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1.
J. venom. anim. toxins incl. trop. dis ; 28: e20210099, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375813

ABSTRACT

Background: The intrinsic sensitivity limitations of basic parasitological methods, along with the particular biological characteristics of parasites, make these methods ineffective to differentiate morphologically indistinguishable species. Molecular detection and characterization techniques could be used to overcome these problems. The purpose of this work was to standardize molecular polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques, described in the literature, for the detection and molecular characterization of intestinal protozoa and other pathogens in humans. Methods: DNA was extracted from human or animal feces, previously washed or cultured in Boeck Drbohlav's Modified Medium. DNA extraction was performed with Machery-Nagel extraction kits. The standardization of the PCR, nested-PCR or RFLP techniques was carried out according to the literature. For each molecular technique performed, the sensitivity of the test was determined based on the minimun quantity required of DNA (sensitivity A) and the minimum quantity of life forms that the test detected (sensitivity B). Results: Sensitivity A was 10 fg for G. duodenalis, 12.5 pg for Entamoeba histolytica or Entamoeba dispar, 50 fg for Cryptosporidium spp., 225 pg for Cyclospora spp. and 800 fg or 8 fg for Blastocystis spp. after performing a 1780 bp PCR or 310 bp nested PCR, respectively. The sensitivity B was 100 cysts for G. duodenalis, 500 cysts for E. histolytica or E. dispar, 1000 oocysts for Cyclospora spp. and 3600 or four vegetatives forms for PCR or nested PCR of Blastocystis spp., respectively. Conclusions: The molecular detection of protozoa and chromist was achieved and the molecular characterization allowed the genotyping of some of the parasites such as Giardia duodenalis, Cryptosporidium spp., and Blastocystis spp. This study summarizes the molecular techniques for epidemiological studies in humans and animals, and helps in the investigation of their transmission sources in countries where intestinal parasites are a public health problem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Polymerase Chain Reaction/standards , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/diagnosis , Intestines/parasitology , Polymorphism, Restriction Fragment Length , Epidemiologic Studies , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Cryptosporidium
2.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 24(3): 124-130, sept. 2020. tab.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146404

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The decreasing prevalence of parasitosis from north to south in Argentina has led the scientific community to focus the epidemiological studies on the most vulnerable areas and, consequently, neglect the populations of Patagonia (South Argentina). The objectives of the present study were (i) to determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites in children and youth of Puerto Madryn (Chubut province, Patagonia), and (ii) to evaluate the parasitic infections found concerning socio-environmental factors and hygiene practices of the population. Materials and methods: Serial stool samples were processed using modified Ritchie and FLOTAC dual pellet techniques, and samples of anal swabs were examined by sedimentation. Socio-environmental variables and hygiene practices of the participants were surveyed using a semi-structured questionnaire. Results: Of all examined participants, 39.1% (68/174) were parasitized. A total of 6 parasite species were found and the most prevalent were Blastocystis sp (19.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.8%), and Giardia lamblia (6.3%). The risk of parasitosis and infection for Blastocystis sp was greater in participants who lived in houses without piped water (OR = 2.9 and OR = 3.2, respectively). The risk of infection for G. lamblia was positively associated with the lack of public waste collection service (OR = 5.6). Infection for E. vermicularis was higher in participants whose parents had a basic level of education (OR = 5.0). Conclusion: The parasitic infections observed reflect the environmental conditions of Patagonia and the need to focus studies on populations from peripheral areas to urban centers that are exposed to greater socio-economic vulnerability.


Introducción: La prevalencia de parasitosis decreciente de norte a sur en la Argentina, ha llevado a la comunidad científica a enfocar sus estudios epidemiológicos hacia las zonas más vulnerables y desatender a las poblaciones de la Patagonia (sur de Argentina). Los objetivos del presente estudio fueron: determinar la prevalencia de parásitos intestinales en niños y jóvenes de Puerto Madryn (Chubut, Patagonia), y evaluar las infecciones parasitarias en relación con los factores socioambientales y las prácticas de higiene de la población. Materiales y métodos: Se procesaron muestras seriadas de materia fecal mediante las técnicas Ritchie modificada y FLOTAC dual pellet, y muestras de escobillado anal por sedimentación. Se relevaron las variables socioambientales y las prácticas de higiene de los participantes mediante cuestionarios semiestructurados. Resultados: El 39.1% (68/174) de la población analizada estuvo parasitado. Se halló un total de 6 especies parásitas, las más prevalentes de las cuales fueron Blastocystis sp (19.0%), Enterobius vermicularis (17.8%) y Giardia lamblia (6.3%). El riesgo de parasitosis y de infección por Blastocystis sp fue mayor en los participantes que no poseían agua de red (odds ratio [OR] = 2.9 y OR = 3.2, respectivamente). La infección por G. lamblia se asoció de manera positiva con la falta de recolección pública de residuos (OR = 5.6). La infección por E. vermicularis fue superior en los participantes con padres que tenían un nivel de estudios primario (OR = 5.0). Conclusión: Las infecciones parasitarias observadas reflejan las condiciones ambientales de la Patagonia y la necesidad de orientar los estudios a poblaciones periféricas de los centros urbanos, las cuales están expuestas a mayor vulnerabilidad socioeconómica


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Parasites , Argentina , Sanitation , Hygiene , Giardia lamblia , Blastocystis , Education , Enterobius , Intestines/parasitology
3.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 29(3): e009420, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138120

ABSTRACT

Abstract The broad-headed spiny rat, Clyomys laticeps, is an echimyid rodent found in open areas of Cerrado and Pantanal biomes in central Brazil and Paraguay. Little is known about the parasites associated with this semi-fossorial species, as no previous studies have been conducted on their helminth fauna. The aim of this study was to report the helminth community structure of C. laticeps inhabiting Serra de Caldas Novas State Park, a Cerrado area in central Brazil. Trappings were carried out in dry grasslands from January to October 2016, and the large and small intestines of 14 C. laticeps individuals were examined for the presence of helminths. Three nematode species were found: Fuellebornema almeidai, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp., and Subulura forcipata, and 85.7% of the studied species were infected with at least one of these helminths. F. almeidai was the most prevalent species among hosts, and S. forcipata was the most abundant. This study is the first report on helminth community structure in C. laticeps. We report a new host species and increase the known geographical range of F. almeidai, and provide the first record of Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. infecting echimyids. This is also the first report of S. forcipata in a mammal host.


