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1.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 87(2): 152-157, abr. 2022. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1388721

ABSTRACT

Resumen Los miomas uterinos, también conocidos como fibromas o leiomiomas, son los tumores uterinos benignos más prevalentes. Afectan a las mujeres principalmente durante sus años reproductivos y se diagnostican hasta en un 70% de las mujeres blancas y en más del 80% de las mujeres de ascendencia africana durante su vida, con una prevalencia durante el embarazo del 2% al 10%. Pueden ser asintomáticos hasta en un 70% de las pacientes, y se estima que pueden ocurrir complicaciones en aproximadamente una de cada 10 mujeres embarazadas. Se han asociado a complicaciones y resultados adversos del embarazo, según su tamaño y ubicación en el útero, y pueden manifestarse de diferentes formas. Presentamos el caso de una mujer de 30 años, con embarazo en el tercer trimestre, quien consultó por dolor abdominal, con ecografías obstétricas durante su control prenatal que reportaban miomatosis uterina, quien presentó isquemia intestinal por un vólvulo de intestino delgado versus compresión extrínseca.


Abstract Uterine fibroids, also known as fibroids or leiomyomas, are the most prevalent benign uterine tumors, affecting women mainly during their reproductive years and are diagnosed in up to 70% of white women and more than 80% of women of African descent during their lifetime, with a prevalence during pregnancy of 2% to 10%; they may be asymptomatic in up to 70% of patients, and it is estimated that complications may occur in approximately one in 10 pregnant women. They have been associated with complications and adverse pregnancy outcomes, depending on their size and location in the uterus, they can manifest in different ways. We present the case of a 30-year-old woman, pregnant in the third trimester, who consulted for abdominal pain, with obstetric ultrasound scans during her prenatal check-up reporting uterine myomatosis, who presented intestinal ischemia due to small bowel volvulus versus extrinsic compression.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Uterine Neoplasms/complications , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Leiomyoma/complications , Pregnancy Complications, Neoplastic , Intestinal Volvulus/etiology
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(5): 1294-1299, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1405302

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) of the small intestine causes serious abdominal pathologies including tissue dysfunction and organ failure. L-carnitine (L-C), a powerful antioxidant, may help lessen the severity of these pathological effects since it plays a key role in energy metabolism. In this work we aimed to study the effects of L-C on the isolated ileal and duodenal contractility and histological changes in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion injury. Twenty eight Wistar rats were divided into four groups. The first group is the control group. Second group, I/R group, had rats submitted to 45-minutes of intestinal ischemia and to 45-minutes reperfusion. The third group, I/R+ L-C group, rats were treated with L-C 5 minutes before reperfusion and than submitted to ischemia. The fourth group, included rats that were treated with L-C without ischemia or reperfusion. Intestinal ischemia was conducted by obstructing superior mesentery arteries by silk loop. The ileal and duodenal segments were isolated and suspended in tissue bath. Contractile responses were induced by acetylcholine (Ach) and relaxation was achieved with phenylephrine. At the same time the terminal ileal and duodenal segments were examined for histological changes. Ach-induced contraction responses were higher in the I/R+L-C group, the L-C group, and the control group compared to the I/R group, in both ileal and duodenal segments. On the other hand, the phenylephrine-induced relaxations were higher in the I/R+L-C and L-C groups, especially in duodenal segments. In I/R group intestinal morphology was observed to be severely damaged whereas in I/R+L-C group the damage was noticeably lower possibly due to protective properties of L-C. I/R injury caused severe cellular damage response within the muscularis resulting in decreased gastrointestinal motility. Treatment with the L-C has significantly affected the gastrointestinal contractility. Also L-C treatment reduced the damage in intestinal morphology that occurs after IR injury.


RESUMEN: La isquemia-reperfusión (I/R) del intestino delgado provoca graves patologías abdominales que incluyen disfunción tisular y falla orgánica. La L-carnitina (L-C), un poderoso antioxidante, puede ayudar a disminuir la gravedad de estos efectos patológicos, ya que desempeña un papel clave en el metabolismo energético. El objetivo de este trabajo fue estudiar los efectos de L-C sobre la contractilidad ileal y duodenal aislada y los cambios histológicos en la lesión por isquemia y reperfusión intestinal. Se dividieron 28 ratas Wistar en cuatro grupos. El primer grupo fue el control. El segundo grupo, grupo I/R, de ratas sometidas durante 45 minutos de isquemia intestinal y a 45 minutos de reperfusión. El tercer grupo, grupo I/R+ L-C, las ratas se trataron con L-C, 5 minutos antes de la reperfusión y luego se sometieron a isquemia. El cuarto grupo, las ratas fueron tratadas con L-C sin isquemia ni reperfusión. La isquemia intestinal se realizó obstruyendo la arteria mesentérica superior con un asa de seda. Los segmentos ileal y duodenal se aislaron y suspendieron en un baño de tejido. Las respuestas contráctiles fueron inducidas por acetilcolina (Ach) y la relajación se logró con fenilefrina. Al mismo tiempo, se examinaron cambios histológicos de los segmentos del íleon terminal y del duodeno. Las respuestas de contracción inducidas por Ach fueron mayores en el grupo I/R+L-C, el grupo L-C y el grupo control en comparación con el grupo I/R, tanto en el segmento ileal como en el duodenal. Por otra parte, las relajaciones inducidas por fenilefrina fueron mayores en los grupos I/R+L-C y L-C, especialmente en los segmentos duodenales. En el grupo I/R se observó que la morfología intestinal estaba dañada significativamente, mientras que en el grupo I/R+L-C el daño fue notablemente menor, posiblemente debido a las propiedades protectoras de L-C. La lesión por I/R causó una respuesta de daño celular severo dentro de la capa muscular que resultó en una disminución de la motilidad gastrointestinal. El tratamiento con L-C afectó significativamente la contractilidad gastrointestinal. Por otra parte, el tratamiento L-C redujo el daño en la morfología intestinal que ocurre después de la lesión por IR.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Carnitine/administration & dosage , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Gastrointestinal Motility/drug effects , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Carnitine/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Intestines/pathology , Antioxidants/pharmacology
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927922

