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1.
Evid. actual. práct. ambul ; 23(1): e002045, 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1103172

ABSTRACT

Una mujer de 36 años, diagnosticada con síndrome de intestino irritable a predominio de diarrea (SII-D) acude a la consulta médica. Ella pregunta si el uso de probióticos sería útil para controlar los episodios de diarrea, ya que los fármacos con los que está siendo tratada no le resultan eficaces. Se realizó una búsqueda bibliográfica con el objetivo de en contrar evidencia en respuesta a su consulta, tras la cual se seleccionaron dos ensayos clínicos y una revisión sistemática. Se evidenciaron diversos resultados en cuanto al uso de probióticos en el SII-D y se discutieron los riesgos y beneficios del tratamiento, así como las implicancias en la vida de la paciente. (AU)


A 36-year-old woman diagnosed with diarrhea predominant irritable bowel syndrome (D-IBS) goes to meet the doctor. She raises whether the use of probiotics would be useful for controlling diarrhea episodes, since the drugs which she is being treated with, are not effective. A bibliographic search was conducted with the objective of finding evidence in response toher query. Two clinical trials and a systematic review were found. Variable results were found regarding the use of probioticsin D-IBS. The risks and benefits of the treatment were discussed, as well as the implications in the patient's lifestyle. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Diarrhea/therapy , Parasympatholytics/therapeutic use , Quality of Life , Review Literature as Topic , Abdominal Pain/therapy , Cholestyramine Resin/therapeutic use , Clinical Trials as Topic , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Probiotics/adverse effects , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/diagnosis , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/etiology , Diarrhea/complications , Duration of Therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Loperamide/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use
2.
Biol. Res ; 52: 9, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011411

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Fava beans (FBs) have long been used as food, and their principal disadvantage is derived from their haemotoxicity. We hypothesized that FB ingestion alters the intestinal gene expression pattern, thereby inducing an immune response. RESULTS: In-depth sequence analysis identified 769 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) associated with the intestine in FB-treated DBA/1 mouse intestines. The identified genes were shown to be associated with biological processes (such as response to stimulus and immune system processes), human disease pathways (such as infectious diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, and immune diseases), and organismal system pathways (such as the digestive system, endocrine system, environmental adaptation, and immune system). Moreover, plasma total immunoglobulin E (IgE), histamine, interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-13 levels were significantly increased when the mice were treated with FBs. CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrated that FBs affect the intestinal immune response and IgE and cytokine secretion in DBA/1 mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Mice , Vicia faba/adverse effects , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Signal Transduction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , Gene Expression Profiling , Vicia faba/immunology , Favism/etiology , Mice, Inbred DBA
3.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 55(2): 133-137, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-950503

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: The competence of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) to adhere to the intestinal epithelium of the host is a key role to the colonization and disease development. The virulence genes are crucial for EAEC pathogenicity during adherence, internalization and persistence in the host. The overwhelming majority of antigen encounters in a host occurs on the intestine surface, which is considered a part of innate mucosal immunity. Intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) can be activated by microorganisms and induce an immune response. OBJECTIVE: The present study investigated the interaction of invasive EAEC strains with T84 intestinal epithelial cell line in respect to bacterial invasiveness, persistence and cytokines production. METHODS: We evaluated intracellular persistence of invasive EAEC strains (H92/3, I49/3 and the prototype 042) and production of cytokines by sandwich ELISA in T84 cells upon 24 hours of infection. RESULTS: The survival rates of the prototype 042 was 0.5x103 CFU/mL while survival of I49/3 and H92/3 reached 3.2x103 CFU/mL and 1.4x103 CFU/mL, respectively. Infection with all EAEC strains tested induced significant amounts of IL-8, IL-6 and TNF-α compared to uninfected T84 cells. CONCLUSION: These data showed that infection by invasive EAEC induce a proinflammatory immune response in intestinal epithelial T84 cells.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: A competência de Escherichia coli enteroagregativa (EAEC) para aderir ao epitélio intestinal do hospedeiro é um papel fundamental para a colonização e o desenvolvimento da doença. Os genes de virulência são cruciais para a patogenicidade de EAEC durante a aderência, a internalização e a persistência no hospedeiro. A grande maioria dos encontros de antígenos em um hospedeiro ocorre na superfície do intestino, que é considerada parte da imunidade inata da mucosa. As células epiteliais intestinais (IECs) podem ser ativadas por micro-organismos e induzir uma resposta imune. OBJETIVO: O presente estudo investigou a interação de cepas invasoras de EAEC com a linhagem celular epitelial intestinal T84 em relação a invasão bacteriana, a persistência e a produção de citocinas. MÉTODOS: Avaliamos a persistência intracelular de cepas invasoras de EAEC (H92/3, I49/3 e o protótipo 042) e a produção de citocinas por ELISA "sanduíche" em células T84 após 24 horas de infecção. RESULTADOS: As taxas de sobrevivência da cepa protótipo 042 foi de 0,5x103 UFC/mL, enquanto a sobrevivência de I49/3 e H92/3 atingiu 3,2x103 UFC/mL e 1,4x103 UFC/mL, respectivamente. A infecção com todas as cepas EAEC testadas induziu quantidades significativas de IL-8, IL-6 e TNF-α em comparação com células T84 não infectadas. CONCLUSÃO: Estes dados mostraram que a infecção por EAEC invasoras induzem uma resposta imune pró-inflamatória em células epiteliais intestinais T84.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Cytokines/biosynthesis , Epithelial Cells/microbiology , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Virulence , Bacterial Adhesion , Cytokines/metabolism , Adhesins, Escherichia coli , Diarrhea, Infantile/microbiology , Epithelial Cells/immunology , Escherichia coli/physiology , Immunity, Innate , Inflammation/microbiology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology
4.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 144(7): 910-916, jul. 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-794005

