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1.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 20(3): e710, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1351982

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El neuromonitoreo no invasivo en pacientes críticos representa una opción de primera línea para el manejo de complicaciones fatales derivadas del aumento de la presión intracraneal. En esta modalidad se incluye la ultrasonografía del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico, la cual representa una técnica rápida, fácil de realizar y disponible a la cabecera del paciente. Objetivos: Describir aspectos fundamentales y actualizados sobre el uso de la ultrasonografía en el monitoreo de la presión intracraneal a través de la medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico en los diferentes escenarios neuroclínicos. Métodos: Se realizó una revisión de la literatura publicada en bases de datos como: PubMed/Medline, SciELO y Google académico entre los meses mayo y julio de 2020. Se revisaron publicaciones en inglés y español. Se seleccionaron 46 bibliografías que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se describen aspectos fundamentales como la anatomía ecográfica del nervio óptico, descripción de la técnica y su uso en entidades neurocríticas como el traumatismo craneoencefálico, ictus, muerte encefálica, entre otros. Conclusiones: La ecografía de la vaina del nervio óptico representa una alternativa no invasiva ampliamente aceptada para la medición del incremento de la presión intracranial. Con un diámetro de 5,0 hasta 5,9 mm o más se puede asumir el diagnóstico de hipertensión intracraneal con alta sensibilidad y especificidad, aunque debe individualizarse su uso en cada patología neurocrítica. La curva de aprendizaje para la realización del proceder es de breve tiempo y satisface las habilidades necesarias(AU)


Introduction: Noninvasive neuromonitoring in critically ill patients is a first-line option for the management of fatal complications derived from increased intracranial pressure. This modality includes ultrasound of optic nerve sheath diameter, which is a quick technique, easy to perform and available at the bedside. Objectives: To describe significant and state-of-the-art aspects regarding the use of ultrasound for monitoring intracranial pressure through measurement of the optic nerve sheath diameter in different neuroclinical settings. Methods: A review was carried out, between May and July 2020, of the literature published in databases such as PubMed/Medline, SciELO and Google Scholar. Publications in English and Spanish were reviewed. Forty-six bibliographic sources were chosen, as long as they met the inclusion criteria. Fundamental aspects are described, such as the ultrasound anatomy of the optic nerve, the technique procedures and its use in neurocritical entities such as head trauma, stroke and brain death, among others. Conclusions: Ultrasound of the optic nerve sheath is a widely accepted noninvasive choice for measurement of increased intracranial pressure. With a diameter of 5.0 to 5.9 mm or more, the diagnosis of intracranial hypertension can be assumed with high sensitivity and specificity, although its use should be individualized in each neurocritical pathology. The learning curve for carrying out the procedure is short and satisfies the necessary skills(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Intracranial Pressure/physiology , Critical Illness , Stroke , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Craniocerebral Trauma
2.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(10): 879-885, Oct. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345311

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Although intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring is the gold standard method for measuring intracranial pressure after traumatic brain injury, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) measurement with ultrasound (US) is also used in the evaluation of ICP. Objective: To investigate the association between a series of OSND measurements by US and changes in clinical presentation of the patient. Methods: Prospective study including 162 patients with traumatic brain injury. Age, sex, cerebral CT findings, ONSD levels by US at minutes 0, 60, and 120, Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) within same period, change of consciousness, treatment, and mortality data were reviewed. The association of ONSD levels with GCS, change of consciousness, treatment, and mortality was evaluated. Results: There was no difference in ONSD changes in the patients' sample within the period (p=0.326). ONSD significantly increased in patients who died (p<0.001), but not in those who survived (p=0.938). There was no significant change in ONSD of the patients who received anti-edema therapy (p=801), but significantly increased ONSD values were found in those who received anti-edema therapy (p=0.03). Patients without change of consciousness did not have any significant change in ONSD (p=0.672), but ONSD values increased in patients who consciousness became worse, and decreased in those who presented a recovery (respectively, p<0.001, p=0.002). A negative correlation was detected between ONSD values and GSC values measured at primary, secondary, and tertiary time periods (for all p<0.001). Conclusions: ONSD follow-up may be useful to monitor ICP increase in patients with acute traumatic brain injury.


RESUMO Antecedentes: Embora o monitoramento da pressão intracraniana (PIC) seja o método padrão-ouro para medir a pressão intracraniana após lesão encefálica traumática, a medição do diâmetro da bainha do nervo óptico (DBNO) com ultrassom (US) também é usada na avaliação da PIC. Objetivo: Investigar a associação entre uma série de medidas de DBNO por US e mudanças na apresentação clínica do paciente. Métodos: Estudo prospectivo incluindo 162 pacientes com traumatismo cranioencefálico. Idade, sexo, achados de TC cerebral, níveis de DBNO por US nos minutos 0, 60 e 120, Escala de Coma de Glasgow (GCS) no mesmo período, mudança de consciência, tratamento e dados de mortalidade foram revisados. A associação dos níveis de DBNO com GCS, mudança de consciência, tratamento e mortalidade foi avaliada. Resultados: Não houve diferença nas mudanças de DBNO na amostra de pacientes no período (p=0,326). O DBNO aumentou significativamente em pacientes que morreram (p<0,001), mas não naqueles que sobreviveram (p=0,938). Não houve mudança significativa no DBNO dos pacientes que receberam terapia antiedema (p=801), mas valores significativamente aumentados de DBNO foram encontrados naqueles que receberam terapia antiedema (p=0,03). Pacientes sem alteração da consciência não tiveram alteração significativa no DBNO (p=0,672), mas os valores do DBNO aumentaram nos pacientes que pioraram a consciência e diminuíram naqueles que apresentaram recuperação (respectivamente, p<0,001, p=0,002). Detectou-se correlação negativa entre os valores de DBNO e os valores de GSC medidos nos períodos primário, secundário e terciário (para todos, p<0,001). Conclusões: O acompanhamento do DBNO pode ser útil para monitorar o aumento da PIC em pacientes com lesão cerebral traumática aguda.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Craniocerebral Trauma/complications , Craniocerebral Trauma/diagnostic imaging , Optic Nerve/diagnostic imaging , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Prospective Studies
3.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(3): 469-476, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1347303