ABSTRACT

Lung and intestine combination therapy(LICT) is effective in the treatment of acute lung injury(ALI). In this study, the combination of Mahuang Decoction and Dachengqi Decoction(hereinafter referred to as the combination), a manifestation of LICT, was employed to explore the effect of nuclear factor kappaB(NF-κB)/nucleotide binding oligomerization domain-like receptors-3(NLRP3) pathway and alveolar macrophage activation on the lung inflammation in rats with ALI, for the purpose of elucidating the mechanism of LICT in treating ALI. After the modeling of ALI with limpolysaccharide(LPS, ip), rats were respectively given(ig) the combination at 10, 7.5, and 5 g·kg~(-1)(high-dose, medium-dose, and low-dose LICT groups, separately), once every 8 h for 3 times. Haematoxylin-eosin(HE) staining was used to observe the histopathological changes of lung tissue, followed by the scoring of inflammation. Immunohistochemistry was applied to detect alveolar macrophage activation, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay(ELISA) was applied to detect the serum content of tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α) and interleukin-18(IL-18), Western blot was applied to detect the protein expression of phosphorylated-nuclear factor kappaB p65(p-NF-κB p65), nuclear factor kappaB p65(NF-κB p65), phosphorylated-inhibitor kappaB alpha(p-IκBα), inhibitor kappaB alpha(IκBα), and NLRP3 in lung tissue, and quantitative reverse transcription-PCR(qRT-PCR) was applied to detect the mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-18, NLRP3, and NF-κB p65 in lung tissue. The results showed that LICT groups demonstrated lung injury relief, decrease in inflammation score, alleviation of alveolar macrophage activation, significant decline in serum content of inflammatory factors TNF-α and IL-18, and decrease of the protein expression of p-NF-κB p65/NF-κB p65, p-IκBα/IκBα, and NLRP3, and mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-18, NLRP3, and NF-κB p65 in lung tissue. In summary, LICT has definite therapeutic effect on ALI. The mechanism is that it inhibits alveolar macrophage activation by suppressing NF-κB/NLRP3 signaling pathway, thereby reducing the activation and release of inflammatory factors and finally inhibiting inflammation.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury/genetics , Animals , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Intestines , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/metabolism , Macrophage Activation , NF-kappa B/metabolism , NLR Family, Pyrin Domain-Containing 3 Protein/metabolism , Rats , Signal Transduction
4.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 265-275, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-927602

ABSTRACT

Group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3) as a family member of innate lymphoid cells (ILCs), have been defined as novel innate immune cells in the past decade. ILC3 include a variety of heterogenous subsets with different phenotypes and functions, which are mainly distributed in barrier organs such as the intestine, lung and skin. They play an important role in immune regulation, tissue repair and lymphoid tissue formation. However, in various inflammatory diseases, ILC3 become dysregulated and participate in the pathogenesis through secreting a series of cytokines such as interleukin (IL)-17, IL-22, interferon-γ (IFN-γ) and granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF) to modulate other immune cells and induce the formation of ectopic lymphoid structures. Therefore, it is of great significance to explore the phenotype and function of ILC3 in order to advance the understanding of inflammatory diseases and find new therapeutic targets. In this article, the phenotypic characteristics, biological functions and research progress of ILC3 in inflammatory diseases were reviewed.


Subject(s)
Cytokines , Immunity, Innate , Interferon-gamma , Intestines , Lymphocytes
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935768

