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1.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 862-870, May-June, 2020. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1129541

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate in vitro the probiotic potential and absorption of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for the aflatoxin B1 in simulated fish intestinal tract conditions. Three yeast strains were used, two from brewery: S. cerevisiae RC1 and S. cerevisiae RC3 and one from a fish farming environment: S. cerevisiae A8L2. The selected yeasts were subjected to the following in vitro tests: homologous inhibition, self-aggregation, co-aggregation, antibacterial activity, gastrointestinal conditions tolerance and adsorption of AFB1. All S. cerevisiae strains showed good capability of self-aggregation and co-aggregation with pathogenic bacteria. All yeast strains were able to survive the gastrointestinal conditions. In acidic conditions, the factors (strain vs. time) had interaction (P=0.0317), resulting in significant variation among the strains tested in the time periods analyzed. It was observed that there was also interaction (P=0.0062) in intestinal conditions, with an increased number of cells in the 12-hour period for all strains tested. In the adsorption test, the A8L2 strain was statistically more effective (P<0.005) for both AFB1 concentrations evaluated in this study (10 and 25ng/mL). Thus, it was observed that the strains of S. cerevisiae have potential probiotic and adsorbent of AFB1.(AU)


Objetivou-se, com esta pesquisa, avaliar in vitro o potencial probiótico e adsorvente de Saccharomyces cerevisiae para aflatoxina B1 em condições simuladas do trato intestinal de peixes. Foram utilizadas três cepas de leveduras, sendo duas provenientes de cervejaria: S. cerevisiae RC1 e S. cerevisiae RC3, e uma de ambiente de piscicultura: S. cerevisiae A8L2. As leveduras selecionadas foram submetidas aos seguintes testes in vitro: inibição homóloga, autoagregação, coagregação, atividade antibacteriana, viabilidade às condições gastrointestinais e adsorção de AFB1. Todas as estirpes de S. cerevisiae mostraram boa capacidade de autoagregação e coagregação com bactérias patogênicas. Todas as estirpes de levedura foram capazes de sobreviver às condições gastrointestinais. Em condições ácidas, os fatores (cepa x tempo) tiveram interação (P=0,0317), resultando em variações significativas entre as cepas testadas nos períodos de tempo analisados. Observou-se que também houve interação (P=0,0062) em condições intestinais, havendo um aumento do número de células no período de 12h para todas as cepas avaliadas. No ensaio de adsorção, a estirpe A8L2 foi a mais eficaz estatisticamente (P<0,005), para as duas concentrações de AFB1 avaliadas neste estudo (10 e 25ng. mL-1). Dessa forma, conclui-se que as cepas de Saccharomyces cerevisiae possuem potencial probiótico e adsorvente de AFB1.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Saccharomyces cerevisiae , Aflatoxin B1/antagonists & inhibitors , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Fishes/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , In Vitro Techniques , Adsorption
2.
Int. j. morphol ; 37(3): 917-927, Sept. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1012376

ABSTRACT

El carcinoma gástrico (CG) de tipo intestinal se origina en un epitelio displásico, que a su vez se desarrolla en medio de una atrofia gástrica (AG) y metaplasia intestinal (MI). La infección por Helicobacter pylori (HP) es la causa más frecuente de AG, causando una pangastritis atrófica multifocal. Entre otras condiciones que producen inflamación crónica de la mucosa gástrica se encuentran también la gastritis autoinmune y la anemia perniciosa. El marco conceptual sobre el cual descansa gran parte de la investigación actual y nuestra comprensión de los cambios que ocurren en la mucosa gástrica se debe a la denominada "cascada de Correa"; quien planteó que la mucosa gástrica crónicamente inflamada, da paso a la AG, que va adquiriendo focos de MI y en dicho epitelio se desarrollará finalmente una displasia (DIS). Se ha acuñado el término lesiones preneoplásicas gástricas (LPG), para referirse a: AG, MI y DIS.Después de la erradicación de HP, se ha demostrado una reducción general de la incidencia de CG; efecto que no es tan claro, cuando la pangastritis por HP ha evolucionado a AG extensa. De tal modo que el efecto de la erradicación de HP medido a través de EC, ha sido poco consistente. La AG grave diagnosticada por histología representa la condición de mayor riesgo. Por otra parte, la MI puede ser de tipo intestinal (delgado-entérica ó incompleta) y la colónica (colónica ó completa) considerándose a esta última, como la variedad de peor pronóstico. El diagnóstico histológico de este tipo de lesiones determina que quien las padece, debe someterse a vigilancia endoscópica. El objetivo de este manuscrito fue resumir la evidencia existente respecto de las LPG, en términos de su caracterización morfológica y sus repercusiones diagnóstico-terapéuticas (significado patológico, graduación del riesgo, vigilancia recomendada; y factores de riesgo).


