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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878893

ABSTRACT

This study aims to investigate the potential mechanism of curcumin in mediating interleukin-6(IL-6)/signal transducer and activator of transcription 3(STAT3) signaling pathway to repair intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-fluorouracil(5-FU) chemotherapy for colon cancer. SD rats were intraperitoneally injected with 60 mg·kg~(-1)·d~(-1) 5-FU for 4 days to establish a model of intestinal mucosal injury. Then the rats were randomly divided into model group(equal volume of normal saline), curcumin low, medium and high dose groups(50, 100, 200 mg·kg~(-1)), and normal SD rats were used as control group(equal volume of normal saline). Each group received gavage administration for 4 consecutive days, and the changes of body weight and feces were recorded every day. After administration, blood was collected from the heart, and jejunum tissues were collected. The levels of serum interleukin-1β(IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) were detected by ELISA, and at the same time, the concentration of Evans blue(EB) in jejunum was measured. Hematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the pathological state of jejunum, and the length of jejunum villi and the depth of crypt were measured. The positive expression levels of claudin, occludin and ZO-1 were detected by immunohistochemistry. Western blot was used to detect the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, E-cadherin, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues. The results showed that, curcumin significantly increased body weight and fecal weight(P<0.05 or P<0.01), decreased fecal score, EB concentration, IL-1β and TNF-α levels(P<0.05 or P<0.01) in rats. In addition, curcumin maintained the integrity of mucosal surface and villi structure of jejunum to a large extent, and reduced pathological changes in a dose-dependent manner. Meanwhile, curcumin could increase the positive expression of occludin, claudin and ZO-1(P<0.05 or P<0.01), repair intestinal barrier function, downregulate the protein expression of IL-6, p-STAT3, vimentin and N-cadherin in jejunum tissues(P<0.05 or P<0.01), and upregulate the protein expression of E-cadherin(P<0.05). Therefore, curcumin could repair the intestinal mucosal injury induced by 5-FU chemotherapy for colon cancer, and the mechanism may be related to the inhibition of IL-6/STAT3 signal and the inhibition of epithelial-mesenchymal transition(EMT) process.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colonic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Curcumin , Fluorouracil/toxicity , Interleukin-6/genetics , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , STAT3 Transcription Factor/metabolism , Signal Transduction
2.
Biol. Res ; 53: 12, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100918

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Mast cells (MCs) have been found to play a critical role during development of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that characterized by dysregulation of inflammation and impaired intestinal barrier function. However, the function of MCs in IBD remains to be fully elucidated. RESULTS: In our study, we used exosomes isolated from human mast cells-1 (HMCs-1) to culture with NCM460, HT-29 or CaCO2 of intestinal epithelial cells (lECs) to investigate the communication between MCs and lECs. We found that MCs-derived exosomes significantly increased intestinal epithelial permeability and destroyed intestinal barrier function, which is attributed to exosome-mediated functional miRNAs were transferred from HMCs-1 into lECs, leading to inhibit tight junction-related proteins expression, including tight junction proteins 1 (TJP1, ZO-1), Occludin (OCLN), Claudin 8 (CLDN8). Microarray and bioinformatic analysis have further revealed that a panel of miRNAs target different tight junction-related proteins. Interestingly, miR-223 is enriched in mast cell-derived exosome, which inhibit CLDN8 expression in IECs, while treatment with miR-223 inhibitor in HT-29 cells significantly reversed the inhibitory effect of HMCs-1-derived exosomes on CLDN 8 expression. Most importantly, enrichment of MCs accumulation in intestinal mucosa of patients with IBD compared with those healthy control. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicated that enrichment of exosomal miR-223 from HMCs-1 inhibited CLDN8 expression, leading to destroy intestinal barrier function. These finding provided a novel insight of MCs as a new target for therapeutic treatment of IBD.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Cattle , MicroRNAs/metabolism , Epithelial Cells/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Mast Cells/metabolism , Permeability , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/metabolism , Cells, Cultured , Caco-2 Cells/cytology , Computational Biology , Tissue Array Analysis , Exosomes/metabolism , Claudins/metabolism , Occludin/metabolism , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein/metabolism
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900406, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001085

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the inflammatory reaction and measure the content of mucins, in the colonic mucosa without fecal stream submit to intervention with mesalazine. Methods: Twenty-four rats were submitted to a left colostomy and a distal mucous fistula and divided into two groups according to euthanasia to be performed two or four weeks. Each group was divided into two subgroups according daily application of enemas containing saline or mesalazine at 1.0 g/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis and the inflammatory reaction by validated score. Acidic mucins and neutral mucins were determined with the alcian-blue and periodic acid of Schiff techniques, respectively. Sulfomucin and sialomucin were identified by high iron diamine-alcian blue technique. The tissue contents of mucins were quantified by computer-assisted image analysis. Mann-Whitney test was used to analyze the results establishing the level of significance of 5%. Results: Enemas with mesalazine in colonic segments without fecal stream decreased the inflammation score and increased the tissue content of all subtypes of mucins. The increase of tissue content of neutral, acid and sulfomucin was related to the time of intervention. Conclusion: Mesalazine enemas reduce the inflammatory process and preserve the content of mucins in colonic mucosa devoid of fecal stream.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Colon/drug effects , Mesalamine/pharmacology , Enema/methods , Mucins/analysis , Time Factors , Image Processing, Computer-Assisted , Gastrointestinal Transit , Colostomy , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Colitis/pathology , Colitis/prevention & control , Colon/metabolism , Colon/pathology , Oxidative Stress , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Feces , Histocytochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Mucins/drug effects
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(4): e201900407, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001083