ABSTRACT

Objective: To observe the intestinal time-dependent changes in Parkinson's disease (PD) mouse model constructed by intraperitoneal injection of paraquat (PQ) and to establish the brain-gut axis connection initially. Methods: In October 2019, 48 mice were randomly divided into treated group and control groups: treated 4-week (P-4) group, treated 6-week (P-6) group, treated 8-week (P-8) group, control 4-week (C-4) group, control 6-week (C-6) group, and control 8-week (C-8) group. The treated group was injected with 15 mg/kg PQ solution and the control group was injected with 0.9% saline (0.2 ml/20 g) by intraperitoneal injection twice a week. After the initial state (0 weeks) and the treatment at the end of 4, 6 and 8 weeks, the mood changes and motor functions of mice were assessed by neurobehavioral tests (open field test, pole climbing test, tail suspension test and elevated plus maze test) . And the number of fecal pellets for 1 h and water content were calculated to assess the functional status of the gastrointestinal tract. Western blotting experiments were performed to detect the expression levels of α-synuclein (α-syn) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the nigrostriatal region of the mouse brain, the tight junction markers zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin, the inflammatory markers of integrin αM subunit (CD11b) , inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) , high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) , interleukin-1β (IL-1β) , and the neuronal markers βⅢ-tubulin and α-syn protein in the colon.Immunohistochemical staining was performed to detect the expression levels of colonic tight junction proteins ZO-1 and Occludin. Immunofluorescence staining was performed to detect the expression levels of TH in the substantia nigra region of the midbrain, and the co-localization of colonic intestine neuronal marker (βⅢ-tubulin) and Ser129 α-syn in the colonic. Results: Compared with the initial state (0 weeks) and C-8 group, mice in the P-8 group had significantly higher pole climbing test scores and resting time, and significantly lower total active distance, mean active speed, percentage of open arm entry and 1 h fecal instances (P<0.05) . After poisoning, the 1 h fecal water content of model mice first increased and then decreased, the P-4 and P-6 groups were significantly higher than the simultaneous point control group, and the P-8 groups were significantly lower than the initial state (P<0.05) . Compared with control, P-4 and P-6 groups, the expression levels of ZO-1 and Occludin in the P-8 group were significantly decreased (P<0.05) . Compared with control group, the expression levels of CD11b and IL-1β in the P-4 group were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Compared with control and P-4 group, the expression levels of CD11b, iNOS, HMGB1 and IL-1β in the P-6 and P-8 groups were significantly increased (P<0.05) . Compared with the control and P-4 groups, the expression levels of βⅢ-tubulin in the colon of mice in the P-8 group were significantly decreased, and the expression levels of α-syn and Ser129 α-syn were significantly increased (P<0.05) . The expression level of Ser129 α-syn in the colon of model mice was negatively correlated with the expression level of βⅢ-tubulin (r(s)=-0.9149, 95%CI: -0.9771--0.7085, P<0.001) . Ser129 α-syn and βⅢ-tubulin co-localization in the colonic intermuscular plexus region increased gradually with the time of exposure. Compared with the control, P-4 and P-6 groups, the expression level of TH in the nigrostriatal region of the brain was significantly decreased, and the expression levels of α-syn and Ser129 α-syn were significantly increased in the P-8 group (P<0.05) . Correlation analysis showed that the relative expression level of Ser129 α-syn in the nigrostriatal region of the brain was negatively correlated with the expression level of TH in the model mice (r(s)=-0.9716, 95% CI: -0.9925--0.8953, P<0.001) . Conclusion: The PD mouse model is successfully established by PQ, and the intestinal function of the model mice is reduced in a time-dependent manner. And on this basis, it is preliminary determined that the abnormal aggregation of α-syn may be an important substance connecting the brain-gut axis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Brain-Gut Axis , Disease Models, Animal , HMGB1 Protein , Intestines , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Occludin , Paraquat/toxicity , Parkinson Disease , Tubulin , Tyrosine 3-Monooxygenase/metabolism , Water
6.
Chinese Journal of Surgery ; (12): 27-31, 2022.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935575

ABSTRACT

When abdominal neoplasms originating from the pancreas or nearby organs locally involving the superior mesenteric artery (SMA), complete resection is still the only hope for cure. However, SMA resection and reconstruction is a complex surgical procedure associated with high postoperative morbidity and mortality. Intestinal autotransplantation has recently emerged in clinical practice as a treatment option for selected patients with neoplasms involving the SMA. The original procedure involved en bloc removal of a tumor together with the intestine, ex vivo resection and reconstruction of gastrointestinal tract by an intestinal autograft. To further refine this complex procedure, a modified method was developed in which a segmental bowel autograft is selected and harvested first during the initial stage of the operation, and radical resection of the neoplasm is carried out thereafter. The modification would better protect a healthy bowel autograft from potential damage due to prolonged warm ischemia and allow the subsequent lengthy process of dissection to be performed in an unrushed manner. Furthermore, this alteration would better adhere to the general principles of minimal tumor manipulation during operation and potentially decrease the risks of tumor implantation during in vitro organ perfusion. Although intestinal autotransplantation has expanded eligibility for resection of otherwise unresectable lesions involving the SMA, its operative complexity, high risks, and post-operative complications largely limit its clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intestines , Mesenteric Artery, Superior/surgery , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Transplantation, Autologous
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-935317

