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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(3): 152-161, Junio 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1222429

ABSTRACT

Introducción. Las malformaciones vasculares cerebrales de alto flujo son poco comunes en la edad pediátrica. El objetivo del trabajo es diferenciar y agrupar estas enfermedades según edad de debut, manifestaciones clínicas y angioarquitectura.Población y método. Se realizó un estudio retrospectivo y observacional. Se analizaron las historias clínicas, los estudios por imágenes y los protocolos de procedimientos de pacientes del Hospital J. P. Garrahan con diagnóstico de malformaciones vasculares cerebrales desde enero de 2010 hasta enero de 2020.Resultados. Ciento ochenta y tres pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se identificaron 131 pacientes con malformaciones arteriovenosas con nido (MAV) y 52 con fístulas directas (sin nido), entre los que se hallaron 19 malformaciones aneurismáticas de vena de Galeno, 23 fístulas piales y 10 fístulas durales. La edad promedio fue de 105 meses para las MAV, 1,7 meses para las malformaciones aneurismáticas de vena de Galeno, 60,5 meses para fístulas piales y 41 meses para fístulas durales.Conclusión. Según su angioarquitectura, las malformaciones vasculares cerebrales de alto flujo tuvieron nido (MAV) o fueron fístulas directas (malformaciones aneurismáticas de vena de Galeno, fístulas piales y fístulas durales). Las MAV se manifestaron a partir de la primera infancia, sobre todo, por hemorragia intracraneana. Las fístulas directas se expresaron en la primera etapa de la vida, frecuentemente, con insuficiencia cardíaca.


Introduction. High-flow vascular malformations of the brain are uncommon in pediatrics. The objective of this study is to establish the differences among these pathologies and group them by age at onset, clinical manifestations, and angioarchitecture.Population and method. This was a retrospective and observational study. The medical records, imaging studies, and procedure protocols of patients seen at Hospital J. P. Garrahan diagnosed with vascular malformations of the brain between January 2010 and January 2020 were analyzed.Results. A total of 183 patients met the inclusion criteria. It was possible to identify 131 patients with arteriovenous malformations with a nidus (AVMs) and 52 with direct fistulas (without a nidus), including 19 vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, 23 pial fistulas, and 10 dural fistulas. The average age of patients was 105 months for AVMs, 1.7 months for vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, 60.5 months for pial fistulas, and 41 months for dural fistulas.Conclusion. Based on their angioarchitecture, high-flow vascular malformations of the brain presented a nidus (AVMs) or direct fistulas (vein of Galen aneurysmal malformations, pial fistulas, and dural fistulas). AVMs were observed in early childhood, especially due to intracranial hemorrhage. Direct fistulas occurred in the first stage of life, commonly with heart failure.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Arteriovenous Malformations/therapy , Arteriovenous Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Retrospective Studies , Arteriovenous Fistula/therapy , Arteriovenous Fistula/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Vein of Galen Malformations/therapy , Vein of Galen Malformations/diagnostic imaging , Heart Failure
3.
Rev. argent. neurocir ; 34(3): 235-239, sept. 2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1120967

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las lesiones durales son complicaciones frecuentes en la cirugía de columna. La fuga de liquidocefalorraquideo (LCR) puede originar hemorragia en todos los compartimientos del cerebro. La mayoría ocurre en venas ubicadas en región cerebelosa.Material y método: Se presenta un caso de hemorragia subaracnoidea posterior a una descompresión lumbar mínimamente invasiva asociada a desgarro dural. Resultados: Evoluciona en el postoperatorio con síntomas neurológicos de cefaleas y trastornos del sensorio por lo que se decide evaluarlo con estudios por imágenes vasculares cerebrales identificándose sangrado subaracnoideo.Discusión: El sitio más frecuente de hemorragia intracraneal posterior a una cirugía de columna es el cerebelo. El mecanismo de acción de este tipo de sangrados es desconocido y controversial, hay algunos reportes que sugieren que se trataría de un sangrado venoso. El síntoma más característico de este síndrome es la cefalea. Aunque se desconoce la etiología exacta, se postula que la pérdida de volumen de LCR causa una caída en la presión intracraneal, lo que lleva a un agrandamiento de los senos venosos durales que predisponen al paciente a un hematoma subdural espontáneoConclusión: La fuga de LCR, las alteraciones asociadas al edema cerebral en la hipotensión cerebral podría ser llave del mecanismo que desencadena una hemorragia subaracnoidea.


