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Braz. j. biol ; 83: 1-12, 2023. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1468966


The current study aimed to determine the effects of different levels of Zingiber officinale as a herbal feed additive on growth performance, carcass characteristic, serum biochemistry, total bacterial count (TBC), gut morphology, and immunological parameters of broilers. A total of 1500, day-old broiler chicks (Hubbard) were equally accredited to five treatment groups, each with six replicates (50 birds/replicate). Five experimental diets were prepared using basal diet i.e. with antibiotics positive control (PC), 3 g/kg ginger (group A), 6 g/kg ginger (group B), 9 g/kg ginger (group C) and without antibiotics negative control (NC). Group A and C showed significantly (p<0.05) higher feed intake (FI) as compared to other groups. Group C showed significantly (p<0.05) lower Total bacterial count (TBC) followed by group B as compared to NC. Carcass characteristics showed non-significant effects among different treatments. Mean villi length and width were significantly (p <0.05) higher in all ginger supplemented groups as compared to the control groups. Blood serum parameters including cholesterol, triglycerides, and low density lipoproteins (LDL) were significantly (p<0.05) lower in groups B and C in comparison with the control groups. Whereas high-density lipoproteins (HDL) was significantly higher in group B as compared to the others. In conclusion, ginger supplementation @0.6% in the basal diet significantly improved growth performance and gut morphometry of broilers. It also showed a positive impact on cholesterol, triglycerides and gut microbes. Therefore, ginger could be a better substitute for antibiotic growth promoters.

O presente estudo teve como objetivo determinar os efeitos de diferentes níveis de Zingiber officinale como aditivo à base de plantas medicinais sobre o desempenho de crescimento, características da carcaça, bioquímica sérica, contagem bacteriana total (CBT), morfologia intestinal e parâmetros imunológicos de frangos de corte. Um total de 1.500 pintos de corte de um dia de idade (Hubbard) foram igualmente credenciados em cinco grupos de tratamento, cada um com seis repetições (50 aves/repetição). Cinco dietas experimentais foram preparadas usando dieta basal, ou seja, com controle positivo de antibióticos (PC), 3 g/kg de gengibre (grupo A), 6 g/kg de gengibre (grupo B), 9 g/kg de gengibre (grupo C) e sem controle negativo de antibióticos (NC). Os grupos A e C apresentaram consumo de ração (FI) significativamente (p < 0,05) maior do que os outros grupos. O grupo C apresentou contagem bacteriana total (CBT) significativamente menor (p < 0,05) seguido pelo grupo B em comparação com o NC. As características da carcaça apresentaram efeitos não significativos entre os diferentes tratamentos. O comprimento e largura médios das vilosidades foram significativamente (p < 0,05) maiores em todos os grupos suplementados com gengibre em comparação com os grupos de controle. Os parâmetros séricos do sangue, incluindo colesterol, triglicerídeos e lipoproteínas de baixa densidade (LDL), foram significativamente (p < 0,05) menores nos grupos B e C em comparação com os grupos controle. Enquanto as lipoproteínas de alta densidade (HDL) foram significativamente maiores no grupo B em comparação com os outros. Em conclusão, a suplementação de gengibre a 0,6% na dieta basal melhorou significativamente o desempenho de crescimento e a morfometria intestinal de frangos de corte. Ele também mostrou um impacto positivo sobre o colesterol, triglicerídeos e micróbios intestinais. Portanto, o gengibre pode ser um substituto melhor para os promotores de crescimento com antibióticos.

Animals , Bacterial Load/veterinary , Chickens/growth & development , Chickens/immunology , Ginger , Intestines/anatomy & histology
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 346-356, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-986797