Gastric carcinoma (GC) of intestinal type, originates from a dysplastic epithelium, which in turn develops in the midst of gastric atrophy (GA) and intestinal metaplasia (IM). Helicobacter pylori (HP) infection is the most frequent cause of GA, causing a multifocal atrophic pangastritis. Among other conditions that produce chronic inflammation of gastric mucosa are also autoimmune gastritis and pernicious anemia. The conceptual framework on which much of current research rests and our understanding of the changes that occur in the gastric mucosa is due to the so-called "Correa waterfall"; who stated that gastric mucosa chronically inflamed, gives way to the GA, which is acquiring foci of IM and in said epithelium a dysplasia (DIS) will eventually develop. The term precancerous conditions (PCC) of the gastric mucosa have been coined to refer to: GA, IM and DIS. After HP eradication, a general reduction in the incidence of GC has been demonstrated; effect that is not so clear, when pangastritis by HP has evolved to extensive GA. Thus, the effect of HP eradication measured through clinical trials has been inconsistent. Severe GA diagnosed represents the highest risk condition. On the other hand, IM can be enteric (grade I), enterocolic (grade II) or colonic (grade III); considering IM III as the variety with the worst prognosis. Histological diagnosis of gastric PCC, determines that the one who suffers them, must undergo endoscopic surveillance. The aim of this manuscript was to update morphological aspects and diagnostic-therapeutic scope of gastric PCC.


Subject(s)
Humans , Precancerous Conditions/pathology , Stomach Neoplasms/pathology , Precancerous Conditions/microbiology , Stomach Neoplasms/microbiology , Risk Factors , Helicobacter pylori , Helicobacter Infections/complications , Helicobacter Infections/pathology , Risk Assessment , Gastritis, Atrophic/microbiology , Gastritis, Atrophic/pathology , Intestines/microbiology , Intestines/pathology , Metaplasia/microbiology , Metaplasia/pathology
3.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 52: e20180254, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985162

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Antimicrobial resistance has been reported in the drugs used for the treatment of typhoid fever. The immunomodulatory substance β-glucan can be used as an alternative therapy as it potentiates host immunity. The aims of this study are to observe the effect of Candida albicans cell wall (CCW) extract towards host immunity (TCD8+ and TCD4+ cells in spleen, intestinal sIgA) and its capacity to kill Salmonella in the intestine and liver of typhoid fever mice models. METHODS: Typhoid fever mice models were created by infecting mice with S. Typhimurium orally. Mice were divided into four groups: the Non-Infected, Infected, CCW (infected mice treated with 300 µg CCW extract/mouse once a day), and Ciprofloxacin groups (infected mice treated with 15 mg/kg BW ciprofloxacin twice a day). RESULTS: Secretory IgA (sIgA) concentrations of mice in the CCW group remained unchanged. However, their TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells increased substantially compared to those in the Non-Infected group. In the Ciprofloxacin group, sIgA concentrations increased markedly compared to those in the Non-Infected and CCW groups; TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells also increased significantly compared to those in the Infected Group, but not significant compared to those in the CCW group. Colonization of S. Typhimurium in the intestine and liver decreased significantly in the CCW and Ciprofloxacin groups compared to that in the Infected group, with the lowest reduction being found in the Ciprofloxacin group. CONCLUSIONS The inhibition of S. Typhimurium colonization by CCW is associated with the increase in TCD4+ and TCD8+ cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Salmonella typhimurium/drug effects , Typhoid Fever/microbiology , Candida albicans/chemistry , beta-Glucans/pharmacology , Immunoglobulin A, Secretory , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Ciprofloxacin , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/microbiology , Disease Models, Animal , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Liver/microbiology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C
4.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 35: 39-47, sept. 2018. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1047768