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the functional and structural response of tadalafil effects in the intestinal mucosa, using an experimental model of hypoxia and reoxygenation injury in rats. Methods: The animals were divided into 4 groups: CTL, H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td. The newborn rats allocated in groups H/R, H/R+Td and M+Td were submitted twice a day, to a gas chamber with CO2 at 100% for 10 minutes and afterward reoxygenation with O2 at 98% for 10 minutes, in the three first days of life. Tadalafil dose was given to newborn of group H/R+Td and to the pregnant rat of group M+Td. Histological analysis was made with hematoxylin-eosin technique and oxidative stress through nitrite and nitrate levels and lipid peroxidation. Results: The histological analysis showed a reduction of mucosa alterations in the groups that received tadalafil. In the oxidative stress evaluation, occurred an increase of NO levels and less lipidic peroxidation in the ileum segments that received tadalafil. Conclusion: Tadalafil provides tissue protection when administered independently to both, pregnant or newborns.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Female , Pregnancy , Oxygen/metabolism , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Phosphodiesterase 5 Inhibitors/pharmacology , Tadalafil/pharmacology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Hypoxia/metabolism , Time Factors , Lipid Peroxidation , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Nitrates/analysis , Nitrites/analysis
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 95(supl.1): S85-S94, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1002481

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To describe the current indicators of environmental enteric dysfunction and its association with linear growth deficit and the height-for-age anthropometric indicator. Data sources: Narrative review with articles identified in PubMed and Scopus databases using combinations of the following words: environmental, enteric, dysfunction, enteropathy, and growth, as well as the authors' personal records. Data synthesis: In the last 15 years, new non-invasive markers have been investigated to characterize environmental enteric dysfunction; however, the best tests to be used have not yet been identified. There is evidence that, in environmental enteric dysfunction, a systemic inflammatory process may also occur as a consequence of increased intestinal permeability, in addition to intestinal mucosa abnormalities. Bacterial overgrowth in the small intestine and changes in fecal microbiota profile have also been identified. There is evidence indicating that environmental enteric dysfunction can impair not only full growth but also the neuropsychomotor development and response to orally administered vaccines. It is important to emphasize that the environmental enteric dysfunction is not a justification for not carrying out vaccination, which must follow the regular schedule. Another aspect to emphasize is the greater risk for those children who had height impairment in early childhood, possibly associated with environmental enteric dysfunction, to present overweight and obesity in adulthood when exposed to a high calorie diet, which has been called "triple burden." Conclusions: According to the analyzed evidence, the control of environmental enteric dysfunction is very important for the full expression of growth, development, and vaccine response in the pediatric age group.


Resumo Objetivo: Descrever os indicadores atuais da disfunção entérica ambiental e sua relação com déficit de crescimento linear e com o indicador antropométrico estatura-idade. Fontes dos dados: Revisão narrativa com artigos identificados no PubMed e Scopus com o uso de combinações das seguintes palavras: environmental, enteric, dysfunction, enteropathy e growth e dos arquivos pessoais dos autores. Síntese dos dados: Nos últimos 15 anos, vem sendo pesquisados novos marcadores não invasivos para caracterizar disfunção entérica ambiental. No entanto, ainda não foram identificados os melhores testes a serem usados. Existem evidências de que na disfunção entérica ambiental, além das anormalidades da mucosa intestinal, pode ocorrer também processo inflamatório sistêmico em consequência da maior permeabilidade intestinal. Sobrecrescimento bacteriano no intestino delgado e mudança no perfil da microbiota fecal também estão sendo identificados. Evidências indicam que a disfunção entérica ambiental pode comprometer não somente o pleno crescimento como também comprometer o desenvolvimento neuropsicomotor e a resposta de vacinas administradas por via oral. É importante destacar que a disfunção entérica ambiental não é justificativa para não fazer a vacinação, que deve seguir o calendário normal. Um outro aspecto a ser ressaltado é o risco maior dessas crianças que tiveram comprometimento da estatura na infância precoce, possivelmente associado à disfunção entérica ambiental, apresentarem na idade adulta excesso de peso e obesidade quando expostas a uma dieta rica em calorias, o que tem sido chamado "triple burden". Conclusões: De acordo com as evidências analisadas, o controle da disfunção entérica ambiental é muito importante para plena expressão do crescimento, desenvolvimento e resposta vacinal na faixa etária pediátrica.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Malnutrition/physiopathology , Growth Disorders/physiopathology , Intestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Biomarkers , Feces/chemistry , Growth Disorders/etiology , Intestinal Diseases/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(6): e201900610, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1019268