Objective: To analyze the clinicopathological features and gene mutations of primary gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GISTs) of the stomach and intestine and the prognosis of intermediate- and high-risk GISTs. Methods: This was a retrospective cohort study. Data of patients with GISTs admitted to Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital from January 2011 to December 2019 were collected retrospectively. Patients with primary gastric or intestinal disease who had undergone endoscopic or surgical resection of the primary lesion and were confirmed pathologically as GIST were included. Patients treated with targeted therapy preoperatively were excluded. The above criteria were met by 1061 patients with primary GISTs, 794 of whom had gastric GISTs and 267 intestinal GISTs. Genetic testing had been performed in 360 of these patients since implementation of Sanger sequencing in our hospital in October 2014. Gene mutations in KIT exons 9, 11, 13, and 17 and PDGFRA exons 12 and 18 were detected by Sanger sequencing. The factors investigated in this study included: (1) clinicopathological data, such as sex, age, primary tumor location, maximum tumor diameter, histological type, mitotic index (/5 mm2), and risk classification; (2) gene mutation; (3) follow-up, survival, and postoperative treatment; and (4) prognostic factors of progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) for intermediate- and high-risk GIST. Results: (1) Clinicopathological features: The median ages of patients with primary gastric and intestinal GIST were 61 (8-85) years and 60 (26-80) years, respectively; The median maximum tumor diameters were 4.0 (0.3-32.0) cm and 6.0 (0.3-35.0) cm, respectively; The median mitotic indexes were 3 (0-113)/5 mm² and 3 (0-50)/5 mm², respectively; The median Ki-67 proliferation indexes were 5% (1%-80%) and 5% (1%-50%), respectively. The rates of positivity for CD117, DOG-1, and CD34 were 99.7% (792/794), 99.9% (731/732), 95.6% (753/788), and 100.0% (267/267), 100.0% (238/238), 61.5% (163/265), respectively. There were higher proportions of male patients (χ²=6.390, P=0.011), tumors of maximum diameter > 5.0 cm (χ²=33.593, P<0.001), high-risk (χ²=94.957, P<0.001), and CD34-negativity (χ²=203.138, P<0.001) among patients with intestinal GISTs than among those with gastric GISTs. (2) Gene mutations: Gene mutations were investigated in 286/360 patients (79.4%) with primary gastric GISTs and 74/360 (20.6%) with primary intestinal GISTs. Among the 286 patients with gastric primary GISTs, 79.4% (227/286), 8.4% (24/286), and 12.2% (35/286), had KIT mutations, PDGFRA mutations, and wild-type, respectively. Among the 74 patients with primary intestinal GISTs, 85.1% (63/74) had KIT mutations and 14.9% (11/74) were wild-type. The PDGFRA mutation rate was lower in patients with intestinal GISTs than in those with gastric GISTs[ 0% vs. 8.4%(24/286), χ²=6.770, P=0.034], whereas KIT exon 9 mutations occurred more often in those with intestinal GISTs [22.2% (14/63) vs. 1.8% (4/227), P<0.001]. There were no significant differences between gastric and intestinal GISTs in the rates of KIT exon 11 mutation type and KIT exon 11 deletion mutation type (both P>0.05). (3) Follow-up, survival, and postoperative treatment: After excluding 228 patients with synchronous and metachronous other malignant tumors, the remaining 833 patients were followed up for 6-124 (median 53) months with a follow-up rate of 88.6% (738/833). None of the patients with very low or low-risk gastric (n=239) or intestinal GISTs (n=56) had received targeted therapy postoperatively. Among 179 patients with moderate-risk GISTs, postoperative targeted therapy had been administered to 88/155 with gastric and 11/24 with intestinal GISTs. Among 264 patients with high-risk GISTs, postoperative targeted therapy had been administered to 106/153 with gastric and 62/111 with intestinal GISTs. The 3-, 5-, and 10-year PFS of patients with gastric or intestinal GISTs were 96.5%, 93.8%, and 87.6% and 85.7%, 80.1% and 63.3%, respectively (P<0.001). The 3-, 5-, and 10-year OS were 99.2%, 98.8%, 97.5% and 94.8%, 92.1%, 85.0%, respectively (P<0.001). (4) Analysis of predictors of intermediate- and high-risk GISTs: The 5-year PFS of patients with gastric and intestinal GISTs were 89.5% and 73.2%, respectively (P<0.001); The 5-year OS were 97.9% and 89.3%, respectively (P<0.001). Multivariate analysis showed that high risk (HR=2.918, 95%CI: 1.076-7.911, P=0.035) and Ki-67 proliferation index > 5% (HR=2.778, 95%CI: 1.389-5.558, P=0.004) were independent risk factors for PFS in patients with intermediate- and high-risk GISTs (both P<0.05). Intestinal GISTs (HR=3.485, 95%CI: 1.407-8.634, P=0.007) and high risk (HR=3.753,95%CI:1.079-13.056, P=0.038) were independent risk factors for OS in patients with intermediate- and high-risk GISTs (both P<0.05). Postoperative targeted therapy was independent protective factor for PFS and OS (HR=0.103, 95%CI: 0.049-0.213, P<0.001; HR=0.210, 95%CI:0.078-0.564,P=0.002). Conclusions: Primary intestinal GIST behaves more aggressively than gastric GISTs and more frequently progress after surgery. Moreover, CD34 negativity and KIT exon 9 mutations occur more frequently in patients with intestinal GISTs than in those with gastric GISTs.

Male , Humans , Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Ki-67 Antigen , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Prognosis , Mutation , Intestines/pathology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-kit/genetics , Receptor, Platelet-Derived Growth Factor alpha/genetics
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3743-3752, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981507


Radiation-induced intestinal injury(RIII), a common complication of radiotherapy for pelvic malignancies, affects the quality of life and the radiotherapy efficacy for cancer. Currently, the main clinical approaches for the prevention and treatment of RIII include drug therapy, hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and surgical treatment. Among these methods, drug therapy is cost-effective. Traditional Chinese medicine(TCM) containing a variety of active components demonstrates mild side effects and good efficacy in preventing and treating RIII. Studies have proven that TCM active components, such as flavonoids, terpenoids, phenylpropanoids, and alkaloids, can protect the intestine against RIII by inhibiting oxidative stress, regulating the expression of inflammatory cytokines, modulating the mitochondrial apoptosis pathway, adjusting intestinal flora, and suppressing cell apoptosis. These mechanisms can help alleviate the symptoms of RIII. The paper aims to provide a theoretical reference for the discovery of new drugs for the prevention and treatment of RIII by reviewing the literature on TCM active components in the last 10 years.

Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Quality of Life , Intestines , Alkaloids
Chinese Journal of Biotechnology ; (12): 1332-1350, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981141


Organoid is a newly developed cellular there-dimensional culture system in recent years. Organoids have a three-dimensional structure, which is similar to that of the real organs. Together with the characteristics of self-renewal and reproduction of tissue origin, organoids can better simulate the function of real organs. Organoids provide a new platform for the study of organogenesis, regeneration, disease pathogenesis, and drug screening. The digestive system is an essential part of the human body and performs important functions. To date, organoid models of various digestive organs have been successfully established. This review summarizes the latest research progress of organoids of taste buds, esophagi, stomachs, livers and intestines, and prospects future application of organoids.

Humans , Organoids , Intestines , Liver
Chinese Critical Care Medicine ; (12): 651-657, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-982648


OBJECTIVE@#To observe the toxicokinetic parameters, absorption characteristics and pathomorphological damage in different parts of the gastrointestinal tract of rats poisoned with different doses of diquat (DQ).@*METHODS@#Ninety-six healthy male Wistar rats were randomly divided into a control group (six rats) and low (115.5 mg/kg), medium (231.0 mg/kg) and high (346.5 mg/kg) dose DQ poisoning groups (thirty rats in each dose group), and then the poisoning groups were randomly divided into 5 subgroups according to the time after exposure (15 minutes and 1, 3, 12, 36 hours; six rats in each subgroup). All rats in the exposure groups were given a single dose of DQ by gavage. Rats in the control group was given the same amount of saline by gavage. The general condition of the rats was recorded. Blood was collected from the inner canthus of the eye at 3 time points in each subgroup, and rats were sacrificed after the third blood collection to obtain gastrointestinal specimens. DQ concentrations in plasma and tissues were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (UPHLC-MS), and the toxic concentration-time curves were plotted to calculate the toxicokinetic parameters; the morphological structure of the intestine was observed under light microscopy, and the villi height and crypt depth were determined and the ratio (V/C) was calculated.@*RESULTS@#DQ was detected in the plasma of the rats in the low, medium and high dose groups 5 minutes after exposure. The time to maximum plasma concentration (Tmax) was (0.85±0.22), (0.75±0.25) and (0.25±0.00) hours, respectively. The trend of plasma DQ concentration over time was similar in the three dose groups, but the plasma DQ concentration increased again at 36 hours in the high dose group. In terms of DQ concentration in gastrointestinal tissues, the highest concentrations of DQ were found in the stomach and small intestine from 15 minutes to 1 hour and in the colon at 3 hours. By 36 hours after poisoning, the concentrations of DQ in all parts of the stomach and intestine in the low and medium dose groups had decreased to lower levels. Gastrointestinal tissue (except jejunum) DQ concentrations in the high dose group tended to increase from 12 hours. Higher doses of DQ were still detectable [gastric, duodenal, ileal and colonic DQ concentrations of 6 400.0 (1 232.5), 4 889.0 (6 070.5), 10 300.0 (3 565.0) and 1 835.0 (202.5) mg/kg respectively]. Light microscopic observation of morphological and histopathological changes in the intestine shows that acute damage to the stomach, duodenum and jejunum of rats was observed 15 minutes after each dose of DQ, pathological lesions were observed in the ileum and colon 1 hour after exposure, the most severe gastrointestinal injury occurred at 12 hours, significant reduction in villi height, significant increase in crypt depth and lowest V/C ratio in all segments of the small intestine, damage begins to diminish by 36-hour post-intoxication. At the same time, morphological and histopathological damage to the intestine of rats at all time points increased significantly with increasing doses of the toxin.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The absorption of DQ in the digestive tract is rapid, and all segments of the gastrointestinal tract may absorb DQ. The toxicokinetics of DQ-tainted rats at different times and doses have different characteristics. In terms of timing, gastrointestinal damage was seen at 15 minutes after DQ, and began to diminish at 36 hours. In terms of dose, Tmax was advanced with the increase of dose and the peak time was shorter. The damage to the digestive system of DQ is closely related to the dose and retention time of the poison exposure.

Animals , Male , Rats , Diquat/toxicity , Gastrointestinal Diseases , Intestines , Poisons , Rats, Wistar , Toxicokinetics
Chinese Journal of Contemporary Pediatrics ; (12): 508-515, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981986


OBJECTIVES@#To investigate the distribution characteristics and correlation of intestinal and pharyngeal microbiota in early neonates.@*METHODS@#Full-term healthy neonates who were born in Shanghai Pudong New Area Maternal and Child Health Hospital from September 2021 to January 2022 and were given mixed feeding were enrolled. The 16S rRNA sequencing technique was used to analyze the stool and pharyngeal swab samples collected on the day of birth and days 5-7 after birth, and the composition and function of intestinal and pharyngeal microbiota were analyzed and compared.@*RESULTS@#The diversity analysis showed that the diversity of pharyngeal microbiota was higher than that of intestinal microbiota in early neonates, but the difference was not statistically significant (P>0.05). On the day of birth, the relative abundance of Proteobacteria in the intestine was significantly higher than that in the pharynx (P<0.05). On days 5-7 after birth, the relative abundance of Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria in the intestine was significantly higher than that in the pharynx (P<0.05), and the relative abundance of Firmicutes in the intestine was significantly lower than that in the pharynx (P<0.05). At the genus level, there was no significant difference in the composition of dominant bacteria between the intestine and the pharynx on the day of birth (P>0.05), while on days 5-7 after birth, there were significant differences in the symbiotic bacteria of Streptococcus, Staphylococcus, Rothia, Bifidobacterium, and Escherichia-Shigella between the intestine and the pharynx (P<0.05). The analysis based on the database of Clusters of Orthologous Groups of proteins showed that pharyngeal microbiota was more concentrated on chromatin structure and dynamics and cytoskeleton, while intestinal microbiota was more abundant in RNA processing and modification, energy production and conversion, amino acid transport and metabolism, carbohydrate transport and metabolism, coenzyme transport and metabolism, and others (P<0.05). The Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes analysis showed that compared with pharyngeal microbiota, intestinal microbiota was more predictive of cell motility, cellular processes and signal transduction, endocrine system, excretory system, immune system, metabolic diseases, nervous system, and transcription parameters (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The composition and diversity of intestinal and pharyngeal microbiota of neonates are not significantly different at birth. The microbiota of these two ecological niches begin to differentiate and gradually exhibit distinct functions over time.