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Desde a instituição da circulação extracorpórea, há cinco décadas, a lesão cerebral decorrente desse procedimento durante cirurgias cardiovasculares tem sido uma complicação frequente. Não existe uma causa única de lesão cerebral pelo uso de circulação extracorpórea, porém se sabe que acomete cerca de 70% dos pacientes submetidos a esse procedimento. A avaliação da pressão intracraniana é um dos métodos que podem orientar os cuidados com os pacientes submetidos a procedimentos associados com distúrbios neurológicos. Este artigo descreve dois casos de pacientes submetidos à cirurgia cardiovascular com circulação extracorpórea, para os quais os procedimentos de neuroproteção na fase pós-operatória foram guiados pelos achados relacionados ao formato das ondas de pressão intracraniana, obtidos por meio de um método não invasivo de monitoramento.


ABSTRACT Brain injury caused by extracorporeal circulation during cardiovascular surgical procedures has been a recurring complication since the implementation of extracorporeal circulation five decades ago. There is no unique cause of brain injury due to the use of extracorporeal circulation, but it is known that brain injury affects about 70% of patients who undergo this procedure. Intracranial pressure assessment is one method that can guide the management of patients undergoing procedures associated with neurological disturbances. This study describes two cases of patients who underwent cardiovascular surgery with extracorporeal circulation in whom clinical protocols for neuroprotection in the postoperative phase were guided by intracranial pressure waveform findings obtained with a novel noninvasive intracranial pressure monitoring method.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Cardiac Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Extracorporeal Circulation , Neuroprotection , Intensive Care Units
4.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(5): 437-446, May 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278401

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Intracranial pressure (ICP) monitoring has been used for decades in management of various neurological conditions. The gold standard for measuring ICP is a ventricular catheter connected to an external strain gauge, which is an invasive system associated with a number of complications. Despite its limitations, no noninvasive ICP monitoring (niICP) method fulfilling the technical requirements for replacing invasive techniques has yet been developed, not even in cases requiring only ICP monitoring without cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Objectives: Here, we review the current methods for niICP monitoring. Methods: The different methods and approaches were grouped according to the mechanism used for detecting elevated ICP or its associated consequences. Results: The main approaches reviewed here were: physical examination, brain imaging (magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography), indirect ICP estimation techniques (fundoscopy, tympanic membrane displacement, skull elasticity, optic nerve sheath ultrasound), cerebral blood flow evaluation (transcranial Doppler, ophthalmic artery Doppler), metabolic changes measurements (near-infrared spectroscopy) and neurophysiological studies (electroencephalogram, visual evoked potential, otoacoustic emissions). Conclusion: In terms of accuracy, reliability and therapeutic options, intraventricular catheter systems still remain the gold standard method. However, with advances in technology, noninvasive monitoring methods have become more relevant. Further evidence is needed before noninvasive methods for ICP monitoring or estimation become a more widespread alternative to invasive techniques.


RESUMO Introdução: O uso da monitorização da pressão intracraniana (PIC, em sua sigla em inglês) é adotado há décadas no manejo de diversas condições neurológicas. O padrão ouro atual é a monitorização invasiva intraventricular, que está relacionada a inúmeras complicações. Apesar dessas limitações, até o momento nenhum método de monitorização não invasiva (niPIC, em sua sigla em inglês) conseguiu substituir a técnica invasiva. Objetivos: Revisar os métodos não invasivos de monitorização da PIC. Métodos: As diferentes modalidades e abordagens foram agrupadas de acordo com o mecanismo utilizado para detectar elevação da PIC ou suas consequências. Resultados: As técnicas descritas foram: o exame físico, neuroimagem (tomografia computadorizada e ressonância magnética de crânio), estimativas indiretas da PIC (fundoscopia, deslocamento da membrana timpânica, elasticidade craniana), avaliação do fluxo cerebral (doppler transcraniano e doppler da artéria oftálmica), alterações metabólicas (Espectroscopia próxima do infravermelho) e estudos neurofisiológicos (eletroencefalograma, potencial evocado visual e emissões otoacústicas). Conclusão: Considerando a acurácia, confiabilidade e opções terapêuticas, o sistema de cateteres intraventricular ainda permanece como padrão ouro. No entanto, com os avanços tecnológicos, os métodos não invasivos têm se tornados mais relevantes. Mais evidências são necessárias antes que essas modalidades de monitorização ou estimativas não invasivas se tornem uma alternativa mais robusta às técnicas invasivas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Intracranial Hypertension , Skull , Reproducibility of Results , Evoked Potentials, Visual
5.
Rev. enferm. neurol ; 20(1): 66-76, ene.-abr. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1349260

ABSTRACT

Los drenajes cerebrales son dispositivos utilizados como métodos terapéuticos, permitiendo la salida de líquido normal o patológico a personas que cursen por alguna enfermedad neurológica, convirtiéndose en uno de los procedimientos más comunes en el área de la enfermería neurológica. He aquí que los cuidados de enfermería deben ser considerados específicos para poder visualizar resultados satisfactorios en pacientes portadores de estos sistemas en áreas críticas. Por este motivo, las intervenciones especializadas de enfermería en el cuidado a los drenajes cerebrales se basaron en la necesidad de elaborar una guía de intervenciones específicas, y especializadas, para personas con uso de drenajes cerebrales siendo un tema de importancia en enfermería neurológica.


