímac. El estudio fue analítico de corte transversal. La población de niños de 6 a 16 años estuvo constituida por 2 172 individuos. El tamaño de muestra fue de 435 niños y se determinó mediante un muestreo simple al azar. Además, para que el muestreo fuera más eficiente se distribuyó el tamaño total de la muestra entre los estratos I.E. Primaria e I.E. Secundaria, para un resultado de 209 y 226 muestras, respectivamente. Sin embargo, se logró tomar 493 muestras coprológicas y serológicas repartidas proporcionalmente entre la totalidad de 23 instituciones educativas. Resultados: La prevalencia de fascioliasis fue de 5,3 por ciento (26/493; IC95 por ciento =3,2-7,4). Las instituciones educativas con mayor prevalencia fueron: Taramba con 17,2 por ciento (5/29; IC95 por ciento = 5,9-35,8), Libertadores de América con 16,1 por ciento (5/31; IC95 por ciento = 5,5-33,7), Mariano Melgar con 15 por ciento (3/20; IC95 por ciento = 3,2-37,9) y Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe con 10,8 por ciento (4/37; IC95 por ciento = 3-25,4). No se encontró asociación de fascioliasis con la valoración nutricional antropométrica ni con la coinfección enteroparasitaria en niños (p˃ 0,05). Conclusiones: La fascioliasis no estaría afectando el estado nutricional de los niños; asimismo, los signos clínicos, atribuidos a fascioliasis, corresponderían también a la alta presentación de parásitos entéricos(AU)


Introduction: Fascioliasis is caused by the trematode Fasciola hepatica and affects herbivorous and omnivorous animals as well as humans. Schoolchildren are the most affected group, and the organ most commonly targeted is the liver. This parasite requires an intermediate reservoir and host to complete its biological cycle. Objective: Determine the association of fascioliasis to nutritional status and enteroparasite coinfection in children. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted from September 2016 to April 2017 in the district of Santa María de Chicmo, Apurímac Region. The child population aged 6-16 years was composed of 2 172 individuals. The sample size was 435 children, and it was determined by simple random sampling. Additionally, in order for the sampling to be more efficient, the total sample size was distributed between the strata Primary E.I. and Secondary E.I., for 209 and 226 samples, respectively. However, 493 coprological and serological samples were proportionally taken from the total 23 educational institutions. Results: Prevalence of fascioliasis was 5.3 percent (26/493; CI95 percent=3.2-7.4). The educational institutions with the highest prevalence were Taramba with 17.2 percent (5/29; CI95 percent= 5.9-35.8), Libertadores de América with 16.1 percent (5/31; CI95 percent= 5.5-33.7), Mariano Melgar with 15 percent (3/20; CI95 percent= 3.2-37.9) and Nuestra Señora de Guadalupe with 10.8 percent (4/37; CI95 percent= 3-25.4). No association was found between fascioliasis and nutritional anthropometric assessment or enteroparasite coinfection in children (p˃ 0.05). Conclusions: Fascioliasis was not found to affect the nutritional status of children. On the other hand, the clinical signs attributed to fascioliasis also correspond to the high presentation of enteric parasites(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fascioliasis/complications , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/etiology , Fascioliasis/diet therapy , Coinfection/prevention & control
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e022320, 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1251365

ABSTRACT

Abstract The objective of the present study was to identify the intestinal parasites with the highest prevalence in anatids that were reared extensively in the city of São Paulo, through coproparasitological examinations. Fecal samples (n=108) were collected at two times, with an interval of two months between them, during the year 2018. The samples were constituted from a pool of feces, and one sample was collected from each enclosure. The samples were identified as belonging to 13 species of anatids (Aix galericulata, Aix sponsa, Anser abyssinia, Chenonetta jubata, Chloephaga melanoptera, Chloephaga picta, Lophodytes cucullatus, Tadorna cana, Tadorna ferrugínea, Tadorna radjah, Tadorna tadorna, Tadorna tadornoide and Tadorna variegata). Samples of birds with or without clinical symptoms of endoparasitosis were then collected. The Coproplus® test was used to make the coproparasitological diagnosis and subsequently the material was examined individually, at Santo Amaro University in São Paulo. It was observed that 48.14% of the enclosures had birds infected by one or more endoparasites. Parasites of the order Coccidia presented the highest prevalence (22.22%), followed by those of the orders Trichuroidea (10.18%) and Ascaridia (4.63%). Moreover, Balantidium sp. was found, the cycle and relevance of these ciliates in birds is uncertain.