Resumo Clyomys laticeps é um roedor equimídeo encontrado em áreas abertas dos biomas Cerrado e Pantanal, ao longo do Brasil central e Paraguai. Essa espécie apresenta hábitos semi-fossoriais e atividade noturna. Até o momento, não existem estudos sobre seus parasitas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi descrever a comunidade de helmintos encontrados em C. laticeps, capturados no Parque Estadual da Serra de Caldas Novas, uma área de Cerrado no Brasil Central. Os indivíduos foram capturados em área de "campo sujo" entre janeiro e outubro de 2016. Os intestinos delgado e grosso de 14 roedores foram examinados quanto à presença de helmintos. Três espécies de nematoides foram encontradas: Fuellebornema almeidai, Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. e Subulura forcipata. Considerando-se as três espécies, 85,7% dos roedores apresentaram pelo menos um helminto. F. almeidai foi a espécie mais prevalente, enquanto Subulura forcipata foi a mais abundante. Este estudo é o primeiro registro da estrutura da comunidade de helmintos para C. laticeps. Como resultado, foi registrado um novo hospedeiro e o aumento da área de distribuição geográfica para o nematódeo F. almeidai e o primeiro caso de Pterygodermatites (Paucipectines) sp. infectando um roedor equimídeo. Além disso, este estudo também traz o primeiro registro de S. forcipata infectando um mamífero.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Rodentia/parasitology , Helminthiasis, Animal/parasitology , Helminths/classification , Helminths/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Brazil , Ecosystem
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200377, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1143303

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a tropical neglected disease with high associated rates of mortality. Several studies have highlighted the importance of the intestinal tract (IT) and gut microbiota (GM) in the host immunological defense. Data in the literature on parasite life cycle and host immune defense against VL are scarce regarding the effects of infection on the IT and GM. OBJECTIVES This study aimed to investigate changes observed in the colon of Leishmania infantum-infected hamsters, including alterations in the enteric nervous system (ENS) and GM (specifically, levels of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli). METHODS Male hamsters were inoculated with L. infantum and euthanised at four or eight months post-infection. Intestines were processed for histological analysis and GM analysis. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was performed to quantify each group of bacteria: Bifidobacterium spp. (Bf) and Lactobacillus spp (LacB). FINDINGS Infected hamsters showed histoarchitectural loss in the colon wall, with increased thickness in the submucosa and the mucosa layer, as well as greater numbers of intraepithelial lymphocytes. Forms suggestive of amastigotes were seen inside mononuclear cells. L. infantum infection induced changes in ENS, as evidenced by increases in the area of colonic enteric ganglia. Despite the absence of changes in the levels of Bf and LacB during the course of infection, the relative abundance of these bacteria was associated with parasite load and histological alterations. MAIN CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate that L. infantum infection leads to important changes in the colon and suggest that bacteria in the GM play a protective role.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bifidobacterium , Leishmania infantum , Gastrointestinal Microbiome , Lactobacillus , Leishmaniasis, Visceral , Cricetinae , Parasite Load , Intestines/parasitology
5.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 87: e0522019, 2020.
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1130141

ABSTRACT

Since drug-resistant nematodes became a common problem in sheep and goat industries, alternative methods using natural products have emerged as a viable and sustainable anthelmintic treatment option. Here, the in vitro effect of essential oil extracted from Lippia gracilis Schauer was assessed on the hatching process of nematodes recovered from naturally infected goats. Essential oil at concentrations of 0.08% (0.008 µL/mL), 0.12% (0.012 µL/mL), and 0.16% (0.016 µL/mL) was able to induce an average inhibition of 74.7, 84 and 93%, respectively. The effective concentration required to inhibit egg hatching in 50% of eggs (EC50) was 0.03452%. Therefore, essential oil of L. gracilis showed promisor in vitro anthelmintic results against egg-hatching of goat gastrointestinal nematodes.(AU)


Como os nematoides resistentes a drogas se tornaram um problema comum nas indústrias de ovinos e caprinos, métodos alternativos que utilizam produtos naturais surgiram como uma opção de tratamento anti-helmíntico viável e sustentável. Aqui, o efeito in vitro do óleo essencial extraído de Lippia gracilis Schauer foi avaliado no processo de eclosão de nematoides recuperados de caprinos naturalmente infectadas. O óleo essencial nas concentrações de 0,08% (0,008 µL/mL), 0,12% (0,012 µL/mL), e 0,16% (0,016 µL/mL)foi capaz de induzir uma inibição média de 74,7, 84 e 93%, respectivamente. A concentração efetiva necessária para inibir a eclosão de ovos em 50% dos ovos (CE50) foi de 0,03452%. Portanto, o óleo essencial de L. gracilis apresentou resultados anti-helmínticos in vitro promissores contra a eclosão de nematódeos gastrintestinais de caprinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Ruminants/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/pharmacology , Lippia , Intestines/parasitology , Anthelmintics/pharmacology , Nematoda/drug effects , In Vitro Techniques , Goats/parasitology , Oils, Volatile/administration & dosage , Sheep/parasitology , Bioprospecting , Anthelmintics/administration & dosage
6.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 27(2): 237-241, Apr.-June 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-959185