Brain drains are devices used as therapeutic methods, allowing the exit of normal or pathological fluid to people suffering from a neurological disease, becoming one of the most common procedures in the area of neurological nursing. Here, nursing care must be considered specific in order to visualize satisfactory results in patients with these systems in critical areas. For this reason, specialized nursing interventions in the care of brain drains were based on the need to develop a guide for specific and specialized interventions for people with use of brain drains, being a topic of importance in neurological nursing.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage , Intracranial Pressure , Hematoma, Subdural , Persons , Nursing Care , Drainage , Catheters , Neuroscience Nursing
6.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 41: e06672, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1279529

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of lumbar myelography on subarachnoid pressure, cardiorespiratory parameters and pressure-volume index in sheep. Eight sheep were evaluated. The animals were submitted to puncture of the cisterna magna for monitoring of subarachnoid pressure (SaP). Lumbar myelography was performed through applying Iohexol (0.4mL/kg). ToC, PAS, PAD, MAP, InspISO, FeISO, SaP and CPP were recorded immediately after anesthetic stabilization (M0), during lumbar puncture (M1), and two, four and six minutes after contrast application (M2, M3 and M4, respectively). Blood pressure initially increased, then decreased, returning to basal level, similarly observed for InspISo and FeISo. The SaP rose initially thereafter remaining stable. Despite of the effect on subarachnoid pressure, lumbar myelography can be considered safe in sheep.(AU)


O objetivo foi avaliar os efeitos da mielografia lombar na pressão subaracnóidea, parâmetros cardiorrespiratórios e índice pressão-volume em ovinos. Oito ovelhas foram avaliadas. Os animais foram submetidos à punção da cisterna magna para monitoramento da pressão subaracnoidea (SaP). A mielografia lombar foi realizada com a aplicação de Iohexol (0,4mL/kg). Os momentos estudados foram: imediatamente após a estabilização anestésica (M0), durante a punção lombar (M1), dois, quatro e seis minutos após a aplicação do contraste (M2, M3 e M4, respectivamente), para avaliar as seguintes variáveis: ToC, PAS, PAD, MAP, InspISO, FeISO, Sap e CPP. A pressão arterial aumentou inicialmente, depois diminuiu, retornando aos valores iniciais, padrão também observado para o InspISo e o FeISo. O SaP subiu inicialmente, posteriormente, permanecendo estável. A mielografia lombar, apesar de influenciar a pressão subaracnoidea, pode ser considerada segura em ovinos.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Blood Pressure , Sheep , Myelography/adverse effects , Intracranial Pressure , Lumbosacral Region
7.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 344-349, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922348

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Hypertonic fluids such as mannitol and half-molar sodium lactate are given to treat intracranial hypertension in patients with severe traumatic brain injury (TBI). In this study, sodium lactate was compared to mannitol in patients with TBI to investigate the efficacy in reducing intracranial pressure (ICP).@*METHODS@#This study was a systematic review with literature research on articles published in any year in the databases of PubMed, ScienceDirect, Asian Journal of Neurosurgery, and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. The keywords were "half-molar sodium lactate", "mannitol", "cerebral edema or brain swelling", and "severe traumatic brain injury". The inclusion criteria were (1) studies published in English, (2) randomized control trials or retrospective/prospective studies on TBI patients, and (3) therapies including half-molar sodium lactate and mannitol and (4) sufficient data such as mean difference (MD) and risk ratio (RR). Data analysis was conducted using Review Manager 5.3.@*RESULTS@#From 1499 studies, a total of 8 studies were eligible. Mannitol group reduced ICP of 0.65 times (MD 0.65; p = 0.64) and improved cerebral perfusion pressure of 0.61 times (MD 0.61; p = 0.88), better than the half-molar group of sodium lactate. But the half-molar group of sodium lactate maintained the mean arterial pressure level of 0.86 times, better than the mannitol group (MD 0.86; p = 0.09).@*CONCLUSION@#Half-molar sodium lactate is as effective as mannitol in reducing ICP in the early phase of brain injury, superior over mannitol in an extended period. It is able to prevent intracranial hypertension and give better brain tissue perfusion as well as more stable hemodynamics. Blood osmolarity is a concern as it increases serum sodium.


Subject(s)
Brain Edema , Brain Injuries, Traumatic/drug therapy , Diuretics, Osmotic/therapeutic use , Humans , Intracranial Hypertension/etiology , Intracranial Pressure , Mannitol/therapeutic use , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Saline Solution, Hypertonic , Sodium Lactate
8.
An. Fac. Cienc. Méd. (Asunción) ; 53(3): 173-176, 20201201.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1178015

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Los Quistes Aracnoideos son colecciones benignas de líquido cefalorraquídeo que representan el 1% de lesiones ocupantes de espacios intracraneales. Se detecta frecuentemente antes de los 20 años, entre 60 a 90% de los casos. La prevalencia estimada es de 1,4% en adultos, siendo la menos frecuente la ubicación intraventricular. Caso Clínico: Mujer de 60 años de edad, consultó por cefalea holocraneana de larga data y ocasionales mareos. Sin alteraciones al examen físico neurológico. Se le realizó tomografía axial computarizada donde llamó la atención una leve alteración de la densidad intraventricular por lo que se procedió a realizar resonancia magnética nuclear que demostró imágenes quísticas en atrio de ventrículos laterales, bilateral. No se requirió de una intervención quirúrgica debido a que la paciente no presentaba sintomatología significativa. Discusión: El tratamiento quirúrgico es recomendado en pacientes sintomáticos, en quistes de gran extensión y en los que cursan con complicaciones. Para los pacientes que cursen sólo con dolor de cabeza, sin hidrocefalia secundaria o un aumento evidente de la presión intracraneal se recomienda la observación con o sin repetición de las imágenes.