Resumo O objetivo do presente estudo foi identificar os parasitos intestinais de maior prevalência em anatídeos provenientes de uma criação extensiva no município de São Paulo, por meio da realização de exame coproparasitológico. Foram coletadas 108 amostras fecais em dois momentos, com intervalo de dois meses entre eles, durante o ano de 2018. As amostras foram constituídas de um pool de fezes, e coletada uma amostra para cada recinto por coleta. Foi realizada a identificação das espécies e estas pertenciam a 13 espécies de anatídeos (Aix galericulata, Aix sponsa, Anser abyssinia, Chenonetta jubata, Chloephaga melanoptera, Chloephaga picta, Lophodytes cucullatus, Tadorna cana, Tadorna ferrugínea, Tadorna radjah, Tadorna tadorna, Tadorna tadornoide e Tadorna variegata). Em seguida foram coletadas as amostras de aves com sintomatologia clínica ou não de endoparasitoses. Para o diagnóstico coproparasitológico e coleta foi utilizado o teste Coproplus® e posteriormente, o material foi examinado individualmente na Universidade Santo Amaro. Observou-se que 48,14% dos recintos possuíam animais infectados por um ou mais endoparasitos. Houve maior prevalência para parasitos da ordem Coccidia (22,22%), seguido pela ordem Trichuroidea (10,18%) e Ascaridia (4,63%) e como achado o Balantidium sp. que possui ciclo e relevância incerta em aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Coccidia , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Birds , Brazil , Feces
13.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 30(1): e016320, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156217

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to identify the intestinal parasites of road-killed wild felines in the North Central and North, Paraná state, southern Brazil. The animals were monitored by sampling previously established transects. The places where the felines were run over were mapped, the animals were identified, and the gastrointestinal tract was evaluated. The feces were submitted to coproparasitological techniques of spontaneous sedimentation, floating in hypersaturated NaCl solution and centrifugal floating in zinc sulfate. All the parasitic structures detected were photomicrographed. In the coproparasitological analyses were identified oocysts of Cystoisospora spp., eggs of Ancylostomatidae, and Capillaria spp.; eggs of Aelurostrongylus spp., Toxocara spp., Physaloptera spp., Taenia spp., and Spirometra spp.; Aelurostrongylus abstrusus larvae; and eggs and adults of Ancylostoma cati and Taenia spp. One of the cats was parasitized by a flea of Ctenocephalides felis felis. Based on these results, the animals analyzed in this study supplied important samples for the evaluation of parasitic diversity of North of Paraná and suggested that this region may have conditions that allow the maintenance of these parasites life cycles in the environment and among wildlife.


Resumo O objetivo deste trabalho foi identificar os parasitas intestinais de felinos silvestres mortos em estradas nas regiões Norte Central e Norte, Paraná, sul do Brasil. Os animais foram monitorados por amostragem de transectos previamente estabelecidos. Os locais de atropelamento foram mapeados, os animais foram identificados e enviados para autópsias, durante as quais amostras de fezes foram coletadas e submetidas a técnicas coproparasitológicas de sedimentação espontânea, flutuação em solução hipersaturada de NaCl e flutuação por centrífugação em sulfato de zinco e fotografadas, quando estruturas parasitárias estavam presentes. Nas análises coproparasitológicas, foram identificados oocistos de Cystoisospora spp., ovos de Ancylostomatidae e Capillaria spp, Aelurostrongylus spp., Toxocara spp., Physaloptera spp., Taenia spp. e Spirometra spp.; larvas de Aelurostrongylus abstrusus; e ovos e adultos de Ancylostoma cati e Taenia spp. Um dos felídeos estava parasitado por Ctenocephalides felis felis. Com base nesses resultados, os animais analisados neste estudo forneceram amostras importantes para a avaliação da diversidade parasitária do Norte do Paraná e sugeriram que esta região pode apresentar condições que possibilitem a manutenção dos ciclos de vida desses parasitas no ambiente e entre a vida silvestre.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Parasites/isolation & purification , Cat Diseases/parasitology , Cat Diseases/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Animals, Wild/parasitology , Parasites/physiology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Biodiversity , Feces/parasitology
14.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 9(1): 1-6, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1352410