ABSTRACT

The gastrointestinal tract hosts around 10(14) bacterial microorganisms, in a constantly growing density from the stomach to the distal colon. This microbiota is composed by more than 500 species of bacteria, which are quickly acquired after birth, fairly stable during the host’s life, and essential for human homeostasis. These bacteria have important functions, such as stimulating the immune system, protecting the host from invading bacteria and viruses, and improving digestion, especially of complex carbohydrates. Also, the gut microbiota interacts directly with the immune system. However, the interaction of the intestinal epithelium and its microbiota with the immune system has yet to be fully understood. Secretory immunoglobulin A, produced by the plasma cells in Peyer’s patches and in the lamina propria, maintains non-invasive commensal bacteria and neutralize invasive pathogens. Dendritic cells migrate from the lamina propria of the secondary lymphoid organs to regulate gut immunity. They also have a key role maintaining luminal IgA and inducing the growth of regulatory T cells. Dendritic cells supervise the gut microenvironment too, keeping an immunological equilibrium and tolerance. The importance of the gut microbiota in regulating the immune system lies mostly in the homeostasis-or positive equilibrium. Thus, many diseases are a consequence of poor interactions or a loss of this equilibrium.


Subject(s)
Humans , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Immune Tolerance/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , Probiotics , Homeostasis/immunology
5.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(4): 222-229, 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831581

ABSTRACT

A epidemia da obesidade é considerada um importante problema de saúde pública na sociedade ocidental, pois ela se relaciona a comorbidades como síndrome metabólica, diabetes mellitus e hipertensão. A microbiota intestinal pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da obesidade através do aumento da extração energética dos componentes da dieta, da lipogênese, da permeabilidade intestinal e da endotoxemia, mediada especialmente pelos lipopolissacarídeos. Estudos têm demonstrado diferenças na composição da microbiota intestinal entre indivíduos obesos e magros. Ao que parece, o aumento na proporção de Firmicutes em relação a Bacteroidetes parece estar presente na obesidade, podendo ser alterado à medida que ocorre perda de peso. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi revisar a literatura acerca dos mecanismos que relacionam a microbiota e a barreira intestinal ao desenvolvimento ou agravamento da obesidade (AU)


The epidemic of obesity is considered an important public health problem in the Western society and is related to comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by increasing energy extraction from the dietary components, lipogenesis, intestinal permeability, and endotoxemia, especially mediated by lipopolysaccharides. Studies have demonstrated differences in composition of the intestinal microbiota between obese and lean individuals. Apparently, the increase in the proportion of Firmicutes in relation to Bacteroidetes seems to be present in obesity and can be changed during weight loss. The aim of this study was to review the mechanisms that relate microbiota and intestinal barrier to the development or worsening of obesity (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Energy Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Body Weight , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Endotoxemia , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Obesity/etiology , Permeability , Prebiotics/statistics & numerical data , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Synbiotics/statistics & numerical data
6.
Int. j. morphol ; 33(4): 1502-1509, Dec. 2015. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-772345