ABSTRACT

Abstract In this study, we evaluated the ovicidal and larvicidal activity of protein preparations obtained from Cassia fistula L. and Combretum leprosum Mart. leaves on the gastrointestinal parasites of goats. Protein preparations were obtained after the extraction of C. fistula L. and C. leprosum Mart. leaves, followed by protein fractionation (with ammonium sulfate saturation percentages of 30%, 30%-60%, and 60%-90%) and dialysis, which resulted in protein fractions (called F1, F2, and F3, respectively). The fractions were evaluated by egg hatching (the eggs were recovered in stool samples from naturally infected goats) and larval development tests. The results reveled that the inhibition of hatching of eggs caused by the protein fractions of C. fistula (38%) were similar to that of the control drug, thiabendazole. In addition, the fractions of C. fistula caused significant inhibition (61-69%) of larval development also. However, C. leprosum did not reveal significant inhibition of egg hatching and larval development. We conclude that C. fistula L. showed better ovicidal and larvicidal activity against endoparasites.


Resumo Neste estudo, foram avaliadas as atividades ovicida e larvicida de preparações proteicas de Cassia fistula L. e Combretum leprosum Mart. em parasitas gastrointestinais de caprinos. As preparações proteicas foram obtidas por extração das folhas de C. fistula L. e C. leprosum Mart. seguido pelo fracionamento proteico (com porcentagens de saturação de sulfato de amônio de 30%, 30-60%, 60-90%) e diálise, resultando nas frações proteicas (intituladas F1, F2 e F3, respectivamente). As frações foram avaliadas nos testes de eclosão de ovos (os ovos foram recuperados em amostras de fezes de cabras naturalmente infectadas) e de desenvolvimento larvar. Os resultados revelaram que a inibição da eclosão de ovos causada pelas frações proteicas de C. fistula (38%) foi semelhante à do fármaco controle, o tiabendazol. Além disso, as frações de C. fistula também causaram inibição significativa (61-69%) do desenvolvimento larvar. No entanto, C. leprosum não revelou inibição significativa na eclosão dos ovos e no desenvolvimento larvar. Concluiu-se que C. fistula L. mostrou uma melhor atividade ovicida e larvicida contra endoparasitas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Proteins/pharmacology , Stomach/parasitology , Goats/parasitology , Plant Extracts/pharmacology , Cassia , Combretum , Intestines/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Nematoda/drug effects , Ovum/drug effects , Plant Leaves , Larva/drug effects
7.
Rev. patol. trop ; 46(4): 321-330, dez. 2017. mapa, tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-913724

ABSTRACT

Intestinal parasites are among the major causative agents of diseases that affect animals and humans, especially children. In view of this, the current study evaluated the occurrence of these parasitic agents in 737 children in an urban region with excellent sanitation condition of the city of Pedreira, São Paulo, Brazil. Fecal samples from the children were processed with the use of a technique of high diagnostic efficiency (TF-Test®). The diagnosis of these samples resulted in the detection of 557 parasitic structures among eleven genera of parasites, and of 46.4% (342/737) infected children. Blastocystis spp. was found in 69.6% (238/342) of the positive samples and the monoparasitism was accompanied by symptoms in 44 children. Furthermore, 67.8% (232/342) of the infected children had close contact with pets, suggesting a possible zoonotic transmission. Lastly, this study allowed to perform health education to the children, aiming the reduction of new intestinal parasitic infections.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Parasites , Child , Public Health , Diagnosis , Infections , Intestines/parasitology
8.
Salud(i)ciencia (Impresa) ; 22(7): 625-630, oct.-nov. 2017. tab.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1047084

ABSTRACT

O parasitismo acontece quando há associação de dois seres vivos onde um deles se desenvolve e prejudica de alguma forma o outro ser, chamado hospedeiro (El parasitismo ocurre cuando existe una asociación de dos seres vivos, donde uno de ellos se desarrolla y afecta de algún modo al otro, que se llama huésped). Alguns parasitos como Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia solium, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura e Enterobius vermicularis são transmitidos pela água e/ou (se transmiten por el agua o por) alimentos contaminados e afetam grande parte da população mundial no desempenho (y afectan a una gran parte de la población mundial en el desarrollo) de suas atividades físicas, mentais e sociais, expondo-a a diversas manifestações clínicas que podem gerar elevados níveis (pueden generar altos niveles) de morbidade. Considerando que, aproximadamente, 11% da população brasileira sofrem com algum tipo de deficiência intelectual e/ou múltipla e pouco se tem estudado sobre a ocorrência (y poco se ha estudiado acerca de la existencia) de enteroparasitos nesse grupo populacional, estudos parasitológicos laboratoriais foram realizados em 50 estudantes da Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais (APAE) da cidade de São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brasil. Do total de amostras analisadas 28 (56%) estavam positivas para um ou mais parasitos e comensais, sendo (uno o más parásitos y comensales, siendo) 5 (17.85%) por G. lamblia, 7 (25.00%) por E. histolytica/E. dispar/E. moschkovskii, 11 (39.28%) por Entamoeba coli, 6 (21.43%) por Balantidium coli, 2 (7.14%) por Endolimax nana e 3 (10.7%) por E. vermicularis. Considerando a elevada frequência de indivíduos parasitados torna-se necessário a busca (se hace necesaria la búsqueda) de investimentos em profilaxia e educação higiênico-sanitária, além da realização (además de la realización) constante de exames parasitológicos, garantindo uma melhor (garantizando una mejor) qualidade de vida à população da APAE de São Mateus.