Humans , Infant, Newborn , Bacteria , China , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Intestines , Microbiota , Pharynx/microbiology , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 236-243, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981921


Blunt bowel injury (BBI) is relatively rare but life-threatening when delayed in surgical repair or anastomosis. Providing enteral nutrition (EN) in BBI patients with open abdomen after damage control surgery is challenging, especially for those with discontinuity of the bowel. Here, we report a 47-year-old male driver who was involved in a motor vehicle collision and developed ascites on post-trauma day 3. Emergency exploratory laparotomy at a local hospital revealed a complete rupture of the jejunum and then primary anastomosis was performed. Postoperatively, the patient was transferred to our trauma center for septic shock and hyperbilirubinemia. Following salvage resuscitation, damage control laparotomy with open abdomen was performed for abdominal sepsis, and a temporary double enterostomy (TDE) was created where the anastomosis was ruptured. Given the TDE and high risk of malnutrition, multiple portions EN were performed, including a proximal portion EN support through a nasogastric tube and a distal portion EN via a jejunal feeding tube. Besides, chyme delivered from the proximal portion of TDE was injected into the distal portion of TDE via a jejunal feeding tube. Hyperbilirubinemia was alleviated with the increase in chyme reinfusion. After 6 months of home EN and chyme reinfusion, the patient finally underwent TDE reversal and abdominal wall reconstruction and was discharged with a regular diet. For BBI patients with postoperative hyperbilirubinemia who underwent open abdomen, the combination of multiple portions EN and chyme reinfusion may be a feasible and safe option.

Male , Humans , Middle Aged , Enteral Nutrition , Intestines/surgery , Intestinal Diseases , Abdomen/surgery , Anastomosis, Surgical , Abdominal Injuries/surgery
Chinese Journal of Cellular and Molecular Immunology ; (12): 599-603, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981905


Objective To investigate the relationship between intestinal inflammatory group 2 innate lymphoid cells (iILC2s) and lung ILC2s and its inflammatory response in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods Mouse COPD model was established by smoking method. The mice were randomly divided into normal group and COPD group. HE staining was used to detect the pathological changes in lung and intestine tissues of mice in normal group and COPD group, and the contents of natural ILC2s(nILC2s) and iILC2s cells were measured by flow cytometry. Wright-Giemsa staining was used to measure the number of immune cells in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) of mice in normal group and COPD group, and the concentration of IL-13 and IL-4 was detected by ELISA. Results In COPD mice, epithelial cells of the lung and intestinal tissues exhibited pathological hyperplasia, partial atrophy or deletion, inflammatory cell infiltration, increased pathological score and significantly increased neutrophils, monocytes, and lymphocytes in BALF. Lung iILC2s, intestinal nILC2s and iILC2s were increased significantly in the COPD group. The contents of IL-13 and IL-4 in BALF were significantly increased. Conclusion The increase of iILC2s and their related cytokines in COPD lung may be related to intestinal inflammatory ILC2s.

Mice , Animals , Cytokines , Immunity, Innate , Interleukin-13 , Interleukin-4 , Lymphocytes , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines
Gastroenterol. latinoam ; 34(2): 61-65, 2023. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1524718


We report a clinical case from a patient with alcoholic cirrhosis who had chronic anemia and carried out several endoscopic studies without evidence of active bleeding, a complementary study with endoscopic capsule was requested to search for a source of bleeding. In the analysis of laboratory data, the presence of hypereosinophilia stands out in parallel. The images obtained in the video capsule study show geoparasites helminth-type. After parasite treatment, anemia improves and the absolute eosinophil count is normalized.

Reportamos el caso de un paciente cirrótico por alcohol con anemia crónica quien se realizó varios estudios endoscópicos sin evidencia de sangrado activo, por tal motivo se solicitó estudio complementario con cápsula endoscópica para búsqueda de fuente de sangrado. En el análisis de los datos de laboratorio paralelamente destaca la presencia de hipereosinofilia. Las imágenes obtenidas en el estudio de la video cápsula muestran varios geoparásitos de tipo helmintos. Posterior al tratamiento antiparasitario mejora la anemia y se normaliza el recuento absoluto de eosinófilos.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/etiology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Fibrosis/complications , Eosinophils , Gastrointestinal Hemorrhage/diagnosis , Anemia/complications , Intestines/parasitology
REVISA (Online) ; 12(2): 302-312, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1437735


Objetivo: evidenciar através de uma revisão integrativa os resultados clínicos atuais da suplementação de glutamina na melhora da saúde intestinal, através de sintomas e exames bioquímicos. Método: Revisão integrativa da literatura realizada no período de setembro de de 2021 nas bases de dados Pubmed e Scielo. Resultados: Foi realizado uma busca pelos descritores em saúde determinados e foram selecionadas 08 produções cientificas que atenderam os critérios de inclusão. Conclusão: Sugere-se novas pesquisas que elucidem as dosagens, efeitos colaterais e respostas terapêuticas da glutamina sobre parâmetros de saúde intestinal.

