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1.
Rev. ADM ; 78(5): 251-257, sept.-oct. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1344244

ABSTRACT

asistencia ventilatoria cuando la vía aérea y la consciencia están comprometidas. Los elementos utilizados en este procedimiento se encuentran en contacto directo con estructuras dentofaciales, causando diversos tipos de lesiones, principalmente bucales. Aunque existen cuidados clínicos durante procesos de intubación, hay poca información, particularmente de la zona norte del país donde se hayan evaluado las posibles asociaciones entre los motivos de consulta más frecuentes y las diversas características, tanto clínicas como no clínicas de pacientes que han sido intubados. Objetivo: Identificar las alteraciones bucodentales más frecuentes en pacientes intubados, así como explorar las posibles asociaciones de acuerdo con los motivos de intubación más frecuentes. Material y métodos: Se realizó un estudio observacional, transversal y comparativo en el cual se evaluaron alteraciones bucodentales y sistémicas de pacientes intubados. Los grupos de estudio se desarrollaron de acuerdo con el motivo de intubación y la determinación de las asociaciones fue con cada una de las alteraciones bucodentales y sistémicas. Resultados: El motivo de intubación más frecuente fue el evento cerebral vascular (EVC) y las alteraciones dentofaciales más prevalentes fueron caries, lengua saburral y cálculo dental, entre otras. Además, se encontraron diferencias significativas entre pacientes con EVC, mostrando una mayor frecuencia en tabaquismo, hipertensión arterial y diabetes mellitus, así como en la presencia de gingivitis y úlceras. Pacientes con traumatismo craneoencefálico (TCE) tuvieron mayor frecuencia en la presencia de periodontitis. Conclusión: El motivo de hospitalización y las condiciones sistémicas preexistentes pueden ser un factor de riesgo para desarrollar lesiones bucales específicas antes y durante el periodo de intubación (AU)


Introduction: Intubation is a procedure that allows ventilatory assistance when the airway and consciousness are compromised. The elements used in this procedure are in direct contact with dentofacial structures causing various types of injuries, mainly oral. Although there is clinical care during intubation processes, there is little information, particularly from the northern part of the country where the possible associations between the most frequent reasons for consultation and the various clinical and non-clinical characteristics of patients who have been intubated have been evaluated. Objective: The objectives of the present study were to identify the most frequent oral alterations in intubated patients, as well as to explore possible associations according to the most frequent reasons for intubation. Material and methods: An observational, cross-sectional and comparative study was carried out in which oral and systemic alterations of intubated patients were evaluated. The study groups were formed according to the reason for intubation and the association was determined with each of the oral and systemic disorders. Results: The most frequent reason for intubation was the vascular cerebral event (CVA) and the most prevalent dentofacial alterations were caries, coated tongue, and dental calculus, among others. In addition, significant differences were found between patients with CVA, showing a higher frequency in smoking, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus, as well as in the presence of gingivitis and ulcers. Patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) had a higher frequency in the presence of periodontitis. Conclusion: The reason for hospitalization and pre-existing systemic conditions can be a risk factor for developing specific oral lesions before and during the intubation period (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Mouth Mucosa/injuries , Periodontal Diseases/etiology , Tooth Diseases , Cross-Sectional Studies , Statistical Analysis , Risk Factors , Stroke , Diabetes Mellitus , Observational Study , Brain Contusion , Hypertension , Mexico
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922085

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#In order to further decrease and reduce the serious adverse events of silicone rubber endotracheal intubation in clinical use, especially in anesthesia and intensive care.@*METHODS@#Through the first stage analysis on the registration and certification of endotracheal intubation products in China, adverse events of products in recent five years in Zhejiang province, domestic and foreign literature of adverse events of products, retrieval of product citation standards, content integrity of product instructions, and expert seminar on serious adverse events, combined with the air leakage of endotracheal intubation products in recent two years, product material and clinical application with normative aspects.@*RESULTS@#Silicone rubber endotracheal intubation products in clinical intensive care have certain clinical safety risks, especially for long-term use of critically ill patients.@*CONCLUSIONS@#According to the four cases of serious adverse events of silicone rubber endotracheal intubation in the clinical intensive care unit, we put forward some suggestions for the manufacturers, clinical users and regulatory agencies to further decrease and reduce the serious adverse events of silicone rubber endotracheal intubation.


Subject(s)
China , Critical Care , Critical Illness , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
3.
Int. j. odontostomatol. (Print) ; 14(4): 701-704, dic. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1134560