Parasitism occurs when there is an association between two living beings, in which one develops and in some way harms the other being, called host. Some parasites such as Entamoeba histolytica/Entamoeba dispar, Giardia lamblia, Hymenolepis nana, Taenia solium, Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura and Enterobius vermicularis are transmitted by contaminated water and/or food and affect a large number of the world population in their physical, mental and social activities, exposing them to diverse clinical manifestations that can generate high levels of morbidity. Considering that approximately 11% of the Brazilian population suffers from some type of intellectual and/or multiple deficiency and little has been studied about the occurrence of enteroparasites in this population group, laboratory parasitological studies were performed in 50 students of the Associação de Pais e Amigos dos Excepcionais (APAE) of the city of São Mateus, Espírito Santo, Brazil. From the total of the analyzed samples, 28 (56%) were positive for one or more parasites and commensals, of which 5 (17.85%) were positive for G. lamblia, 6 (25.00%) for E. histolytica/E. dispar, 11 (39.28%) for Entamoeba coli, 7 (21.43%) for Balantidium coli, 2 (7.14%) for Endolimax nana and 3 (10.7%) for E. vermicularis. Considering the high prevalence of parasitic infection in this population, it is necessary to seek greater investment in prophylaxis and hygienic-sanitary education, in addition to constantly conducting parasitological examinations that might guarantee a better quality of life for the population of São Mateus APAE.


Subject(s)
Parasitic Diseases , Parasitology , Balantidiasis , Giardia lamblia/parasitology , Endolimax , Entamoeba/parasitology , Entamoeba histolytica/parasitology , Enterobius/parasitology , Infections/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic , Intestines/parasitology
9.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop ; 50(5): 629-637, Sept.-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897012

ABSTRACT

Abstract INTRODUCTION: Trypanosoma cruzi, the etiologic agent of Chagas disease, is widely distributed in nature, circulating between triatomine bugs and sylvatic mammals, and has large genetic diversity. Both the vector species and the genetic lineages of T. cruzi present a varied geographical distribution. This study aimed to verify the influence of sympatry in the interaction of T. cruzi with triatomines. Methods: The behavior of the strains PR2256 (T. cruzi II) and AM14 (T. cruzi IV) was studied in Triatoma sordida (TS) and Rhodnius robustus (RR). Eleven fifth-stage nymphs were fed by artificial xenodiagnosis with 5.6 × 103 blood trypomastigotes/0.1mL of each T. cruzi strain. Every 20 days, their excreta were examined for up to 100 days, and every 30 days, the intestinal content was examined for up to 120 days, by parasitological (fresh examination and differential count with Giemsa-stained smears) and molecular (PCR) methods. Rates of infectivity, metacyclogenesis and mortality, and mean number of parasites per insect and of excreted parasites were determined. RESULTS: Sympatric groups RR+AM14 and TS+PR2256 showed higher values of the four parameters, except for mortality rate, which was higher (27.3%) in the TS+AM14 group. General infectivity was 72.7%, which was mainly proven by PCR, showing the following decreasing order: RR+AM14 (100%), TS+PR2256 (81.8%), RR+PR2256 (72.7%) and TS+AM14 (36.4%). CONCLUSIONS: Our working hypothesis was confirmed once higher infectivity and vector capacity (flagellate production and elimination of infective metacyclic forms) were recorded in the groups that contained sympatric T. cruzi lineages and triatomine species.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Arthropod Vectors/physiology , Rhodnius/physiology , Triatoma/physiology , Trypanosoma cruzi/physiology , Sympatry , Arthropod Vectors/genetics , Arthropod Vectors/pathogenicity , Rhodnius/genetics , Rhodnius/pathogenicity , Species Specificity , Time Factors , Triatoma/genetics , Triatoma/pathogenicity , Trypanosoma cruzi/genetics , Trypanosoma cruzi/pathogenicity , Blood/parasitology , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Chagas Disease/parasitology , Chagas Disease/transmission , Xenodiagnosis/methods , Host-Parasite Interactions/physiology , Intestines/parasitology , Mice
10.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 26(3): 314-322, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-899289

ABSTRACT

Abstract A total of 277 rufous-collared sparrows, Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae), were examined for external parasites. The birds were captured using mist nets in seven locations in northern and central Chile. Additionally, seven carcasses from central Chile (the Biobío region) were necropsied to evaluate the presence of endoparasite infection. Ectoparasites were found on 35.8% (99/277) of the examined birds and they were represented by the following arthropods: feather mites Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae), Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae), and Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae); a louse Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera); and ticks Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidae) and Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidae). Two of the seven necropsied carcasses were infected with the acanthocephalan Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae). To our knowledge, this study reports P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum, and M. papillosus for the first time for Z. capensis and expands the distributional range for T. capensis to Chile.