ABSTRACT

This study investigated the effects of visfatin on the structure and the immunity levels in the small intestine of LPS-induced rats. Forty Wistar male and female SPF rats were randomly and equally divided into four groups: the saline (control), vistfatin, lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and visfatin+LPS co-stimulated. The functions of visfatin in the intestinal mucosal immunity were investigated by examining the variation of tissue structure, inflammation and immunity-related proteins in the intestine of immunologically stressed rats using HE staining, ELISA, immunohistochemistry and Western Blot. The results showed that, when compared with the control group, the visfatin-treated group showed a decrease in the intestinal villus height and width, and a significant increase in the levels of IL-6 and TNF-ð as well as Immunoglobulin A (IgA) positive cells. Additionally, when compared with the LPS-treated group, the visfatin+LPS co-stimulated group showed a decrease in the villus height and width as well as the levels of IL-6 and TNF-ð, and an increase in IgA levels, implying a shrinking response to LPS injection. All the results suggest that, under normal physiological conditions, visfatin disturbs the body's homeostasis and causes intestinal villus atrophy by increasing IgA expression. While under immune response conditions, LPS acts as an exogenous antigen to promote visfatin against LPS-induced inflammation by decreasing the expression of IgA. Under immune stress conditions, visfatin as an exogenous stimulus promotes the immune response by regulating the protein levels of IL-6, TNF-ð and IgA.


Este estudio investigó los efectos de la visfatina sobre la estructura y los niveles de inmunidad en el intestino delgado de ratas inducidas por lipopolisacáridos (LPS). Cuarenta ratas Wistar se dividieron aleatoriamente e igualmente en cuatro grupos: solución salina (control), vistafin, LPS y visfatina + LPS co-estimuladas. Las funciones de la visfatina en la inmunidad de la mucosa intestinal se investigaron mediante el examen de variación de la estructura del tejido, la inflamación y las proteínas relacionadas con la inmunidad en el intestino de ratas estresadas inmunológicamente; usando tinción HE, ELISA, inmunohistoquímica y Western Blot. Los resultados mostraron que, en comparación con el grupo control, el grupo tratado con visfatina presentó una disminución en la altura y ancho de las vellosidades intestinales, y un aumento significativo en los niveles de IL-6 y TNF-ð, así como inmunoglobulina A (IgA células positivas). Además, al comparar este grupo con el grupo tratado con LPS- el grupo visfatina + LPS co-estimulado mostró una disminución en la altura y ancho de las vellosidades, así como en los niveles de IL-6 y TNF-ð, y un aumento en los niveles de IgA, lo que implica reducción de una respuesta a la inyección LPS. Todos los resultados sugieren que, en condiciones fisiológicas normales, la visfatina perturba la homeostasis del cuerpo y provoca la atrofia de las vellosidades intestinales mediante el aumento de la expresión de IgA. Mientras que bajo condiciones de la respuesta inmune, LPS actúa como un antígeno exógeno para promover visfatina contra la inflamación inducida por LPS por la disminución de la expresión de IgA. En condiciones de estrés inmunológico, la visfatina como estímulo exógeno promueve la respuesta inmune mediante la regulación de los niveles de proteína de IL-6, TNF-ð e IgA.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Rats , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Nicotinamide Phosphoribosyltransferase/administration & dosage , Blotting, Western , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Immunity, Mucosal/drug effects , Immunoglobulin A/analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Rats, Wistar
7.
J. coloproctol. (Rio J., Impr.) ; 35(3): 156-161, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-761638

ABSTRACT

Colorectal cancer is linked to several signaling pathways such as Wnt pathway. Our objective is to detect and verify the integrity of protein members of Wnt signaling pathway in colorectal carcinoma and non-neoplastic colorectal tissue. Sixty-four patients with colorectal carcinoma provided samples of colorectal neoplasia and non-neoplastic tissues, which were prepared in tissue microarray blocks and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis. The primary antibodies used were Wnt-1, Wnt-2, Wnt-5a Frizzled-1, Frizzled-5 and axin. Immunoexpression of Wnt-2 protein was significantly lower in colorectal tumor tissue and axin protein immunoexpression was significantly higher in tumor tissue. There was no significant difference in the expression of Wnt-1, Wnt-5a, Frizzled-1 and Frizzled-5 proteins in both tissues. The higher expression of Wnt-2 protein in non-neoplastic colorectal tis- sue suggests the participation during the hyperproliferative stage of colorectal mucosa. The increased axin protein immunoexpression in colorectal tumor suggests a decrease in the formation of the beta-catenin destructor complex. (AU)