ABSTRACT

Background: Emergence of antibiotic resistance among pathogenic and food spoilage bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Streptococcus sanguinis, Streptococcus mutans, Bacillus cereus, and Listeria monocytogenes triggered the search for alternative antimicrobials. An investigation aimed at purifying, characterizing, elucidating the mode of action, and enhancing the production of salivaricin from Lactobacillus salivarius of human gut origin was conducted. Results: Salivaricin mmaye1 is a novel bacteriocin purified from L. salivarius isolated from human feces. It is potent at micromolar concentrations and has a molecular weight of 1221.074 Da as determined by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. It has a broad spectrum of antibacterial activity. Salivaricin mmaye1 showed high thermal and chemical stability and moderate pH stability. The proteinaceous nature of salivaricin mmaye1 was revealed by the complete loss of activity after treatment with pepsin, trypsin, α-chymotrypsin, protease, and proteinase. Salivaricin mmaye1 is cell wall associated, and adsorption­desorption of the bacteriocin from the cell wall of the producer by pH modification proved successful. It exhibited a bactericidal mode of action mediated by pore formation. Its biosynthesis is regulated by a quorum sensing mechanism. Enhanced production of salivaricin mmaye1 was achieved in a newly developed growth medium. Conclusions: A novel, cell wall adhering, highly potent bacteriocin with a broad spectrum of inhibitory activity, membrane-permeabilizing ability, and enhanced production in a newly constituted medium has been isolated. It has a quorum sensing regulatory system and possesses interesting physicochemical characteristics favoring its future use in food biopreservation. These findings pave the way for future evaluation of its medical and food applications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacteriocins/biosynthesis , Bacteriocins/chemistry , Lactobacillus salivarius/metabolism , Bacteria/growth & development , Bacteriocins/isolation & purification , Drug Resistance, Microbial , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Cell Wall , Quorum Sensing , Protein Stability , Feces/microbiology , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intestines/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/chemistry
5.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 94(3): 258-267, May-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-954614

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective Since the present group had already described the composition of the intestinal microbiota of Brazilian infants under low social economic level, the aim of the present study was to analyze the microbial community structure changes in this group of infants during their early life due to external factors. Methods Fecal samples were collected from 11 infants monthly during the first year of life. The infants were followed regarding clinical and diet information and characterized according to breastfeeding practices. DNA was extracted from fecal samples of each child and subjected to Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis. Results The results revealed a pattern of similarity between the time points for those who were on exclusive breastfeeding or predominant breastfeeding. Although there were changes in intensity and fluctuation of some bands, the Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis patterns in the one-year microbial analysis were stable for breastfeeding children. There was uninterrupted ecological succession despite the influence of external factors, such as complementary feeding and antibiotic administration, suggesting microbiota resilience. This was not observed for those children who had mixed feeding and introduction of solid food before the 5th month of life. Conclusion These results suggested an intestinal microbiota pattern resilient to external forces, due to the probiotic and prebiotic effects of exclusive breastfeeding, reinforcing the importance of exclusive breastfeeding until the 6th month of life.


Resumo Objetivo Como nosso grupo já havia descrito a composição da microbiota intestinal de neonatos brasileiros em baixo nível socioeconômico, o objetivo deste estudo foi analisar alterações estruturais da comunidade microbiana desse grupo de neonatos no início de sua vida devido a fatores externos. Métodos Amostras fecais foram coletadas mensalmente de 11 neonatos durante o primeiro ano de vida. Os neonatos foram acompanhados com relação a informações clínicas e nutricionais e caracterizados de acordo com práticas de amamentação. O DNA foi extraído das amostras fecais de cada criança e submetido a análise através da técnica de Reação em Cadeia da Polimerase - Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante. Resultados Os resultados revelaram um padrão de similaridade entre seus próprios pontos temporais em indivíduos em aleitamento materno exclusivo ou predominante. Apesar de variações na intensidade e flutuação de algumas bandas, o padrão Eletroforese em Gel de Gradiente Desnaturante na análise microbiana de um ano foi estável em crianças em aleitamento materno. Houve sucessão ecológica ininterrupta apesar da influência de fatores externos, como alimentação complementar e administração de antibióticos, sugeriu resiliência da microbiota. Isso não foi observado nas crianças com alimentação heterogênea e introdução de alimentos sólidos antes do quinto mês de vida. Conclusão Nossos resultados sugerem um padrão de microbiota intestinal resiliente a forças externas, devido a efeitos probióticos e prebióticos do aleitamento materno exclusivo, reforçam a importância do aleitamento materno exclusivo até o sexto mês de vida.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteria/immunology , Breast Feeding , Feces/microbiology , Intestines/microbiology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/administration & dosage , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/genetics , RNA, Bacterial/analysis , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/analysis , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Electrophoresis, Agar Gel
6.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 4-12, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742511