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To identify whether the colon mucosa is affected by ten days of gastric restriction in an animal model. Methods An experimental model of gastric restriction was devised using rats. The animals were submitted to surgical gastrostomy, and a cylindrical loofah was inserted into the stomach. We studied 30 adult male Wistar rats divided into three groups: the stomach restriction group (R10); the sham group (S10), which underwent the same procedure except for the loofah insertion; and the control group (C10). The expression of neutral and acid mucins was evaluated using histochemical techniques. Goblet cells and protein content were compared between groups using generalized estimation equations (GEEs). Bonferroni's multiple comparison was applied to identify differences between the groups. All tests considered a 5% significance level. Results There was an increased expression of neutral mucins, acid mucins and goblet cells in the R10 group. Collagen was also enhanced in the R10 group. Conclusion The colon mucosa is affected by ten days of gastric restriction in an animal model, increasing neutral mucins, acid mucins and collagen content with trophic maintenance.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Food Deprivation , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Mucins/metabolism , Time Factors , Gastrostomy , Rats, Wistar , Colon , Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 136(6): 543-550, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-991686

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Increased angiogenetic activity in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been shown in previous studies. The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of serum vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and endostatin levels with clinical features and mucosal expression in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional analytical study conducted in a tertiary-level public hospital. METHODS: Serum VEGF and endostatin levels were determined in 82 individuals: 39 with UC, 28 with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and 15 healthy controls (HCs), using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). VEGF and endostatin expressions were studied using immunohistochemistry (IHC). RESULTS: Mean serum VEGF and endostatin levels were significantly higher in patients with UC than in patients with IBS and in HCs (511.9 ± 377.5 pg/ml, 305.0 ± 121.42 pg/ml and 36.1 ± 40.6 pg/ml; P = 0.001 for VEGF; and 155.50 ± 59.8 ng/ml, 116.9 ± 23.8 ng/ml and 102.2 ± 22.4 ng/ml; P < 0.001 for endostatin, respectively). There was a positive correlation between serum VEGF and endostatin levels (r = 0.422; P < 0.01). Mean H-scores for VEGF expression were higher in the active UC group than in the inactive UC and IBS groups, in the stroma, endothelium and epithelium. Mean H-scores for endostatin expression were higher in the active UC group than in the inactive UC and IBS groups, in the stroma and endothelium. There was no endostatin expression in the epithelium. CONCLUSION: Increased endostatin appears to be a defensive reaction to increased VEGF in patients with UC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Colitis, Ulcerative/blood , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/blood , Endostatins/blood , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Colitis, Ulcerative/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Irritable Bowel Syndrome/pathology , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors/blood , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology
8.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(6): 609-615, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-976017

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To study fructose malabsorption in children and adolescents with abdominal pain associated with functional gastrointestinal disorders. As an additional objective, the association between intestinal fructose malabsorption and food intake, including the estimated fructose consumption, weight, height, and lactulose fermentability were also studied. Methods: The study included 31 patients with abdominal pain (11 with functional dyspepsia, 10 with irritable bowel syndrome, and 10 with functional abdominal pain). The hydrogen breath test was used to investigate fructose malabsorption and lactulose fermentation in the intestinal lumen. Food consumption was assessed by food registry. Weight and height were measured. Results: Fructose malabsorption was characterized in 21 (67.7%) patients (nine with irritable bowel syndrome, seven with functional abdominal pain, and five with functional dyspepsia). Intolerance after fructose administration was observed in six (28.6%) of the 21 patients with fructose malabsorption. Fructose malabsorption was associated with higher (p < 0.05) hydrogen production after lactulose ingestion, higher (p < 0.05) energy and carbohydrate consumption, and higher (p < 0.05) body mass index z-score value for age. Median estimates of daily fructose intake by patients with and without fructose malabsorption were, respectively, 16.1 and 10.5 g/day (p = 0.087). Conclusion: Fructose malabsorption is associated with increased lactulose fermentability in the intestinal lumen. Body mass index was higher in patients with fructose malabsorption.


Resumo Objetivo: Pesquisar a má absorção de frutose em crianças e adolescentes com dor abdominal associada com distúrbios funcionais gastrintestinais. Como objetivo adicional, estudou-se a relação entre a má absorção intestinal de frutose e a ingestão alimentar, inclusive a estimativa de consumo de frutose, o peso e a estatura dos pacientes e a capacidade de fermentação de lactulose. Métodos: Foram incluídos 31 pacientes com dor abdominal (11 com dispepsia funcional, 10 com síndrome do intestino irritável e 10 com dor abdominal funcional). O teste de hidrogênio no ar expirado foi usado para pesquisar a má absorção de frutose e a fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O consumo alimentar foi avaliado por registro alimentar. Foram mensurados também o peso e a estatura dos pacientes. Resultados: Má absorção de frutose foi caracterizada em 21 (67,7%) pacientes (nove com síndrome do intestino irritável, sete com dor abdominal funcional e cinco com dispepsia funcional). Intolerância após administração de frutose foi observada em seis (28,6%) dos 21 pacientes com má absorção de frutose. Má absorção de frutose associou-se com maior produção de hidrogênio após ingestão de lactulose (p < 0,05), maior consumo de energia e carboidratos (p < 0,05) e maior valor de escore z de IMC para a idade (p < 0,05). As medianas da estimativa de ingestão diária de frutose pelos pacientes com e sem má absorção de frutose foram, respectivamente, 16,1 e 10,5 g/dia (p = 0,087). Conclusão: Má absorção de frutose associa-se com maior capacidade de fermentação de lactulose na luz intestinal. O índice de massa corporal foi maior nos pacientes com má absorção de frutose.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Abdominal Pain/metabolism , Fermentation/physiology , Fructose/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Lactulose/metabolism , Malabsorption Syndromes/metabolism , Reference Values , Time Factors , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Breath Tests , Fructose Intolerance/metabolism , Abdominal Pain/physiopathology , Statistics, Nonparametric , Eating/physiology , Hydrogen/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/physiopathology , Malabsorption Syndromes/physiopathology
9.
J. health med. sci. (Print) ; 4(1): 17-21, Ene.-Mar. 2018.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1151482