O câncer colorretal está ligado a várias vias de sinalização, como a via Wnt. Nosso objetivo é detectar e verificar a integridade das proteínas da via de sinalização Wnt no carcinoma colorretal e no tecido colorretal não neoplásico. Sessenta e quatro pacientes com carcinoma colorretal forneceram amostras de neoplasia e tecidos não neoplásicos, que foram colocadas em blocos de tissue microarray e submetidas à análise imuno-histoquímica. Os anticorpos primários utilizados foram Wnt-1, Wnt-2, Wnt-5a Frizzled-1, Frizzled-5 e axina. A imunoexpressão da proteína Wnt-2 foi significativamente menor no tecido tumoral e a imunoexpressão da proteína axina foi significativamente superior no tecido do tumor. Não houve diferença significativa na expressão de Wnt-1, Wnt-5a, frizzled-1 e nas proteínas Frizzled 1 e 5 em ambos os tecidos. A maior expressão de Wnt-2 da proteína no tecido colorretal não neoplásico sugere a participação desta proteína durante o estágio de hiperproliferação da mucosa colorretal. O aumento da imunoexpressão da proteína axina no tumor colorretal sugere uma diminuição na formação do complexo de destruição da proteína beta-catenina. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Rectal Neoplasms , Colorectal Neoplasms , Wnt Proteins , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Frizzled Receptors , Axin Protein , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology
8.
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench. 2015; 8 (2): 132-139
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178187

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to study the immunological changes seen in the intestinal epithelium of the celiac patients could also be detected in the peripheral blood lymphocyte populations. Celiac disease [CD] is a small bowel enteropathy caused by permanent wheat gluten intolerance. One of the earliest signs of CD is an increase in the numbers of the intestinal intraepithelial lymphocytes [iIEL]. In this case-control study, totally 13 untreated subjects with acceptable criteria for CD without any complication and 16 healthy subjects without any positive criteria for CD were selected. Peripheral blood T cells were analyzed by two-color flow cytometry in both groups. The mean age of patients was 33.6 +/- 3.4 years and two patients had Marsh IIIB, five patients had Marsh IIIA and six patients had Marsh II histology class. The mean percentages of the gamma delta]TCR[+] T cells in the patients were significantly higher than the controls [p=0.015]. However, the mean percentages of the [alpha beta]TCR[+] T cells were significantly lower in the untreated patients than the controls [p=0.025]. There were no significant difference between the mean percentages of lymphocytes expressing the CD3, CD4 and CD8 molecules in the patients and the controls. The change in the percentages of the peripheral blood T cells expressing the [gamma delta]TCR and [alpha beta]TCR in the celiac patients could be used in conjunction with the other serological markers to identify new CD cases


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , T-Lymphocytes , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Flow Cytometry
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142453

ABSTRACT

Abnormal levels of microRNA (miR)-155, which regulate inflammation and immune responses, have been demonstrated in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), although its role in disease pathophysiology is unknown. We investigated the role of miR-155 in the acquisition and maintenance of an activated phenotype by intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF), a key cell population contributing to mucosal damage in IBD. IMF were isolated from colonic biopsies of healthy controls, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. MiR-155 in IMF was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in basal condition and following exposure to TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TGF-beta1. The effects of miR-155 mimic or inhibitor transfection on cytokine release and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) expression were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot, respectively. Regulation of the target gene SOCS1 expression by miR-155 was assessed using luciferase reporter construct. We found that miR-155 was significantly upregulated in UC as compared with control- and CD-derived IMF. Moreover, TNF-alpha and LPS, but not TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta, significantly increased miR-155 expression in IMF. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in control IMF augmented cytokines release, whereas it downregulated SOCS1 expression. MiR-155 knockdown in UC-IMF reduced cytokine production and enhanced SOCS1 expression. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-155 directly targets SOCS1. Moreover, silencing of SOCS1 in control IMF significantly increased IL-6 and IL-8 release. In all, our data suggest that inflammatory mediators induce miR-155 expression in IMF of patients with UC. By downregulating the expression of SOCS1, miR-155 wires IMF inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Myofibroblasts/immunology , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142452