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este artículo es presentar algunas consideraciones odontológicas y un protocolo de mantención para el manejo y cuidado de cavidad oral en pacientes en ventilación mecánica invasiva (VMI) en unidades de cuidados intensivos hospitalarios. Además, presentar recomendaciones para la implementación de estas. Desde el desarrollo del COVID-19 en el mundo, los casos de VMI prolongada han aumentado y junto con ellos, se ha visibilizado las complicaciones propias de este tipo de terapia, dentro de las cuales encontramos aquellas que afectan la cavidad oral. Los centros hospitalarios normalmente cuentan con servicios dentales conformados por distintas especialidades, las cuales en un trabajo mancomunado pueden entregar herramientas y educar al personal encargado para el cuidado de la cavidad oral en estos pacientes si es que son requeridos, siendo el odontólogo el encargado de evaluar las distintas situaciones clínicas y entregar directrices para la prevención y tratamiento de patología de la cavidad oral. En este trabajo se describen los pasos a seguir para realizar una correcta higiene oral de estos pacientes y el manejo de las distintas complicaciones posibles de observar, junto con la experiencia local de cómo solucionarlos de la mejor manera. Consideramos importante que las unidades de cuidados intensivos (UCI) conozcan el rol del odontólogo y las acciones que este equipo puede aportar en el cuidado de los pacientes hospitalizados para disminuir los riesgos asociados a ventilación prolongada, basados principalmente en el manejo de la higiene oral y lesiones asociadas.


ABSTRACT: The aim of this sutudy dental considerations and an oral cavity maintenance and care protocol in patients on invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) in hospital intensive care units. Since the development of COVID-19 in the world, cases of prolonged IMV have increased and together with them, the complications of this type of therapy have been made visible, among which we find those that affect the oral cavity. Hospital centers normally have dental services made up of different specialties, which in a joint effort can provide tools and educate the personnel in charge of the care of the oral cavity in these patients if they are required, being the dentist the one in charge of evaluating and deliver guidelines for the prevention and treatment of pathology of the oral cavity. This work describes the steps to be followed to carry out correct oral hygiene in these patients and the management of the different complications that may be observed, along with local experience on how to best solve them. We consider important that the intensive care units (ICU) get to know the role of the dentist in the hospital environment and that they become part of the care of hospitalized patients to reduce the risks associated with prolonged ventilation, based mainly on oral hygiene management and associated injuries.


Subject(s)
Humans , Patient Care Team , Respiration, Artificial/adverse effects , Dental Care/instrumentation , COVID-19 , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Clinical Protocols , Intensive Care Units
4.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 667-677, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155776

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Positioning during endotracheal intubation (ETI) is critical to ensure its success. We aimed to determine if the ramping position improved laryngeal exposure and first attempt success at intubation when compared to the sniffing position. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched systematically from inception until January 2020. Our primary outcomes included laryngeal exposure as measured by Cormack-Lehane Grade 1 or 2 (CLG 1/2), CLG 3 or 4 (CLG 3/4), and first attempt success at intubation. Secondary outcomes were intubation time, use of airway adjuncts, ancillary maneuvers, and complications during ETI. Results Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, of which 4 were RCTs and 3 were cohort studies. The meta-analysis was conducted by pooling the effect estimates for all 4 included RCTs (n = 632). There were no differences found between ramping and sniffing positions for odds of CLG 1/2, CLG 3/4, first attempt success at intubation, intubation time, use of ancillary airway maneuvers, and use of airway adjuncts, with evidence of high heterogeneity across studies. However, the ramping position in surgical patients is associated with increased likelihood of CLG 1/2 (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.32, p = 0.004) and lower likelihood of CLG 3/4 (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.79, p = 0.004), moderate quality of evidence. Conclusion Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the ramping position may benefit surgical patients undergoing ETI by improving laryngeal exposure. Large scale well designed multicentre RCTs should be carried out to further elucidate the benefits of the ramping position in the surgical and intensive care unit patients.


Resumo Objetivos A posição do paciente durante a Intubação Traqueal (IT) é fundamental para o sucesso do procedimento. Nosso objetivo foi determinar se a posição de rampa melhorou a visualização laríngea e o êxito na primeira tentativa de intubação quando comparada à posição olfativa. Métodos Os bancos de dados PubMed, EMBASE e Cochrane CENTRAL foram pesquisados de forma sistemática a partir da data em que os bancos de dados foram estabelecidos até janeiro de 2020. Nossos desfechos primários incluíram a visualização laríngea avaliada como Cormack‐Lehane Grau 1 ou 2 (CLG 1/2), Cormack‐Lehane Grau 3 ou 4 (CLG 3/4) e o êxito na primeira tentativa de intubação. Os desfechos secundários foram o tempo de intubação, uso de dispositivos adjuvantes para manuseio de vias aéreas, manobras auxiliares e complicações durante a IT. Resultados Sete estudos preencheram nossos critérios de inclusão, dos quais 4 eram Estudos Clínicos Randomizados (ECR) e 3 eram estudos de coorte. A meta‐análise foi conduzida combinando as estimativas de efeito para todos os 4 ECR incluídos (n = 632). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as posições de rampa e olfativa para razão de chances de CLG 1/2, CLG 3/4, sucesso na primeira tentativa de intubação, tempo de intubação, uso de manobras auxiliares das vias aéreas e uso de dispositivos adjuvantes de vias aéreas, havendo evidência de alta heterogeneidade nos estudos. No entanto, a posição de rampa em pacientes cirúrgicos está associada com maior probabilidade de CLG 1/2 (OR = 2,05; 95% IC 1,26 a 3,32; p = 0,004) e menor probabilidade de CLG 3/4 (OR = 0,49; 95% IC 0,30 a 0,79; p = 0,004), com qualidade moderada de evidência. Conclusão Nossa meta‐análise demonstrou que a posição de rampa pode beneficiar pacientes cirúrgicos submetidos a IT, melhorando a visualização laríngea. ECR multicêntricos bem projetados com amostras grandes devem ser realizados para esclarecer ainda mais os benefícios da posição de rampa nos pacientes cirúrgicos e na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Patient Positioning/instrumentation , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Posture , Time Factors , Cohort Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Larynx
5.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 583-587, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155765