ABSTRACT

To explore the composition and diversity of the intestinal microflora of Leopoldamys edwardsi in Hainan Island. In November 2019, DNA was extracted from fecal samples of 25 adult Leopoldamys edwardsi (14 males and 11 females) in Hainan Island at the Joint Laboratory of tropical infectious diseases of Hainan Medical College and Hong Kong University. Based on the IonS5TMXL sequencing platform, single-end sequencing (Single-End) was used to construct a small fragment library for single-end sequencing. Based on Reads shear filtration and OTUs clustering. The species annotation and abundance analysis of OTUs were carried out by using mothur method and SSUrRNA database, and further conducted α diversity and β diversity analysis. A total of 1481842 high quality sequences, belonging to 14 Phyla, 85 families and 186 Genera, were obtained from 25 intestinal excrement samples of Leopoldamys edwardsi. At the level of phyla classification, the main core biota of the Leopoldamys edwardsi contained Firmicutes (46.04%),Bacteroidetes (25.34%), Proteobacteria (17.09%), Tenericutes (7.38%) and Actinobacteria (1.67%), these five phyla account for 97.52% of all phyla. The ratio of Helicobacter which occupied the largest proportion at the genus level was 12.44%, followed by Lactobacillus (11.39%), Clostridium (6.19%),Mycoplasma (4.23%) and Flavonifractor (3.52%). High throughput sequencing analysis showed that the intestinal flora of Leopoldamys edwardsi in Hainan Island was complex and diverse, which had the significance of further research.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Bacteria/genetics , Feces/microbiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/genetics , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Intestines , Male , Murinae/genetics
8.
Actual. osteol ; 18(1): 40-52, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1396075

ABSTRACT

El "microbioma" no solo está constituido por los microbios, sino por todos los componen-tes que viven en el mismo hábitat conforman-do un nicho ecológico. Es decir, está conformado por los microorganismos (bacterias, hongos, protozoos, etc.), todo el espectro de moléculas producidas por ellos tales como sus componentes estructurales (ácidos nucleicos, proteínas, lípidos y glúcidos), meta-bolitos, toxinas, etc., y las moléculas producidas por el huésped. El microbioma intestinal (MI) ha emergido como un factor que tiene un gran efecto sobre la cantidad, calidad y fuerza del hueso. Las investigaciones revelan que la homeostasis ósea está ligada al micro-bioma saludable, mientras que la disbiosis (alteración en la biodiversidad microbiana) puede exacerbar la actividad osteoclástica y promover la osteoporosis. Los mecanismos potenciales involucrados en la interacción del microbioma intestinal y el hueso son la influencia del metabolismo del huésped, el mantenimiento de la integridad intestinal y regulación de la absorción de nutrientes, la regulación del eje intestino-sistema inmune y la modulación del sistema endocrino. Es decir que hay múltiples vías por las cuales el MI influye sobre el hueso, pero estos y otros mecanismos deben profundizarse más aún. También es necesario que se identifiquen y caractericen mejor los microorganismos que están asociados a las enfermedades óseas. El conocimiento de estos aspectos podría ser útil para el desarrollo de herramientas terapéuticas basadas en el MI que puedan mejorar la eficacia de los distintos tratamientos existentes. (AU)


The microbiome is not only constituted by microbes, but by all the components that live in the same habitat forming an ecological niche. It is conformed by the microorganisms ( bacteria, fungi, protozoa, etc), the entire spectrum of molecules produced by them (nucleic acids, proteins, lipid and carbohydrates, metabolites, toxins, etc) and the molecules produced by the host. The intestinal microbiome (IM) has emerged as a factor with great effects on the quantity, quality and strength of bone. The investigations reveal that bone homeostasis is linked to the healthy microbiome, while the dysbiosis (alteration in the microbial biodiversity) can exacerbate the osteoclastic activity and promote osteoporosis. The potential mechanisms involved in the interaction between IM and bone are the influence of the host metabolism, the maintenance of the intestinal integrity and regulation of the nutrient absorption, the regulation of the intestine/ immune system axis and the modulation of the endocrine system. That is, there are multiple ways through which IM influences on bone, but these and other mechanisms need to be further studied. It is also necessary to identify and characterize the microorganisms associated with the bone diseases. Knowledge of these aspects could be useful to develop therapeutical tools based on the IM that could improve the efficacy of the current treatments. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Osteoblasts/immunology , Osteoclasts/immunology , Bone and Bones/immunology , Dysbiosis/complications , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/immunology , Osteoblasts/metabolism , Osteoclasts/metabolism , Bone and Bones/metabolism , Intestines/immunology , Intestines/microbiology
9.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375813

ABSTRACT

Background: The intrinsic sensitivity limitations of basic parasitological methods, along with the particular biological characteristics of parasites, make these methods ineffective to differentiate morphologically indistinguishable species. Molecular detection and characterization techniques could be used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this work was to standardize molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, described in the literature, for the detection and molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa and other pathogens in humans. Methods: DNA was extracted from human or animal feces, previously washed or cultured in Boeck Drbohlav's Modified Medium. DNA extraction was performed with Machery-Nagel extraction kits. The standardization of the PCR, nested-PCR or RFLP techniques was carried out according to the literature. For each molecular technique performed, the sensitivity of the test was determined based on the minimun quantity required of DNA (sensitivity A) and the minimum quantity of life forms that the test detected (sensitivity B). Results: Sensitivity A was 10 fg for G. duodenalis, 12.5 pg for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar, 50 fg for Cryptosporidium spp., 225 pg for Cyclospora spp. and 800 fg or 8 fg for Blastocystis spp. after performing a 1780 bp PCR or 310 bp nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity B was 100 cysts for G. duodenalis, 500 cysts for E. histolytica or E. dispar, 1000 oocysts for Cyclospora spp. and 3600 or four vegetatives forms for PCR or nested PCR of Blastocystis spp., respectively. Conclusions: The molecular detection of protozoa and chromist was achieved and the molecular characterization allowed the genotyping of some of the parasites such as Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis spp. This study summarizes the molecular techniques for epidemiological studies in humans and animals, and helps in the investigation of their transmission sources in countries where intestinal parasites are a public health problem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestines/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Epidemiologic Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Cryptosporidium
10.
Alerta (San Salvador) ; 4(3): 102-98, jul. 29, 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BISSAL | ID: biblio-1282073