compartments of the brain. Most occur in veins located in the cerebellar region.Material and method: A case of subarachnoid hemorrhage after a minimally invasive lumbar decompression associated with dural tear is presented.Results: It evolves in the postoperative period with neurological symptoms of headaches and sensory disorders, so it is decided to evaluate it with studies by cerebral vascular images identifying subarachnoid bleeding.Discussion: The most frequent site of intracranial hemorrhage after spinal surgery is the cerebellum. The mechanism of action of this type of bleeding is unknown and controversial, there are some reports that suggest that it would be a venous bleeding. The most characteristic symptom of this syndrome is headache. Although the exact etiology is unknown, it is postulated that the loss of CSF volume causes a drop in intracranial pressure, which leads to an enlargement of the dural venous sinuses that predispose the patient to a spontaneous subdural hematomaConclusion: CSF leakage, alterations associated with cerebral edema in cerebral hypotension could be key to the mechanism that triggers a subarachnoid hemorrhage.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , General Surgery , Brain Edema , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Hematoma, Subdural
4.
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol. (En línea) ; 85(3): 255-262, jun. 2020. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1126160

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El Síndrome de Down (SD) es una de las aneuploidías más frecuentes. En Chile, la incidencia es de 2.2 por 1000 nv. La esclerosis tuberosa (ET) es una enfermedad genética autosómica dominante con una prevalencia de 1:600 a 1:10.000 nacidos vivos (nv) que se sospecha prenatalmente por la presencia de rabdomiomas cardiacos. Los tumores cardiacos fetales tienen una prevalencia de 1:10000 nv, los más prevalentes son los Rabdomiomas. El hallazgo de tumores intracraneanos son infrecuentes, dentro del diagnóstico diferencial es necesario descartar la Hemorragia Intraventricular (HIV). CASO CLÍNICO: Paciente de 29 años, M2, Derivada a nuestro centro a las 27+4 semanas para evaluación ecográfica. Entre los hallazgos se encuentran tumores intracardiacos en ventrículo derecho y marcadores blandos para alto riesgo de aneuploidía, por lo que se realiza cariotipo (amniocentesis genética: 47, XX+21). A las 32+0 semanas en una nueva evaluación presenta imagen hiperecogénica sugerente de tumor intracerebral. Se solicita resonancia magnética fetal que informa hemorragia intraventricular (HIV). El parto ocurre con un recién nacido de término, fenotipo concordante con Trisomía 21, ecocardiograma confirma dos tumores intracardiacos (Rabdomiomas) y ecografía cerebral confirma el diagnóstico de HIV Grado III derecho. Ante el diagnóstico diferencial de ET, se realiza ANGIO-TAC que resulta negativo para ET. DISCUSIÓN: En la evaluación ecográfica antenatal, la presencia de tumores intracardiacos asociados a tumor cerebral hace plantear el diagnóstico de una ET. El diagnóstico antenatal de tumores cerebrales vs HIV por ultrasonido es difícil. La resonancia es un examen complementario de gran ayuda, permitiendo un diagnóstico de certeza. La HIV fetal es un diagnóstico poco frecuente de diagnostico prenatal asociado a feto con trisomia 21.


INTRODUCTION: Down Syndrome (DS) is one of the most frequent aneuploidies. In our country its incidence is 2.2 every 1000 newborns. Tuberous sclerosis (TS) is a dominant autosomal genetic disease with a prevalence of 1:6000 to 1:10.000 newborns, this disease is suspected by the finding of cardiac rhabdomyomas. Rhabdomyomas are the most prevalent fetal heart tumors. Intracranial tumors are a rare prenatal finding in ultrasound the main differential diagnosis is Intraventricular Hemorrhage (IVH). The Objective of this paper is present a case report of a fetus with trisomy 21 plus rhabdomyomas and cranial tumors. CASE REPORT: 29 years old patient, referred for ultrasound at 27+4 week. Cardiac tumors and aneuploidy soft markers are found. Genetic amniocentesis is performed (Result: 47, XX+21). At 32+0 weeks ultrasound finding of intracranial tumor. Fetal MRI was performed which reports suspected IVH. Confirmed postnatally. Baby was delivered at term. Neonatal findings: Trisomy 21 phenotype, Echocardiogram with two cardiac tumors (Rhabdomyomas), neonatal brain ultrasound confirms Grade III - IVH. To rule out TS, an Angio-CT is performed which is negative for the disease. DISCUSSION: Cardiac Tumors associated to brain tumors in antenatal period make TS a possible diagnosis. Differentiate brain tumors and IVH by ultrasound is very difficult. MRI is a very helpful tool for an accurate diagnostic. IVH is a rare antenatal diagnosis. Not reported before in a baby with trisomy 21.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Rhabdomyoma/diagnostic imaging , Tuberous Sclerosis/diagnostic imaging , Down Syndrome , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Heart Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Prenatal Diagnosis , Diagnosis, Differential , Karyotype , Amniocentesis
6.
Rev. Bras. Saúde Mater. Infant. (Online) ; 19(3): 513-520, Jul.-Sept. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1041086