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Several airway complications can occur during shoulder arthroscopy including airway obstruction, pleural puncture, and subcutaneous emphysema. It was hypothesized that the irrigation fluid used during a shoulder arthroscopic procedure might increase the cuff pressure of the endotracheal tube, which can cause edema and ischemic damage to the endotracheal mucosa. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between irrigation fluid and endotracheal tube cuff pressures. Methods Forty patients aged 20 to 70 years with an American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA) score I or II, scheduled for elective arthroscopic shoulder surgery under general anesthesia, participated in our study. We recorded endotracheal tube cuff pressures and neck circumferences every hour from the start of the operation. We also recorded the total duration of the anesthesia, operation, and the total volume of fluid used for irrigation. Results A positive correlation was shown between endotracheal tube cuff pressures and the amount of irrigation fluid (r = 0.385, 95% CI 0.084 to 0.62, p = 0.0141). The endotracheal tube cuff pressure significantly increased at 2 and 3 hours after starting the operation (p = 0.0368 and p = 0.0245, respectively). However, neck circumference showed no significant difference. Conclusions Endotracheal tube cuff pressures increased with operation time and with increased volumes of irrigation fluid used in patients who underwent shoulder arthroscopy. We recommend close monitoring of endotracheal tube cuff pressures during shoulder arthroscopy, especially during long operations using a large amount of irrigation fluid, to prevent complications caused by raised cuff pressures.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos Diversas complicações das vias aéreas podem ocorrer durante a artroscopia do ombro, incluindo obstrução das vias aéreas, punção pleural e enfisema subcutâneo. Levantou‐se a hipótese de que o fluido de irrigação utilizado durante artroscopia do ombro possa aumentar a pressão do balonete do tubo endotraqueal, podendo causar edema e lesão isquêmica na mucosa traqueal. Portanto, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a relação entre o fluido de irrigação e a pressão do balonete do tubo endotraqueal. Métodos Participaram do estudo 40 pacientes com idades entre 20 e 70 anos com classificação do estado físico I ou II da American Society of Anesthesiologists (ASA), programados para cirurgia artroscópica do ombro, eletiva e sob anestesia geral. Registramos as pressões do balonete do tubo endotraqueal e as circunferências do pescoço a cada hora, a partir do início da cirurgia. Também registramos a duração anestésica e cirúrgica, assim como o volume total de líquido de irrigação empregado. Resultados Foi encontrada correlação positiva entre a pressão do balonete do tubo endotraqueal e a quantidade de líquido de irrigação (r = 0,385; 95% IC 0,084 a 0,62; p = 0,0141). A pressão do balonete do tubo endotraqueal registrou aumento significante 2 e 3 horas após o início da cirurgia (p = 0,0368 e p = 0,0245, respectivamente). No entanto, a circunferência do pescoço não mostrou diferença significante. Conclusões As pressões do balonete do tubo endotraqueal aumentaram com o tempo de cirurgia e com o aumento do volume de líquido de irrigação utilizado em pacientes submetidos a artroscopia do ombro. Recomendamos a monitorização rigorosa da pressão do balonete do tubo endotraqueal durante artroscopia do ombro, especialmente nos procedimentos longos em que grandes volumes de fluido de irrigação são empregados, para evitar complicações causadas por pressões elevadas do balonete.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Pressure/adverse effects , Shoulder Joint/surgery , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Time Factors , Elective Surgical Procedures/adverse effects , Elective Surgical Procedures/methods , Operative Time , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Therapeutic Irrigation/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/statistics & numerical data , Neck/anatomy & histology
6.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 691-696, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cambio de cánula de traqueostomía en niños constituye un procedimiento clave, sin embargo, falta claridad en algunos de sus aspectos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el cambio de cánula de traqueostomía en niños de una institución de larga estadía hospitalaria. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo observacional analítico en base al registro clínico de 2 años de niños hospitalizados usuarios de traqueostomía. Las variables evaluadas fueron: motivo de cambio de traqueostomía, número y marca de traqueostomía, operador y participantes (ayudantes/espectadores) del procedimiento, complicaciones y contexto educacional. RESULTADOS: 630 cambios de cánula de traqueostomía fueron analizados. Los operadores más frecuentes fueron familiares (33,7%). El principal motivo de cambio fue rutina (83,3%). Un 10,7% de los cambios presentó alguna complicación, siendo la más frecuente el sangrado periostoma (47,37%) y el primer intento frustro (34,21%). No existió asociación entre la presencia de balón y complicaciones (p = 0,24), tampoco con el uso de ventilación mecánica (p = 0,8) u operador (p = 0,74). CONCLUSIÓN: El cambio de rutina de cánula de traqueostomía en niños con vía aérea artificial prolongada es un procedimiento seguro, realizable tanto por profesionales de la salud como por familiares debidamente instruidos.