ABSTRACT

El síndrome de cordón umbilical corto es una anomalía poco común e incompatible con la vida que se asocia a defectos de la pared anterior del feto, cordón umbilical corto o ausente y anomalías de los miembros. Esta entidad es la más severa y más infrecuente entre los defectos de la pared anterior del abdomen, con una incidencia de 1 en 14 000 nacimientos. Se presenta el caso de un recién nacido de término, de sexo indeterminado, producto de primer embarazo, de parto abdominal. A las 28 semanas de gestación se diagnosticó un defecto en pared abdominal anterior y una imagen quística de columna vertebral por ultrasonografía. Al nacimiento se observaron los órganos abdominales expuestos, el cordón umbilical grueso, de 10 cm de longitud, eventración de intestinos e hígado y cifoescoliosis marcada, ausencia de genitales externos y de ano, un remanente de miembro inferior derecho y miembro inferior izquierdo completo con pie equinovaro. Se le dio apoyo ventilatorio y falleció a los 15 minutos de vida


Short umbilical cord syndrome is a rare and life-incompatible abnormality associated with fetal anterior wall defects, absent or short umbilical cord, and limb abnormalities. This entity is the most severe and rarest of anterior abdominal wall defects, with an incidence of 1 in 14,000 births. We present the case of a full-term newborn, of undetermined sex, product of first pregnancy, of abdominal delivery. At 28 weeks' gestation, an anterior abdominal wall defect and a cystic image of the spine were diagnosed by ultrasonography. At birth, the exposed abdominal organs, the thick umbilical cord, 10 cm in length, eventration of the intestines and liver and marked kyphoscoliosis, absence of external genitalia and anus, a remnant of the right lower limb and complete left lower limb with foot were observed. equinovarus. Ventilatory support was given and died at 15 minutes of life


Subject(s)
Syndrome , Umbilical Cord , Parturition , Intestines
11.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1248723

ABSTRACT

La malrotación intestinal es un espectro de malformaciones, que incluye una gran variedad de alteraciones en el proceso de rotación y fijación del intestino. La ausencia completa de rotación intestinal, uno de los tipos de malrotación intestinal más frecuentes, puede presentarse como hallazgo asintomático o manifestarse clínicamente por un vólvulo del intestino medio. Sin embargo, incluso entre aquellos que se presentan con vólvulo del intestino medio, la clínica puede ser muy diferente, según el grado de isquemia y eventual necrosis intestinal. Se presentan dos casos clínicos de malrotación intestinal con vólvulo del intestino medio con presentaciones, imágenes, tratamientos y evoluciones muy disímiles. Se analizan los mismos a la luz de una revisión bibliográfica relevante al tema tratado, se sacan aprendizajes del manejo realizado y la evolución que presentaron, y se enfatizan los elementos de mayor jerarquía para optimizar el manejo de estos pacientes.


Intestinal malrotation is a spectrum of malformations that includes a great variety of alterations in the rotation and fixation process of the intestines. The total absence of intestinal rotation, one of the most frequents types of intestinal malrotation could present as an asymptomatic find or appear clinically as a midgut volvulus. However, even those that appear as midgut volvulus, could show quite different signs and symptoms according to the degree of ischemic insult and possible intestinal necrosis. Two clinical cases of intestinal malrotation with midgut volvulus with quite different presentations, images, treatments, and evolutions, are informed. The two cases are analyzed under a relevant bibliographic revision, knowledge is derived from the carried-out management and evolution, and elements for the future optimization of management are underlined.


A má rotação intestinal é um espectro de malformações, que inclui uma grande variedade de alterações no processo de rotação e fixação do intestino. A ausência completa de rotação intestinal, um dos tipos mais comuns de má rotação intestinal, pode se apresentar como um achado assintomático ou manifestar-se clinicamente como um volvo de intestino médio. Porém, mesmo entre aqueles que apresentam volvo de intestino médio, os sintomas podem ser muito diferentes, dependendo do grau de isquemia e eventual necrose intestinal. Dois casos clínicos de má rotação intestinal com volvo de intestino médio são apresentados com apresentações, imagens, tratamentos e evoluções muito diferentes. São analisados ​​à luz de uma revisão bibliográfica pertinente ao tema em questão, lições aprendidas com o manejo realizado e a evolução que apresentaram, e os elementos de maior hierarquia são enfatizados para otimizar o manejo desses pacientes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Intestinal Volvulus/surgery , Intestinal Volvulus/diagnostic imaging , Treatment Outcome , Intestines/abnormalities
12.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(5): e441-e472, oct. 2021. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1292123