ABSTRACT

Abnormal levels of microRNA (miR)-155, which regulate inflammation and immune responses, have been demonstrated in the colonic mucosa of patients with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), although its role in disease pathophysiology is unknown. We investigated the role of miR-155 in the acquisition and maintenance of an activated phenotype by intestinal myofibroblasts (IMF), a key cell population contributing to mucosal damage in IBD. IMF were isolated from colonic biopsies of healthy controls, ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD) patients. MiR-155 in IMF was quantified by quantitative reverse transcription-PCR in basal condition and following exposure to TNF-alpha, interleukin (IL)-1beta, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) or TGF-beta1. The effects of miR-155 mimic or inhibitor transfection on cytokine release and suppressor of cytokine signaling 1 (SOCS1) expression were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and western blot, respectively. Regulation of the target gene SOCS1 expression by miR-155 was assessed using luciferase reporter construct. We found that miR-155 was significantly upregulated in UC as compared with control- and CD-derived IMF. Moreover, TNF-alpha and LPS, but not TGF-beta1 and IL-1beta, significantly increased miR-155 expression in IMF. Ectopic expression of miR-155 in control IMF augmented cytokines release, whereas it downregulated SOCS1 expression. MiR-155 knockdown in UC-IMF reduced cytokine production and enhanced SOCS1 expression. Luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-155 directly targets SOCS1. Moreover, silencing of SOCS1 in control IMF significantly increased IL-6 and IL-8 release. In all, our data suggest that inflammatory mediators induce miR-155 expression in IMF of patients with UC. By downregulating the expression of SOCS1, miR-155 wires IMF inflammatory phenotype.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Cells, Cultured , Colitis, Ulcerative/genetics , Cytokines/immunology , Female , Gene Expression Regulation , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Male , MicroRNAs/genetics , Middle Aged , Myofibroblasts/immunology , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling Proteins/genetics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology , Up-Regulation , Young Adult
11.
Gut and Liver ; : 370-380, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-203889

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: This study investigated the expression of T cell immunoglobulin- and mucin-domain-containing molecule 3 (TIM-3), human beta-defensin (HBD)-2, forkhead box protein 3 (FOXP3), and the frequency of CD4+ CD25+ FOXP3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) in children with Crohn's disease (CD) during infliximab therapy. METHODS: We enrolled 20 CD patients who received infliximab treatment for 1 year. Peripheral blood and colonic mucosal specimens were collected from all CD patients and from healthy control individuals. RESULTS: A significant difference in TIM-3 mRNA expression was evident in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and colonic mucosa between CD patients before infliximab therapy and the healthy controls (p<0.001 and p=0.005, respectively). A significant difference in HBD-2 mRNA expression was found in colonic mucosa between CD patients before infliximab therapy and the healthy controls (p=0.013). In the active phase of CD, at baseline, the median percentage of T cells that were CD25+ FOXP3+ was 1.5% (range, 0.32% to 3.49%), which increased after inflixmab treatment for 1 year to 2.2% (range, 0.54% to 5.02%) (p=0.008). CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that both the adaptive and innate immune systems are closely linked to each other in CD pathogenesis. And the results of our study indicate that it could be a useful therapeutic tool, where restoration of TIM-3, HBD-2 and the function of Tregs may repair the dysfunctional immunoregulation in CD.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Case-Control Studies , Colon/immunology , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Female , Forkhead Transcription Factors/metabolism , Gastrointestinal Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Infliximab/therapeutic use , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Leukocytes, Mononuclear/metabolism , Male , Membrane Proteins/metabolism , T-Lymphocytes, Regulatory/immunology , beta-Defensins/metabolism
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 47(9): 727-737, 09/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-719316