Introduction: Arachnoid cysts are benign collections of cerebrospinal fluid that represents 1% of lesions occupying intracranial spaces. It is frequently detected before the age of 20, between 60 to 90% of cases. The estimated prevalence is 1.4% in adults, the least frequent being intraventricular location. Clinical Case: A 60-year-old woman attended for a long-standing holocranial headache and occasional dizziness. No alteration in the neurological physical examination. A computerized axial tomography was performed, where a slight alteration in the intraventricular density drew attention, for which a nuclear magnetic resonance was carried out, which showed cystic images in the atrium of bilateral lateral ventricles. No surgical intervention was required because the patient did not present a significant symptomatology. Discussion: Surgical treatment is recommended in symptomatic patients, in cysts of great extension and in those with complications. For patients with only headache, without secondary hydrocephalus or an obvious increase in intracranial pressure, observation with or without repetition of the images is recommended.


Subject(s)
Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Tomography , Headache , Hydrocephalus , Women , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrospinal Fluid , Observation
9.
Rev. chil. neuro-psiquiatr ; 58(3): 286-293, set. 2020. tab, ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138583

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La Hipertensión Intracraneal Idiopática (HICI) es un síndrome neurológico caracterizado por un aumento de la presión intracraneal en ausencia de lesión estructural o hidrocefalia. Los síntomas incluyen cefalea, tinnitus pulsátil, oscurecimientos visuales transitorios y pérdida visual. Dentro de los signos destacan diplopía por parálisis del VI par, edema de papila y disminución de la agudeza visual. Los pacientes no tienen compromiso de conciencia ni signos neurológicos focales. La principal complicación es la pérdida visual que puede ser irreversible. La asociación entre HICI y nitrofurantoína (NTF) se reportó en 1974. Caso clínico: Mujer de 42 años, con sobrepeso, que desarrolló una HICI aproximadamente 18 meses posterior al inicio de nitrofurantoína profiláctica. Consultó por cefalea frontal, opresiva que aumentaba con la maniobra de Valsalva, asociada a disminución fluctuante de la agudeza visual y episodios de oscurecimiento. Al examen destacó edema de papila bilateral, sin déficit neurológico focal. La presión del líquido cefalorraquídeo (LCR) fue de 25,5 cm de agua. La resonancia magnética mostró signos de aumento de la presión del LCR, sin lesiones estructurales ni hidrocefalia. El cuadro se recuperó concomitantemente a la suspensión de la NTF y el uso de topiramato. No se constató daño visual permanente. Conclusiones: Se debe sospechar la HICI en mujeres en edad fértil con sobrepeso. Dentro de los gatillantes del síndrome destacan varios fármacos, entre ellos la NTF. El principal objetivo del tratamiento de la HICI es preservar la función visual.


Abstract Introduction: Idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) is a syndrome characterized by increased intracranial pressure without a space occupying lesion or hydrocephalus. The symptoms are headache, pulsatile tinnitus, transient visual obscurations, and visual loss. Signs are diplopia caused by sixth cranial nerve paresis and papilledema with its associated loss of sensory visual function. The patient maintains an alert and oriented mental state, but has no localizing neurologic findings. The only major morbidity with IIH is visual loss. The association between IIH and nitrofurantoin was reported in 1974. Case: A 42 years old female, overweighed, who developed IIH 18 months after the start of prophylactic nitrofurantoin. She had frontal oppressive headache that increased with the Valsalva maneuver, fluctuant visual loss and transient visual obscurations. She had bilateral papilledema without localizing neurologic findings. The cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure was 25.5 cm H2O. Magnetic resonance imaging showed signs of increased CSF pressure without structural lesions or hydrocephalus. IIH recovered with the withdrawal of nitrofurantoin and the use of topiramate. There was not permanent visual loss. Conclusions: It is recommendable to suspect IIH in obese women in the childbearing years. There are several drugs associated with IIH including nitrofurantoin. The main objective of treatment is to prevent visual loss.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Paralysis , Pseudotumor Cerebri , Intracranial Pressure , Headache , Nitrofurantoin
10.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 78(1): 9-12, Jan. 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1088986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Cerebral hydrodynamics complications in shunted patients are due to the malfunction of the system. The objective of this retrospective, single-center, single-arm cohort study is to confirm the safety and performance of Sphera® Duo when used in adult patients suffering from hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri or arachnoid cysts. Methods: Data were generated by reviewing 112 adult patient's charts, who were submitted to a ventriculoperitoneal shunt surgery and followed for one year after surgery. Results: The results show us that 76% of patients had their neurological symptoms improved and that the reoperation rate was 15% in the first year following surgery. Discussion: Sphera Duo® shunt system is an applicable shunt option in routine neurosurgical management of hydrocephalus by several causes. It has presented good results while mitigating effects of overdrainage. Overdrainage is especially important in adults with non-hypertensive hydrocephalus and can cause functional shunt failure, which causes subnormal ICP (particularly in the upright position) and is associated with characteristic neurological symptoms, such as postural headache and nausea. Conclusion: Sphera Duo® shunt system is safe when used in adult patients suffering from hydrocephalus, pseudotumor cerebri or arachnoid cyst.