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives: to compare the cognitive performance of schoolchildren born prematurely according to the presence of intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) during the neonatal period. Methods: a cross-sectional cohort study of schoolchildren between the ages of 6-8 years old, born prematurely with or without a history of neonatal ICH. Between January and December 2015, some children were followed up at the outpatient clinic of a tertiary hospital and underwent a cognitive evaluation by using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children, Third Edition (WISC-III) and they were divided into two groups: those with no history of ICH (control group) and those with ICH (case group), confirmed by a transfontanelar ultrasound in the prenatal period. Results: 39 schoolchildren were included, 21 cases and 18 controls. There was no difference in gestational age or chronological age at evaluation between the groups. Also there was no significant difference in subtest scores between the groups. Conclusions: WISC-III evaluated the cognitive performance in children, born preterm, aged 6-8 years old, and had neonatal ICH did not differ from those of their peers without a history of ICH. These findings suggest that, in preterm infants, a neonatal diagnosis of ICH may not be associated with cognitive performance at school age and this should be investigated through a longitudinal study.


Resumo Objetivos: comparar o desempenho cognitivo de escolares, nascidos prematuramente, segundo a presença de hemorragia intracraniana (HIC) no período neonatal. Métodos: corte transversal de uma coorte de escolares com idade entre seis e oito anos que nasceram prematuramente e apresentaram ou não HIC, realizado entre janeiro e dezembro de 2015, acompanhados em ambulatório de seguimento de hospital terciário e submetidos à avaliação cognitiva, através da Escala de Inteligência Wechsler para Crianças-3ª edição (WISC-III), que foram divididos em dois grupos: sem HIC (grupo controle - GC) e com HIC (grupo de casos - GH) comprovada através de exame ultrassonográfico transfontanelar no período perinatal. Resultados: foram incluídos 39 escolares, 18 no GC e 21 no GH. Não se observou dife-rença entre os grupos quanto à idade gestacional e idade cronológica na qual eles foram avaliados. Não foi encontrada diferença estatística entre os grupos estudados nos valores dos subtestes. Conclusões: o desempenho cognitivo de crianças nascidas pré-termo que tiveram HIC não difere daquele que não a apresentaram quando avaliadas pelo WISC-III na faixa etária de seis a oito anos. Sugere-se que o diagnóstico neonatal de HIC pode não estar associado ao desempenho cognitivo de prematuros, na idade escolar, o que deverá ser investigado através de estudo longitudinal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant, Newborn , Child , Students , Wechsler Scales , Infant, Premature , Cognition , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Case-Control Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Gestational Age , Academic Performance
7.
Säo Paulo med. j ; 137(4): 349-355, July-Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1043431

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Making the differential diagnosis between central fever and infectious fever is critically important among intracerebral hemorrhage patients followed up in intensive care units (ICUs). Serum procalcitonin (PCT) has been found to be a promising biomarker for the initial diagnosis of infection, even before culturing results. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between PCT and both fever etiologies and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels among critically ill patients with suspected intracerebral hemorrhage. DESIGN AND SETTING: Cross-sectional study in a public university hospital in Elazig, Turkey. METHODS: ICU patients diagnosed with intracerebral hemorrhage and normal procalcitonin levels were included in this study. From clinical assessments and cultures, they were classified as presenting either infectious or central fever. The sensitivity and specificity of PCT and CRP for predicting infection were calculated using a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve. RESULTS: There were 98 ICU patients with diagnoses of intracerebral hemorrhage. The median (interquartile range) PCT levels of patients with infectious and central fever were 4 (0.9-11) and 0.1 (0.1-0.4) ng/ml, respectively, with a statistically significant intergroup difference (P < 0.001). The areas under the ROC curve for predicting infectious or central fever PCT and CRP were 0.958 (P < 0.001) and 0.816 (P < 0.001), respectively. A statistically significant positive correlation was detected between PCT and CRP levels in patients with infectious fever (rho: 0.461; P = 0.003), but not in patients with central fever. CONCLUSIONS: PCT can possibly be used as a biomarker to differentiate between infectious and central fever among ICU patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Intracranial Hemorrhages/complications , Fever/blood , Procalcitonin/blood , Severity of Illness Index , Biomarkers/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Predictive Value of Tests , Sensitivity and Specificity , Intracranial Hemorrhages/blood , Diagnosis, Differential , Fever/etiology , Fever/microbiology , Intensive Care Units
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(5): 300-309, Jun. 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011345