ABSTRACT

Objective: We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic in the soil of three beaches of Mosqueiro Island, located in the State of Pará, Brazil, as well as to compare the frequency of helminths and protozoa, pathogenic and non-pathogenic parasites according to the beaches analyzed. Methods: This is a cross-sectional analytical study conducted during August and September 2019, in which 155 soil samples were analyzed by Hoffman's method. Results: The results showed that 16.1% of samples were contaminated from 61.3% of collection points. Murubira beach and Farol beach presented the highest prevalence of parasites, however, there was no significant difference between beaches. Also, it was observed a predominance of protozoa (63%) and non-pathogenic parasites (55.6%) in analyzed samples, but there was no statistically significant difference according to the investigated location. Endolimax nana 25.9% (7/27) and hookworms 18.5% (5/27) were the most detected parasites on the beaches. Conclusion: Thus, this study showed parasitic contamination on the beaches from Mosqueiro Island, which may be associated with a lack of sanitation infrastructure and personal hygiene in these places. Therefore, these results reinforce the need to adopt educational and preventive measures to reduce parasitic agents.


Objetivo: Avaliar a prevalência de parasitos intestinais no solo de três praias da Ilha de Mosqueiro, localizada no estado do Pará, Brasil, além de comparar a frequência de helmintos e protozoários, parasitos patogênicos e não patogênicos de acordo com as praias analisadas. Metdodos: Este é um estudo transversal, analítico, realizado durante agosto e setembro de 2019, no qual 155 amostras do solo foram analisadas pelo método de Hoffman. Resultados: Os resultados revelaram que 16,1% das amostras estavam contaminadas em 61,3% dos pontos de coleta. As praias do Murubira e do Farol apresentaram a maior prevalência de parasitos, porém não houve diferença significativa entre os diferentes locais de coleta. Além disso, foi observada a predominância de protozoários (63%) e parasitas não patogênicos (55.6%) nas amostras analisadas, mas não houve diferença estatística significativa entre os locais investigados. Endolimax nana 25,9% (7/27) e Ancilostomídeos 18,5% (5/27) foram os parasitas mais detectados nas praias. Conclusao: Desse modo, este estudo mostrou contaminação parasitária nas praias da Ilha de Mosqueiro, o que pode estar associada à falta de infraestrutura de saneamento e higiene pessoal nesses locais. Além disso, esses resultados reforçam a necessidade de se adotar medidas educacionais e preventivas para a redução desses agentes parasitários.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Parasites , Soil , Sandy Soils , Environmental Pollution
15.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 54: e00332021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1250834

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Parasitic infections are considered a major public health problem due to their associated morbimortality and negative impact on physical and intellectual development, especially in the at-risk pediatric group. Periodic prophylactic administration of antiparasitic agents against soil-transmitted helminths is recommended by the World Health Organization (WHO) to control parasitic infections and disease burden. We aimed to evaluate the prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections in Brazil. METHODS: We performed a systematic review by searching the literature found in the PubMed, LILACS, and SciELO databases, followed by a meta-analysis of the proportions from studies published in English, Portuguese, and/or Spanish from January 2000 to May 2018. This systematic review was registered in the PROSPERO database (CRD42018096214). RESULTS: The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections (protozoa and/or helminths) in Brazil was 46% (confidence interval: 39-54%), with 99% heterogeneity. Prevalence varied by region: 37%, 51%, 50%, 58%, and 41% in the Southeast, South, Northeast, North, and Central-West regions, respectively. Most studies (32/40) evaluated children (<18 years) and found an average prevalence of 51%. Children also had the highest prevalence in all four regions: Central-West (65%), South (65%), North (58%), Northeast (53%), and Southeast (37%). However, most studies evaluated specific populations, which may have created selection bias. Presumably, this review of intestinal parasitic diseases in Brazil includes the most studies and the largest population ever considered. CONCLUSIONS The prevalence of intestinal parasitic infections is high in Brazil, and anthelmintic drugs should be administered periodically as a prophylactic measure, as recommended by the WHO.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Child , Helminths , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Anthelmintics/therapeutic use , Brazil/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Feces
16.
Acta bioquím. clín. latinoam ; 54(4): 455-460, jul. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1149034