Objective: to evidence through an integrative review the current clinical results of glutamine supplementation in the improvement of intestinal health, through symptoms and biochemical tests. Method: Integrative review of the literature conducted in the period of September 2021 in the Pubmed and Scielo databases. Results: A search was performed for the defined health descriptors and 08 scientific productions were selected that met the inclusion criteria. Conclusion: Further research is suggested to elucidate the dosages, side effects and therapeutic responses of glutamine on intestinal health parameters.

Objetivo: evidenciar a través de una revisión integradora los resultados clínicos actuales de la suplementación con glutamina en la mejora de la salud intestinal, a través de síntomas y pruebas bioquímicas. Método: Revisión integradora de la literatura realizada en el periodo de septiembre de 2021 en las bases de datos Pubmed y Scielo. Resultados: Se realizó una búsqueda de los descriptores de salud definidos y se seleccionaron 08 producciones científicas que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Conclusión: Se sugiere investigación adicional para dilucidar las dosis, los efectos secundarios y las respuestas terapéuticas de la glutamina en los parámetros de salud intestinal.

Glutamine , Diet , Nutritional Sciences , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestines
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(3): 225-233, set. 2022. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1422932


RESUMEN Antecedentes: la reconstrucciónn del tránsito intestinal luego de una operación de Hartmann es un procedimiento habitualmente complejo y con alta morbilidad. Objetivo: analizar la tasa de reconstrucción después de la cirugía de Hartmann y resultados posoperatorios en nuestra experiencia. Material y métodos: análisis retrospectivo de pacientes a los que se les practicó la reconstrucción del tránsito intestinal posterior a una cirugía de Hartmann en un período 16 años. Revisamos la bibliografía y nuestra base de datos. Luego traspasamos la información disponible a una grilla de datos construida con variables habitualmente analizadas en la literatura. Finalmente, analizamos los resultados mediante medidas básicas de tendencia central. Resultados: en 16 años realizamos 92 operaciones de Hartmann, de las cuales 69 (75%) llegaron a la reconstrucción. Edad promedio: 58 años. El 52% de los pacientes fueron hombres. La operación de Hartmann fue de urgencia en el 48% y 58% resultaron malignas. Tiempo transcurrido hasta la reconstrucción: en promedio, 9 meses, y el 90% (N 62) de los casos se realizó por vía laparoscópica. Morbilidad general 38% y ajustada a los grados III y IV de Clavien-Dindo fue 11,5%. No hubo mortalidad. Conclusión: los resultados obtenidos son semejantes a los publicados y nuestra experiencia nos motiva a continuar eligiendo el abordaje laparoscópico.

ABSTRACT Background: Background: Stoma reversal after Hartman's operation is usually a complex procedure and is associated high morbidity. Objective: To analyze the rate of reversal after the Hartmann's procedure and the postoperative outcomes in our experience. Material and methods: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients undergoing reversal after the Hartmann's procedure over a 16-year period with review of the literature and of our database and transferred the available information to a data grid constructed with variables commonly analyzed in the literature. Finally, we analyzed the results using basic measures of central tendency. Results: Over a 16-year period, we performed 92 Hartmann's operations; 69 (75%) reached the reversal stage. Mean age was 58 years and 52% were men. Forty-eight percent of the Hartmann's procedures were emergency surgeries and 58% were due to cancer. Mean time to reversal was 9 months and 90% (n = 62) were laparoscopic procedures. Overall morbidity and adjusted for complications grade III and IV of the Clavien-Dindo classification were 38% and 11.5%, respectively. None of the patients died. Conclusion: The results obtained are similar to those published and our experience motivates us to continue choosing the laparoscopic approach.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Colostomy/statistics & numerical data , Ileostomy/statistics & numerical data , Laparoscopy/statistics & numerical data , Intestines/surgery , Retrospective Studies , Morbidity , Urinary Bladder Fistula/surgery , Intestinal Fistula/surgery
Rev. argent. cir ; 114(2): 172-176, jun. 2022. graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1387601


RESUMEN La nutrición enteral es parte importante del soporte vital avanzado en el paciente crítico, y ha demostrado ser más fisiológica, económica y con resultados superiores a la nutrición parenteral. La yeyunostomía para alimentación enteral está indicada cuando no es posible la alimentación por vía oral y está contraindicada la utilización de una sonda nasogástrica o nasoyeyunal de alimentación. Es una vía de alimentación con escasa morbilidad, aunque no está exenta de complicaciones, y algunas de ellas pueden ser graves. Comunicamos un caso de necrosis intestinal vinculado a la alimentación enteral por yeyunostomía en un paciente sometido a una gastrectomía oncológica.