Resumo Introdução: As complicações da hidrodinâmica cerebral em pacientes com derivação ventriculoperitoneal são frequentemente relacionadas ao malfuncionamento do sistema. O objetivo deste estudo retrospectivo de coorte de centro único é avaliar a segurança e performance clínica do Sistema Sphera® Duo quando utilizado em adultos com hidrocefalia, pseudotumor cerebral ou cistos aracnoides. Métodos: Avaliamos os prontuários de 112 pacientes adultos submetidos a cirurgia de derivação ventriculoperitoneal e acompanhados por 1 ano após a cirurgia. Resultados: O resultado mostra que 76% dos pacientes melhoraram dos sintomas neurológicos e a taxa de reoperação foi de 15% no primeiro ano após a cirurgia. Discussão: O sistema de derivação Sphera Duo® é uma opção de shunt adequada a ser usada no tratamento neurocirúrgico da hidrocefalia por causas diversas. Ele demonstrou bons resultados clínicos enquanto reduziu riscos de hiperdrenagem. A hiperdrenagem é especialmente preocupante e mórbida em pacientes adultos com hidrocefalia não hipertensiva e pode levar a prejuízo clínico e disfunção da válvula, com sintomas de hipotensão craniana, como cefaléia ortostática e náuseas. Conclusão: O sistema de derivação Sphera Duo® é seguro para tratamento da hidrocefalia, pseudotumor cerebri ou cistos aracnóides em adultos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Pseudotumor Cerebri/surgery , Arachnoid Cysts/surgery , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/instrumentation , Hydrocephalus/surgery , Reoperation , Time Factors , Pseudotumor Cerebri/physiopathology , Intracranial Pressure/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Arachnoid Cysts/physiopathology , Treatment Outcome , Ventriculoperitoneal Shunt/methods , Equipment Design , Hydrodynamics , Hydrocephalus/physiopathology
11.
Belo Horizonte; s.n; 2020. 52 p. ilus., tab., graf..
Thesis in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1371791

ABSTRACT

Introdução: o aumento da pressão intracraniana (PIC) pode deteriorar as condições clínicas de pacientes vítimas de traumatismo cranioencefálico (TCE) grave, sendo que a identificação e o tratamento precoce desse aumento são considerados modificadores de morbidade e de mortalidade. Entre as técnicas descritas para estimar a PIC, uma tem se destacado por, além de ser não invasiva, poder ser realizada facilmente à beira do leito: a avaliação ultrassonográfica do diâmetro da bainha do nervo óptico (BNOP). Método: em 40 pacientes vítimas de TCE grave, admitidos em hospital de trauma nível I, submetidos ao implante de cateter intraparenquimatoso, sedados e em uso de ventilação mecânica, após consentimento de seus responsáveis, foram realizadas medidas ultrassonográficas da BNOP e comparadas simultaneamente com a medição invasiva da PIC, com o objetivo de se avaliar a associação entre as duas técnicas e de se determinar o valor de referência do diâmetro da BNOP para a população estudada. Foram excluídos do trabalho os pacientes com idade inferior a 18 anos, vítimas de traumatismo craniano penetrante ou traumas oculares diretos. Resultados: foram realizadas 53 medidas ultrassonográficas da BNOP nos 40 pacientes do estudo; 44 medidas (83%) foram realizadas em pacientes com PIC < 20 mmHg e nove (17%) em pacientes com PIC ≥ 20 mmHg. O valor médio do diâmetro da BNOP no grupo com PIC < 20 mmHg foi 5,4 mm ± 1,0, e no grupo com PIC ≥ 20 mmHg, 6,4 mm ± 0.7 (p = 0,0026). Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre as medidas da BNOP realizadas nos olhos direito e esquerdo do mesmo paciente. Foi demonstrada uma correlação positiva e estatisticamente significativa entre a medida ultrassonográfica da BNOP e a medição invasiva da PIC, sendo que, por meio da análise da curva ROC, o melhor ponto de corte encontrado foi 6,18 mm, medida que confere 77,8% de sensibilidade e 81,8% de especificidade na identificação da PIC ≥ 20 mmHg. Conclusão: este estudo parece ser pioneiro no Brasil a avaliar de forma comparativa a medida ultrassonográfica da BNOP com a medição invasiva da PIC, além de ter a maior amostra identificada na literatura composta exclusivamente por pacientes vítimas de TCE grave e submetidos à medição simultânea invasiva da PIC. Conclui-se que há uma correlação positiva entre a medida do diâmetro da BNOP e a medição invasiva da PIC, com ponto de corte definido em 6,18 mm. O objetivo desta validação não substitui a técnica invasiva, mas demonstra que a técnica ultrassonográfica pode ser uma ferramenta complementar de grande utilidade no cuidado do paciente vítima de TCE, principalmente quando não há disponibilidade de exames de imagem, equipamentos ou equipe neurocirúrgica.


Introduction: increased intracranial pressure (ICP) may deteriorate the clinical conditions of traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. For this reason, its identification and prompt treatment could modify morbidity and mortality in these set of patients. Among several described techniques to estimate intracranial pressure, one has emerged as non-invasive and easily performed at bedside: ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD). Method: 40 severe TBI patients were included and they were admitted to a level I trauma hospital. They were underwent intraparenchymal device placement, sedated and on mechanical ventilation. After a family member have signed informed consent, ultrasonographic measurement of ONSD was performed and compared with intracranial pressure invasive measurement in order to evaluate association between them and determine a threshold value. People under eighteen years old, penetrating TBI and direct ocular trauma were excluded from this study. Results: 53 ONSD measurements were performed in all patients; 44 measurements (83%) were in patients whose intracranial pressure was < 20 mmHg and nine measurements (17%) in those whose intracranial pressure was ≥ 20 mmHg. ONSD mean value of the group with intracranial pressure < 20 mmHg was 5.4 mm ± 1.0 and while that of the group with intracranial pressure ≥ 20 mmHg was 6.4 mm ± 0.7 (p = 0.0026). There was not statistically significant diference between left and right eyes measurements. Positive and statistically significant correlation was noted between ultrasonographic measurement of ONSD and invasive measurement. On the statistical analysis of ROC curve, the best cut-off was 6.18 mm, with a 77.8% sensitivity and 81.8% specificity. Conclusion: this was the first study in Brazil to evaluate the ONSD measurement in a quantitative analysis and the study with largest sample with severe TBI patients only underwent intracranial pressure invasive measurement already published. From this article, it is possible to conclude a positive correlation between ultrasonographic measurement of ONSD and intracranial pressure invasive measurement with a threshold of 6.18 mm. This validation does not intend to replace the invasive technique, however it demonstrates that this non-invasive technique might be a complementary tool in the neurocritical care when there are not available scans, medical supplies or neurosurgical team.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Optic Nerve , Intracranial Pressure , Brain Injuries, Traumatic , Intracranial Hypertension , Focused Assessment with Sonography for Trauma
12.
Aquichan ; 19(4): e1949, July-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1098046