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de esta revisión fue exponer el conocimiento actual sobre la relación existente entre dietas altas en grasa (DAG), alteraciones morfológicas de la mucosa intestinal, efectos inflamatorios y cáncer intestinal. Las DAG inicialmente producen aumento de la microbiota patógena, lo que reduce la cantidad y calidad de la secreción de los exocrinocitos caliciformes, disminuyendo la efectividad de la barrera intestinal. Las bacterias y sus lipopolisacaridos (LPS) promueven la secreción de citoquinas proinflamatorias activando vías de inflamación, que a su vez afectan la integridad de las uniones intercelulares alterando la barrera intestinal. Lo anterior, permite que los LPS ingresen a la lámina propia y circulación sanguínea produciendo inflamación local y sistémica. Así mismo, las DAG generan efectos nocivos en la morfología y función de la mucosa gastrointestinal lo que podría favorecer el desarrollo de cáncer. Lo anterior, podría deberse a que el consumo de DAG es capaz de aumentar la proliferación de células de la mucosa y el número y proliferación de células madres tumorales en el intestino.


The aim of this review was to present current knowledge about the relationship between high fat diets (HFD), morphological alterations of intestinal mucosa, inflammatory effects and intestinal cancer. The HFD initially produces an increase in the pathogenic microbiota, which reduces quantity and quality of secretion of goblet cells, decreasing the effectiveness of intestinal barrier. Bacteria and their lipopolysaccharides (LPS) stimulate the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines by activating inflammation pathways, which in turn affect the integrity of intercellular junctions by changing intestinal barrier. The above allows the LPS enter to lamina propria and blood circulation producing local and systemic inflammation. Likewise, HFD generate deleterious effects on morphology and function of gastrointestinal mucosa, which could favor the development of cancer. This could be due to the fact that consumption of HFD is capable of increasing proliferation of mucosal cells and number and proliferation of tumor stem cells in the intestine.


Subject(s)
Humans , Dietary Fats/adverse effects , Diet, High-Fat/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Inflammation/etiology , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Bile Acids and Salts/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Tight Junctions/drug effects , Gastrointestinal Tract/microbiology , Inflammation/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/microbiology
10.
Int. j. morphol ; 35(3): 877-882, Sept. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-893067

ABSTRACT

Reducing nitrogen nutrients concentration in dairy food is economic for pig industry. Here, we used finishing pig as model to investigate the effect on colon mucosal barrier and nutrients absorption after reducing crude protein (CP) in dietary from 16 % to 13 %. The results showed that crypt depth, cells, claudin-1 and E-cadherin expression level will not be changed, which implied the integrity of colon mucosal structure. Furthermore, the expressions of ASCT1, EAAT3 and SGLT1 in colon were also maintained at normal levels in 13 % CP dietary. Interestingly, the CAT1 and GLUT2 expression were increased significantly after reducing CP level to 13 %, which might be attributed to the compensatory nutrients absorption. This study implied that 13 % CP was sufficient to maintain normal colon structure and will not change intestinal morphology, which provided a basis for an ideal economic protein feed formula.


La reducción de concentración de nitrógeno en los alimentos lácteos es económicamente favorable para la industria porcina. En este trabajo se utilizó el cerdo de acabado como modelo para investigar el efecto sobre la barrera de la mucosa del colon y la absorción de nutrientes después de reducir la proteína bruta (CP) en la dieta del 16 % al 13 %. Los resultados mostraron que la profundidad de la cripta, las células globulares, el nivel de expresión de Claudin-1 y E-cadherina no cambiaron, lo que implicaría la integridad de la estructura de la mucosa del colon. Además, las expresiones de ASCT1, EAAT3 y SGLT1 en el colon también se mantuvieron en niveles normales en el 13 % de la dieta de CP. Sin embargo, la expresión de CAT1 y GLUT2 incrementó significativamente después de reducir el nivel de CP a 13 %, lo que podría atribuirse a la absorción de nutrientes compensatorios. Este estudio indicó que el CP del 13 % era suficiente para mantener la estructura normal del colon y no cambiaría la morfología intestinal, lo que proporcionó una base para una fórmula económica ideal para la alimentación con proteínas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Colon/metabolism , Diet, Protein-Restricted , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Swine , Intestinal Absorption
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(2): 185-204, Apr.-June 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899279

ABSTRACT

Abstract Ornithodoros mimon is an argasid tick that parasitizes bats, birds and opossums and is also harmful to humans. Knowledge of the transcripts present in the tick gut helps in understanding the role of vital molecules in the digestion process and parasite-host relationship, while also providing information about the evolution of arthropod hematophagy. Thus, the present study aimed to know and ascertain the main molecules expressed in the gut of argasid after their blood meal, through analysis on the gut transcriptome of engorged females of O. mimon using 454-based RNA sequencing. The gut transcriptome analysis reveals several transcripts associated with hemoglobin digestion, such as serine, cysteine, aspartic proteases and metalloenzymes. The phylogenetic analysis on the peptidases confirmed that most of them are clustered with other tick genes. We recorded the presence a cathepsin O peptidase-coding transcript in ticks. The topology of the phylogenetic inferences, based on transcripts of inferred families of homologues, was similar to that of previous reports based on mitochondrial genome and nuclear rRNA sequences. We deposited 2,213 sequence of O. mimon to the public databases. Our findings may help towards better understanding of important argasid metabolic processes, such as digestion, nutrition and immunity.