ABSTRACT Enteral nutrition is an important component of advanced life support in the critically ill patient, and has demonstrated to be more physiologic, cheaper and with better results than parenteral nutrition. Jejunostomy for enteral nutrition is indicated when the oral route is impossible and the use of a nasogastric or nasojejunal feeding tube is contraindicated. Although the rate of complications associated with enteral nutrition through jejunostomy is low, they may occur and be serious. We report a case of bowel necrosis associated with a jejunostomy performed for enteral nutrition in a patient who underwent oncologic gastrectomy.

Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Stomach Neoplasms/therapy , Jejunostomy/adverse effects , Enteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Intestines/pathology , Peritonitis/surgery , Adenocarcinoma , Gastrectomy , Laparotomy , Necrosis/diagnosis
Rev. colomb. gastroenterol ; 37(2): 225-232, Jan.-June 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1394954


Abstract Graft-versus-host disease is a common complication after stem cell transplantation. The digestive tract is affected in many patients who suffer from it, with consequences that can be fatal. The proper approach, which includes endoscopic studies, allows ruling out differential diagnoses and managing the disease early.

Resumen La enfermedad de injerto contra huésped es una complicación frecuente después del trasplante de células madre. El tracto digestivo se afecta en una gran proporción de los pacientes que la sufren, con consecuencias que pueden llegar a ser fatales. El abordaje adecuado, que incluye el uso de estudios endoscópicos, permite descartar diagnósticos diferenciales y brindar un manejo temprano de la enfermedad.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Stem Cell Transplantation/adverse effects , Gastrointestinal Diseases/etiology , Graft vs Host Disease/diagnosis , Biopsy , Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal , Diagnosis, Differential , Gastrointestinal Diseases/pathology , Graft vs Host Disease/pathology , Intestines/pathology
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(2): 152-157, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388721


Resumen Los miomas uterinos, también conocidos como fibromas o leiomiomas, son los tumores uterinos benignos más prevalentes. Afectan a las mujeres principalmente durante sus años reproductivos y se diagnostican hasta en un 70% de las mujeres blancas y en más del 80% de las mujeres de ascendencia africana durante su vida, con una prevalencia durante el embarazo del 2% al 10%. Pueden ser asintomáticos hasta en un 70% de las pacientes, y se estima que pueden ocurrir complicaciones en aproximadamente una de cada 10 mujeres embarazadas. Se han asociado a complicaciones y resultados adversos del embarazo, según su tamaño y ubicación en el útero, y pueden manifestarse de diferentes formas. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 30 años, con embarazo en el tercer trimestre, quien consultó por dolor abdominal, con ecografías obstétricas durante su control prenatal que reportaban miomatosis uterina, quien presentó isquemia intestinal por un vólvulo de intestino delgado versus compresión extrínseca.

Abstract Uterine fibroids, also known as fibroids or leiomyomas, are the most prevalent benign uterine tumors, affecting women mainly during their reproductive years and are diagnosed in up to 70% of white women and more than 80% of women of African descent during their lifetime, with a prevalence during pregnancy of 2% to 10%; they may be asymptomatic in up to 70% of patients, and it is estimated that complications may occur in approximately one in 10 pregnant women. They have been associated with complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes, depending on their size and location in the uterus, they can manifest in different ways. We present the case of a 30-year-old woman, pregnant in the third trimester, who consulted for abdominal pain, with obstetric ultrasound scans during her prenatal check-up reporting uterine myomatosis, who presented intestinal ischemia due to small bowel volvulus versus extrinsic compression.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Uterine Neoplasms/complications , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Leiomyoma/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic , Intestinal Volvulus/etiology
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375813


Background: The intrinsic sensitivity limitations of basic parasitological methods, along with the particular biological characteristics of parasites, make these methods ineffective to differentiate morphologically indistinguishable species. Molecular detection and characterization techniques could be used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this work was to standardize molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, described in the literature, for the detection and molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa and other pathogens in humans. Methods: DNA was extracted from human or animal feces, previously washed or cultured in Boeck Drbohlav's Modified Medium. DNA extraction was performed with Machery-Nagel extraction kits. The standardization of the PCR, nested-PCR or RFLP techniques was carried out according to the literature. For each molecular technique performed, the sensitivity of the test was determined based on the minimun quantity required of DNA (sensitivity A) and the minimum quantity of life forms that the test detected (sensitivity B). Results: Sensitivity A was 10 fg for G. duodenalis, 12.5 pg for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar, 50 fg for Cryptosporidium spp., 225 pg for Cyclospora spp. and 800 fg or 8 fg for Blastocystis spp. after performing a 1780 bp PCR or 310 bp nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity B was 100 cysts for G. duodenalis, 500 cysts for E. histolytica or E. dispar, 1000 oocysts for Cyclospora spp. and 3600 or four vegetatives forms for PCR or nested PCR of Blastocystis spp., respectively. Conclusions: The molecular detection of protozoa and chromist was achieved and the molecular characterization allowed the genotyping of some of the parasites such as Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis spp. This study summarizes the molecular techniques for epidemiological studies in humans and animals, and helps in the investigation of their transmission sources in countries where intestinal parasites are a public health problem.(AU)

Humans , Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestines/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Epidemiologic Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Cryptosporidium
Actual. osteol ; 18(1): 40-52, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, UNISALUD, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1396075