ABSTRACT

Resumen Se evaluaron retrospectivamente los resultados obtenidos de estudios parasitológicos en muestras de heces y escobillados anales remitidos al Laboratorio de Parasitología y Gastroenterología del Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires, Argentina. El objetivo del trabajo fue conocer la prevalencia de los parásitos intestinales observados en las muestras remitidas a este hospital y su distribución en rangos etarios. En el período comprendido entre mayo de 2018 y abril de 2019 se analizó un total de 4713 muestras pertenecientes a 3311 pacientes, que arrojó un resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). De los exámenes coproparasitológicos el 30% fueron positivos (1193/4025) y se hallaron huevos de Enterobius vermicularis en el 26% (178/688) de los escobillados anales. En las muestras seriadas de heces se obtuvo un 37% de positividad mientras que en muestras únicas un 21%. En la totalidad de muestras fecales, los enteroparásitos más prevalentes fueron Blastocystis spp. en un 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) y Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Los resultados demostraron diferencias significativas con mayor prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en pacientes en edad escolar comprendidos entre los 6 y 10 años, en relación a los de edad preescolar. En las muestras fecales analizadas se evidenció un predominio de parasitismo de protozoos sobre helmintos, por lo que se debería considerar reforzar el diagnóstico de laboratorio de esas especies mediante técnicas, como coloraciones, que posibiliten su hallazgo y confirmación.


Abstract The results obtained of the coproparasitological studies and anal swab submitted to the laboratory of the Parasitology Section of the Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" of the Buenos Aires City, Argentina, were retrospectively evaluated The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites found on the submitted samples and to evaluate their frequency according to the age of the patients. Within the period between May 2018 and April 2019, a total of 4713 samples corresponding to 3311 patients were analyzed and intestinal parasites were present in 29% (1371/4713). In 30% of coproparasitological studies parasite estructures were found (1193/4025) and 26% of anal swab samples were positive for the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs (178/688). In serial fecal samples, 37% positive results were obtained, while in single samples, 21%. The most prevalent enteroparasites calculated from the total fecal samples were: Blastocystis spp. with 14% (579/4025), followed by Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) and Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). The incidence of intestinal parasites was higher in the group of patients between 6 and 10 years, and the existence of significant differences between proportions of parasitized patients in preschool and school infants, was observed. In the faecal samples analyzed, a greater prevalence of parasitism caused by protozoa than by helminths was evidenced, for which reason it should be considered, reinforcing the laboratory diagnosis using techniques such as stains that allow its finding and confirmation.