Resumo Um total de 277 tico-tico Zonotrichia capensis Müller, 1776 (Emberizidae) foram examinados em busca de ectoparasitos. As aves foram capturadas com redes em sete localidades do norte e centro do Chile. Além disso, sete carcaças do centro Chile (Região de Biobío) foram examinadas para avaliar a infecção por endoparasitos. Ectoparasitos foram encontrados em 35,8% (99/277) das aves examinadas com a identificação dos ácaros Amerodectes zonotrichiae Mironov and González-Acuña, 2014 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae), Proctophyllodes polyxenus Atyeo and Braasch, 1966 (Analgoidea: Proctophyllodidae) e Trouessartia capensis Berla, 1959 (Analgoidea: Trouessartiidae), piolho Philopterus sp. (Phthiraptera: Ischnocera) e carrapatos Amblyomma tigrinum Koch, 1844 (Acari: Ixodidea) e Ixodes auritulus Neumann, 1904 (Acari: Ixodidea). Duas das sete carcaças examinadas foram infectadas com o Acantocephala Mediorhynchus papillosus Van Cleave, 1916 (Gigantorhynchida: Gigantorhynchidae). Para o nosso conhecimento, este é o primeiro estudo para descrever P. polyxenus, Philopterus sp., A. tigrinum e M. papillosus em Z. capensis e expande a distribuição de T. capensis ao Chile.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Female , Sparrows/parasitology , Ectoparasitic Infestations/veterinary , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Chile , Ectoparasitic Infestations/parasitology , Feathers/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/parasitology , Intestines/parasitology
11.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 25(2): 231-234, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-785154

ABSTRACT

Abstract Here we report the occurrence of Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) in the small intestine of Pampas foxes (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). This fox is the most abundant native carnivore in southern South America, where it inhabits grasslands, open woodlands and areas highly modified by extensive ranching and agricultural activities. Material from 80 foxes in rural areas of southern Buenos Aires province, Argentina was examined. The intestinal tracts were carefully removed from each carcass and subsequently isolated by ligatures (pylorus and rectum). Examination of the intestinal content was performed using the sedimentation and counting technique. Four foxes (5%) were found to be parasitized with adult specimens of A. buckleyi. This is the first report of Ancylostoma (A.) buckleyi in Argentina and adds L. gymnocercus as new host of this nematode species.


Resumo O presente estudo relata a ocorrência de Ancylostoma (Ancylostoma) buckleyi (Le Roux and Biocca, 1957) (Nematoda: Ancylostomatidae) no intestino delgado do Graxaim do campo (Lycalopex gymnocercus) (Mammalia: Canidae). Essa raposa é o carnívoro nativo mais abundante no sul da América do Sul, onde habita nas pastagens, florestas abertas e áreas altamente modificadas pelas atividades pecuária extensiva e agrícola. Material de 80 raposas, em áreas rurais do sul da província de Buenos Aires, Argentina, foi examinado. Os tratos intestinais foram cuidadosamente removidos de cada carcaça e, posteriormente, isolados por ligaduras (piloro e reto). O exame do conteúdo intestinal foi realizado, utilizando-se a técnica de sedimentação e contagem. Quatro raposas (5%) foram encontradas parasitadas com espécimes adultos de A. buckleyi. O estudo registra, pela primeira vez, a ocorrência de Ancylostoma (A.) buckleyi na Argentina e adiciona L. gymnocercus como novo hospedeiro dessa espécie de nematoides.


Subject(s)
Animals , Foxes/parasitology , Ancylostoma/isolation & purification , Intestines/parasitology , Argentina , Ancylostoma/classification
12.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 24(2): 168-173, Apr-Jun/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-750750

ABSTRACT

The ratite group is composed of ostriches, rheas, emus, cassowaries and kiwis. Little research has been done on parasitism in these birds. The aim of this study was to determine the distribution of infections by gastrointestinal nematodes in ostriches in the state of Rio de Janeiro. For this, fecal samples were collected from 192 on 13 farms. From each sample, four grams of feces were used to determine the eggs per gram of feces (EPG) count, by means of the McMaster technique. Part of the feces sample was used for fecal cultures, to identify 100 larvae per sample. The results were subjected to descriptive central trend and dispersion analysis, using confidence intervals at the 5% error probability level in accordance with the Student t distribution, and Tukey’s test with a 95% confidence interval. The mean EPG in the state was 1,557, and the municipality of Três Rios had the lowest average (62). The city of Campos dos Goytacazes presented the highest mean EPG of all the municipalities analyzed. The northern region presented the highest mean EPG, followed by the southern, metropolitan, coastal lowland and central regions. Libyostrongylus species were observed on all the farms: L. douglassii predominated, followed by L. dentatus and Codiostomum struthionis. .


O grupo das ratitas é composto pelas avestruzes, emas, emús, cassuares e kiwi. São poucas as pesquisas sobre as parasitoses nessas aves. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a distribuição de infecções por nematóides gastrintestinais em avestruzes no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Para tanto, foram coletadas amostras fecais de 192 avestruzes de 13 propriedades. De cada amostra, quatro gramas foram utilizados para a contagem de ovos por grama de fezes (OPG), pela da técnica de McMaster. Parte das fezes foi utilizada para cultivos fecais para identificação de 100 larvas por amostra. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise descritiva de tendência central e de dispersão, utilizando-se o intervalo de confiança ao nível de 5% de probabilidade de erro de acordo com a distribuição t de Student e teste de Tukey com intervalo de confiança de 95%. A média de OPG no Estado foi de 1.557, e o município de Três Rios obteve a menor média (62). A cidade de Campos dos Goytacazes teve a maior média de OPG de todos os municípios analisados. A Região Norte teve a maior média de OPG, seguida das regiões Sul, Metropolitana, Baixada Litorânea e Central. As espécies de Libyostrongylus foram observadas em todas as propriedades, predominando L. douglassii, seguido de L. dentatus e Codiostomum struthionis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Bird Diseases/parasitology , Struthioniformes/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestines/parasitology , Nematoda/isolation & purification , Bird Diseases/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Feces/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
13.
Rev. argent. microbiol ; 47(1): 17-24, Mar. 2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757139