El "microbioma" no solo está constituido por los microbios, sino por todos los componen-tes que viven en el mismo hábitat conforman-do un nicho ecológico. Es decir, está conformado por los microorganismos (bacterias, hongos, protozoos, etc.), todo el espectro de moléculas producidas por ellos tales como sus componentes estructurales (ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, lípidos y glúcidos), meta-bolitos, toxinas, etc., y las moléculas producidas por el huésped. El microbioma intestinal (MI) ha emergido como un factor que tiene un gran efecto sobre la cantidad, calidad y fuerza del hueso. Las investigaciones revelan que la homeostasis ósea está ligada al micro-bioma saludable, mientras que la disbiosis (alteración en la biodiversidad microbiana) puede exacerbar la actividad osteoclástica y promover la osteoporosis. Los mecanismos potenciales involucrados en la interacción del microbioma intestinal y el hueso son la influencia del metabolismo del huésped, el mantenimiento de la integridad intestinal y regulación de la absorción de nutrientes, la regulación del eje intestino-sistema inmune y la modulación del sistema endocrino. Es decir que hay múltiples vías por las cuales el MI influye sobre el hueso, pero estos y otros mecanismos deben profundizarse más aún. También es necesario que se identifiquen y caractericen mejor los microorganismos que están asociados a las enfermedades óseas. El conocimiento de estos aspectos podría ser útil para el desarrollo de herramientas terapéuticas basadas en el MI que puedan mejorar la eficacia de los distintos tratamientos existentes. (AU)

The microbiome is not only constituted by microbes, but by all the components that live in the same habitat forming an ecological niche. It is conformed by the microorganisms ( bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc), the entire spectrum of molecules produced by them (nucleic acids, proteins, lipid and carbohydrates, metabolites, toxins, etc) and the molecules produced by the host. The intestinal microbiome (IM) has emerged as a factor with great effects on the quantity, quality and strength of bone. The investigations reveal that bone homeostasis is linked to the healthy microbiome, while the dysbiosis (alteration in the microbial biodiversity) can exacerbate the osteoclastic activity and promote osteoporosis. The potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between IM and bone are the influence of the host metabolism, the maintenance of the intestinal integrity and regulation of the nutrient absorption, the regulation of the intestine/ immune system axis and the modulation of the endocrine system. That is, there are multiple ways through which IM influences on bone, but these and other mechanisms need to be further studied. It is also necessary to identify and characterize the microorganisms associated with the bone diseases. Knowledge of these aspects could be useful to develop therapeutical tools based on the IM that could improve the efficacy of the current treatments. (AU)

Humans , Osteoblasts/immunology , Osteoclasts/immunology , Bone and Bones/immunology , Dysbiosis/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Intestines/immunology , Intestines/microbiology
Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery ; (12): 1132-1137, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971224


Intestinal adaptation is a spontaneous compensation of the remanent bowel after extensive enterectomy, which improves the absorption capacity of the remanent bowel to energy, fluid and other nutrients. Intestinal adaptation mainly occurs within 2 years after enterectomy, including morphological changes, hyperfunction and hyperphagia. Intestinal adaptation is the key factor for patients with short bowel syndrome to weaning off parenteral nutrition dependence and mainly influenced by length of remanent bowel, type of surgery and colon continuity. In addition, multiple factors including enteral feeding, glucagon-like peptide 2 (GLP-2), growth hormone, gut microbiota and its metabolites regulate intestinal adaptation via multi-biological pathways, such as proliferation and differentiation of stem cell, apoptosis, angiogenesis, nutrients transport related protein expression, gut endocrine etc. Phase III clinical trials have verified the safety and efficacy of teduglutide (long-acting GLP-2) and somatropin (recombinant human growth hormone) in improving intestinal adaptation, and both have been approved for clinical use. We aim to review the current knowledge about characteristics, mechanism, evaluation methods, key factors, clinical strategies of intestinal adaptation.

Humans , Adaptation, Physiological , Glucagon-Like Peptide 2/therapeutic use , Intestines/surgery , Parenteral Nutrition , Short Bowel Syndrome/surgery
Chinese Journal of Industrial Hygiene and Occupational Diseases ; (12): 161-169, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935768