Resumo Os resultados obtidos de estudos parasitológicos em amostras fecais e esfregaços anais enviados ao Laboratório de Parasitologia e Gastroenterologia do Hospital de Pediatría "Prof. Dr. Juan P. Garrahan" da Cidade de Buenos Aires, Argentina, foram avaliados retrospectivamente. O objetivo do estudo foi avaliar a prevalência dos parasitas intestinais observados nas amostras enviadas a este hospital e sua distribuição por faixas etárias. Durante o período compreendido entre maio de 2018 a abril de 2019 foram analisadas 4713 amostras, correspondentes a 3311 pacientes, o que deu um resultado total de 29% de positivos (1371/4713). 30% dos exames coproparasitológicos foram positivos (1193/4025) e foram encontrados ovos de Enterobius vermicularis em 26% (178/688) dos esfregaços anais. Nas amostras seriadas fecais foram obtidos 37% de resultados positivos, enquanto que em amostras únicas, 21%. Os enteroparasitas mais prevalentes na totalidade das amostras fecais foram Blastocystis spp. em 14% (579/4025), Giardia duodenalis 11% (456/4025) e Dientamoeba fragilis 7% (291/4025). Os resultados demonstraram diferenças significativas com maior prevalência de parasitas intestinais em pacientes em idade escolar da faixa etária entre 6 e 10 anos, em relação aos da pré-escola. Nas amostras fecais analisadas, evidenciou-se um predomínio de parasitismo por protozoários por sobre helmintos, pelo qual deve ser considerado o reforço do diagnóstico laboratorial dessas espécies por meio de técnicas, como colorações que permitam a sua localização e confirmação.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Protozoan Infections/parasitology , Feces/parasitology , Helminthiasis/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Argentina/epidemiology , Protozoan Infections/epidemiology , Incidence , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Age Distribution , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
17.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 386-392, Apr.-June 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132367

ABSTRACT

Abstract Since oncologic patients have been considered an important risk group for parasitic infections, it is fundamental to find out what they know about intestinal parasites. This study aimed at evaluating knowledge that the adult oncologic patients undergoing chemotherapy in the main centers of treatment for cancer in the city of Pelotas, Brazil, has about intestinal parasites. A semi-structured questionnaire was used for collecting data from two hundred oncologic patients who were undergoing chemotherapy. Results showed that 69.5% know what intestinal parasites are and cited Ascaris lumbricoides and Taenia sp. as being the most known ones. The statistical comparison between the group that knows intestinal parasites and the one that does not know about them - associated with socioeconomic variables -, showed that factors that significantly influenced their knowledge were their place of residence, schooling and household income (p≤0.05). Only 36% stated that they know when they are infected with parasites and misdescribed some signs and symptoms. Regarding prevention, 52% mentioned that they do not know how to avoid parasitism. The population under study showed that there are some gaps in its knowledge of the theme under investigation. Therefore, it is important to implement socioeducational measures in hospitals and clinics that treat cancer patients.


Resumo Pacientes oncológicos são considerados um importante grupo de risco para infecções parasitárias, logo, é fundamental conhecer o que sabem sobre parasitos intestinais. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar os conhecimentos de indivíduos oncológicos adultos submetidos à quimioterapia nos principais centros de tratamento para o câncer no município de Pelotas, RS, sobre as enteroparasitoses. O instrumento utilizado para coleta dos dados foi um questionário semiestruturado. Foram incluídos nesta pesquisa 200 pacientes oncológicos submetidos à quimioterapia. Destes, 69,5% sabem o que são parasitos intestinais, citando Ascaris lumbricoides e Taenia sp. como os mais conhecidos. Quando realizada a comparação estatística do grupo que conhece parasitos intestinais/vermes com o grupo dos que desconhecem o tema, associadas com variáveis socioeconômicas, foi verificado que a zona em que residiam, a escolaridade e a renda familiar são fatores que influenciam no conhecimento dos indivíduos de forma significativa (p≤0,05). Apenas 36% dos indivíduos afirmaram saber quando estão parasitados, relatando alguns sinais e sintomas equivocadamente. Relacionado à prevenção, 52% mencionaram não saber como evitar o parasitismo. A população estudada possui lacunas no conhecimento sobre o tema abordado e, por isso, é importante a realização de ações socioeducativas junto aos hospitais e clínicas de tratamento dos pacientes com câncer.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Adult , Parasites , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Brazil , Prevalence , Feces
18.
Rev. bras. med. fam. comunidade ; 15(42): 2157, 20200210.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1282619