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: the study sought to identify, in national and international publications, the principal Nursing interventions aimed at patients with intracranial hypertension. Materials and Method: integrative literature review with search in LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cinahal, and Google Scholar databases, from 2013 to 2018. Results: the sample was comprised of seven articles fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Two thematic categories were established for the Nursing interventions aimed at patients with intracranial hypertension: cognitive skills and clinical reasoning, necessary to control neuro-physiological parameters and prevent intracranial hypertension, and evidence-based practices to improve care for neuro-critical patients. Conclusions: intracranial hypertension is an event of great clinical impact, whose complications can be minimized and control through specific Nursing interventions that encompass control of neuro-physiological and hemodynamic parameters and prevention of increased intracranial pressure related with the performance of procedures by the Nursing staff.


RESUMEN Objetivo: el estudio tiene como objetivo identificar, en publicaciones nacionales e internacionales, las principales intervenciones de Enfermería dirigidas a pacientes con hipertensión intracraneal. Materiales y método: revisión integradora de la literatura con búsqueda en las bases de datos LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cinahal y Google Académico, del 2013 al 2018. Resultados: la muestra se conformó de siete artículos que cumplieron con los criterios de inclusión. Se establecieron dos categorías temáticas para las intervenciones de Enfermería dirigidas a pacientes con hipertensión intracraneal: habilidades cognitivas y razonamiento clínico, necesarias para el control de parámetros neurofisiológicos y la prevención de hipertensión intracraneal, y prácticas basadas en evidencias para la mejora de la asistencia al paciente neurocrítico. Conclusiones: la hipertensión intracraneal es un evento de gran repercusión clínica, cuyas complicaciones se pueden minimizar y controlar mediante intervenciones de Enfermería específicas que abarcan controles de parámetros neurofisiológicos, hemodinámicos y prevención de aumento de la presión intracraneal relacionado a la realización de procedimientos por el equipo de Enfermería.


RESUMO Objetivo: este estudo objetiva identificar, nas publicações nacionais e internacionais, as principais intervenções de Enfermagem direcionadas a pacientes com hipertensão intracraniana. Materiais e método: revisão integrativa da literatura com busca nas bases de dados LILACS, PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, Cinahal e Google Acadêmico, de 2013 a 2018. Resultados: a amostra foi constituída por sete artigos que atenderam aos critérios de inclusão. Elencaram-se duas categorias temáticas para as intervenções de Enfermagem direcionadas ao paciente com hipertensão intracraniana: habilidades cognitivas e raciocínio clínico, necessárias para o controle de parâmetros neurofisiológicos e para a prevenção de hipertensão intracraniana, e práticas baseadas em evidências para a melhoria da assistência ao paciente neurocrítico. Conclusões: a hipertensão intracraniana é um evento de grande repercussão clínica, cujas complicações podem ser minimizadas e controladas mediante intervenções de Enfermagem específicas que abrangem controles de parâmetros neurofisiológicos, hemodinâmicos, bem como prevenção de aumento da pressão intracraniana atrelado à realização de procedimentos pela equipe de Enfermagem.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Nursing , Review Literature as Topic , Hemodynamic Monitoring , Nursing Care
13.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(10): 823-829, Oct. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1056905

ABSTRACT

According to experimental studies with healthy dogs, omeprazole might decrease the CSF production by about 26%; therefore, book texts have been suggested the usage of omeprazole in medical protocols for hydrocephalus treatment. However, to the best knowledge of the authors, the usage and medical response of the omeprazole with substantial group of illness dogs, such as hydrocephalic animals, was lacking. This report describes clinical, diagnostic, and therapeutic findings in 12 dogs with hydrocephalus in which omeprazole were used for medical treatment. The diagnosis of hydrocephalus was accomplished by transcranial sonography (TCS) and/or computed tomography. The ventricular measurement was assessed periodically by TCS during medical treatment. Six dogs were diagnosed with non-obstrutive hydrocephalus and in the other 6 cases hydrocephalus occurred with other concomitant anomalous encephalic disease often related with obstructive hysdrocephalus, such as quadrigeminal cist, arachnoid cyst, chiary-like malformation, and syringomyelia. All of them had medical improvement after the use of omeprazole and the most of the cases had ventricular size reduction. In 10 dogs, the omeprazole was used as single drug, and in 2 dogs medical treatment with steroids and/or diuretics was previously being performed, and omeprazole was added because conventional treatment was resulting in mild to unsatisfactory medical control of the neurological status. The results of this paper shown that omeprazole may be used to ameliorate the neurological status in symptomatic hydrocephalic dogs. This work may represent the first description about the use of omeprazole in order to treat a substantial group of affected dogs with suspected increased intracranial pressure by hydrocephalus, probably due to limitation of CSF production.(AU)