ABSTRACT

La falla intestinal secundaria a síndrome de intestino corto en pediatría es una entidad poco frecuente, de alta morbimortalidad. Requiere de un equipo interdisciplinario para su abordaje, lo cual ha demostrado que disminuye la morbimortalidad y aumenta la posibilidad de que los pacientes logren la autonomía intestinal. Existe una falta de evidencia científica en diferentes abordajes de la patología. Consideramos necesario el desarrollo de esta Guía para el Manejo Clínico construida sobre la base de la metodología Delphi modificada, en la Asociación Argentina de Nutrición Enteral y Parenteral, por 16 expertos que se reunieron para discutir y consensuar los principales aspectos de tratamiento clínico. Se analizaron 4 aspectos: definiciones y epidemiología; nutrición enteral, nutrición parenteral; tratamientos farmacológicos y quirúrgicos,y criterios de derivación a centros de alta complejidad. Sin duda este documento será de utilidad para los pacientes, los profesionales y las instituciones, así como para los diferentes financiadores del sistema de salud.


Intestinal failure secondary to short bowel syndrome in pediatrics, is a rare condition with high morbimortality. A follow up multidisciplinary team is necessary to minimize complications and optimize the intestinal rehabilitation. There are no gold standard guidelines for the management of this group of complex patients. The development of clinical guidelines may contribute for an adequate management of patients with intestinal failure and short bowel syndrome. This Clinical Guideline for the Management was developed by 16 experts based on modified Delphi methodology. The meetings were held at the Argentinian Association of Enteral and Parenteral Nutrition (Asociación Argentina de Nutrición Enteral y Parenteral); the topics analyzed were definitions, epidemiology, enteral and parenteral nutrition, pharmacological and surgical treatments, and criteria for referring patients to intestinal rehabilitation centers. The document is aimed to provide basic scientific knowledge for medical institutions, health providers, healthcare providers, patients and families.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Pediatrics , Short Bowel Syndrome/complications , Short Bowel Syndrome/therapy , Parenteral Nutrition , Intestine, Small , Intestines
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942996

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the safety of definitive surgery for chronic radiation intestinal injury. Methods: A descriptive case series study was performed. Clinical data of 105 patients who were diagnosed as chronic radiation intestinal injury, had complete data and received definitive surgery (the radiation-induced intestinal segment and digestive tract reconstruction) at Department of Gastrointestinal Surgery of Beijing Tsinghua Changgung Hospital from June 2016 to May 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. There were 30 males (28.6%) and 75 females (71.4%) with the median age of 58 years (P25, P75: 52, 64 years). Patients who had tumor recurrence or refused surgical treatment were excluded. According to the preoperative evaluation and clinical manifestations, to select the resection range. Outcome parameters: (1) preoperative evaluation (nutrition risk assessment and status of obstruction or fistula); (2) clinical manifestations and treatment strategies; (3) details of surgical parameters; (4) postoperative complications, and Clavien-Dindo classification III to V was defined as main moderate-severe complication. Results: (1) Preoperative evaluation: Eighty-eight patients (83.8%) developed symptoms of chronic radiation intestinal injury more than 1 year after the end of radiotherapy. Ninety-eight patients (93.3%) had preoperative NRS-2002 score ≥3, 74 patients (70.5%) received preoperative parenteral nutritional support, and the median time of nutritional support was 10.5 (7.0, 16.0) days. Sixteen patients (15.2%) received small intestinal decompression tube implantation due to severe obstruction. (2) Clinical manifestations and treatment strategies: Among 105 patients, 87 (82.9%) presented with obstruction and received definitive resection of the radiation-induced intestinal segment plus one-stage digestive tract reconstruction; 18 (17.1%) presented with intestinal fistula and all of them received definitive resection of the radiation-induced intestinal segment, intestinal fistula plus one-stage digestive tract reconstruction. Among above 18 patients with fistula, 3 patients with ileorectal stump fistula received pedicled pelvic closure of greater omentum at the same time; 4 patients had ileal vesical fistula, of whom 2 patients received cystectomy and bladder repair due to preoperative nephrostomy decompression, and the other 2 patients received transection of the small intestine proximal and distal to the fistula and anastomosis of the intestinal loop without fistula resection, intestinal fistula or bladder fistula repair. (3) The details of surgical parameters: Median operative time and intraoperative blood loss was 230 (180, 300) minutes and 50 (20, 50) ml respectively. Ninety-two patients (92/105, 87.6%) underwent ileocolonic anastomosis, and anastomosis on the hepatic flexure or splenic flexure colon were performed in 88 (83.8%) and 4 (3.8%) patients respectively. Ileoileal anastomosis was performed in 13 patients (12.4%). The anastomotic site of 92 patients (87.6%) was strictly located in the contralateral quadrant of the radiation field, and the anastomotic site of 13 patients (12.4%) was far from the radiation field. Nine patients (8.6%) had more than one anastomosis, 5 patients (4.8%) had less than 180 cm of residual small intestine, 7 patients (6.7%) underwent retrograde intestinal permutation, 4 patients (3.8%) underwent abdominal wall reconstruction surgery due to abdominal wall defects, and 87 patients (82.9%) had severe abdominal pelvic adhesions (grade 3-4 adhesions). Intraoperative complications occurred in 3 patients (2.9%), which were found in time and handled properly. The median postoperative hospital stay was 13.0 (12.0, 24.5) days, and all the patients had resumed oral feeding upon discharge. (4) Postoperative complications: Fourteen patients (13.3%) had 18 major complications (grade III to V). The incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage was 5.7% (6/105), and the incidence of anastomotic leakage for ileocolon anastomosis and ileoileal anastomosis was 2.2% (2/92) and 4/13, respectively (χ(2)=17.29, P<0.001). The incidence of postoperative anastomotic leakage of intestinal fistula and intestinal obstruction was 3/18 and 3.4% (3/87), respectively (χ(2)=4.84, P=0.028). The mortality at 30 days after operation was 1.0% (1/105), after abdominal infection and septic shock caused by postoperative anastomotic leakage resulting in multiple organ failure. Conclusion: For chronic radiation intestinal injury patients with obstruction or fistula, definitive surgical treatment is feasible and safe with acceptable major complications.