ABSTRACT

The intestinal microbiota is a complex ecosystem consisting of various microorganisms that expands human genetic repertoire and therefore affects human health and disease. The metabolic processes and signal transduction pathways of the host and intestinal microorganisms are intimately linked, and abnormal progression of each process leads to changes in the intestinal environment. Alterations in microbial communities lead to changes in functional structures based on the metabolites produced in the gut, and these environmental changes result in various bacterial infections and chronic enteric inflammatory diseases. Here, we illustrate how antibiotics are associated with an increased risk of antibiotic-associated diseases by driving intestinal environment changes that favor the proliferation and virulence of pathogens. Understanding the pathogenesis caused by antibiotics would be a crucial key to the treatment of antibiotic-associated diseases by mitigating changes in the intestinal environment and restoring it to its original state.


Subject(s)
Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteria/drug effects , Bacteria/growth & development , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/drug effects , Humans , Intestines/drug effects , Intestines/microbiology , Symbiosis/drug effects
7.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 48(4): 754-759, Oct.-Dec. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-889180

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Salmonella Enteritidis causes fowl paratyphoid in poultry and is frequently associated to outbreaks of food-borne diseases in humans. The role of flagella and flagella-mediated motility into host-pathogen interplay is not fully understood and requires further investigation. In this study, one-day-old chickens were challenged orally with a wild-type strain Salmonella Enteritidis, a non-motile but fully flagellated (SE ΔmotB) or non-flagellated (SE ΔfliC) strain to evaluate their ability to colonise the intestine and spread systemically and also of eliciting gross and histopathological changes. SE ΔmotB and SE ΔfliC were recovered in significantly lower numbers from caecal contents in comparison with Salmonella Enteritidis at early stages of infection (3 and 5 dpi). The SE ΔmotB strain, which synthesises paralysed flagella, showed poorer intestinal colonisation ability than the non-flagellated SE ΔfliC. Histopathological analyses demonstrated that the flagellated strains induced more intense lymphoid reactivity in liver, ileum and caeca. Thus, in the present study the flagellar structure and motility seemed to play a role in the early stages of the intestinal colonisation by Salmonella Enteritidis in the chicken.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poultry Diseases/microbiology , Salmonella enteritidis/growth & development , Salmonella enteritidis/pathogenicity , Salmonella Infections, Animal/microbiology , Flagella/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Poultry Diseases/pathology , Salmonella enteritidis/physiology , Salmonella enteritidis/genetics , Salmonella Infections, Animal/pathology , Virulence , Chickens , Flagella/genetics , Intestines/pathology
8.
MedicalExpress (São Paulo, Online) ; 4(4)July-Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-894360

ABSTRACT

In the history of medicine, only recently has obesity been recognized as a disease. We know now that it is a pandemic condition, partly explained by the so-called Western lifestyle and related to multiple other comorbidities in various systems. This lyfestyle includes eating large portions, rich in saturated fats and refined sugar, all coupled with sedentary habits. In recent years, the gut microbiota has been indited as a new culprit in pathophysiological aspects involved in obesity. From studies with animals free of bacteria in the digestive tract, known as "germ-free animals", the relevance of intestinal microbiota in the regulation of body fat became evident and its importance has also been extended to the pathophysiology of diseases such as diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Characterization of Toll-like receptors led to the discovery of mechanisms that link the immune system with some metabolic pathways and opened new avenues of a previously unknown world to biological sciences. Increased knowledge about interactions between gut microbiota and the host can certainly reveal, in a not too distant future, new therapeutic perspectives for obesity and its related diseases.