INTRODUCTION: Changing the tracheostomy tube in children is a key procedure, however, some of its aspects re main unclear. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the tracheostomy tube change in children from a long-stay health institution. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective observational analytical study based on the 2-year clinical record of hospitalized children who underwent tracheostomy. The variables evaluated were the reason for tracheostomy tube change, size and brand of the tube, operator and participants (assistants/spectators) of the procedure, complications, and education. RESULTS: We analyzed 630 tracheostomy tube changes. The most frequent operators were relatives (33.7%). The main reason for the change was routine (83.3%). 10.7% of the changes presented some complications, where the most frequent was peristomal bleeding (47.37%) and the first failed attempt (34.21%). There was no association between the presence of balloon and complications (p = 0.24), nor with the use of Mechanical Ventilation (p = 0.8) or the operator (p = 0.74). CONCLUSION: The routine change of the tracheostomy tube in children with prolonged artificial airway use is a safe procedure, which can be performed by both health professionals and properly trained family members.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Tracheostomy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Medical Errors/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation
7.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(1): e72-e76, 2020-02-00. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1096164

ABSTRACT

La estenosis traqueal adquirida es muy poco frecuente en la edad pediátrica y puede responder a múltiples causas; la estenosis posintubación y la secundaria a traqueotomía son las más comunes.El manejo de la estenosis traqueal adquirida sigue siendo controvertido. El tratamiento endoscópico proporciona el alivio inmediato de los síntomas, pero se asocia a una alta tasa de recurrencia, y el uso de prótesis endoluminales puede incrementar la longitud de la estenosis y complicar una cirugía futura. Por el contrario, se han documentado buenos resultados a largo plazo con la resección traqueal con anastomosis primaria.Se describe nuestra experiencia con la resección traqueal con anastomosis término-terminal para el tratamiento de la estenosis traqueal posintubación en 8 pacientes.


Acquired tracheal stenosis is a very infrequent lesion in the pediatric age group and may be due to diverse causes, being post-intubation stenosis and stenosis secondary to tracheostomy the most common ones.The management of acquired tracheal stenosis remains controversial. Endoscopic treatment provides immediate relief of symptoms but it is associated with a high recurrence rate, and the use of endoluminal prostheses can increase the length of the stricture complicating future surgery. Conversely, good long-term results have been documented with tracheal resection and primary anastomosis.We describe our experience with tracheal resection followed by end-to-end anastomosis for the treatment of post-intubation tracheal stenosis in 8 patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Tracheal Stenosis/surgery , Tracheal Stenosis/therapy , Endoscopy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
11.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(1): e2018072, Jan.-Mar. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-987500

ABSTRACT

Endotracheal intubation injuries are rare, but may be devastating­mostly among the pediatric patients or when these occur in the distal trachea. Such complications typify a therapeutic challenge, which, besides requiring intellectual and technical resources, takes a long time to reach a resolution. The authors present the case of a 15-year-old girl admitted with an abnormal state of consciousness due to diabetic ketoacidosis. She was submitted to endotracheal intubation with hyperinflation of the tube cuff, which rendered tracheal necrosis and detachment of the tracheal mucosa, and consequent obstruction. Later, she developed scarring retraction and stenosis. The patient was successfully treated with an endotracheal prosthesis insertion. The aim of this report is to illustrate a preventable complication.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Tracheal Stenosis/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Diabetic Ketoacidosis/complications
12.
Rev. cuba. cir ; 57(4): e720, oct.-dic. 2018. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-991056

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Las fístulas traqueoesofágicas posintubación son lesiones graves que presentan alta frecuencia de complicaciones y mortalidad. Objetivo: Actualizar el diagnóstico y tratamiento de pacientes con esta afección. Método: Se revisó la literatura en PUBMED/Medline e Infomed con las palabras clave: fístula, traqueoesofágica, fístula traqueoesofágica, postintubación y las correspondientes en inglés. Se revisaron las referencias bibliográficas de los artículos en busca de publicaciones relevantes. Se escogieron, preferentemente, trabajos prospectivos. Los informes de casos sólo se tomaron en cuenta cuando hacían referencia a alguna técnica novedosa. Desarrollo: Se encontraron 4260 artículos en Medline/Pubmed y 17 en Infomed. No se encontraron ensayos clínicos, metanálisis, ni revisiones sistemáticas. La mayoría de los artículos revisados hacen referencia a presentación de casos y algunos fueron estudios retrospectivos. Las presentaciones de casos se usaron solo si describían una técnica novedosa. Conclusiones: La intubación endotraqueal prolongada es la causa principal de FTEs. La patogenia se asocia con isquemia secundaria a compresión de las paredes traqueal posterior yesofágica anterior, entre el manguito insuflado del tubo endotraqueal y la sonda nasogástrica. El tratamiento conservador, generalmente, no cura la fístula, pero puede limitar la contaminación del árbol traqueobronquial y garantiza la nutrición. La derivación esofágica raramente está indicada, excepto cuando persiste entrada a la VR del contenido gastrointestinal. Actualmente, el tratamiento definitivo es la sutura esofágica y, en la mayoría de los casos, la resección y anastomosis traqueal(AU)


