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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 270-273, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280932

ABSTRACT

En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo.Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica


In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope.Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8-148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001).A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Pediatrics/education , Laryngoscopes/economics , Simulation Training/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/economics , Pediatrics/economics , Time Factors , Video Recording , Health Care Costs , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Learning Curve , COVID-19/transmission , Internship and Residency/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/education , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/methods , Manikins
2.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 61(1): 30-34, Jan-Feb/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744715

ABSTRACT

Objective: to compare clinical and cost effectiveness of midazolam and diazepam for urgent intubation. Methods: patients admitted to the Central ICU of the Santa Casa Hospital Complex in Porto Alegre, over the age of 18 years, undergoing urgent intubation during 6 months were eligible. Patients were randomized in a single-blinded manner to either intravenous diazepam or midazolam. Diazepam was given as a 5 mg intravenous bolus followed by aliquots of 5 mg each minute. Midazolam was given as an intravenous bolus of 5 mg with further aliquots of 2.5 mg each minute. Ramsay sedation scale 5-6 was considered adequate sedation. We recorded time and required doses to reach adequate sedation and duration of sedation. Results: thirty four patients were randomized, but one patient in the diazepam group was excluded because data were lost. Both groups were similar in terms of illness severity and demographics. Time for adequate sedation was shorter (132 ± 87 sec vs. 224 ± 117 sec, p = 0.016) but duration of sedation was similar (86 ± 67 min vs. 88 ± 50 min, p = 0.936) for diazepam in comparison to midazolam. Total drug dose to reach adequate sedation after either drugs was similar (10.0 [10.0-12.5] mg vs. 15.0 [10.0-17.5] mg, p = 0.248). Arterial pressure and sedation intensity reduced similarly overtime with both drugs. Cost of sedation was lower for diazepam than for midazolam (1.4[1.4-1.8] vs. 13.9[9.4-16.2] reais, p <0.001). Conclusions: intubation using intravenous diazepam and midazolam is effective and well tolerated. Sedation with diazepam is associated to a quicker sedation time and to lower costs. .


Objetivo: comparar eficácia clínica e custo de midazolam e diazepam para intubação urgente. Métodos: pacientes internados na UTI Central do Complexo Hospitalar Santa Casa de Porto Alegre, >18 anos de idade e submetidos a entubação urgente durante seis meses eram elegíveis. Pacientes foram randomizados para receber diazepam ou midazolam intravenoso. Diazepam foi dado como bolus IV de 5 mg seguido por alíquotas de 5 mg a cada minuto. Midazolam foi dado como um bolus IV de 5 mg, com alíquotas adicionais de 2,5 mg a cada minuto. Escala de sedação de Ramsay 5-6 foi considerada sedação adequada. Registramos tempo e doses necessárias para atingir sedação adequada e sua duração. Resultados: trinta e quatro pacientes foram randomizados; um paciente no grupo diazepam foi excluído por perda dos dados. Grupos foram semelhantes para gravidade da doença e demografia. Tempo de sedação adequada foi mais curto (132 ± 87 vs. 224 ± 117 segundos, p = 0,016), mas a duração da sedação foi similar (86 ± 67 vs. 88 ± 50 min., p = 0,936) para o diazepam em comparação com o midazolam. Dose total da droga para atingir a sedação adequada foi semelhante para ambas as drogas (10,0 [10,0-12,5] vs. 15,0 [10,0-17,5] mg, p = 0,248). Pressão arterial e intensidade da sedação reduziram da mesma forma para ambas as drogas ao longo do tempo. O custo da sedação foi menor para diazepam do que para midazolam (1,4[1,4-1,8] vs. 13,9[9,4-16,2] reais, p < 0,001). Conclusões: entubação usando diazepam e midazolam intravenosos é eficaz e bem tolerada. Sedação com diazepam está associada a sedação mais rápida e menores custos. .