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), which includes Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), is a chronic disorder that affects thousands of people around the world. These diseases are characterized by exacerbated uncontrolled intestinal inflammation that leads to poor quality of life in affected patients. Although the exact cause of IBD still remains unknown, compelling evidence suggests that the interplay among immune deregulation, environmental factors, and genetic polymorphisms contributes to the multifactorial nature of the disease. Therefore, in this review we present classical and novel findings regarding IBD etiopathogenesis. Considering the genetic causes of the diseases, alterations in about 100 genes or allelic variants, most of them in components of the immune system, have been related to IBD susceptibility. Dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota also plays a role in the initiation or perpetuation of gut inflammation, which develops under altered or impaired immune responses. In this context, unbalanced innate and especially adaptive immunity has been considered one of the major contributing factors to IBD development, with the involvement of the Th1, Th2, and Th17 effector population in addition to impaired regulatory responses in CD or UC. Finally, an understanding of the interplay among pathogenic triggers of IBD will improve knowledge about the immunological mechanisms of gut inflammation, thus providing novel tools for IBD control.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Genetic Predisposition to Disease/etiology , Host-Pathogen Interactions/immunology , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/etiology , Microbiota/immunology , Gene-Environment Interaction , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Microbiota/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic
13.
Rev. Inst. Med. Trop. Säo Paulo ; 56(2): 105-109, Mar-Apr/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-703744

ABSTRACT

The administration of viable Bifidobacterium animalis was tested to induce resistance against Strongyloides venezuelensis infection in mice. Effects on parasite burden, worm length, egg output, and intestinal mucosal histology were evaluated. The oral administration of B. animalis, strain 04450B, starting 14 days before the inoculation of nematode larvae significantly decreased the worm burden and egg output. In probiotic treated animals, the percent reduction of adult worms in the intestine was of 33% and the reduction of egg production was of 21%, compared with those of the control group. The duodenum villous height and villous/crypt ratio were significantly higher in probiotic-treated mice, indicating that this group could be experiencing less intestinal damage. The present findings revealed that the administration of B. animalis for the amelioration of host response to nematode infections is biologically plausible and could have some potential for impacting public health. Meanwhile, further study is needed to delineate the nature and identity of the factor(s) involved in these beneficial effects.


Os efeitos da administração de Bifidobacterium animalis viáveis sobre a infecção por Strongyloides venezuelensis foram avaliados em camundongos experimentalmente infectados. Os parâmetros analisados incluíram a carga parasitária, o comprimento dos vermes, a quantidade de ovos eliminados e a histologia da mucosa intestinal. A administração oral da cepa 04450B de B. animalis, iniciada 14 dias antes da inoculação de larvas do nematódeo, foi acompanhada de uma redução significativa do número de vermes que se estabeleceu no intestino e do número de ovos eliminados nas fezes. Nos animais tratados com o probiótico, o percentual de redução de vermes adultos no intestino foi de 33% e da produção de ovos foi de 21%, em comparação com os do grupo controle. O comprimento das vilosidades do duodeno e a relação vilus/cripta foram significativamente maiores nos animais tratados, indicando que nestes animais as lesões intestinais foram mais leves. Os resultados do presente trabalho revelaram que a administração de B. animalis com o propósito de modular a resposta do hospedeiro contra infecções por nematódeos é uma possibilidade biologicamente plausível com impacto potencial em saúde pública. No entanto, são ainda necessários mais estudos para esclarecer os mecanismos de ação destes microrganismos e identificar os fatores envolvidos na produção dos efeitos benéficos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Bifidobacterium , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/prevention & control , Probiotics/administration & dosage , Strongyloides/growth & development , Strongyloidiasis/prevention & control , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Parasite Egg Count , Strongyloides/classification
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142100

ABSTRACT

The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer's patches (PPs) contains M cells that are important for reducing mucosal immune responses by transporting antigens into the underlying lymphoid tissue. We generated a monoclonal antibody (C6) that reacted with the FAE of calf ileal PPs, and analyzed the characteristics of C6 using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. FAE of the ileal PP was stained with C6 during both late fetal developmental and postnatal stages. Neither the villous epithelial cell nor intestinal crypt basal cells were stained at any developmental stage. During the prenatal stages, FAE of the jejunal PP was C6-negative. However, a few C6-positive cells were distributed diffusely in some FAE of the jejunal PPs during the postnatal stages. The protein molecular weight of the antigen recognized by C6 was approximately 45 kDa. These data show that C6 is useful for identifying the FAE in ileal PPs and further suggest that differentiation of the FAE in these areas is independent of external antigens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Cattle , Fetus , Hybridomas , Ileum/ultrastructure , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Peyer's Patches/immunology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-142097