O omeprazol diminui a produção do fluido cerebrospinal (FCE) por cerca de 26% de acordo com estudos experimentais em cães saudáveis. Segundo o conhecimento dos autores, embora utilizado na prática clínica e recomendado em livros textos, não há até o momento estudos clínicos em um grupo substancial de animais avaliando a resposta terapêutica ao uso do omeprazol em pacientes enfermos, tais como cães hidrocefálicos sintomáticos. Este trabalho descreve os achados clínicos, diagnósticos e terapêuticos em 12 cães com hidrocefalia que foram submetidos ao tratamento com omeprazol para o manejo médico de hidrocefalia. O diagnóstico de hidrocefalia e doenças neurológicas concomitantes foi realizado por ultrassonografia transcraniana (USTC) e/ou tomografia computadorizada. A mensuração do tamanho ventricular foi realizada pela USTC durante o tratamento médico. Seis cães foram diagnosticados com hidrocefalia não obstrutiva e os outros 6 casos apresentaram hidrofalia concomitante com outras afecções encefálicas anômalas comumente associada à hidrocefalia obstrutiva, tal como cisto quadrigêmio, cisto aracnóide, síndrome de chiari-like e seringomegalia. Em 10 cães o omeprazol foi utilizado como droga única e em 2 cães a terapia inicial foi a convencional utilizando esteroides e diuréticos, e o omeprazol foi adicionado, pois a resposta clínica a terapia convencional foi insatisfatória. Todos os animais obtiveram melhora dos parâmetros neurológicos e a maioria teve uma redução do tamanho ventricular após o uso do omeprazol. Os resultados deste estudo demonstram que o omeprazol pode ser utilizado para melhorar o estado neurológico em cães com hidrocefalia. Este estudo representa a primeira descrição clínica usando o omeprazol para tratar uma série de cães com suspeita de aumento da pressão intracraniana devido à hidrocefalia, provavelmente pela capacidade do fármaco em limitar a produção do FCE.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Omeprazole/therapeutic use , Hydrocephalus/drug therapy , Hydrocephalus/veterinary , Intracranial Pressure , Hydrocephalus/diagnostic imaging
14.
Cambios rev. méd ; 18(1): 58-62, 28/06/2019. tabs
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1015162

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN. La medición del diámetro de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de la ventana ocular puede ser un método no invasivo para la detección de hipertensión endocraneana. OBJETIVO. De este trabajo fue validar una fórmula de cuantificación de la presión intracraneana a partir de la evaluación por ultrasonido de la vaina del nervio óptico en una ciudad de gran altitud. MATERIALES Y MÉTODOS. Estudio prospectivo de 27 pacientes con trauma craneoencefalico grave en quienes se les colocó un sensor de presión intracraneana intraventricular y se realizó el cálculo de la PIC no invasiva mediante correlación utilizando la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico a través de ultrasonido y aplicando una fórmula de cálculo. RESULTADOS. Correlación positiva débil con significancia estadística. CONCLUSIÓN. La cuantificación de la presión intracraneana no invasiva a través de la evaluación de la vaina del nervio óptico por ultrasonido podría ser una herramienta útil en ciudades de gran altitud sobre el nivel del mar.


INTRODUCTION. Measuring the diameter of the optic nerve sheath through the eye window can be a non-invasive method for the detection of endocranial hypertension. OBJECTIVE. This work was to validate a formula for quantifying intracranial pressure from the ultrasound evaluation of the optic nerve sheath in a high-altitude city. MATERIALS AND METHODS. Prospective study of 27 patients with severe cranioencephalic trauma in whom an intraventricular intracranial pressure sensor was placed and the calculation of non-invasive ICP was performed by correlation using the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath through ultrasound and applying a formula of calculation. RESULTS. Weak positive correlation with statistical significance. CONCLUSION. Quantification of non-invasive intracranial pressure through the evaluation of the optic nerve sheath by ultrasound could be a useful tool in high altitude cities above sea level.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Optic Nerve , Ultrasonic Therapy , Observational Study , Craniocerebral Trauma , Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ecuador
15.
Prensa méd. argent ; 105(1): 24-33, mar 2019. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1026329

ABSTRACT

La presión intracraneal elevada es una complicación devastadora de la lesión neurológica, que puede complicar el trauma, los tumores del sistema nervioso central, la hidrocefalia, la encefalopatía hepática y el flujo venoso del SNC alterado. El adecuado tratamiento consta de un rápido reconocimiento, utilizar material de monitoreo neurológico invasivo y su manejo para reducir la hipertensión intracraneal y sus múltiples causas subyacente. A continuación presentamos una revisión de sus principales características y principios de abordaje diagnóstico-terapéutico


Intracranial pressure is a devastating complication of neurological damage, which can complicate trauma, central nervous system disorders, hydrocephalus, hepatic encephalopathy, and altered CNS venous flow. The appropriate treatment consists of a rapid recognition, the use of an invasive neurological system and its management to reduce intracranial hypertension and its multiple underlying causes. Below we present a review of its main characteristics and principles of diagnostic-therapeutic approach.


Subject(s)
Humans , Perfusion , Intracranial Pressure , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Ultrasonography, Doppler/methods , Intracranial Hypertension/diagnosis , Intracranial Hypertension/prevention & control , Intracranial Hypertension/therapy , Craniotomy , Conservative Treatment
16.
Rev. Hosp. Niños B.Aires ; 61(274): 146-154, 2019.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1102315

ABSTRACT

El trauma es la principal causa de muerte en niños de 1 a 14 años, siendo el Traumatismo de cráneo grave el 50% de las mismas. Además puede asociarse a elevada morbilidad con secuelas. La hipertensión intracraneal es una de las principales injurias secundarias que actúan sobre el cerebro. La incidencia de hipertensión intracraneal en estos pacientes es elevada, pese a ello no se han podido identificar marcadores que puedan determinar su presencia. La monitorización de la Presión intracraneal en forma invasiva debe realizarse en este grupo de pacientes, ya que el aumento de la misma se ha relacionado con resultados neurológicos negativos. El control protocolizado de la presión intracraneal puede generar mejoría de los mismos, lo cual es sostenido en la tercera edición de las Guías para el manejo del traumatismo de cráneo severo pediátrico publicadas por la Brain Trauma Foundation en el año 2019. En esta revisión se plasmarán los conceptos que avalan la utilización del monitoreo invasivo de la Presión Intracraneana