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Large multicenter studies have shown that small intracranial aneurysms are associated with a minimal risk of bleeding. Nevertheless, other large series have shown that most ruptured aneurysms are, in fact, the smaller ones. In the present study, we questioned whether small aneurysms are indeed not dangerous. Methods: We enrolled 290 patients with newly-diagnosed aneurysms at our institution over a six-year period (43.7% ruptured). We performed multivariate analyses addressing epidemiological issues, cardiovascular diseases, and three angiographic parameters (largest aneurysm diameter, neck diameter and diameter of the nutrition vessel). Risk estimates were calculated using a logistic regression model. Aneurysm size parameters were stratified according to receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves. Finally, we calculated odds ratios for rupture based on the ROC analysis. Results: The mean largest diameter for the ruptured versus unruptured groups was 13.3 ± 1.7 mm versus 22.2 ± 2.2 mm (p < 0.001). Multivariate analysis revealed a positive correlation between rupture and arterial hypertension (p < 0.001) and an inverse correlation with all three angiographic measurements (all p < 0.01). Aneurysms from the anterior cerebral artery bled more often (p < 0.05). According to the ROC curves, at the largest diameter of 15 mm, the sensitivity and specificity to predict rupture were 83% and 36%, respectively. Based on this stratification, we calculated the chance of rupture for aneurysms smaller than 15 mm as 46%, which dropped to 25% for larger aneurysms. Conclusion: In the population studied at our institution, small aneurysms were more prone to bleeding. Therefore, the need for intervention for small aneurysms should not be overlooked.


RESUMO Grandes estudos multicêntricos demostram que aneurismas intracranianos pequenos são associados a risco de sangramento mínimo. Outras grandes séries têm evidenciado que aneurismas rotos são em sua maioria os pequenos. Neste estudo questionamos até que ponto os aneurismas pequenos não são perigosos. Métodos: Avaliamos 290 novos casos de aneurismas tratados em nossa instituição durante 6 anos (43,7% rotos). Realizamos análises multivariadas com aspectos epidemiológicos dos pacientes, doenças cardiovasculares e três parâmetros angiográficos: maior diâmetro, diâmetro do colo e diâmetro do vaso nutridor do aneurisma. Estimativas de risco foram calculadas utilizando-se modelo de regressão logística. Parâmetros do tamanho aneurismático foram estratificados de acordo com curvas ROC. Também calculamos a razão de chances (odds ratios) de ruptura baseadas nas análises das curvas ROC. Resultados: O maior diâmetro médio para os grupos de aneurismas rotos e não-rotos foi 13.3 ± 1.7mm e 22.2 ± 2.2 (p < 0.001). Análises multivariadas revelaram uma correlação positiva entre ruptura aneurismática e hipertensão arterial (p < 0.001) e uma correlação inversa entre ruptura e as três medidas angiográficas (p < 0.01). Aneurismas da artéria cerebral anterior foram os que mais sangraram (p < 0.05). Análises das curvas ROC demonstram que no maior diâmetro de 15mm, a sensibilidade e especificidade para se predizer ruptura são de 83% e 36%. Baseando-se nessas estratificações, calculamos uma chance de ruptura para aneurismas menores de 15mm de 46% e de 25% para aneurismas maiores. Conclusão: Na população estudada, aneurismas pequenos são mais propensos a romper. Desta forma, a necessidade de intervenção para aneurismas pequenos não deve ser relevada.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Intracranial Aneurysm/complications , Aneurysm, Ruptured/complications , Intracranial Hemorrhages/etiology , Reference Values , Time Factors , Cerebral Angiography , Logistic Models , Intracranial Aneurysm/pathology , Intracranial Aneurysm/diagnostic imaging , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , ROC Curve , Aneurysm, Ruptured/pathology , Aneurysm, Ruptured/diagnostic imaging , Risk Assessment/methods , Intracranial Hemorrhages/diagnostic imaging , Hypertension/complications , Neck/pathology
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719561

ABSTRACT

Tube feeding is used to provide nutritional support to patients who have difficulty taking food orally. A nasogastric tube is commonly used for these patients but there are some complications. Therefore, the oro-esophageal tube feeding method was developed to avoid these disadvantages. A 33-year-old male with a history of right basal ganglia intracranial hemorrhage was admitted to the rehabilitation department for the treatment of dysphagia caused by a new onset left basal ganglia intracranial hemorrhage. After the videofluoroscopic swallowing study, the nasogastric tube feeding was changed to intermittent feeding via an oro-esophageal tube. Unfortunately, the patient swallowed the tube during insertion. Hence, an emergent endoscopy was performed for tube removal. This article reports a rare case of a patient who underwent oro-esophageal tube removal with an esophagogastroduodenoscopy after tube swallowing during insertion. The insertion of an oro-esophageal tube requires a careful approach after considering the cognitive function, muscle strength, and family education.