Resumo Ornithodoros mimon é um carrapato argasídeo parasita de morcegos, aves e marsupiais, além de ser bastante agressivo aos humanos. O conhecimento dos transcritos presentes no intestino dos carrapatos auxilia no entendimento do papel de moléculas vitais no processo de digestão e na relação parasito-hospedeiro, além de fornecer também informações sobre a evolução dos artrópodes hematófagos. Desta maneira, o presente estudo teve como objetivo conhecer e identificar as principais moléculas expressas no intestino de uma espécie de carrapato argasídeo após o repasto sanguíneo, através de uma análise transcritômica descritiva do intestino de fêmeas ingurgitadas de O. mimon, utilizando um sequenciamento de RNA de nova geração da plataforma 454. Além de inferir a relação filogenética de carrapatos através de um conjunto de dados transcritômicos. O transcriptoma do intestino revelou diversos transcritos associados com a digestão da hemoglobina, como proteinases das classes serino, cisteína, aspártica e metalo. Registramos a presença de um transcrito de uma cisteína peptidase do tipo catepsina O em carrapatos. A inferência filogenética baseada em conjunto de dados transcritos homólogos tem uma resolução topológica similar a de outros conjuntos de dados moleculares. Foram depositados no banco de dados gênico público 2213 transcritos de O. mimon. Os achados obtidos no presente estudo podem contribuir para compreensão dos importantes processos, como digestão, nutrição e imunidade dos carrapatos da família Argasidae, além de fornecer informações sobre a filogenia da ordem Ixodida.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Protozoan Proteins/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling/veterinary , Ornithodoros/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Phylogeny , Protozoan Proteins/genetics , Gene Expression Profiling/methods , Ornithodoros/classification
12.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(7): e5601, 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-839320

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the effects of heme oxygenase-1 recombinant Lactococcus lactis (LL-HO-1) on the intestinal barrier of rats with hemorrhagic shock. One hundred Sprague-Dawley male rats (280–320 g) were randomly divided into healthy control group (N group) and hemorrhagic shock group (H group). Each group was subdivided into HO1t, HO2t, HO3t, PBS and LL groups in which rats were intragastrically injected with LL-HO-1 once, twice and three times, PBS and L. lactis (LL), respectively. The mortality, intestinal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, intestinal contents of TNF-α, IL-10 and HO-1, and intestinal Chiu's score were determined. Results showed that in N group, the HO-1 content increased after LL-HO-1 treatment, and significant difference was observed in HO1t group and HO2t group (P<0.05). In H groups, MPO activity and Chiu's score decreased, but IL-10 content increased in LL-HO-1-treated groups when compared with PBS and LL groups (P<0.05). When compared with N group, the MPO activity reduced dramatically in LL-HO-1-treated groups. Thus, in healthy rats (N group), intragastrical LL-HO-1 treatment may increase the intestinal HO-1 expression, but has no influence on the intestinal barrier. In hemorrhagic shock rats, LL-HO-1 may significantly protect the intestinal barrier, and repeating the intragastrical LL-HO-1 treatments twice has the most obvious protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Heme Oxygenase-1/therapeutic use , Lactococcus lactis , Shock, Hemorrhagic/prevention & control , Disease Models, Animal , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(10): 715-719, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-764394

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the deposition of collagen in the colon wall of patients with sigmoid diverticulitis.METHODS: Samples of sigmoid tissue from 15 patients (disease group), seven men and eight women aged 37-77 years who underwent surgery for the treatment of diverticulitis, were selected. For the control group, specimens from five patients, three men and two women aged 19-58 years undergoing emergency surgery for sigmoid trauma were selected. These subjects had no associated diseases. The histological study of the surgical specimens was performed by staining with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius and using a histochemical method for collagen quantification.RESULTS: Collagen deposition in the colon wall in terms of area (F), glandular epithelium (E) and total area was significantly higher in the disease group compared to control (p=0.003, p=0.026 and p=0.010, respectively). The collagen volume fraction (F fraction) and muscle tissue (M fraction) were also significantly higher compared to control (p=0.044 and p=0.026, respectively). The muscle (M area) and volume fraction of glandular epithelium (E fraction) did not differ significantly between the two groups, (p=0.074 and p=1.000, respectively).CONCLUSION: In this study, collagen deposition in the colon wall of the patients operated for sigmoid diverticulitis was higher compared to patients without the disease.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Collagen/metabolism , Colon, Sigmoid/metabolism , Colon, Sigmoid/surgery , Diverticulitis, Colonic/surgery , Sigmoid Diseases/surgery , Collagen/analysis , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Muscle, Smooth/metabolism , Reference Values , Statistics, Nonparametric
14.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-74607

ABSTRACT

Hemangioma of the esophagus is a rare form of benign esophageal tumor. It usually presents as a single lesion located in the lower third of the esophagus and is mostly asymptomatic. However, it may occasionally cause hematemesis and/or obstruction. Surgical resection is the conventional treatment modality for managing esophageal hemangioma, but less invasive approaches such as endoscopic therapy are recently becoming more widely employed. Herein, we report a case of a 54-year-old man who presented with an esophageal hemangioma that was successfully treated by endoscopic mucosal resection without any complications.