ABSTRACT Introduction: Post-intubation tracheoesophageal fistulae are severe lesions with high frequency of complication and high rate of mortality. Objective: To update the knowledge about the diagnosis and treatment of patients with this disease. Method: Literature review made in PUBMEDF/Medline and Infomed using the keywords: fistula, traqueoesophageal, tracheoesophageal fistula, and post-intubation in Spanish and English. References of articles were also reviewed to find out relevant publications. Prospective papers were particularly chosen. The case reports were only taken into account when they made reference to some novel technique. Results: In this search, 4260 articles were found in Medline/Pubmed and 17 in Infomed databases. No clinical assays, meta-analysis or systematic reviews were found. Most of the articles made reference to case reports and some to retrospective studies. The case reports were only used if they described a novel technique. Conclusions: Prolonged endotracheal intubation is the main cause of traqueoesophageal fistula. The pathogeny is associated to ischemia secondary to compression of posterior tracheal wall and anterior esophageal wall between the inflated cuff of the endotracheal tube and the nasogastric probe. In general, the conservative treatment does not cure the fistula but may restrict contamination of the tracheobronchial tree and guarantee nutrition. The esophageal shunt is rarely indicated, except when the gastrointestinal content continues entering into the VR. At present, the definitive treatment is the esophageal suturing and in most of cases, the resection and tracheal anastomosis(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Review Literature as Topic , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/complications , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/diagnosis , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Tracheoesophageal Fistula/therapy
13.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(6): 722-728, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974384

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Lesions in the oral cavity, pharynx and larynx due to endotracheal intubation can cause reduction in the local motility and sensitivity, impairing the swallowing process, resulting in oropharyngeal dysphagia. Objective: To verify the predictive factors for the development of oropharyngeal dysphagia and the risk of aspiration in patients with prolonged orotracheal intubation admitted to an intensive care unit. Methods: This is an observational, analytical, cross-sectional and retrospective data collection study of 181 electronic medical records of patients submitted to prolonged orotracheal intubation. Data on age; gender; underlying disease; associated comorbidities; time and reason for orotracheal intubation; Glasgow scale on the day of the Speech Therapist assessment; comprehension; vocal quality; presence and severity of dysphagia; risk of bronchoaspiration; and the suggested oral route were collected. The data were analyzed through logistic regression. The level of significance was set at 5%, with a 95% Confidence Interval. Results: The prevalence of dysphagia in this study was 35.9% and the risk of aspiration was 24.9%. As the age increased, the altered vocal quality and the degree of voice impairment increased the risk of the presence of dysphagia by 5-; 45.4- and 6.7-fold, respectively, and of aspiration by 6-; 36.4- and 4.8-fold. The increase in the time of orotracheal intubation increased the risk of aspiration by 5.5-fold. Conclusion: Patients submitted to prolonged intubation who have risk factors associated with dysphagia and aspiration should be submitted to an early speech-language/audiology assessment and receive appropriate and timely treatment. The recognition of these predictive factors by the entire multidisciplinary team can minimize the possibility of clinical complications inherent to the risk of dysphagia and aspiration in extubated patients.


Resumo: Introdução: Lesões na cavidade oral, faringe e laringe, em virtude de intubação endotraqueal, podem causar redução da motricidade e da sensibilidade local e comprometer o processo da deglutição, determinando disfagia orofaríngea. Objetivo: Verificar os fatores preditivos do desenvolvimento de disfagia orofaríngea e risco de aspiração em pacientes pós-intubação orotraqueal prolongada internados em uma unidade de terapia intensiva. Método: Estudo observacional, analítico, de delineamento transversal e retrospectivo de coleta de dados de 181 prontuários eletrônicos, de pacientes submetidos à intubação orotraqueal prolongada. Foram coletadas informações referentes a idade; sexo; doença de base, comorbidades associadas; tempo e motivo da intubação orotraqueal; Escala Glasgow no dia da avaliação fonoaudiológica; compreensão; qualidade vocal; presença de disfagia e a gravidade; risco de broncoaspiração; e via oral sugerida. Os dados foram analisados por meio da regressão logística. Adotou-se o nível de significância de 5% e intervalo de confiança de 95%. Resultados: A prevalência de disfagia neste estudo foi de 35,9% e de risco de aspiração de 24,9%. O aumento da idade, a qualidade vocal alterada e o grau de comprometimento da voz elevam os riscos de presença em disfagia em 5; 45,4 e 6,7 vezes, respectivamente, e de aspiração em 6; 36,4 e 4,8 vezes. Já o aumento do tempo de intubação orotraqueal elevou em 5,5 vezes o risco de aspiração. Conclusão: Pacientes submetidos a intubação prolongada que apresentam os fatores de risco relacionados às disfagia e aspiração devem ser submetidos a avaliação fonoaudiológica precoce e receber conduta adequada em tempo hábil. O reconhecimento desses fatores preditivos por toda a equipe multidisciplinar pode minimizar as possibilidades de complicações clínicas inerentes ao risco de disfagia e aspiração em pacientes extubados.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Respiratory Aspiration/etiology , Respiratory Insufficiency/complications , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Deglutition Disorders/physiopathology , Voice Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Risk Assessment , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
14.
Braz. j. otorhinolaryngol. (Impr.) ; 84(6): 781-789, Nov.-Dec. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974380