Subject(s)
Adult , Basal Ganglia , Cognition , Deglutition , Deglutition Disorders , Education , Endoscopy , Endoscopy, Digestive System , Enteral Nutrition , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Male , Methods , Muscle Strength , Nutritional Support , Rehabilitation
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765368

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mechanical thrombectomies with balloon-guide catheters (BGC) are thought to improve successful recanalization rates and to decrease the incidence of distal emboli compared to thrombectomies without BGC. We aimed to assess the effects of BGC on the outcomes of mechanical thrombectomy in acute ischemic strokes. METHODS: Studies from PubMed, EMBASE, and the Cochrane library database from January 2010 to February 2018 were reviewed. Random effect model for meta-analysis was used. Analyses such as meta-regression and the “trim-and-fill” method were additionally carried out. RESULTS: A total of seven articles involving 2223 patients were analyzed. Mechanical thrombectomy with BGC was associated with higher rates of successful recanalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.632; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.293–2.059). BGC did not significantly decrease distal emboli, both before (OR, 0.404; 95% CI, 0.108–1.505) and after correcting for bias (adjusted OR, 1.165; 95% CI, 0.310–4.382). Good outcomes were observed more frequently in the BGC group (OR, 1.886; 95% CI, 1.564–2.273). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage and mortality did not differ significantly with BGC use. CONCLUSION: Our meta-analysis demonstrates that BGC enhance recanalization rates. However, BGC use did not decrease distal emboli after mechanical thrombectomies. This should be interpreted with caution due to possible publication bias and heterogeneity. Additional meta-analyses based on individual patient data are needed to clarify the role of BGC in mechanical thrombectomies.


Subject(s)
Bias , Catheters , Humans , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Methods , Mortality , Population Characteristics , Publication Bias , Stroke , Thrombectomy
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765340

ABSTRACT

Moyamoya disease (MMD) is a progressive cerebrovascular disease with unknown etiology, characterized by bilateral stenoocclusive changes at the terminal portion of the internal carotid artery and an abnormal vascular network formation at the base of the brain. MMD has an intrinsic nature to convert the vascular supply for the brain from internal carotid (IC) system to the external carotid (EC) system, as indicated by Suzuki’s angiographic staging. Insufficiency of this ‘IC-EC conversion system’ could result not only in cerebral ischemia, but also in intracranial hemorrhage from inadequate collateral anastomosis, both of which represent the clinical manifestation of MMD. Surgical revascularization prevents cerebral ischemic attack by improving cerebral blood flow, and recent evidence further suggests that extracranial-intracranial bypass could powerfully reduce the risk of re-bleeding in MMD patients with posterior hemorrhage, who were known to have extremely high re-bleeding risk. Although the exact mechanism underlying the hemorrhagic presentation in MMD is undetermined, most recent angiographic analysis revealed the characteristic angio-architecture related to high re-bleeding risk, such as the extension and dilatation of choroidal collaterals and posterior cerebral artery involvement. We sought to update the current management strategy for hemorrhagic MMD, including the outcome of surgical revascularization for hemorrhagic MMD in our institute. Further investigations will clarify the optimal surgical strategy to prevent hemorrhagic manifestation in patients with MMD.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Brain , Brain Ischemia , Carotid Artery, Internal , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Choroid , Dilatation , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Moyamoya Disease , Posterior Cerebral Artery
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765334

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Endovascular treatment (EVT) outcomes for acute M2 segment of middle cerebral artery occlusion remains unclear because most results are obtained from patients with large artery occlusion in the anterior circulation. The objective of this study was to assess procedural outcomes for acute M2 occlusion and compare outcomes according to thrombus location (M1 vs. M2). METHODS: A systematic review was performed for online literature published from January 2004 to December 2016. Primary outcome was successful recanalization rate and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (S-ICH) after the procedure. A fixed effect model was used if heterogeneity was less than 50%. RESULTS: Eight articles were included. EVT showed successful recanalization rate of 69.1% (95% confidence interval [CI], 54.9–80.4%) and S-ICH rate of 6.1% (95% CI, 4.5–8.3%). The rates of good clinical outcome at 3 months and mortality were 59.4% (95% CI, 49.9–68.2%) and 14.9% (95% CI, 11.4–19.3%), respectively. According to thrombus location (M1 vs. M2), successful recanalization (odds ratio [OR], 1.539; 95% CI, 0.293–8.092; p=0.610) and S-ICH (OR, 1.313; 95% CI, 0.603–2.861; p=0.493) did not differ significantly. Good clinical outcome was more evident in M2 occlusion after EVT than that in M1 occlusion (OR, 1.639; 95% CI, 1.135–2.368; p=0.008). However, mortality did not differ significantly according to thrombus location (OR, 0.788; 95% CI, 0.486–1.276; p=0.332). CONCLUSION: EVT seems to be technically feasible for acute M2 occlusion. Direct comparative studies between EVT and medical treatment are needed further to find specific beneficiary group after EVT in patient with M2 occlusion.