ABSTRACT

Introdução: As enteroparasitoses são foco de investigações científicas no mundo todo. Urbanorumspp. foi reconhecido como parasita em 1994 no Peru, expandindo-se pela América do Sul. Relatado pela primeira vez no Brasil em 2018, Maranhão. Este relato apresenta o segundo caso no estado do Paraná. Relato de caso: Paciente masculino, 56 anos, 75kg, diabético, habitante de São José dos Pinhais, área urbana. Procura atenção primária por dor ao evacuar, tenesmo e cólica abdominal. Nega diarréia, febre, sangue nas fezes e viagem recente. Exame físico abdominal, hemograma e parcial de urina sem alterações. Parasitológico de fezes: Urbanorum spp. Prescrito Nitazoxanida 500mg 12/12h por 3 dias. Paciente retorna com melhora da sintomatologia e parasitológico de controle negativo. Conclusão: Atualmente a escassez de estudos primários prospectivos dificultam o delineamento clínico-epidemiológico e tratamento da parasitose. A disseminação do parasita entre extremos do país em curto intervalo de tempo, aliada à carência de saneamento básico criam um alerta para seu grande potencial epidêmico. Por isso, as políticas de saúde pública devem priorizar ações informativas e preventivas a fim de evitar surtos e complicações. A atenção primária à saúde é fundamental nesse contexto, justamente pela longitudinalidade e abrangência do cuidado.


Background: Enteroparasitosis are the focus of scientific research worldwide. Urbanorum spp. was recognized as a parasite in Peru in 1994, expanding throughout South America. Reported for the first time in Brazil, state of Maranhão, in 2018. This report presents the second case in the state of Paraná. Case report: Male patient, 56 years old, 75kg, diabetic, inhabitant of São José dos Pinhais, urban area, seeks primary care for pain on bowel movement, tenesmus and abdominal cramps. Denies diarrhea, fever, bloody stools, recent trip. Abdominal examination, blood count and partial urine without changes. Stool parasitology: urbanorum spp. Prescribed Nitazoxanide 500mg 12/12h for 3 days. Patient returns with improvement of symptomatology and parasitological negative control. Conclusion:Currently, the scarcity of prospective studies and meta-analyzes make clinical-epidemiological design and treatment of parasitosis difficult. The spread of the parasite between extremes of the country in a short period of time, coupled with the lack of basic sanitation create a warning for its great epidemic potential. Therefore, public health policies should prioritize informative and preventive actions in order to avoid outbreaks and complications. Primary health care is fundamental in this context, precisely because of the longitudinally and comprehensiveness of care.


Introducción: Las enteroparasitosis el punto de enfoque de investigaciones científicas en todo el mundo. Urbanorum spp fue reconocido cómo parásito en 1994 en el Peru, expandiéndose en América do Sul. Relatado por primera vez en Brasil, Maranhão, 2018. Este informe se encuentra en segundo lugar en el estado de Paraná. Relato del caso: Paciente masculino, 56 años, 75 kg, diabético, habitante de São José dos Pinhais, área urbana. Búsqueda atención primaria por dolor al defecar, tenesmo, y dolor abdominal. Nega diarrea, fiebre, sangre en heces o viaje reciente. Examen físico abdominal, hemograma e tests de orina sin modificaciones. Análisis parasitología: urbanorum spp. Prescripto Nitazoxanide 500mg 12/12h durante 3 días. Paciente volvió con alivio sintomático e materia fecal negativo. Conclusión: En la actualidad la escasez de estudios prospectivos y metanálisis dificultan la delineación clínico-epidemiológica y el tratamiento de la parasitosis. La diseminación del parásito entre los extremos del país en un corto período de tiempo, junto con la falta de saneamiento básico, crea una alerta por su gran potencial epidémico. Por lo tanto, las políticas de salud pública deben priorizar las acciones informativas y preventivas para evitar brotes y complicaciones. La atención primaria de salud es fundamental en este contexto, precisamente por la longitudinalidad y la amplitud de la atención.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Protozoan Infections/diagnosis , Abdominal Pain/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Protozoan Infections/drug therapy , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/drug therapy , Antiprotozoal Agents/therapeutic use
19.
Med. lab ; 24(2): 153-161, 2020.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1097276