Subject(s)
Platelet Endothelial Cell Adhesion Molecule-1/metabolism , Esophageal Diseases/diagnosis , Esophagoscopy , Esophagus/diagnostic imaging , Hemangioma/diagnosis , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
15.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-62585

ABSTRACT

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic progressive idiopathic inflammatory disorder that involves the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus. Over the past decades, many therapeutic strategies have been developed to manage IBD, but therapeutic strategies based only on relief of clinical symptoms have not changed the natural history of this disease entity. This underlines the importance of understanding the natural history of IBD itself. When we look at the natural history of Crohn's disease (CD), it first begins with inflammation of the intestinal mucosa and this inflammatory reaction proceeds to stenosing or penetrating reaction if not adequately controlled. However, it takes a considerable amount of time before mucosal inflammation proceeds to stenosis of the intestinal lumen or penetration into the adjacent bowel. Therefore, it can be expected that if proper care is given during that period, progression of CD to such a complicated disease could be prevented. Even though the concept of mucosal healing was introduced in the early 1990s, no correlation could be observed between healing of mucosal lesions and relief of clinical symptoms. However, the introduction of biologic agents targeting tumor necrosis factor has changed the way to treat IBD that is refractory to standard medications and has allowed us to aim for a new therapeutic goal, 'deep remission'. Further advances in biologic agents have provided highly effective treatments for IBD, making deep remission a realistic goal. Whether IBD patients may benefit by experiencing a 'deep' remission beyond the control of clinical symptoms need to be evaluated in further investigation. Nevertheless, it can be anticipated that attaining deep remission might ultimately have an impact on important outcomes such as the need for surgery and the quality of life.


Subject(s)
Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Colitis, Ulcerative/drug therapy , Crohn Disease/drug therapy , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Mesalamine/therapeutic use , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/immunology
16.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(3): 309-314, Jul-Sep/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722720

ABSTRACT

Metabolic and morphometric alterations of the duodenal villi caused by parasitism of chickens by Eimeria maxima were evaluated, using 100 male Cobb birds, randomly distributed into two groups (control and infected). The infected group was inoculated with 0.5 ml of a solution containing 5×103 sporulated oocysts of Eimeria maxima. Ten birds per sample were sacrificed on the 6th, 11th, 22nd and 41st days post-infection (dpi). In order to evaluate the alterations, samples of duodenum, jejunum and ileum fragments were collected after necropsy for histological analysis. Villus biometry was determined by means of a slide graduated in microns that was attached to a binocular microscope. To evaluate the biochemical data, 5 ml of blood were sampled from the birds before sacrifice. The statistical analyses were performed using the GraphPad 5 statistical software for Windows. Tukey's multiple comparison test (p <0.05) was performed for the different dpi's and the unpaired t test for the difference between the groups. Infection by E. maxima causes both qualitative and quantitative alterations to the structure of the intestinal villi, thereby interfering with the absorption of nutrients such as calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, protein and lipids, with consequent reductions in the birds' weights.


Foram avaliadas alterações metabólicas e morfométricas das vilosidades intestinais causadas pelo parasitismo de frangos por Eimeria maxima, sendo utilizadas 100 aves da linhagem Coob, machos, distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos experimentais: grupo controle, inoculado com 0,5 ml de água destilada; grupo infectado, inoculado com 0,5ml de solução contendo 5×103 oocistos esporulados de Eimeria maxima. Foram sacrificadas 10 aves por coleta no 0, 6, 11, 22 e 41 dias pós-infecção. Para avaliar as alterações foram retiradas, após necropsia, amostras de fragmentos do duodeno, jejuno e íleo para análise histológica. A determinação da biometria de vilosidades foi realizada por meio de lâmina milimetrada acoplada a um microscópio binocular. Para avaliação dos dados bioquímicos foram coletados 5 ml de sangue das aves antes da eutanásia. As análises estatísticas foram realizadas, utilizando-se o programa estatístico Graphpad Prism. 5 – Windows e realizado o teste de comparações múltiplas de Tukey (p <0,05) para os diferentes dpi's e o Teste T não Pareado para diferença entre os grupos. A infecção por E. maxima provoca alterações qualitativas e quantitativas das vilosidades intestinais, interferindo na absorção de nutrientes, como cálcio, fósforo, magnésio, proteínas e lipídios, com consequente redução no peso das aves.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Chickens/metabolism , Coccidiosis/veterinary , Eimeria , Poultry Diseases/metabolism , Coccidiosis/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Intestinal Mucosa/parasitology , Intestinal Mucosa/pathology , Oocysts
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134999