Subject(s)
Arteries , Humans , Infarction , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Middle Cerebral Artery , Mortality , Population Characteristics , Stroke , Thrombectomy , Thrombosis
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To describe our experiences with a fully equipped high-end digital subtraction angiography (DSA) system within a hybrid operating room (OR). METHODS: A single-plane DSA system with 3-dimensional rotational angiography, cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), and real-time navigation software was used in our hybrid OR. Between April 2014 and January 2018, 191 sessions of cerebrovascular procedures were performed in our hybrid OR. After the retrospective review of all cases, the procedures were categorized into three subcategorical procedures : combined endovascular and surgical procedure, complementary rescue procedure during intervention and surgery, and frameless stereotaxic operation. RESULTS: Forty-nine of 191 procedures were performed using hybrid techniques. Four cases of blood blister aneurysms and a ruptured posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysm were treated using bypass surgery and endovascular trapping. Eight cases of ruptured aneurysm with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) were treated by partial embolization and surgical clipping. Six cases of ruptured arteriovenous malformation with ICH were treated by Onyx embolization of nidus and subsequent surgical removal of nidus and ICH. Two (5.4%) of the 37 cases of pre-mature rupture during clipping were secured by endovascular coil embolization. In one (0.8%) complicated case of 103 intra-arterial thrombectomy procedures, emergency surgical embolectomy with bypass surgery was performed. In 27 cases of ICH, frameless stereotaxic hematoma aspiration was performed using XperGuide® system (Philips Medical Systems, Best, the Netherlands). All procedures were performed in single sessions without any procedural complications. CONCLUSION: Hybrid OR with a fully equipped DSA system could provide precise and safe treatment strategies for cerebrovascular diseases. Especially, we could suggest a strategy to cope flexibly in complex lesions or unexpected situations in hybrid OR. CBCT with real-time navigation software could augment the usefulness of hybrid OR.


Subject(s)
Aneurysm , Aneurysm, Ruptured , Angiography , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Arteries , Arteriovenous Malformations , Blister , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Embolectomy , Embolization, Therapeutic , Emergencies , Hematoma , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Operating Rooms , Retrospective Studies , Rupture , Surgical Instruments , Thrombectomy
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765072

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A randomized trial of unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations (ARUBA) reported superior outcomes in conservative management compared to interventional treatment. There were numerous limitations to the study. This study aimed to investigate the efficacy of gamma knife radiosurgery (GKS) for patients with brain arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) by comparing its outcomes to those of the ARUBA study. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed ARUBA-eligible patients treated with GKS from June 2002 to September 2017 and compared against those in the ARUBA study. AVM obliteration and hemorrhage rates, and clinical outcomes following GKS were also evaluated. RESULTS: The ARUBA-eligible cohort comprised 264 patients. The Spetzler-Martin grade was Grade I to II in 52.7% and III to IV in 47.3% of the patients. The mean AVM nidus volume, marginal dose, and follow-up period were 4.8 cm³, 20.8 Gy, and 55.5 months, respectively. AVM obliteration was achieved in 62.1%. The annual hemorrhage rate after GKS was 3.4%. A stroke or death occurred in 14.0%. The overall stroke or death rate of the ARUBA-eligible cohort was significantly lower than that of the interventional arm of the ARUBA study (P < 0.001) and did not significantly differ from that of the medical arm in the ARUBA study (P = 0.601). CONCLUSION: GKS was shown to achieve a favorable outcome with low procedure-related morbidity in majority of the ARUBA-eligible patients. The outcome after GKS in our patients was not inferior to that of medical care alone in the ARUBA study. It is suggested that GKS is rather superior to medical care considering the short follow-up duration of the ARUBA study.