Na história da medicina apenas recentemente a obesidade foi reconhecida como uma doença. Sabemos agora que é uma doença pandêmica, explicada em parte pelo chamado estilo de vida ocidental e relacionado a múltiplas outras comorbidades em vários sistemas. O referido estilo de vida inclui comer grandes porções, ricas em gorduras saturadas e açúcares refinados, e hábitos sedentários. Nos últimos anos, a microbiota intestinal foi associada aos aspectos fisiopatológicos envolvidos na obesidade. De estudos com animais livres de bactérias no trato digestivo, conhecidos como "animais sem germes", a relevância da microbiota intestinal na regulação da gordura corporal tornou-se evidente e sua importância também se estendeu à fisiopatologia de doenças como diabetes mellitus e doença cardíaca coronária. A caracterização dos receptores "Toll-like" levou à descoberta de mecanismos que ligam o sistema imunológico a algumas vias metabólicas e abriram novas avenidas de um mundo anteriormente desconhecido para as ciências biológicas. O aumento do conhecimento sobre as interações entre a microbiota intestinal e o hospedeiro certamente pode revelar, em um futuro não muito distante, novas perspectivas terapêuticas para a obesidade e suas doenças relacionadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bacterial Physiological Phenomena , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Intestines/microbiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Coronary Disease/etiology , Diabetes Mellitus/etiology
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 251-262, Mar. 2017.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837693

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To identify the most relevant flaws in standardization in husbandry practices and lack of transparency to report them. This review proposes some measures in order to improve transparency, reproducibility and eventually external validity in experimental surgery experiments with rat model. Methods: We performed a search of scientific articles in PUBMED data base. The survey was conducted from august 2016 to January 2017. The keywords used were "reproducibility", "external validity", "rat model", "rat husbandry", "rat housing", and the time frame was up to January 2017. Articles discarded were the ones which the abstract or the key words did not imply that the authors would discuss any relationship of husbandry and housing with the reproducibility and transparency of reporting animal experiment. Reviews and papers that discussed specifically reproducibility and data reporting transparency were laboriously explored, including references for other articles that could fulfil the inclusion criteria. A total of 246 articles were initially found but only 44 were selected. Results: Lack of transparency is the rule and not the exception when reporting results with rat model. This results in poor reproducibility and low external validity with the consequence of considerable loss of time and financial resources. There are still much to be done to improve compliance and adherence of researchers, editors and reviewers to adopt guidelines to mitigate some of the challenges that can impair reproducibility and external validity. Conclusions: Authors and reviewers should avoid pitfalls of absent, insufficient or inaccurate description of relevant information the rat model used. This information should be correctly published or reported on another source easily available for readers. Environmental conditions are well known by laboratory animal personnel and are well controlled in housing facilities, but usually neglected in experimental laboratories when the rat model is a novelty for the researcher.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Research Design/standards , Models, Animal , Animal Experimentation/standards , Housing, Animal/standards , Animal Husbandry/standards , Reference Standards , Lighting , Adaptation, Physiological , Sex Factors , Reproducibility of Results , Age Factors , Environment , Acclimatization , Intestines/microbiology , Animal Feed
11.
Clinics ; 72(3): 154-160, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-840058

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Changes in the neonatal gut environment allow for the colonization of the mucin layer and lumen by anaerobic bacteria. The aim of the present study was to evaluate Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus and Lactococcus colonization through the first year of life in a group of 12 Brazilian infants and to correlate these data with the levels of Escherichia coli. The presence of anaerobic members of the adult intestinal microbiota, including Eubacterium limosum and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, was also evaluated. METHODS: Fecal samples were collected during the first year of life, and 16S rRNA from anaerobic and facultative bacteria was detected by real-time PCR. RESULTS: Bifidobacterium was present at the highest levels at all of the studied time points, followed by E. coli and Lactobacillus. E. limosum was rarely detected, and F. prausnitzii was detected only in the samples from the latest time points. CONCLUSION: These results are consistent with reports throughout the world on the community structure of the intestinal microbiota in infants fed a milk diet. Our findings also provide evidence for the influence of the environment on intestinal colonization due to the high abundance of E. coli. The presence of important anaerobic genera was observed in Brazilian infants living at a low socioeconomic level, a result that has already been well established for infants living in developed countries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Bacteria, Anaerobic/isolation & purification , Feces/microbiology , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Intestines/microbiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bacteria, Anaerobic/genetics , Bifidobacterium/isolation & purification , Bifidobacterium/genetics , Brazil , DNA, Bacterial , Age Factors , Bacterial Load , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Lactobacillus/isolation & purification , Lactobacillus/genetics
13.
Clin. biomed. res ; 36(4): 222-229, 2016. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-831581