Subject(s)
Anastomosis, Surgical , Anastomotic Leak , Female , Humans , Intestines , Male , Middle Aged , Postoperative Complications , Radiation Injuries , Retrospective Studies
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942937

ABSTRACT

Intestinal organoids, also named "mini-guts", reconstitute sophisticated three-dimensional architecture recapitulating diversified intestinal epithelial cell types and physiology, which is driven by the proliferative and self-assembling characteristics of crypt stem cells. The initiation of organoids study relies on the identification of Lgr5+ crypt stem cells from different intestinal segments and the key role of EGF, Wnt, BMP/TGF-β, Notch signal pathways within the microenvironment during the cultivation process. Besides constituting polarized crypt-villus structures, these "mini-guts" exhibit various effective functions of intestinal epithelium. Since 2009 when the culture system of small intestinal organoids was established by Sato et al, intestinal organoids excel conventional intestinal models depending on genetical mutation in multiple aspects and thus have become the hotspot among the research on intestinal diseases. Combined with genomics, material science and engineering, "mini-guts" have been widely applied to the research on intestinal development, intestinal transport physiology, epithelial barrier, pathogen-host interaction and the study on cystic fibrosis, infectious diarrhea, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, intestinal cancer, etc. In this review, we summarize the new insights introduced by organoid into the research on intestinal diseases, and related research advances and applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intestinal Mucosa , Intestinal Neoplasms , Intestines , Organoids , Stem Cells , Tumor Microenvironment
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942870

ABSTRACT

Intestinal failure (IF) is defined as the critical reduction of functional intestines below the minimum needed to absorb nutrients and fluids, so that intravenous supplementation with parenteral nutrition (PN) is required to maintain health and/or growth. Although the benefits are evident, patients receiving PN can suffer from serious cholestasis due to lack of enteral feeding and small intestinal bacterial overgrowth (SIBO). One such complication that may arise is intestinal failure-associated liver disease (IFALD). Evidences from recent studies suggest that alterations in the intestinal microbiota, as well as intraluminal bile acid driven signaling, may play a critical role in both hepatic and intestinal injury. Since Marshall first proposed the concept of the gut-liver axis in 1998, the role of gut-liver axis disorders in the development of IFALD has received considerable attention. The conversation between gut and liver is the key to maintain liver metabolism and intestinal homeostasis, which influences each other and is reciprocal causation. However, as a "forgotten organ" , intestinal microbiota on the pathogenesis of IFALD has not been well reflected. As such, we propose, for the first time, the concept of gut-microbiota-liver axis to emphasize the importance of intestinal microbiota in the interaction of gut-liver axis. Analysis and research on gut-microbiota-liver axis will be of great significance for understanding the pathogenesis of IFALD and improving the prevention and treatment measures.


Subject(s)
Bacterial Infections/physiopathology , Bile Acids and Salts/physiology , Cholestasis/physiopathology , Enteral Nutrition , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Humans , Intestinal Diseases/physiopathology , Intestines/physiopathology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology , Parenteral Nutrition/adverse effects , Short Bowel Syndrome/physiopathology , Signal Transduction
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887947

ABSTRACT

Akkermansia muciniphila, abbreviated as AKK and found in 2004, is an oval-shaped gram-negative bacterium isolated from a human feal. A. muciniphila is widely present in the intestinal tract of human. Its specialization in mucin degradation makes it a key organism at the mucosal interface between the lumen and host cells. More and more studies have shown that it can play the role of probiotics. Notably, declined levels of A. muciniphila have been observed in patients with diabetes, liver disease, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory bowel disease, neurodegenerative diseases, etc. In addition, A. muciniphila combined with traditional Chinese medicine, exhibited higher effect on regulating host functions, but the underlying mechanism was still unclear, requiring further in-depth research. Therefore, the aims of this review are to summarize the main effects of A. muciniphila on host health and its relationship with traditional Chinese medicine, summarize the main problems, and provide a reference for the further research of A. muciniphila and traditional Chinese medicine.