Subject(s)
Arm , Arteriovenous Malformations , Brain , Cohort Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Mortality , Netherlands , Radiosurgery , Retrospective Studies , Stroke
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762622

ABSTRACT

Fahr's disease (FD) is a rare neurologic disorder characterized by the symmetric and bilateral intracerebral calcification in a patient. We describe the case of a 65-year-old woman who presented with gait disturbance, abnormal mentality, and visual field defect. The result of a brain computerized tomography showed spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage in the right parieto-occipital area, and also showed the incidence of symmetric and bilateral intracerebral calcification. Moreover, laboratory studies indicated characteristic hypoparathyroidism. This brings us to understand that additionally, one of her sons also presented with similar intracerebral calcification, and was subsequently diagnosed with FD. Thus, her case was consistent with that of a patient experiencing FD. The patient had hypertension, which we now know might have caused the intracerebral hemorrhage. However, this patient's brain lesions were in uncommon locations for spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhage, and the lesions were noted as occurring away from the identified heavily calcified areas. Thus, it seemed that the massive calcification of cerebral vessels in the basal ganglia, the most common site of intracerebral hemorrhage, might have prevented a hypertensive intracerebral hemorrhage. Eventually, an intracerebral hemorrhage occurred in an uncommon location in the patient's brain.


Subject(s)
Aged , Basal Ganglia , Brain , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Female , Gait , Humans , Hypertension , Hypoparathyroidism , Incidence , Intracranial Hemorrhage, Hypertensive , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Nervous System Diseases , Visual Fields
16.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 774-781, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762107

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Cerebral small vessel disease (SVD) is known to be associated with ischemic stroke, intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH), and cognitive impairment. In this retrospective observational study, we explored SVD markers on MRI relevant to spontaneous ICH. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The ICH group consisted of 150 consecutive patients with a first primary parenchymal ICH, and the control group consisted of 271 age- and sex-matched individuals who underwent brain MRI in a health care center. We compared cerebral microbleeds (CMBs), white matter hyperintensities (WMHs), enlarged perivascular space (EPVS), and lacunae in the ICH and control groups. RESULTS: A total of 1278 CMB lesions were identified in 121 of the 150 patients in the ICH group (80.6%), while 77 CMB lesions were found in 32 of the 271 individuals in the control group (11.8%). WMH and EPVS were more severe and lacunae were more frequent in the ICH patients than in the control group. When receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were plotted, number of CMBs most significantly predicted ICH. All imaging markers were significantly associated with ICH in every age group. The location of CMBs coincided with the location of ICH, and ICH volume correlated with CMB count. CONCLUSION: All MRI markers for SVD were worse in ICH patients than in healthy controls, and these markers were prominent even in young ICH patients. Lacunae, WMH, EPVS, and CMB should be considered as factors related with spontaneous ICH.


Subject(s)
Brain , Cerebral Amyloid Angiopathy , Cerebral Hemorrhage , Cerebral Small Vessel Diseases , Cognition Disorders , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Hypertension , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Observational Study , Retrospective Studies , ROC Curve , Stroke , White Matter
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766845

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To investigate the types and clinical features of neurological diseases after head trauma. METHODS: From March 2010 to December 2018, a total of 177 patients were enrolled in this study. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical features of neurological ophthalmic diagnoses and frequencies, the types of head injuries, and the prognoses. RESULTS: Cranial nerve palsy was the most common (n = 63, 35.6%), followed by traumatic optic neuropathy (n = 45, 25.4%), followed by optic disc deficiency, ipsilateral visual field defect, Nystagmus, skewing, ocular muscle paralysis between nuclei, and Terson syndrome. Neuro-ophthalmic deficits occurred in relatively strong traumas accompanied by intracranial hemorrhage or skull fracture. However, convergence insufficiency and decompensated phoria occurred in relatively weak trauma such as concussion. The prognoses of the diseases were poor (p < 0.05) for traumatic optic neuropathies and visual field defects. The prognoses of neurological diseases were poor if accompanied by intracranial hemorrhages or skull fractures (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: After head trauma, various neuro-ophthalmic diseases can occur. The prognosis may differ depending on the type of the disease, and the strength of the trauma may affect the prognosis.


Subject(s)
Cranial Nerve Diseases , Craniocerebral Trauma , Diagnosis , Head , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Ocular Motility Disorders , Optic Nerve Injuries , Paralysis , Prognosis , Retrospective Studies , Skull Fractures , Strabismus , Visual Fields
18.
Journal of Stroke ; : 160-174, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766250