ABSTRACT

A epidemia da obesidade é considerada um importante problema de saúde pública na sociedade ocidental, pois ela se relaciona a comorbidades como síndrome metabólica, diabetes mellitus e hipertensão. A microbiota intestinal pode contribuir para o desenvolvimento da obesidade através do aumento da extração energética dos componentes da dieta, da lipogênese, da permeabilidade intestinal e da endotoxemia, mediada especialmente pelos lipopolissacarídeos. Estudos têm demonstrado diferenças na composição da microbiota intestinal entre indivíduos obesos e magros. Ao que parece, o aumento na proporção de Firmicutes em relação a Bacteroidetes parece estar presente na obesidade, podendo ser alterado à medida que ocorre perda de peso. Assim, o objetivo deste estudo foi revisar a literatura acerca dos mecanismos que relacionam a microbiota e a barreira intestinal ao desenvolvimento ou agravamento da obesidade (AU)


The epidemic of obesity is considered an important public health problem in the Western society and is related to comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, diabetes mellitus, and hypertension. The intestinal microbiota may contribute to the development of obesity by increasing energy extraction from the dietary components, lipogenesis, intestinal permeability, and endotoxemia, especially mediated by lipopolysaccharides. Studies have demonstrated differences in composition of the intestinal microbiota between obese and lean individuals. Apparently, the increase in the proportion of Firmicutes in relation to Bacteroidetes seems to be present in obesity and can be changed during weight loss. The aim of this study was to review the mechanisms that relate microbiota and intestinal barrier to the development or worsening of obesity (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Energy Metabolism , Gastrointestinal Microbiome/physiology , Obesity/physiopathology , Body Weight , Dysbiosis/metabolism , Endotoxemia , Intestinal Mucosa/immunology , Intestines/microbiology , Obesity/etiology , Permeability , Prebiotics/statistics & numerical data , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Synbiotics/statistics & numerical data
14.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 46(3): 875-878, July-Sept. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755809

ABSTRACT

The invasin gimB (genetic island associated with human newborn meningitis) is usually found in ExPEC (Extraintestinal Pathogenic Escherichia coli) such as UPEC (uropathogenic E. coli), NMEC (neonatal meningitis E. coli) and APEC (avian pathogenic E. coli). In NMEC, gimB is associated with the invasion process of the host cells. Due to the importance of E. coli as a zoonotic agent and the scarce information about the frequency of gimB-carrying strains in different animal species, the aim of this study was to investigate the presence of gimB in isolates from bovine, swine, canine and feline clinical samples. PCR was conducted on 196 isolates and the identity of the amplicons was confirmed by sequencing. Of the samples tested, only E. coli SB278/94 from a bovine specimen was positive (1/47) for gimB, which represents 2.1% of the bovine isolates. The ability of SB278/94 to adhere to and invade eukaryotic cells was confirmed by adherence and gentamicin-protection assays using HeLa cells. This is the first study that investigates for gimB in bovine, canine and feline E. coli isolates and shows E. coli from the intestinal-bovine samples harboring gimB.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cats , Cattle , Dogs , Humans , Bacterial Adhesion/genetics , Cat Diseases/microbiology , Cattle Diseases/microbiology , Dog Diseases/microbiology , Escherichia coli Proteins/genetics , Escherichia coli/pathogenicity , Intestines/microbiology , Swine Diseases/microbiology , Virulence Factors/genetics , Base Sequence , Cell Line, Tumor , Escherichia coli Infections/microbiology , Escherichia coli/genetics , Escherichia coli/isolation & purification , Genes, Bacterial , Gentamicins/pharmacology , HeLa Cells , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Swine
15.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 32(4): 393-398, ago. 2015. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-762636

ABSTRACT

Background: The isolation of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus spp (ERV) has increased significantly within the last few years, along with the risk of infection and dissemination of these bacteria. Our aim was to determine risk factors (RF) for intestinal colonization in hospitalized pediatric patients with oncological disease at Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. Methods: Between January 2012 and December 2013 a transversal study was performed with 107 rectal swabs and processed with a PCR for ERV. The patients were classified as "colonized with ERV" and "not colonized with ERV" and we evaluated possible RF for intestinal colonization in both groups. Results: VRE colonization was found in 51 patients (52%). The median of time elapsed between oncological diagnosis and VRE colonization was 35 days. The significant RF associated with VRE colonization were days of hospitalization prior to study, neutropenia and treatment with antibiotics within 30 days prior to study and mucositis. Conclusions: According to the RF revealed in this study we may suggest prevention standards to avoid ERV colonization. This is the first investigation in our country in hospitalized pediatric patients with oncological disease and processed with a multiplex PCR for ERV, therefore it is a great contribution about this subject in Chile.