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyp, and one of the underlying mechanisms of this increase is considered to be due to the growth promoting effects of adipokines, such as leptin. In order to investigate this finding, leptin expression in the colonic tissue and blood leptin concentration of the colonic adenoma patients were compared to those of the control group. METHODS: Colonic adenoma tissues were obtained by polypectomy (n=60). In these patients, normal colonic mucosa at remote areas from the polyp was also obtained and blood samples were collected as well. Age and sex matched control subjects were selected among those who showed normal colonic mucosa in health screening colonoscopy (n=60). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in serum leptin concentration between the colonic adenoma patients and control subjects. Leptin expression was noted in 43.3% of the colonic adenomas, but only in 6.7% of normal colonic mucosa from the control subjects (p<0.01). There were ten cases of concurrent adenocarcinoma in situ in adenoma patients, eight cases of which expressed leptin (p=0.01). In adenoma group, leptin expression rate was significantly high in larger adenomas and in obese patients (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between leptin expression in colonic mucosa and serum leptin level. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin expression was more frequently observed in colonic adenomas, especially in larger adenomas associated with adenocarcinoma in situ, but blood leptin level was not related to tissue leptin expression. Leptin expression was more frequently observed in obese patients from the adenoma group. Therefore, leptin may play an important role in colonic tumorigenesis and progression, especially in obese patient.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Polyps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Leptin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism , Odds Ratio , Waist Circumference
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-134998

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Obesity increases the risk of colorectal cancer and adenomatous polyp, and one of the underlying mechanisms of this increase is considered to be due to the growth promoting effects of adipokines, such as leptin. In order to investigate this finding, leptin expression in the colonic tissue and blood leptin concentration of the colonic adenoma patients were compared to those of the control group. METHODS: Colonic adenoma tissues were obtained by polypectomy (n=60). In these patients, normal colonic mucosa at remote areas from the polyp was also obtained and blood samples were collected as well. Age and sex matched control subjects were selected among those who showed normal colonic mucosa in health screening colonoscopy (n=60). RESULTS: There was no significant difference in serum leptin concentration between the colonic adenoma patients and control subjects. Leptin expression was noted in 43.3% of the colonic adenomas, but only in 6.7% of normal colonic mucosa from the control subjects (p<0.01). There were ten cases of concurrent adenocarcinoma in situ in adenoma patients, eight cases of which expressed leptin (p=0.01). In adenoma group, leptin expression rate was significantly high in larger adenomas and in obese patients (p<0.05). However, there was no statistically significant relationship between leptin expression in colonic mucosa and serum leptin level. CONCLUSIONS: Leptin expression was more frequently observed in colonic adenomas, especially in larger adenomas associated with adenocarcinoma in situ, but blood leptin level was not related to tissue leptin expression. Leptin expression was more frequently observed in obese patients from the adenoma group. Therefore, leptin may play an important role in colonic tumorigenesis and progression, especially in obese patient.


Subject(s)
Adenoma/metabolism , Adult , Aged , Body Mass Index , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Polyps/metabolism , Female , Humans , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Leptin/blood , Male , Middle Aged , Obesity/metabolism , Odds Ratio , Waist Circumference
19.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 11(4): 456-461, out.-dez. 2013. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-699856

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Analisar a imunoexpressão das proteínas COX-2, p53 e caspase-3 em adenomas colorretais e na mucosa não neoplásica. MÉTODOS: Foram submetidos à colonoscopia 72 indivíduos que forneceram 50 amostras de adenomas e 45 de mucosa colorretal não neoplásica. Os tecidos foram obtidos pela técnica de arranjo em matriz (tissue microarray) e submetidos a estudo imunoistoquímico com anticorpos primários p53, COX-2 e caspase-3. A positividade e intensidade da imunorreação foram classificadas. Foram estudadas as seguintes variáveis: localização do adenoma no colo, grau de displasia, tamanho, e escores de positividade e intensidade da imunoexpressão das proteínas p-53, caspase-3 e COX-2. RESULTADOS: Nos adenomas, a imunoexpressão da proteína p53 mutada foi positiva em 30 (60%) e negativa em 20 (40%) amostras. Na mucosa colorretal não neoplásica, a imunoexpressão da proteína p53 mutada foi negativa em 39 (86,6%) amostras e positiva em 6 (13,3%) (p<0,0001). Houve diferença significativa entre o maior tamanho (p=0,006) e o maior grau de displasia dos adenomas (p<0,0001) e a intensidade de imunoexpressão da proteína p53 mutada. A positividade e intensidade da imunoexpressão das proteínas COX-2 (p=0,14) e caspase-3 (p=0,23), nos adenomas e na mucosa colorretal não neoplásica, não apresentaram diferença significante. CONCLUSÃO: A proteína p53 mutada é hiperexpressada nos adenomas em comparação com a mucosa não neoplásica. Nos adenomas, o maior tamanho e o maior grau de displasia foram associados à maior expressão da proteína p53 mutada. A imunoexpressão das proteínas COX-2 e caspase nos adenomas não apresentou correlação com os aspectos anatomopatológicos e não foi diferente em termos de níveis de expressão correspondentes na mucosa não neoplásica.