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Laryngeal granulomas post intubation are benign but recurrent lesions. There is no consensus for its treatment. Objective: To describe the effectiveness of different treatment modalities for primary or recurrent laryngeal granulomas resulting from endotracheal intubation. Methods: Systematic review and proportional meta-analysis. Eligibility criteria - experimental or observational studies with at least five subjects. Outcomes studied - granuloma resolution, recurrence, and time for resolution. Databases used - Pubmed, Embase, Lilacs, and Cochrane. The Stats Direct 3.0.121 program was used. Results: Six studies were selected, with 85 patients. The treatments registered were: antireflux therapy, speech therapy, anti-inflammatory drugs, steroids, antibiotics, zinc sulfate and surgery. 85 patients from six studies had primary treatment: surgery ± associations (41 patients), resolution chance 75% (95% CI: 0.3-100%, I 2 = 90%), absolute relapse risk 25% (95% CI: 0.2-71%); medical treatment (44 patients), resolution chance 86% (95% CI: 67-97%); and absolute relapse risk 14% (95% CI: 3-33%). There was no significant difference between groups. Three studies, encompassing 19 patients, analyzed secondary treatment (failure or recurrence after primary treatment); three subjects presented new recurrence. The time needed to resolve the lesions varied from immediate, after surgery, to 23 months, for inhaled steroid. Conclusion: There is no evidence of high quality that proves the efficacy of any treatment for laryngeal granulomas resulting from endotracheal intubation.


Resumo: Introdução: Granulomas laríngeos pós-intubação são lesões laríngeas benignas, porém recorrentes. Não há um consenso na literatura em relação ao seu tratamento. Objetivo: Descrever a eficácia de diferentes modalidades de tratamento para granulomas laríngeos primários ou recorrentes resultantes da intubação endotraqueal. Método: Estudo-revisão sistemática e metanálise proporcional. Critérios de elegibilidade: estudos experimentais ou observacionais com pelo menos cinco indivíduos. Desfechos estudados: resolução do granuloma, recorrência e tempo de resolução. Bases de dados usadas: Pubmed, Embase, Lilacs e Cochrane. Foi usado o software Stats Direct 3.0.121. Resultados: Foram selecionados seis estudos, com 85 pacientes. Os tratamentos registrados foram: terapia antirrefluxo, terapia da voz, medicamentos anti-inflamatórios, esteroides, antibióticos, sulfato de zinco e cirurgia. Receberam tratamento primário 85 pacientes de seis estudos: cirurgia ± associações (41 pacientes), chance de resolução de 75% (IC 95% 0,3% a 100%, I2 = 90%) e risco absoluto de recorrência de 25% (IC 95%: 0,2% a 71%); tratamento clínico (44 pacientes), chance de resolução de 86% (IC 95%: 67% a 97%) e risco absoluto de recorrência de 14% (IC 95%: 3% a 33%). Não houve diferença significante entre os grupos. Três estudos, que abrangeram 19 pacientes, analisaram o tratamento secundário (falha ou recorrência após o tratamento primário); três indivíduos apresentaram nova recorrência. O tempo necessário para resolver as lesões variou de imediato, logo após a cirurgia, até 23 meses, com tratamento com esteroides inalados. Conclusão: Não há evidências de alta qualidade que provem a eficácia de qualquer tratamento para granulomas laríngeos resultantes da intubação endotraqueal.


Subject(s)
Humans , Granuloma, Laryngeal/therapy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Recurrence , Time Factors , Granuloma, Laryngeal/etiology , Treatment Outcome , Combined Modality Therapy/methods
15.
Rev. Círc. Argent. Odontol ; 76(226): 17-20, jul. 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1122081

ABSTRACT

La hiperplasia de la úvula es una entidad poco frecuente. Puede tener diversas causas, tales como: surgir a partir de un proceso infeccioso; por reacciones alérgicas; angioedema hereditario (HANE) (14,16); inhalación de sustancias psicoactivas (7); traumatismos ocasionados por procedimientos como intubación o extubación endotraqueal, así como durante la aspiración de los líquidos de la cavidad oral en procedimientos quirúrgicos. (7,14,16) El alargamiento de la úvula, en algunos casos, se manifiesta asintomático. Este trabajo tiene como objetivo la descripción de esta entidad, la presentación de un caso clínico, y su manejo clínico-quirúrgico (AU)