ABSTRACT

Se presentan tres casos clínicos de niños atendidos en el Hospital Universitario San José de Popayán en Cauca, Colombia, quienes consultaron por una infección severa causada por Ascaris lumbricoides. La severidad de la infección tuvo como consecuencia en el primer caso una colangitis aguda, en el segundo caso una obstrucción intestinal con peritonitis generalizada, y en el tercer caso una perforación intestinal y choque séptico. El objetivo de mostrar estos casos es dar a conocer estas presentaciones clínicas poco frecuentes en el entorno médico. Además, se resalta la importancia del conocimiento sobre esta especie de parásito, que termina siendo un problema más de salud pública, no solo en nuestro país, sino en gran parte del mundo


We report three clinical cases of children treated at the San José University Hospital in Cauca, Colombia, who consulted with a severe infection caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. The severity of the infection resulted in acute cholangitis in the first case, in intestinal obstruction with generalized peritonitis in the second case, and in intestinal perforation and septic shock in the third case. The objective of this report is to inform the medical community about these unusual clinical presentations. In addition, the importance of this parasite is highlighted as a public health concern, not only in our country but also globally


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ascaris lumbricoides , Ascariasis , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic
20.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(4): e016420, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144225

ABSTRACT

Abstract Parasitological studies of the Franklin's gull, Leucophaeus pipixcan, are scarce, and knowledge about its endoparasites is quite limited. In order to describe its parasitic community, a total of 60 Franklin's gulls were captured in the coastal area in central Chile, using modified Bal-chatri traps. Ectoparasites were collected from all 60 live individuals through inspection of their plumage, while 30 were examined for endoparasites by standard parasitological necropsy. The prevalence of ectoparasites was 78.3%, including the feather mite Zachvatkinia larica (43.3%) and four species of lice: Actornithophilus piceus lari (15.0%), Austromenopon transversum (6.7%), Quadraceps punctatus (10.0%) and Saemundssonia lari (46.7%). Some 25 of 30 (83.3%) of birds necropsied were parasitized with the following helminths: Aporchis sp. (6.7%), Tetrabothrius cylindraceus (56.7%), Cyclophyllidea gen. sp. (3.3%), Profilicollis altmani (56.7%), Eucoleus contortus (10.0%), Cosmocephalus obvelatus (13.3%), Paracuaria adunca (10.0%), Stegophorus sp. (3.3%) and Tetrameres skrjabini (3.3%). To our knowledge, with the exception of P. altmani, these helminths are reported for first time in the Franklin's gull.


Resumo Existem escassos estudos de parasitismo em gaivota-de-Franklin Leucophaeus pipixcan, e o conhecimento sobre seus endoparasitas é ainda mais limitado. Com o objetivo de descrever sua comunidade parasitaria, um total de 60 gaivotas-de-Franklin foram capturadas usando-se armadilhas Bal-chatri numa zona costeira do centro do Chile. A pesquisa de ectoparasitas foi realizada em todos os indivíduos capturados e, para os endoparasitas, foram examinados 30 deles por necropsias. A prevalência de ectoparasitas foi de 78,3%, incluíndo o ácaro de pena Zachvatkinia larica (43,3%) e outras quatro espécies de piolhos, Actornithophilus piceus lari (15,0%), Austromenopon transversum (6,7%), Quadraceps punctatus (10,0%) e Saemundssonia lari (46,7%). Das aves necropsiadas, 83,3% estavam parasitadas por helmintos, sendo registrados Aporchis sp. (6,7%), Tetrabothrius cylindraceus (56,7%), Cyclophyllidea gen. sp. (3,3%), Profilicollis altmani (56,7%), Eucoleus contortus (10,0%), Cosmocephalus obvelatus (13,3%), Paracuaria adunca (10,0%), Stegophorus sp. (3,3%) e Tetrameres skrjabini (3,3%). Com exceção de P. altmani, este é o primeiro relato desses helmintos parasitando gaivotas-de-Franklin.


Subject(s)
Animals , Parasites , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/parasitology , Parasitic Diseases, Animal/epidemiology , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Charadriiformes/parasitology , Chile/epidemiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
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