Introducción: El aislamiento de Enterococcus spp resistentes a vancomicina (ERV) ha presentado un incremento significativo en los últimos años, aumentando el riesgo de infección por esta bacteria y favoreciendo su diseminación. Nuestro objetivo es determinar los factores de riesgo (FR) de colonización intestinal de ERV en pacientes oncológicos internados en el Hospital de Niños Roberto del Río. Método: Entre enero de 2012 y diciembre de 2013 se realizó un estudio transversal de colonización rectal por ERV mediante muestras de hisopado rectal obtenidas en 107 pacientes efectuando RPC múltiple para ERV. Se dividió en grupo "portador" y "no portador" y se evaluó los posibles FR para colonización por ERV. Resultados: Se encontró colonización por ERV en 51 pacientes (52%). El tiempo transcurrido desde el diagnóstico oncológico y la colonización presentó una mediana de 35 días. Los FR encontrados con asociación significativa fueron el número de días de hospitalización previa, neutropenia, uso de antimicrobianos 30 días previos y mucositis. Conclusión: De acuerdo a los FR encontrados podemos sugerir medidas de prevención para colonización por ERV. Esta es la primera investigación realizada en nuestro país en pacientes oncológicos pediátricos y que utiliza la técnica de RPC múltiple para ERV, lo que permite un aporte significativo sobre este tema en Chile.


Subject(s)
Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Hospitalization , Intestines/microbiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/microbiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/microbiology , Rectum/microbiology , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/isolation & purification , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Cross Infection/microbiology , Length of Stay , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/complications , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mucositis/complications , Mucositis/microbiology , Neutropenia/complications , Neutropenia/microbiology , Precursor Cell Lymphoblastic Leukemia-Lymphoma/complications , Risk Factors , Vancomycin Resistance , Vancomycin-Resistant Enterococci/classification
16.
Clinics ; 70(5): 369-372, 05/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-748271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The ability of the Timed Up and Go test to predict sarcopenia has not been evaluated previously. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accuracy of the Timed Up and Go test for predicting sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. METHODS: This cross-sectional study analyzed 68 elderly patients (≥60 years of age) in a private hospital in the city of Salvador-BA, Brazil, between the 1st and 5th day of hospitalization. The predictive variable was the Timed Up and Go test score, and the outcome of interest was the presence of sarcopenia (reduced muscle mass associated with a reduction in handgrip strength and/or weak physical performance in a 6-m gait-speed test). After the descriptive data analyses, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of a test using the predictive variable to predict the presence of sarcopenia were calculated. RESULTS: In total, 68 elderly individuals, with a mean age 70.4±7.7 years, were evaluated. The subjects had a Charlson Comorbidity Index score of 5.35±1.97. Most (64.7%) of the subjects had a clinical admission profile; the main reasons for hospitalization were cardiovascular disorders (22.1%), pneumonia (19.1%) and abdominal disorders (10.2%). The frequency of sarcopenia in the sample was 22.1%, and the mean length of time spent performing the Timed Up and Go test was 10.02±5.38 s. A time longer than or equal to a cutoff of 10.85 s on the Timed Up and Go test predicted sarcopenia with a sensitivity of 67% and a specificity of 88.7%. The accuracy of this cutoff for the Timed Up and Go test was good (0.80; IC=0.66-0.94; p=0.002). CONCLUSION: The Timed Up and Go test was shown to be a predictor of sarcopenia in elderly hospitalized patients. .


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Graft Rejection/etiology , Graft Rejection/mortality , Ileum/microbiology , Intestine, Small/transplantation , Intestines/microbiology , Postoperative Complications , /genetics , Follow-Up Studies , Graft Rejection/diagnosis , Intestine, Small/pathology , Intestine, Small/surgery , Metagenome/genetics , Prognosis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
17.
Electron. j. biotechnol ; 18(2): 103-109, Mar. 2015. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-745577