ABSTRACT

The objectives of this research were: (1) to determine the occurrence of zoonotic enteroparasites in dog feces from Bahía Blanca, Argentina; (2) to characterize the spatial distribution of the parasites found in association with the quality of life index (QLI) in neighborhoods of Bahía Blanca; and (3) to determine if the presence of a particular parasite genus in a stool sample was facilitated or impeded by the presence of other parasite genera. Samples of dog stools (n = 475) were collected between December 2012 and December 2013 in areas with varying QLI. The association between QLI values and the presence of parasites was analyzed using logistic regression. Overall enteroparasite occurrence was 36.6%. Parasitic forms found included nematode larvae, cysts of Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp., and oocysts of Cryptosporidium spp., and eggs of Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes and Trichuris spp. For certain enteroparasites, we detected significant associations between their occurrence and QLI. Feces collected in areas with medium and low QLI were 2.46 and 5.43 times more likely, respectively, to contain A. caninum than stools from the high-QLI area. Samples from areas with low QLI were 2.36 times more likely to contain Trichuris spp. than those from the high QLI area. Regarding protozoa, feces from areas with low QLI were 2.4 times more likely to be positive than those from areas with high QLI. We demonstrated that canine zoonotic parasites have a wide distribution in the study area, and that occurrence is higher in neighborhoods with lower QLI.


Los objetivos del presente trabajo fueron los siguientes: a) determinar la ocurrencia de enteroparásitos zoonóticos en heces de perros de Bahía Blanca, Argentina; b) caracterizar la distribución espacial de los parásitos hallados en función del índice de calidad de vida (ICV) en barrios de Bahía Blanca, y c) determinar si la presencia de un género parasitario en particular en las heces fue facilitada o impedida por la presencia de otro/s. Se recolectaron muestras de heces de perro (n = 475) durante el período diciembre 2012-diciembre 2013 en áreas con diferente ICV. La asociación entre el ICV y la presencia de parásitos fue analizada mediante regresión logística. La ocurrencia global de enteroparásitos fue del 36,6%. Las formas parasitarias detectadas correspondieron a larvas de nematodos, a quistes de Blastocystis spp., Giardia spp. y Cryptosporidium spp., y a huevos de Ancylostoma caninum, Toxocara canis, cestodes y Trichuris spp. Se hallaron asociaciones significativas entre ocurrencia de algunos enteroparásitos e ICV. Las heces recolectadas en áreas con ICV medio y bajo mostraron una probabilidad de contener A. caninum 2,46 y 5,43 veces mayor, respectivamente, que las recolectadas en la zona de ICV alto. Las muestras de zonas con ICV bajo tuvieron una probabilidad 2,36 veces mayor de contener Trichuris spp. que aquellas de áreas con ICV alto. En lo referido a protozoos, las heces de áreas con ICV bajo tuvieron una probabilidad 2,4 veces mayor de presentar quistes que las heces de áreas con ICV alto. Se demostró que los parásitos zoonóticos caninos tienen una amplia distribución en el área estudiada y que la ocurrencia es más alta en los barrios con menor ICV.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Feces/parasitology , Parasites/isolation & purification , Zoonoses/parasitology , Argentina , Intestines/parasitology
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130542

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-130538

ABSTRACT

A total of 1,708 small mammals (1,617 rodents and 91 soricomorphs), including Apodemus agrarius (n = 1,400), Microtus fortis (167), Crocidura lasiura (91), Mus musculus (32), Myodes (= Eothenomys) regulus (9), Micromys minutus (6), and Tscherskia (= Cricetulus) triton (3), were live-trapped at US/Republic of Korea (ROK) military training sites near the demilitarized zone (DMZ) of Paju, Pocheon, and Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province from December 2004 to December 2009. Small mammals were examined for their intestinal nematodes by necropsy. A total of 1,617 rodents (100%) and 91 (100%) soricomorphs were infected with at least 1 nematode species, including Nippostrongylus brasiliensis, Heligmosomoides polygyrus, Syphacia obvelata, Heterakis spumosa, Protospirura muris, Capillaria spp., Trichuris muris, Rictularia affinis, and an unidentified species. N. brasiliensis was the most common species infecting small mammals (1,060; 62.1%) followed by H. polygyrus (617; 36.1%), S. obvelata (370; 21.7%), H. spumosa (314; 18.4%), P. muris (123; 7.2%), and Capillaria spp. (59; 3.5%). Low infection rates (0.1-0.8%) were observed for T. muris, R. affinis, and an unidentified species. The number of recovered worms was highest for N. brasiliensis (21,623 worms; mean 20.4 worms/infected specimen) followed by S. obvelata (9,235; 25.0 worms), H. polygyrus (4,122; 6.7 worms), and H. spumosa (1,160; 3.7 worms). A. agrarius demonstrated the highest prevalence for N. brasiliensis (70.9%), followed by M. minutus (50.0%), T. triton (33.3%), M. fortis (28.1%), M. musculus (15.6%), C. lasiura (13.2%), and M. regulus (0%). This is the first report of nematode infections in small mammals captured near the DMZ in ROK.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Wild , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Eulipotyphla/parasitology , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Prevalence , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , Rodentia/parasitology
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-225153