Objective: To observe the intestinal time-dependent changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model constructed by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat (PQ) and to establish the brain-gut axis connection initially. Methods: In October 2019, 48 mice were randomly divided into treated group and control groups: treated 4-week (P-4) group, treated 6-week (P-6) group, treated 8-week (P-8) group, control 4-week (C-4) group, control 6-week (C-6) group, and control 8-week (C-8) group. The treated group was injected with 15 mg/kg PQ solution and the control group was injected with 0.9% saline (0.2 ml/20 g) by intraperitoneal injection twice a week. After the initial state (0 weeks) and the treatment at the end of 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the mood changes and motor functions of mice were assessed by neurobehavioral tests (open field test, pole climbing test, tail suspension test and elevated plus maze test) . And the number of fecal pellets for 1 h and water content were calculated to assess the functional status of the gastrointestinal tract. Western blotting experiments were performed to detect the expression levels of α-synuclein (α-syn) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the nigrostriatal region of the mouse brain, the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin, the inflammatory markers of integrin αM subunit (CD11b) , inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) , high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) , interleukin-1β (IL-1β) , and the neuronal markers βⅢ-tubulin and α-syn protein in the colon.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression levels of colonic tight junction proteins ZO-1 and Occludin. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression levels of TH in the substantia nigra region of the midbrain, and the co-localization of colonic intestine neuronal marker (βⅢ-tubulin) and Ser129 α-syn in the colonic. Results: Compared with the initial state (0 weeks) and C-8 group, mice in the P-8 group had significantly higher pole climbing test scores and resting time, and significantly lower total active distance, mean active speed, percentage of open arm entry and 1 h fecal instances (P<0.05) . After poisoning, the 1 h fecal water content of model mice first increased and then decreased, the P-4 and P-6 groups were significantly higher than the simultaneous point control group, and the P-8 groups were significantly lower than the initial state (P<0.05) . Compared with control, P-4 and P-6 groups, the expression levels of ZO-1 and Occludin in the P-8 group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Compared with control group, the expression levels of CD11b and IL-1β in the P-4 group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Compared with control and P-4 group, the expression levels of CD11b, iNOS, HMGB1 and IL-1β in the P-6 and P-8 groups were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Compared with the control and P-4 groups, the expression levels of βⅢ-tubulin in the colon of mice in the P-8 group were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of α-syn and Ser129 α-syn were significantly increased (P<0.05) . The expression level of Ser129 α-syn in the colon of model mice was negatively correlated with the expression level of βⅢ-tubulin (r(s)=-0.9149, 95%CI: -0.9771--0.7085, P<0.001) . Ser129 α-syn and βⅢ-tubulin co-localization in the colonic intermuscular plexus region increased gradually with the time of exposure. Compared with the control, P-4 and P-6 groups, the expression level of TH in the nigrostriatal region of the brain was significantly decreased, and the expression levels of α-syn and Ser129 α-syn were significantly increased in the P-8 group (P<0.05) . Correlation analysis showed that the relative expression level of Ser129 α-syn in the nigrostriatal region of the brain was negatively correlated with the expression level of TH in the model mice (r(s)=-0.9716, 95% CI: -0.9925--0.8953, P<0.001) . Conclusion: The PD mouse model is successfully established by PQ, and the intestinal function of the model mice is reduced in a time-dependent manner. And on this basis, it is preliminary determined that the abnormal aggregation of α-syn may be an important substance connecting the brain-gut axis.

Animals , Mice , Brain-Gut Axis , Disease Models, Animal , HMGB1 Protein , Intestines , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Occludin , Paraquat/toxicity , Parkinson Disease , Tubulin , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism , Water
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 27-31, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935575


When abdominal neoplasms originating from the pancreas or nearby organs locally involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), complete resection is still the only hope for cure. However, SMA resection and reconstruction is a complex surgical procedure associated with high postoperative morbidity and mortality. Intestinal autotransplantation has recently emerged in clinical practice as a treatment option for selected patients with neoplasms involving the SMA. The original procedure involved en bloc removal of a tumor together with the intestine, ex vivo resection and reconstruction of gastrointestinal tract by an intestinal autograft. To further refine this complex procedure, a modified method was developed in which a segmental bowel autograft is selected and harvested first during the initial stage of the operation, and radical resection of the neoplasm is carried out thereafter. The modification would better protect a healthy bowel autograft from potential damage due to prolonged warm ischemia and allow the subsequent lengthy process of dissection to be performed in an unrushed manner. Furthermore, this alteration would better adhere to the general principles of minimal tumor manipulation during operation and potentially decrease the risks of tumor implantation during in vitro organ perfusion. Although intestinal autotransplantation has expanded eligibility for resection of otherwise unresectable lesions involving the SMA, its operative complexity, high risks, and post-operative complications largely limit its clinical applications.

Humans , Intestines , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Transplantation, Autologous
Chinese Journal of Preventive Medicine ; (12): 512-518, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935317


To explore the composition and diversity of the intestinal microflora of Leopoldamys edwardsi in Hainan Island. In November 2019, DNA was extracted from fecal samples of 25 adult Leopoldamys edwardsi (14 males and 11 females) in Hainan Island at the Joint Laboratory of tropical infectious diseases of Hainan Medical College and Hong Kong University. Based on the IonS5TMXL sequencing platform, single-end sequencing (Single-End) was used to construct a small fragment library for single-end sequencing. Based on Reads shear filtration and OTUs clustering. The species annotation and abundance analysis of OTUs were carried out by using mothur method and SSUrRNA database, and further conducted α diversity and β diversity analysis. A total of 1481842 high quality sequences, belonging to 14 Phyla, 85 families and 186 Genera, were obtained from 25 intestinal excrement samples of Leopoldamys edwardsi. At the level of phyla classification, the main core biota of the Leopoldamys edwardsi contained Firmicutes (46.04%),Bacteroidetes (25.34%), Proteobacteria (17.09%), Tenericutes (7.38%) and Actinobacteria (1.67%), these five phyla account for 97.52% of all phyla. The ratio of Helicobacter which occupied the largest proportion at the genus level was 12.44%, followed by Lactobacillus (11.39%), Clostridium (6.19%),Mycoplasma (4.23%) and Flavonifractor (3.52%). High throughput sequencing analysis showed that the intestinal flora of Leopoldamys edwardsi in Hainan Island was complex and diverse, which had the significance of further research.

Adult , Animals , Female , Humans , Male , Bacteria/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Intestines , Murinae/genetics