ABSTRACT

Background Bacillus subtilis UMC7 isolated from the gut of termite Macrotermes malaccensis has the ability to secrete a significant amount of extracellular endoglucanase, with an enzyme activity of 0.12 ± 0.01 μmol/min/mL. However, for economically viable industrial applications, the enzyme needs to be expressed in a heterologous host to overcome the low enzyme production from the wild-type strain. Results The endoglucanase gene from B. subtilis UMC7 was successfully cloned and expressed. A higher enzyme activity was observed in the intracellular fraction of the recombinant clone (0.51 ± 0.02 μmol/min/mL) compared with the cell-bound fraction (0.37 ± 0.02 μmol/min/mL) and the extracellular fraction (0.33 ± 0.01 μmol/min/mL). The recombinant endoglucanase was approximately 56 kDa, with optimal enzyme activity at 60°C and pH 6.0. The activity of the enzyme was enhanced by the addition of Ca2 +. However, the enzyme was inhibited by other metal ions in the following order: Fe3 + > Ni2 + > Cu2 + > Mn2 + = Zn2 + > Mg2 + > Cd2 + > Cr2 +. The enzyme was able to hydrolyze both low- and high-viscosity carboxymethyl-cellulose (CMC), avicel, cotton linter, filter paper and avicel but not starch, xylan, chitin, pectin and p-nitrophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside. Conclusions The recombinant endoglucanase showed a threefold increase in extracellular enzyme activity compared with the wild-type strain. This result revealed the potential of endoglucanase expression in E. coli, which can be induced for the overexpression of the enzyme. The enzyme has a broad range of activity with high specificity toward cellulose.


Subject(s)
Bacillus subtilis/enzymology , Cellulase/genetics , Cellulase/metabolism , Isoptera , Substrate Specificity , Temperature , Bacillus subtilis/isolation & purification , Recombinant Proteins , Gene Amplification , Cloning, Molecular , Sequence Analysis , Escherichia coli , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Intestines/microbiology , Ions , Metals
18.
Gastroenterology and Hepatology from Bed to Bench. 2015; 8 (2): 117-122
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-178185

ABSTRACT

Celiac disease [CD] is an autoimmune enteropathy induced by the ingestion of gluten in genetically predisposed individuals who carry the HLA-DQ2 or -DQ8 alleles. The immune response is abnormal in celiac disease with small intestinal epithelial damage via CD8+CD4- intraepithelial lymphocytes. The etiology is multifactorial involving genetic and environmental factors, an abnormal immune response, and intestinal dysbiosis. The innate and acquired T-cell mediated immunity play important roles in the pathogenesis of this disease, particularly CD4+ Th17 cells, which have been shown to have critical functions in host defense against bacterial pathogens and in the inflammatory responses to deamidated gluten peptides. We review what is known about the interaction between immune system and intestinal microbiota in the pathogenesis of celiac disease


Subject(s)
Humans , Th17 Cells , Microbiota , Intestines/microbiology , Immunity , HLA Antigens , Interleukins
19.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 292-294, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-174621

ABSTRACT

We report three cases of recently named Bacteroides spp. isolates, two B. faecis isolates and one B. intestinalis isolate from clinical specimens of inpatients at a Korean tertiary-care hospital in 2011. All isolates were susceptible to piperacillin-tazobactam, imipenem, meropenem, chloramphenicol, and metronidazole.


Subject(s)
Aged , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Bacteroides/drug effects , Female , Humans , Intestines/microbiology , Male , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Middle Aged
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-194208

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND/AIMS: Several clinical trials have revealed various advantages for probiotics in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of this study was to further investigate the effects of probiotic yogurt consumption on gut microbiota in patients with this disease. METHODS: A total of 305 participants were divided into three groups; group A (IBD patients receiving probiotic yogurt; n=105), group B (IBD patients receiving placebo; n=105), and control group (healthy individuals receiving probiotic yogurt; n=95). Stool samples were collected both before and after 8 weeks of intervention; and population of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides in the stool specimens was measured by Taqman real-time PCR method. ': By the end of the intervention, no significant variations in the mean weight and body mass index were observed between three groups (p>0.05). However, the mean numbers of Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Bacteroides in group A were significantly increased compared to group B (p<0.001, p<0.001, and p<0.01, respectively). There were also significant differences in the mean numbers of either of three bacteria between group A and the healthy control group; however, these differences between two groups were observed both at baseline and the end of the intervention. CONCLUSIONS: Consumption of probiotic yogurt by patients with IBD may help to improve intestinal function by increasing the number of probiotic bacteria in the intestine and colon. However, many more studies are required in order to prove the concept.


Subject(s)
Adult , Bacteroides/genetics , Bifidobacterium/genetics , DNA, Bacterial/analysis , Double-Blind Method , Feces/microbiology , Female , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Humans , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Intestines/microbiology , Lactobacillus/genetics , Male , Middle Aged , Placebo Effect , Probiotics/therapeutic use , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction
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