ABSTRACT

A survey of intestinal helminths was undertaken in riparian people in Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR. Fecal specimens were collected from 643 people (289 males and 354 females) residing in 4 districts (Nonghet, Kham, Phoukout, and Pek) and were examined by the Kato-Katz technique. The overall helminth egg positive rate was 41.2%, and hookworms revealed the highest prevalence (32.7%) followed by Trichuris trichiura (7.3%) and Ascaris lumbricoides (5.6%). The positive rate for small trematode eggs (STE), which may include Opisthorchis viverrini, heterophyids, and lecithodendriids, was 4.4%. For recovery of adult helminths, 12 STE or nematode/cestode egg-positive people were treated with 40 mg/kg praziquantel and 15 mg/kg pyrantel pamoate, and then purged. Mixed infections with 2 Haplorchis species (H. pumilio and H. taichui), Centrocestus formosanus, Opisthorchis viverrini, a species of cestode (Taenia saginata), and several species of nematodes including hookworms and Enterobius vermicularis were detected. The worm load for trematodes was the highest for H. pumilio with an average of 283.5 specimens per infected person followed by C. formosanus, H. taichui, and O. viverrini. The worm load for nematodes was the highest for hookworms (21.5/infected case) followed by E. vermicularis (3.2/infected case). The results revealed that the surveyed areas of Xieng Khouang Province, Lao PDR are endemic areas of various species of intestinal helminths. The STE found in the surveyed population were verified to be those of heterophyids, particularly H. pumilio.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Animals , Cestode Infections/epidemiology , Female , Helminthiasis/epidemiology , Helminths/classification , Humans , Intestines/parasitology , Laos/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Platyhelminths/classification , Young Adult
17.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 74(5): 363-370, oct. 2014. graf, mapas, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-734402

ABSTRACT

El análisis de las parasitosis a diferentes escalas (regional, local) se facilita por el Geographic Information System (GIS), que permite identificar áreas con distinto grado de vulnerabilidad. El objetivo del trabajo fue analizar la distribución espacial de las parasitosis intestinales en el partido de La Plata, estableciendo su relación con las condiciones socio-ambientales para identificar áreas con diferente riesgo epidemiológico. Se completó una encuesta epidemiológica y se tomaron muestras seriadas de materia fecal, analizadas por la técnica de Ritchie. Se calcularon niveles de precariedad y vulnerabilidad (Iv), y se compararon con los resultados parasitológicos. Se analizaron parasitológica y ambientalmente 653 personas, de las cuales 585 (89.6%) eran niños y 68 (10.4%) adultos. El análisis indicó que los más vulnerables (Iv = 3-4) estaban en el sector con menor acceso a servicios de infraestructura urbana. El índice se encontró fuertemente asociado a la prevalencia total de parasitosis intestinales y a las 4 especies patógenas asociadas a la contaminación fecal del ambiente: Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana y Giardia lamblia (p < 0.01). Enterobius vermicularis, parásito no vinculado a la condición sanitaria de sus hospedadores, no se asoció al Iv. Hubo asociación estadística entre precariedad y parasitosis y se halló que a mayor Iv mayor frecuencia de parasitosis (p < 0.01). El uso de GIS permitió zonificar las variables socioambientales en un gradiente creciente de condiciones desfavorables y su relación con la presencia de especies patógenas. La continuidad de estos estudios en diferentes regiones de Argentina contribuye a la determinación de áreas en riesgo sanitario.


Parasitosis analysis at regional levels is simplified by the use of the Geographic Information System (GIS), which enables the identification of areas with different degrees of vulnerability. We analyzed the spatial distribution of intestinal parasites in La Plata district and their relationship with socio-environmental conditions in order to identify areas with different degrees of epidemiological risk. An epidemiological survey was completed; stool samples were collected and analyzed by Ritchie's method. Levels of precariousness and vulnerability (Iv rate) were calculated and compared to the parasitological results. Parasitological and environmental analysis were carried out on a total of 653 individuals, of whom 585 (89.6%) were children and 68 (10.4%) adults. The analysis indicated that the most vulnerable (Iv = 3-4) were those located in areas with less access to urban infrastructure services. The Iv was strongly associated with the overall prevalence of intestinal parasitosis and the 4 pathogenic species related to the fecal contamination of the environment: Trichuris trichiura, Ascaris lumbricoides, Hymenolepis nana and Giardia lamblia (p < 0.01). On the other hand, Enterobius vermicularis, a parasite not related to the sanitary condition of its host, was not associated with the Iv. Statistical association between poverty and parasitosis was noted; the greater the Iv, higher the incidence of parasites (p < 0.01). GIS allowed zoning socio-environmental variables in an increasing gradient of unfavorable conditions and their relationship to the presence of pathogenic species. The continuity of these studies in different regions of Argentina contributes to the determination of health risk areas.


Subject(s)
Adult , Animals , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology , Intestines/parasitology , Amoebida/isolation & purification , Argentina/epidemiology , Dientamoeba/isolation & purification , Feces/parasitology , Geographic Information Systems , Giardia lamblia , Helminths/isolation & purification , Incidence , Prevalence , Risk Assessment , Retortamonadidae/isolation & purification , Socioeconomic Factors , Sanitation/statistics & numerical data , Urban Population
18.
Rev. bras. parasitol. vet ; 23(3): 393-398, Jul-Sep/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-722712

ABSTRACT

Small and isolated wildlife populations may be more susceptible to disease, which makes illness an important issue to investigate regarding the conservation of large carnivores. Here, we present the results of the first investigation of intestinal parasites in one of the last remaining populations of jaguars in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. We studied parasites from fecal samples using three different techniques for parasitological examination: floatation in saturated sodium chloride solution, sedimentation and formalin-ether centrifugation. Intestinal parasites were detected in 70% of the analyzed samples, and seven taxa (mean = 3.7 taxa/sample) were identified. All the groups of parasites that were identified have been recorded in previous jaguar studies. However, the records of Class Trematoda and nematodes Trichuridae are the first evidence of these groups of worms in free-ranging jaguars in Brazil. Although our results do not provide conclusive evidence on the health of this jaguar population, given its very small size (approximately 20 animals) we stress the need to properly understand the dynamics of disease in this wild population and to evaluate the risk of contracting new diseases from domestic species inhabiting the neighboring areas. These represent imperative actions for the successful conservation of this threatened population of jaguar.