ABSTRACT

The follicle-associated epithelium (FAE) of Peyer's patches (PPs) contains M cells that are important for reducing mucosal immune responses by transporting antigens into the underlying lymphoid tissue. We generated a monoclonal antibody (C6) that reacted with the FAE of calf ileal PPs, and analyzed the characteristics of C6 using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. FAE of the ileal PP was stained with C6 during both late fetal developmental and postnatal stages. Neither the villous epithelial cell nor intestinal crypt basal cells were stained at any developmental stage. During the prenatal stages, FAE of the jejunal PP was C6-negative. However, a few C6-positive cells were distributed diffusely in some FAE of the jejunal PPs during the postnatal stages. The protein molecular weight of the antigen recognized by C6 was approximately 45 kDa. These data show that C6 is useful for identifying the FAE in ileal PPs and further suggest that differentiation of the FAE in these areas is independent of external antigens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Cattle , Fetus , Hybridomas , Ileum/ultrastructure , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Peyer's Patches/immunology
16.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 107(1): 138-141, Feb. 2012. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-612818

ABSTRACT

The innate and adaptive immune responses of dendritic cells (DCs) to enteroinvasive Escherichia coli (EIEC) infection were compared with DC responses to Shigella flexneri infection. EIEC triggered DCs to produce interleukin (IL)-10, IL-12 and tumour necrosis factor (TNF)-α, whereas S. flexneri induced only the production of TNF-α. Unlike S. flexneri, EIEC strongly increased the expression of toll like receptor (TLR)-4 and TLR-5 in DCs and diminished the expression of co-stimulatory molecules that may cooperate to inhibit CD4+ T-lymphocyte proliferation. The inflammation elicited by EIEC seems to be related to innate immunity both because of the aforementioned results and because only EIEC were able to stimulate DC transmigration across polarised Caco-2 cell monolayers, a mechanism likely to be associated with the secretion of CC chemokine ligands (CCL)20 and TNF-α. Understanding intestinal DC biology is critical to unravelling the infection strategies of EIEC and may aid in the design of treatments for infectious diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Dendritic Cells/immunology , Escherichia coli/immunology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology , Shigella flexneri/immunology , Cell Proliferation , /biosynthesis , /biosynthesis , Intestinal Mucosa/cytology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Murinae , /immunology , /immunology , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/biosynthesis
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-175413

ABSTRACT

The human intestinal microbiota is a community of 10(13)-10(14) microorganisms that harbor in the intestine and normally participate in a symbiotic relationship with human. Technical and conceptual advances have enabled rapid progress in characterizing the taxonomic composition, metabolic capacity and immunomodulatory activity of the human intestinal microbiota. Their collective genome, defined as microbiome, is estimated to contain > or =150 times as many genes as 2.85 billion base pair human genome. The intestinal microbiota and its microbiome form a diverse and complex ecological community that profoundly impact intestinal homeostasis and disease states. It is becoming increasingly evident that the large and complex bacterial population of the large intestine plays an important role in colorectal carcinogenesis. Numerous studies show that gut immunity and inflammation have impact on the development of colorectal cancer. Additionally, bacteria have been linked to colorectal cancer by the production of toxic and genotoxic bacterial metabolite. In this review, we discuss the multifactorial role of intestinal microbiota in colorectal cancer and role for probiotics in the prevention of colorectal cancer.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bacteroides/metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/immunology , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/metabolism , Humans , Hydrogen Sulfide/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Metagenome , Probiotics , Reactive Oxygen Species/metabolism , Toxins, Biological/metabolism
18.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 44(5): 477-482, May 2011. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-586510

ABSTRACT

Intestinal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in spontaneous bacterial peritonitis. In the present study, changes in the intestinal barrier with regard to levels of secretory immunoglobulin A (SIgA) and its components were studied in fulminant hepatic failure (FHF). Immunohistochemistry and double immunofluorescent staining were used to detect intestinal IgA, the secretory component (SC) and SIgA in patients with FHF (20 patients) and in an animal model with FHF (120 mice). Real-time PCR was used to detect intestinal SC mRNA in the animal model with FHF. Intestinal SIgA, IgA, and SC staining in patients with FHF was significantly weaker than in the normal control group (30 patients). Intestinal IgA and SC staining was significantly weaker in the animal model with FHF than in the control groups (normal saline: 30 mice; lipopolysaccharide: 50 mice; D-galactosamine: 50 mice; FHF: 120 mice). SC mRNA of the animal model with FHF at 2, 6, and 9 h after injection was 0.4 ± 0.02, 0.3 ± 0.01, 0.09 ± 0.01, respectively. SC mRNA of the animal model with FHF was significantly decreased compared to the normal saline group (1.0 ± 0.02) and lipopolysaccharide group (0.89 ± 0.01). The decrease in intestinal SIgA and SC induced failure of the intestinal immunologic barrier and the attenuation of gut immunity in the presence of FHF.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/immunology , Liver Failure, Acute/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Immunohistochemistry , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Liver Failure, Acute/metabolism , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 14(6): 606-612, Nov.-Dec. 2010.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-578437