The hyperplasia of the uvula is a rare entity, it can have diverse causes, such as: of an infectious process, allergic reactions, hereditary angioedema (HANE), (14 16) inhalation of psychoactive substances (7) traumatisms caused by procedures such as, intubation or endotracheal extubation, as well as during the aspiration of liquids from the oral cavity in surgical procedures (7,14,16). The lengthening of the uvula, in some cases, is asymptomatic. The aim of this work is the description of this entity, the presentation of a clinical case, and the clinical and surgical management (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Uvula/surgery , Uvula/pathology , Oral Surgical Procedures/methods , Hyperplasia , Argentina , Surgery, Plastic , Dental Service, Hospital , Angioedemas, Hereditary , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
16.
Med. infant ; 25(1): 13-16, marzo 2018. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-883064

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las extubaciones no planeadas son eventos adversos frecuentes en áreas críticas de pediatría. La técnica y el material para llevar a cabo la fijación condicionan la aparición de estos eventos adversos. La evidencia científica que evalúe factores es escasa. Objetivos: El objetivo principal de este trabajo fue obtener datos concretos al respecto de las prácticas de los enfermeros en la fijación del tubo endotraqueal (TET) e identificar técnicas. Métodos: Estudio de carácter descriptivo y prospectivo. Se encuestaron 125 enfermeros de las diferentes Unidades de Cuidados Intensivos durante el mes de noviembre de 2016. Resultados: El 88% de los enfermeros basan su método en la utilización de cinta adhesiva. La técnica de fijación de 3 tiras prevalece por encima de las demás (64%). No existen grandes preferencias al respecto del tipo de cinta adhesiva, no obstante, el 22% menciona a la cinta de óxido de zinc. La alternativa de fijación en niños quemados muestra a la venda de tela como una opción (42%). El 27% de los enfermeros consultados coincidió en que no existe una técnica ideal ya que esta va a depender de la circunstancia clínica del niño. Las complicaciones asociadas a la fijación inadecuada son en primer lugar el desplazamiento por introducción (54%) y la extubación (31%). Conclusión: Se evidencia una amplia variedad de criterios al momento de llevar a cabo la técnica de fijación de TET. Finalmente podemos concluir en que los métodos de fijación dependerán exclusivamente de las características clínicas del niño, el criterio del operador y los recursos disponibles en cada institución (AU)


Introduction: Unplanned extubations are frequent adverse events in critical care in pediatrics. The technique of endotracheal tube (ETT) fixation and the materials affect the appearance of these adverse events. Studies that evaluate these factors are scarce. Objectives: The main aim of this study was to collect data on the practices of nurses in the fixation of the ETT and to identify techniques. Methods: A prospective, descriptive study was conducted. A survey was administered to 125 nurses from different Intensive Care Units in November 2016. Results: 88% of the nurses use tape to secure the ETT. The method of fixation with three strips was the most widely used (64%). There was no preference on the type of tape used; however, 22% preferred to use zinc oxide tape. In burned patients an alternative method with a cloth bandage was used (42%). Overall, 27% of the nurses surveyed coincided that an ideal method to secure the ETT is lacking, as this depends on the clinical circumstances of the child. Complications associated with inadequate tube fixation are displacement during fixation (54%) and la extubation (31%). Conclusion: A wide variety of criteria is used in the techniques to secure the ETT. Finally, we may conclude that fixation methods depend exclusively on the clinical characteristics of the child, criteria of the operator, and resources available at the institution (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Airway Extubation , Bandages , Critical Care Nursing , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/nursing , Prospective Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires
17.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 45(3): e1687, 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-956558

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: identificar os fatores associados à disfagia em pacientes submetidos à intubação orotraqueal prolongada (IOTp) e as consequências pós-extubação. Métodos: participaram do estudo 150 pacientes submetidos à IOTp, avaliados segundo o nível funcional da deglutição (American Speech Language - Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS), a determinação da gravidade (The Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SOFA) e a coleta das seguintes variáveis: idade, mortalidade, dias de intubação orotraqueal, número de atendimentos para introdução da alimentação oral e dias para alta hospitalar. Os pacientes foram agrupados de acordo com a classificação do ASHA: 1 (níveis 1 e 2), 2 (níveis 3, 4 e 5) e 3 (níveis 6 e 7). Resultados: as análises indicaram as seguintes variáveis associadas a pior funcionalidade da deglutição: idade (p<0,001), mortalidade (p<0,003); dias de IOT (p=0,001), número de atendimentos para introdução de dieta oral (p<0,001) e dias para alta hospitalar (p=0,018). As comparações múltiplas indicaram diferença significante na comparação dos grupos ASHA1 e ASHA2 em relação ao grupo ASHA3. Os grupos ASHA1 e ASHA2 apresentaram menor score na SOFA quando comparados ao grupo ASHA3 (p=0,004). Somente 20% dos pacientes do grupo ASHA1 e 32% dos pacientes do ASHA2 apresentaram níveis seguros de deglutição antes da alta hospitalar. Conclusão: os fatores associados à disfagia em pacientes submetidos à IOTp foram: idade acima de 55 anos e tempo de intubação orotraqueal (maior nos casos com pior funcionalidade da deglutição). As consequências pós-extubação foram: aumento da mortalidade e do tempo de internação hospitalar na presença da disfagia.