Populações pequenas e isoladas são mais suscetíveis a doenças, o que torna a investigação de enfermidades uma questão importante para a conservação de grandes carnívoros. O presente estudo apresenta os resultados da primeira investigação de parasitos intestinais em uma das últimas populações remanescentes de onça-pintada na Mata Atlântica brasileira. Os parasitos foram obtidos a partir de amostras fecais, sendo utilizadas três técnicas para exame parasitológico: flutuação em solução saturada de cloreto de sódio (Método de Willis), sedimentação (Método de HPJ) e centrifugação com formol-éter. Parasitos intestinais foram detectados em 70% das amostras analisadas, tendo sido identificados sete táxons (média = 3,7 taxa/amostra). Todos os grupos de parasitos identificados foram mencionados em estudos anteriores realizados com onças-pintadas. Entretanto, os registros de Trematoda e nematoides Trichuridae aqui obtidos representam a primeira evidência desses grupos de vermes em onças-pintadas de vida livre no Brasil. Embora os resultados obtidos não sejam conclusivos quanto à saúde da população estudada, em virtude do tamanho populacional reduzido (aproximadamente 20 indivíduos), recomenda-se a investigação da dinâmica de doenças, bem como a avaliação do risco de contração de novas doenças a partir do contato com animais domésticos provenientes do entorno da área estudada. Essas investigações são fundamentais para a conservação dessa população ameaçada de onças-pintadas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/veterinary , Intestines/parasitology , Panthera/parasitology , Brazil , Forests , Intestinal Diseases, Parasitic/epidemiology
19.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 109(2): 210-219, abr. 2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705819

ABSTRACT

Undernourished mice infected (UI) submitted to low and long-lasting infections by Schistosoma mansoni are unable to develop the hepatic periportal fibrosis that is equivalent to Symmers’ fibrosis in humans. In this report, the effects of the host’s nutritional status on parasite (worm load, egg viability and maturation) and host (growth curves, biology, collagen synthesis and characteristics of the immunological response) were studied and these are considered as interdependent factors influencing the amount and distribution of fibrous tissue in hepatic periovular granulomas and portal spaces. The nutritional status of the host influenced the low body weight and low parasite burden detected in UI mice as well as the number, viability and maturation of released eggs. The reduced oviposition and increased number of degenerated or dead eggs were associated with low protein synthesis detected in deficient hosts, which likely induced the observed decrease in transformation growth factor (TGF)-β1 and liver collagen. Despite the reduced number of mature eggs in UI mice, the activation of TGF-β1 and hepatic stellate cells occurred regardless of the unviability of most miracidia, due to stimulation by fibrogenic proteins and eggshell glycoproteins. However, changes in the repair mechanisms influenced by the nutritional status in deficient animals may account for the decreased liver collagen detected in the present study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Collagen/biosynthesis , Liver Cirrhosis/parasitology , Liver/pathology , Malnutrition/parasitology , Schistosoma mansoni/immunology , Transforming Growth Factor beta1 , Acute-Phase Reaction/etiology , Chronic Disease , Disease Models, Animal , Eggs/analysis , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Granuloma, Foreign-Body/parasitology , Intestines/parasitology , Liver/parasitology , Malnutrition/complications , Nutritional Status , Oviposition/immunology , Primary Cell Culture , Parasitemia/parasitology , Schistosomiasis mansoni/complications , Schistosomiasis mansoni/pathology
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-118764

ABSTRACT

Members of the genus Trichinella are small nematodes that can infect a wide range of animal hosts. However, their infectivity varies depending on the parasite and host species combination. In this study, we examined the susceptibility of 4 species of laboratory rodents, i.e., mice, rats, hamsters, and gerbils to Trichinella papuae, an emerging non-encapsulated Trichinella species. Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella pseudospiralis were also included in this study for comparison. Fifteen animals of each rodent species were infected orally with 100 muscle larvae of each Trichinella species. Intestinal worm burden was determined at day 6 and 10 post-inoculation (PI). The numbers of muscle larvae were examined at day 45 PI. The reproductive capacity index (RCI) of the 3 Trichinella species in different rodent hosts was determined. By day 6 PI, 33.2-69.6% of the inoculated larvae of the 3 Trichinella species became adult worms in the small intestines of the host animals. However, in rats, more than 96% of adult worms of all 3 Trichinella species were expelled from the gut by day 10 PI. In gerbils, only 4.8-18.1% of adult worms were expelled by day 10 PI. In accordance with the intestinal worm burden and the persistence of adults, the RCI was the highest in gerbils with values of 241.5+/-41.0 for T. papuae, 432.6+/-48 for T. pseudospiralis, and 528.6+/-20.6 for T. spiralis. Hamsters ranked second and mice ranked third in susceptibility in terms of the RCI, Rats yielded the lowest parasite RCI for all 3 Trichinella species. Gerbils may be an alternative laboratory animal for isolation and maintenance of Trichinella spp.


Subject(s)
Animals , Animals, Laboratory , Cricetinae , Disease Susceptibility , Gerbillinae , Intestines/parasitology , Male , Mice , Muscles/parasitology , Parasite Load , Rats , Rodent Diseases/parasitology , Trichinella/growth & development , Trichinellosis/parasitology
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