ABSTRACT

Nitric oxide (NO) is a free radical synthesized from L-arginine by different isoforms NO-synthases. NO possesses multiple and complex biological functions. NO is an important mediator of homeostasis, and changes in its generation or actions can contribute or not to pathological states. The knowledge of effects of NO has been not only important to our understanding of immune response, but also to new tools for research and treatment of various diseases. Knowing the importance of NO as inflammatory mediator in diverse infectious diseases, we decided to develop a revision that shows the participation/effect of this mediator in immune response induced against Giardia spp. Several studies already demonstrated the participation of NO with microbicidal and microbiostatic activity in giardiasis. On the other hand, some works report that Giardia spp. inhibit NO production by consuming the intermediate metabolite arginine. In fact, studies in vitro showed that G. lamblia infection of human intestinal epithelial cells had reduced NO production. This occurs due to limited offer of the crucial substrate arginine (essential aminoacid for NO production), consequently reducing NO production. Therefore, the balance between giardial arginine consumption and epithelial NO production could contribute to the variability of the duration and severity of infections by this ubiquitous parasite.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Giardia lamblia/immunology , Giardiasis/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Giardia lamblia/pathogenicity , Giardiasis/parasitology , Immunity, Mucosal/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology , Nitric Oxide/immunology
20.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 43(4): 393-395, jul.-ago. 2010. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-556003

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a neglected tropical disease with a complex immune response in different organs. This pattern of organ-specific immune response has never been evaluated in the gastrointestinal tract. The aim of this study was to determine the in situ immune response in duodenal biopsies on patients with VL. METHODS: A case-control study was conducted on 13 patients with VL in comparison with nine controls. The immune response was evaluated using immunohistochemistry, for CD4, CD8, CD68, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α and IL-10. Histological findings from the villi, crypts and inflammatory process were analyzed. RESULTS: All the cases of VL presented Leishmania antigens. No antigen was detected in the control group. The villus size was greater in the VL patients (p < 0.05). CD68 (macrophages) and CD4 levels were higher in the VL patients (p < 0.05). No differences in the expression of CD8, TNF-α, IL-10 or IL-4 were demonstrated. The number of cells expressing IFN-γ was lower in the VL patients (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: Low levels of cytokines were found in the gastrointestinal tract of patients with VL. This pattern was not found in other organs affected by the disease. Immunotolerance of this tissue against Leishmania could explain these findings, as occurs with intestinal bacteria.


INTRODUÇÃO: Leishmaniose visceral (LV) é uma doença tropical negligenciada com uma resposta imune complexa em diferentes órgãos. Este padrão de resposta imune órgão-específica nunca foi avaliada no trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a resposta imune in situ em biópsias duodenais de pacientes com LV. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de caso controle com 13 pacientes com LV foi comparado com 9 controles. A resposta imune foi avaliada por imunohistoquímica para CD4, CD8, CD68, IL-4, IFN-γ, TNF-α e IL-10. Achados histológicos nos vilos, criptas e processo inflamatório foram analisados. RESULTADOS: Todos os casos de LV apresentaram antígenos de Leishmania. Nenhum antígeno foi encontrado no grupo controle. O tamanho do vilo foi maior em pacientes com LV (p < 0,05). CD68 (macrófagos) e CD4 estavam aumentados em pacientes com LV (p < 0,05). Nenhuma diferença foi demonstrada na expressão de CD8, TNF-α, IL-10 e IL-4. O número de células expressando IFN-γ foi mais baixo que no grupo controle (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÕES: Baixos níveis de citocinas foram encontrados no trato gastrointestinal de pacientes com LV. Este padrão não foi encontrado em outros órgãos acometidos pela doença. Uma imunotolerância do tecido contra Leishmania poderia explicar estes achados, como ocorre com as bactérias entéricas.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Infant , Cytokines/analysis , Duodenum/immunology , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/immunology , Macrophages/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Cytokines/immunology , Duodenum/parasitology , Immunohistochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology , Leishmaniasis, Visceral/pathology
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