ABSTRACT Objective: to identify factors associated with dysphagia in patients undergoing prolonged orotracheal intubation (pOTI) and the post-extubation consequences. Methods: 150 patients undergoing pOTI participated in the study, evaluated according to the deglutition functional level (American Speech Language - Hearing Association National Outcome Measurement System - ASHA NOMS), severity determination (The Simplified Acute Physiology Score - SOFA) and submitted to collection of variables age, mortality, days of orotracheal intubation, number of sessions to introduce oral diet, and days to hospital discharge. We grouped patients according to ASHA classification: 1 (levels 1 and 2), 2 (levels 3, 4 and 5) and 3 (levels 6 and 7). Results: the variables associated with impaired deglutition functionality were age (p<0.001), mortality (p<0.003), OTI days (p=0.001), number of sessions to introduce oral diet (p<0.001) and days to hospital discharge (p=0.018). Multiple comparisons indicated significant difference between ASHA1 and ASHA2 groups in relation to ASHA3 group. ASHA1 and ASHA2 groups had a lower SOFA score when compared with the ASHA3 group (p=0.004). Only 20% of ASHA1 patients and 32% of ASHA2 patients presented safe deglutition levels before discharge. Conclusion: factors associated with dysphagia in patients submitted to pOTI were age over 55 years and orotracheal intubation time (greater in the cases with worse deglutition functionality). The post-extubation consequences were increased mortality and length of hospital stay in the presence of dysphagia.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Deglutition Disorders/classification , Deglutition Disorders/diagnosis , Airway Extubation , Deglutition Disorders/etiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Critical Illness , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Middle Aged
18.
Rev. otorrinolaringol. cir. cabeza cuello ; 77(4): 425-430, dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-902798

ABSTRACT

La parálisis de cuerda vocal secundaria a intubación endotraqueal es una complicación poco frecuente de la anestesia general. Se manifiesta con disfonía precoz luego de la extubación, y en ocasiones se asocia a aspiración. A continuación se presenta el reporte de dos pacientes sometidos a cirugía abdominal con anestesia general e intubación endotraqueal, que presentan una parálisis cordal unilateral en el posoperatorio inmediato. En ambos pacientes se realiza una laringoplastía de inyección con ácido hialurónico (Restylane®), con buenos resultados vocales. Uno de los casos tiene seguimiento a lo largo de dos años. Se describe esta patología y su manejo mediante una revisión bibliográfica.


Vocal fold paralysis posterior to endotracheal intubation is a very uncommon complication of the general anestesia. The symptoms includes hoarseness posterior to the extubation, and some times aspiration occurs. In this paper we present the report of two cases of abdominal surgery with general anesteshia and endotraqueal intubation procedures. Both subjects developed unilateral vocal fold paralysis after the process. The patients were treated with wedilization injection with Restylane ®, satisfactory voice's results were achieved. One of them has an observational time of two years. We describe this infrequent pathology and the treatment through literature review.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Vocal Cord Paralysis/surgery , Vocal Cord Paralysis/etiology , Laryngoplasty/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Postoperative Period , Anesthesia, General
19.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 115(5): 315-318, oct. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-887385

ABSTRACT

Los granulomas laríngeos son lesiones benignas localizadas en el tercio posterior de la glotis, sobre todo, a nivel de la apófisis vocal del cartílago aritenoides. Típicamente, se asocian a tres factores etiológicos: intubación endotraqueal, uso inapropiado de la voz y/o reflujo gastroesofágico. La formación de un granuloma laríngeo posintubación es una complicación tardía relacionada con la lesión por la intubación. Es poco frecuente en el niño, en especial, si el período de intubación es corto. Generalmente, es unilateral y produce disfonía, sensación de cuerpo extraño faríngeo y tos. El tratamiento consiste en la escisión quirúrgica cuando la lesión es pediculada o causa compromiso respiratorio. Se presenta a una adolescente de 14 años que desarrolló un granuloma laríngeo pediculado después de una intubación orotraqueal de menos de 24 horas, el cual se hizo evidente 3 meses después de una cirugía cardíaca. Se describe la patogenia, las manifestaciones clínicas, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de esta patología.


Laryngeal granulomas are benign lesions located in the posterior third of the glottis, mainly at the level of the vocal apophysis of the arytenoid cartilage. They are typically associated with three etiological factors: endotracheal intubation, inappropriate voice use and/or gastroesophageal reflux. The formation of a post-intubation laryngeal granuloma is a late complication related to intubation injury. It is uncommon in the child, especially if the period of intubation is short. It is usually unilateral and produces dysphonia, pharyngeal foreign body sensation and cough. Treatment consists of surgical removal when the lesion is pediculated or causes respiratory compromise. We present a 14-year-old girl who developed a pediculated laryngeal granuloma after orotracheal intubation of less than 24 hours, which was evidenced 3 months after cardiac surgery. We describe the pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, diagnosis and treatment of this pathology.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Granuloma, Laryngeal/etiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects
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