ABSTRACT

Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is the only therapeutic agent approved to treat patients with acute ischemic stroke. The clinical benefits of tPA manifest when the agent is administered within 4.5 hours of stroke onset. However, tPA administration, especially delayed administration, is associated with increased intracranial hemorrhage (ICH), hemorrhagic transformation (HT), and mortality. In the ischemic brain, vascular remodeling factors are upregulated and microvascular structures are destabilized. These factors disrupt the blood brain barrier (BBB). Delayed recanalization of the vessels in the presence of relatively matured infarction appears to damage the BBB, resulting in HT or ICH, also known as reperfusion injury. Moreover, tPA itself activates matrix metalloproteases, further aggravating BBB disruption. Therefore, attenuation of edema, HT, or ICH after tPA treatment is an important therapeutic strategy that may enable clinicians to extend therapeutic time and increase the probability of excellent outcomes. Recently, numerous agents with various mechanisms have been developed to interfere with various steps of ischemia/reperfusion injuries or BBB destabilization. These agents successfully reduce infarct volume and decrease the incidence of ICH and HT after delayed tPA treatment in various animal stroke models. However, only some have entered into clinical trials; the results have been intriguing yet unsatisfactory. In this narrative review, I describe such drugs and discuss the problems and future directions. These “tPA helpers” may be clinically used in the future to increase the efficacy of tPA in patients with acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood-Brain Barrier , Brain , Edema , Humans , Incidence , Infarction , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Metalloproteases , Mortality , Neuroprotection , Reperfusion Injury , Stroke , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Vascular Remodeling
19.
Journal of Stroke ; : 195-206, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766246

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Patients with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) who survive an intracranial hemorrhage (ICH) have an increased risk of ischemic stroke and systemic embolism (IS/SE). We investigated whether starting oral anticoagulants (OACs) among older NVAF patients after an ICH was associated with a lower risk of IS/SE and mortality but offset by an increase in major bleeding. METHODS: We assembled a patient cohort from the Quebec Régie de l'Assurance Maladie du Québec (RAMQ) and Med-Echo administrative databases. We identified older adults with NVAF from 1995 to 2015. All patients with incident ICH and discharged in community were included. Patients were categorized according to OAC exposure. Outcomes included IS/SE, all-cause mortality, recurrent ICH and major bleeding after a quarantine period of 6 weeks. Crude event rates were calculated at 1-year of follow-up, and Cox proportional hazard models with a time-dependent binary exposure were used to assess adjusted hazard ratios (AHRs). RESULTS: The cohort of 683 NVAF patients with ICH aged 83 years on average. The rates (per 100 person-years) for IS/SE, death, ICH and major bleeding were 3.3, 40.6, 11.4, and 2.7 for the no OAC group; and 2.6, 16.3, 5.2, and 5.2 for OAC group, respectively. The AHR for IS/SE and death was 0.10 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05 to 0.21), 0.43 (95% CI, 0.19 to 0.97) for recurrent ICH and 1.73 (95% CI, 0.71 to 4.20) for major extracranial bleeding comparing OAC exposure to non-exposed. CONCLUSIONS: Initiating OAC after ICH in older individuals with NVAF is associated with a reduction of IS/SE and mortality and a trend in recurrent ICH supporting its use after ICH.


Subject(s)
Adult , Anticoagulants , Atrial Fibrillation , Cohort Studies , Embolism , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Mortality , Proportional Hazards Models , Quarantine , Quebec , Stroke
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777547

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION@#Telestroke allows for remote determination of suitability for treatment with thrombolysis in patients with acute ischaemic stroke. However, this approach is time-dependent and most centres have yet to achieve the recommended treatment times. We describe a quality improvement initiative aimed at improving the telestroke workflow and treatment times at our centre.@*METHODS@#A multidisciplinary workgroup comprising clinicians, stroke case managers and radiology staff was formed to oversee the initiative. A phase-by-phase review of the existing workflow was done to identify the reasons for delay. Phase-specific measures were then introduced to address these delays, and a data-monitoring system was established to track the impact of these measures. The initiatives were implemented through four Plan-Do-Study-Act cycles. The door-to-needle (DTN) times for thrombolysis and clinical outcomes before and after the interventions were compared.@*RESULTS@#A total of 104 patients were evaluated. The median DTN time improved from 96 minutes to 78 minutes post implementation of initiatives (p = 0.003). Fewer patients had symptomatic intracranial haemorrhages (8.5% vs. 24.2%; p = 0.03), and more patients had improvements in their National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score (47.9% vs. 25.0%; p = 0.031) after the initiatives were introduced.@*CONCLUSION@#The quality improvement initiative resulted in a reduction in median DTN time. Our approach allowed for a systematic method to resolve delays within the telestroke workflow. This initiative is part of an ongoing effort aimed at providing thrombolysis safely to eligible patients in the shortest possible time.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergency Service, Hospital , Female , Humans , Interprofessional Relations , Intracranial Hemorrhages , Male , Middle Aged , Quality Improvement , Severity of Illness Index , Singapore , Stroke , Therapeutics , Telemedicine , Methods , Reference Standards , Thrombolytic Therapy , Methods , Time , Tissue Plasminogen Activator , Therapeutic Uses , Treatment Outcome
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