Trauma is the leading cause of death in children ages 1-14. Traumatic Brain Injury accounts for 50% of deaths and is associated with high morbidity and sequelae. Intracranial hypertension is one of the main secondary insults acting on the brain. The incidence of intracranial hypertension in these patients is high, but it has not been possible to identify markers that could determine its presence or absence. This supports that the monitoring of intracranial pressure in an invasive way should be done in this group of patients, since the increase of this, has been related to poor neurological outcomes and the protocolized management of intracranial hypertension can generates improvement in them. This is sustained in the third edition of the Guidelines for the management of Pediatric Severe Traumatic Brain Injury, published by the Brain Trauma Foundation in the year 2019. In this review, the concepts that support the use of invasive monitoring of Intracranial Pressure will be embodied


Subject(s)
Intracranial Pressure , Intracranial Hypertension , Craniocerebral Trauma
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759531

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hypercapnia causes dilation of cerebral vessels and increases cerebral blood flow, resulting in increased intracranial pressure. Sevoflurane is reported to preserve cerebrovascular carbon dioxide reactivity. However, the contribution of inhaled anesthetics to vasodilatory responses to hypercapnia has not been clarified. Moreover, the cerebrovascular response to desflurane under hypercapnia has not been reported. We examined the effects of sevoflurane and desflurane on vasodilatory responses to hypercapnia in rats. METHODS: A closed cranial window preparation was used to measure the changes in pial vessel diameters. To evaluate the cerebrovascular response to hypercapnia and/or inhaled anesthetics, the pial vessel diameters were measured in the following states: without inhaled anesthetics at normocapnia (control values) and hypercapnia, with inhaled end-tidal minimal alveolar concentration (MAC) of 0.5 or 1.0 of either sevoflurane or desflurane at normocapnia, and an MAC of 1.0 of sevoflurane or desflurane at hypercapnia. RESULTS: Under normocapnia, 1.0 MAC, but not 0.5 MAC, of sevoflurane or desflurane dilated the pial arterioles and venules. In addition, under both 1.0 MAC of sevoflurane and 1.0 MAC of desflurane, hypercapnia significantly dilated the pial arterioles and venules in comparison to their diameters without inhaled anesthetics. The degrees of vasodilation were similar for desflurane and sevoflurane under both normocapnia and hypercapnia. CONCLUSIONS: Desflurane induces cerebrovascular responses similar to those of sevoflurane. Desflurane can be used as safely as sevoflurane in neurosurgical anesthesia.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthetics , Animals , Arterioles , Carbon Dioxide , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Hypercapnia , Intracranial Pressure , Rats , Vasodilation , Venules
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758449

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: While the optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD) is measured by computed tomography and ultrasonography as an indicator of an elevation in the intracranial pressure (ICP), it is unclear which ONSD measurement is useful for predicting an increased ICP. This study examined the comparability between the ONSD measured by computed tomography and ultrasonography. METHODS: A prospective study of 150 patients in the emergency center was performed. The ONSD was measured 3 mm behind the globe of all patients by computed tomography and ultrasonography. The receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve was analyzed to determine the diagnostic utility of detecting ICP through ONSD. RESULTS: A total of 150 patients were enrolled. Thirty-three patients (22.0%) were found to have an increased ICP. The ONSD in patients with increased ICP was significantly higher than that of normal ICP patients measured by computed tomography and ultrasonography. Moreover, computed tomography and ultrasonography revealed an area under the ROC curve value of 0.886 and 0.933, respectively. The ONSD measurement by computed tomography and ultrasonography produced similar results (P=0.256). CONCLUSION: The ONSD measured by computed tomography and ultrasonography is a valuable indicator of an ICP elevation. Therefore, either of the two diagnostic methods for monitoring the ICP can be used in patients with a critical care and resource-limited setup.


Subject(s)
Critical Care , Emergencies , Humans , Intracranial Pressure , Optic Nerve , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Ultrasonography
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776064

ABSTRACT

Cryptococcal meningitis(CM)is often seen in immunocompromised patients and has become a global health concern. Elevated intracranial pressure(ICP)is a common complication of CM and often leads to poor prognosis. Monitoring and management of ICP is an important task in CM patients. Invasive intervention is often needed for the elevated ICP in CM patients due to the pathophysiological features of this condition. This article review the recent progress in the diagnosis and treatment of elevated ICP in CM patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Intracranial Hypertension , Intracranial Pressure , Meningitis, Cryptococcal
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763110

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the efficacy of modified ventriculolumbar perfusion (VLP) chemotherapy with methotrexate on leptomeningeal carcinomatosis in terms of symptomatic response and side effects. METHODS: Previous infusion rate of 20 mL/h was reduced to 15 mL/h for the purpose of decreasing constitutional side effects of VLP such as nausea/vomiting, insomnia and confusion. The primary outcome was the response rate of increased intracranial pressure (ICP), and the secondary outcome was the occurrence of side effects compared to previous 20 mL/h trial. This interim analysis to validate the reduced infusion rate is not to affect the original effect of VLP chemotherapy. RESULTS: All forty-seven patients were enrolled including 22 patients with increased ICP. Thirteen patients out of these (59%) got normalized ICP after VLP chemotherapy. Moderate to severe (grade 2–3) confusion was observed in 3 patients (6%) and it was significantly reduced compared to those (23%) in the VLP 20 mL/h (p=0.017). Grade 2–3 nausea/vomiting was also reduced from 64% to 45% but failed to reach statistical significance (p=0.08). Median overall survival (OS) was 5.3 months (95% confidence interval, 3.55–7.05) and patients OS, who received maintenance VLP was significantly prolonged compared to patients who underwent induction VLP only (5.8 vs. 3.4 months, p=0.025). CONCLUSION: VLP of reduced perfusion rate (15 mL/h) showed compatible control rate of increased ICP at this interim analysis. Decreased moderate to severe side effects and prolonged OS in patients received maintenance VLP encourage us to evaluate the effectiveness of this trial further.


Subject(s)
Drug Therapy , Humans , Infusions, Intraventricular , Intracranial Pressure , Meningeal Carcinomatosis , Methotrexate , Perfusion , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders
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