OBJECTIVE: To analyze the immunoexpression of the COX-2, p53, and caspase-3 proteins in colorectal adenomas and non-neoplastic mucosa. METHODS: 72 individuals were subjected to colonoscopy, which provided 50 samples of adenomas and 45 samples of non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. The tissue samples were obtained via the tissue microarray technique and subjected to immunohistochemical analysis using primary anti-p53, anti-COX-2, and anti-caspase-3 antibodies. The positivity and intensity of the immunoreaction were classified. The analyzed variables were as follows: site of the adenomas in the colon, degree of dysplasia, size, and score of positivity and intensity of immunoexpression of the p-53, caspase-3, and COX-2 proteins. RESULTS: The immunoexpression of mutated protein p53 was positive in 30 (60%) adenoma samples and negative in 20 (40%) adenoma samples. The immunoexpression of mutated protein p53 was negative in 39 (86.6%) samples and positive in 6 (13.3%) samples of the non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa (p<0.0001). Significant differences were seen between both the largest size (p=0.006) and the highest degree of dysplasia (p<0.0001) of the adenomas and the intensity of immunoexpression of mutated protein p53. The positivity and intensity of immunoexpression of COX-2 (p=0.14) and caspase-3 (p=0.23) showed no significant differences between the adenomas and the non-neoplastic colorectal mucosa. CONCLUSION: Mutated protein p53 was hyperexpressed in the adenomas compared with the non-neoplastic mucosa. Greater size and greater degree of dysplasia in the adenomas were associated with higher expression of mutated protein p53. The immunoexpression of COX-2 and caspase-3 in the adenomas did not exhibit a correlation with the anatomical-pathological features of the tumors and did not differ from the corresponding expression levels in the non-neoplastic mucosa.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Adenoma/metabolism , /metabolism , Colorectal Neoplasms/metabolism , /metabolism , /metabolism , Biomarkers/metabolism , Case-Control Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Retrospective Studies
20.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 50(1): 56-63, Jan-Mar/2013. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-671331

ABSTRACT

Context Glutamine is the main source of energy of the enterocyte and diarrhea and weight loss are frequent in HIV infected patients. Objective To determine the effect of alanyl-glutamine supplementation on intestinal permeability and absorption in these patients. Methods Randomized double-blinded, placebo-controlled study using isonitrogenous doses of alanyl-glutamine (24 g/day) and placebo (glycine, 25 g/day) during 10 days. Before and after this nutritional supplementation lactulose and mannitol urinary excretion were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Results Forty six patients with HIV/AIDS, 36 of whom were male, with 37.28 ± 3 (mean ± standard error) years were enrolled. Twenty two and 24 subjects were treated with alanyl-glutamine and with glycine respectively. In nine patients among all in the study protocol that reported diarrhea in the 14 days preceding the beginning of the study, mannitol urinary excretion was significantly lower than patients who did not report this symptom [median (range): 10.51 (3.01–19.75) vs. 15.37 (3.93–46.73); P = 0.0281] and lactulose/mannitol ratio was significantly higher [median (range): 0.04 (0.00–2.89) vs. 0.02 (0.00–0.19); P = 0.0317]. There was also a significant increase in mannitol urinary excretion in the group treated with alanyl-glutamine [median (range): 14.38 (8.25–23.98) before vs 21.24 (6.27–32.99) after treatment; n = 14, P = 0.0382]. Conclusion Our results suggest that the integrity and intestinal absorption are more intensely affected in patients with HIV/AIDS who recently have had diarrhea. Additionally, nutritional supplementation with alanyl-glutamine was associated with an improvement in intestinal absorption. .


Contexto A glutamina é a principal fonte de energia do enterócito e diarreia e perda de peso são frequentes em pacientes infectados pelo HIV. Objetivo Determinar o efeito da alanil-glutamina sobre a permeabilidade e a absorção intestinais nesses pacientes. Métodos Estudo duplo-cego, randomizado, controlado por placebo, utilizando doses isonitrogênicas de alanil-glutamina (24 g/dia) e de placebo (glicina, 25 g/dia) durante 10 dias. Antes e depois dessa suplementação nutricional a excreção urinária de lactulose e manitol foi determinada por cromatografia líquida de alta performance. Resultados Quarenta e seis pacientes com HIV/AIDS, sendo 36 do sexo masculino, com 37,28 ± 3 anos (média ± erro padrão) foram incluídos. Vinte e dois e 24 indivíduos foram tratados com alanil-glutamina e com glicina, respectivamente. Nos nove pacientes que relataram ter apresentado diarreia nos 14 dias anteriores ao início do estudo, a excreção urinária de manitol foi significativamente menor do que nos pacientes que não referiram essa queixa [mediana (intervalo): 10,51 (3,01-19,75) vs 15,37 (3,93-46,73), P = 0,0281] e a razão lactulose/manitol foi significativamente mais elevada [mediana (intervalo): 0,04 (0,00-2,89) vs 0,02 (0,00-0,19), P = 0,0317]. Constatou-se também aumento significativo na excreção urinária de manitol no grupo tratado com alanil-glutamina [mediana (intervalo): 14,38 (8,25-23,98), antes vs 21,24 (6,27-32,99) após o tratamento, n = 14, P = 0,0382]. Conclusão Os resultados do presente estudo sugerem que a integridade e a absorção intestinais são mais intensamente afetadas em pacientes com HIV/AIDS que tiveram diarreia recentemente. Adicionalmente, a suplementação ...


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Dietary Supplements , Diarrhea/prevention & control , Dipeptides/therapeutic use , HIV Infections/metabolism , Intestinal Absorption/drug effects , Intestinal Mucosa/drug effects , Double-Blind Method , Diarrhea/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , Intestinal Mucosa/metabolism , Permeability , Prospective Studies
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