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Deep Sedation , Diazepam/administration & dosage , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Intubation, Intratracheal , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Deep Sedation/economics , Diazepam/economics , Hypnotics and Sedatives/economics , Injections, Intravenous , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Midazolam/economics , Single-Blind Method
3.
Rev. Assoc. Med. Bras. (1992) ; 53(3): 209-212, maio-jun. 2007. graf, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-460384

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: A extubação traqueal precoce após cirurgias favorece a evolução dos pacientes e reduz o tempo de internação em Unidade de Terapia Intensiva (UTI), reduzindo custos hospitalares. Em cirurgias de ressecção pulmonar, tradicionalmente o pós-operatório imediato é realizado em UTI com pacientes entubados. Nesse estudo avaliou-se prontuários de pacientes submetidos a toracotomia e estabeleceu-se correlação entre o momento da extubação, a evolução pós-operatória e a internação em UTI. MÉTODOS: Estudo tipo coorte retrospectivo de prontuários de 121 pacientes submetidos a cirurgias de ressecção pulmonar. Foram relacionados o tempo de internação em UTI e o momento da extubação traqueal. A evolução pós-operatória foi classificada em boa ou ruim de acordo com a ausência ou a presença de: infecções, problemas respiratórios (reintubação, broncospasmo, edema agudo de pulmão, necessidade de traqueostomia, atelectasias, fístulas), reabordagem por sangramento, óbito. Entre os grupos foram analisadas as condições pré-operatórias, classificação de estado físico anestésico (critério da American Society of Anesthesyologists - ASA), presença de comorbidades, avaliação funcional respiratória e duração do procedimento cirúrgico. Utilizou-se o risco relativo para avaliar o efeito do tempo de extubação na evolução pós-operatória dos pacientes. RESULTADOS: A distribuição dos pacientes quanto ao tempo de extubação foi: 81 por cento extubações imediatas, 15 por cento não imediatas e 4 por cento não-extubados. Em relação ao destino, 73 por cento foram encaminhados à UTI e 27 por cento à sala de recuperação anestésica. A incidência de comorbidades (hipertensão arterial, diabetes melito, distúrbio ventilatório restritivo ou obstrutivo e cardiopatias) entre o grupo extubado imediatamente e aquele com extubação não imediata foi de 37 por cento e 41,6 por cento, respectivamente. Quanto ao estado físico (ASA), observou-se: pacientes ASA 1 ou 2 - 62 por cento no ...


OBJECTIVE: Early tracheal extubation following surgical procedures favors clinical evolution of patients and reduces incidence and time of stay in the Intensive Care Unit (ICU), minimizing hospital costs. Immediate postoperative period of pulmonary resections often takes place in the ICU and patients are kept intubated. This study evaluated hospital records of patients submitted to thoracotomy and a correlation between extubation time, postoperative evolution and ICU stay was established. METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of records of 121 patients submitted to pulmonary parenchyma resection (not biopsies) was carried out. Stay in the ICU and time of tracheal extubation were related. Postoperative evolution was classified as good or bad according to occurrence of some of the following conditions: infections, respiratory disorders (reintubation, bronchospasm, acute pulmonary edema, need of tracheotomy, atelectasis, fistulae), re-operation due to bleeding and death. Among the two groups preoperative conditions, anesthetic physical status (American Society of Anesthesyologists - ASA criteria), presence of associated diseases, respiratory functional evaluation and duration of surgery were analyzed. Relative risk was used to evaluate effect of time of extubation (immediate or non-immediate) on the postoperative evolution of patients. RESULTS: Patient distribution related to extubation time was: 81 percent immediate extubation, 15 percent non-immediate extubation and 4 percent not extubated. Destination after surgery was: 73 percent ICU and 27 percent post-anesthetic recovery room. Incidence of associated diseases (arterial hypertension, diabetes, obstructive or restrictive pulmonary disease and cardiopaty) among the immediately extubated group and non-immediately extubated group was 37 percent and 41.6 percent, respectively. Related to ASA physical status: 62 percent ASA 1 or 2 in the immediately extubated group and 58.3 percent ASA 1 or ...


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Lung Diseases/surgery , Thoracotomy , Ventilator Weaning , Elective Surgical Procedures , Intensive Care Units/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Length of Stay/economics , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Postoperative Period , Pneumonectomy/methods , Retrospective Studies , Risk , Risk Factors , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
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