Subject(s)
Akkermansia , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases , Intestines , Probiotics , Verrucomicrobia/genetics
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 509-517, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-887686

ABSTRACT

Organoid, formed from organ-specific cells, is a group of self-renewal and self-organizing cells growing in a 3-dimensional structure. With the recent progress on microenvironment regulation, stem cell differentiation and organ development, organoids have been constructed and used as promising tools for a wide range of multidisciplinary biomedical applications. Exercise disrupts the internal environment homeostasis, which brings a series of physiological alterations to the digestive system. The current animal or human models are necessary, but not sufficient to monitor the fluctuating microenvironment of gastrointestinal epithelial cells or hepatocytes during exercise. This review described the construction and application of digestive system organoids, as well as the effect of exercise on the microenvironment of intestinal epithelial cells and hepatocytes. The perspective applications of digestive system organoids in exercise physiology were also stated. Using organoid technologies, the possible mechanisms of the exercise-induced dynamic physiological changes would be explored in a new dimension.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cell Differentiation , Epithelial Cells , Hepatocytes , Humans , Intestines , Organoids
18.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879177

ABSTRACT

To study the effect of self-assembled nanoparticles from Shaoyao Gancao Decoction(SGD-SAN) on the encapsulation, in vitro release and intestinal absorption of the main components of Baishao. Particle size analysis and morphological observation were used to verify the formation of SGD-SAN in the decoction. The entrapment efficiency(EE) of SGD-SAN on the main components of Baishao was determined by ultrafiltration centrifugation. The dialysis bag method was used to study the in vitro release of the main components of Baishao with pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution as the release media. Single-pass intestinal perfusion study was performed to investigate the effect of SGD-SAN on the absorption of the main components of Baishao. The results showed that there were nanoparticles in the SGD, and the particle sizes and PDI of SGD-SAN were about 200 nm and 0.38, respectively. SGD-SAN was irregularly spherical under transmission electron microscope(TEM). The EEs of albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin in SGD-SAN were 33.78%±1.03%,33.61%±0.90%,88.53%±0.58%, respectively. The release characteristics of albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin from SGD-SAN showed a slow-release effect on pH 6.8 phosphate buffer solution media. SGD-SAN could significantly enhance the absorption of albiflorin, paeoniflorin and benzoylpaeoniflorin in the ileum. The results of this study indicated that SAN could be formed during the mixed decoction of Baishao and Gancao, and SGD-SAN could encapsulate the components of Baishao, with a certain slow-release effect, and the formation of SAN facilitated the absorption of drugs in the ileum.


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Intestinal Absorption , Intestines , Nanoparticles
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878930

ABSTRACT

The present study is to investigate the absorption characteristics of the main components in Polygonum orientale extract in normal and isoproterenol-induced myocardial ischemia model rats with everted intestinal sac models. Intestinal sac fluid samples were collected in different part of intestine(duodenum, jejunum, ileum, colon) at different time after administration of different concentration of P. orientale extract(5.0,10.0, 20.0 mg·mL~(-1)). An UPLC-TQD method was employed for the determination of six components including orientin, isoorientin, vitexin, protocatechuic acid, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucoside and quercitrin in the intestinal sac samples. The absorption rate and cumulative absorption were calculated to analyze the intestinal absorption characteristics of six components in normal and myocardial ischemia model rats. The P-glycoprotein(P-gp) inhibitor was applied to investigate influence of intestinal absorption of six components in P. orientale extract. The results showed that the main absorption sites were concentrated on the duodenum at low concentration, while they were the colon at the medium concentration and the ileum at high concentration in control groups. In the condition of myocardial ischemia model, the main absorption sites focus on the ileum and jejunum at low concentration; the main absorption sites were in the ileum at the medium concentration and main absorption sites were the duodenum and ileum at high concentration. Compared with the normal group, the absorption rate and cumulative absorption of the six components significantly decreased in the model group. P-gp inhibitor markedly increased the absorption rate and cumulative absorption of six components in the model group, inferring that the 6 components may be the substrates of P-gp, and the mechanism needs further study. In this study, it is revealed that the six components of P. orientale extract can be absorbed into the intestinal sac, and it is an effective method to assess the intestinal absorption characteristics of P. orientale extract through everted intestinal sac model, providing data support for the clinical application and further development of P. orientale.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestinal Absorption , Intestines , Isoproterenol , Myocardial Ischemia/chemically induced , Polygonum , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878872

ABSTRACT

"Target fishing" strategy was used to investigate the direct targets and mechanism of Shouhui Tongbian Capsules on relaxing bowel. Magnetic beads cross-linked with the chemical constituents from Shouhui Tongbian Capsules were prepared. The potential target proteins were captured from the total protein lysates of rat intestine using the beads. The captured proteins were further identified by LC-MS/MS, and the associated pathways were analyzed by Cytoscape. RESULTS:: showed that 138 potential target proteins were identified, which were involved in eight signaling pathways, including tricarboxylic acid cycle, pyrimidine metabolism, sulfur metabolism, fatty acid degradation, alanine/aspartate/glutamate metabolism, arginine/proline metabolism, valine/leucine/isoleucine degradation, and β-alanine metabolism. Taken together, Shouhui Tongbian Capsules may exert relaxing bowel effect by acting on multiple signaling pathways to promote intestinal gurgling, inhibit inflammation, as well as improve intestinal barrier function, intestinal water secretion, and intestinal flora.


Subject(s)
Animals , Capsules , Chromatography, Liquid , Intestines , Leucine , Rats , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
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