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1.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(4): 270-273, agosto 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1280932

ABSTRACT

En pacientes con infección por SARS-CoV-2 la intubación endotraqueal es un procedimiento con riesgo elevado de contagio. La videolaringoscopia complementa la protección del profesional, pero los videolaringoscopios comerciales son caros y no siempre están disponibles en las terapias intensivas pediátricas argentinas. El objetivo fue describir la práctica de intubación en un modelo de cabeza de simulación de lactante con un videolaringoscopio artesanal de bajo costo.Quince pediatras sin experiencia previa con el dispositivo participaron de una práctica de intubación en una cabeza de simulación con un videolaringoscopio artesanal. El tiempo promedio del primer intento fue de 116,4 segundos (intervalo de confianza del 95 % [IC95 %]: 84,8-148,0) y, el del siguiente fue de 44,2 segundos (IC95 %: 27,7­60,6). El tiempo disminuyó de forma significativa en el segundo intento (p : 0,0001). El dispositivo permitió la intubación exitosa en todos los intentos acortando la duración del procedimiento en la segunda práctica


In patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection, endotracheal intubation is a procedure with a high risk for transmission. A videolaryngoscopy is a supplementary level of health care provider protection, but commercial videolaryngoscopes are expensive and not always available in pediatric intensive care units in Argentina. Our objective was to describe intubation practice using an infant head mannequin with a low-cost, handcrafted videolaryngoscope.Fifteen pediatricians with no prior experience using the device participated in an intubation practice in a head mannequin with a handcrafted videolaryngoscope. The average time for the first attempt was 116.4 seconds (95 % confidence interval [CI]: 84.8-148.0) and, for the second one, 44.2 seconds (95 % CI: 27.7-60.6). Time decreased significantly for the second attempt (p: 0.0001).A successful intubation was achieved with the device in all attempts, and the procedure duration decreased with the second practice


Subject(s)
Humans , Infant , Pediatrics/education , Laryngoscopes/economics , Simulation Training/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/economics , Pediatrics/economics , Time Factors , Video Recording , Health Care Costs , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Education, Medical, Continuing/methods , Learning Curve , COVID-19/transmission , Internship and Residency/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/economics , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/education , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Laryngoscopy/methods , Manikins
2.
s.l; s.n; [mar. 2021].
Non-conventional in Portuguese | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1248120
4.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 33(1): 48-67, jan.-mar. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1289052

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Objetivo: Proponer estrategias agile para este abordaje integral de la analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19, considerando el alto riesgo de infección que existe entre los trabajadores de salud, el tratamiento humanitario que debemos brindar al paciente y su familia, en un contexto de falta estrategias terapéuticas específicas contra el virus globalmente disponibles a la fecha y una potencial falta de recursos sanitarios. Metodos: Se llevó a cabo una revision no sistemática de la evidencia científica en las principales bases de datos bibliográficos, sumada a la experiencia y juicio clínico nacional e internacional. Finalmente, se realizó un consenso de recomendaciones entre los integrantes del Comité de Analgesia, Sedación y Delirium de la Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Resultados: Se acordaron recomendaciones y se desarrollaron herramientas para asegurar un abordaje integral de analgesia, sedación, delirium, implementación de movilidad temprana e inclusión familiar del paciente adulto con síndrome de dificultad respiratoria aguda por COVID-19. Discusión: Ante el nuevo orden generado en las terapias intensivas por la progresión de la pandemia de COVID-19, proponemos no dejar atrás las buenas prácticas habituales, sino adaptarlas al contexto particular generado. Nuestro consenso está respaldado en la evidencia científica, la experiencia nacional e internacional, y será una herramienta de consulta atractiva en las terapias intensivas.


ABSTRACT Objective: To propose agile strategies for a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for patients with COVID-19-associated acute respiratory distress syndrome, considering the high risk of infection among health workers, the humanitarian treatment that we must provide to patients and the inclusion of patients' families, in a context lacking specific therapeutic strategies against the virus globally available to date and a potential lack of health resources. Methods: A nonsystematic review of the scientific evidence in the main bibliographic databases was carried out, together with national and international clinical experience and judgment. Finally, a consensus of recommendations was made among the members of the Committee for Analgesia, Sedation and Delirium of the Sociedad Argentina de Terapia Intensiva. Results: Recommendations were agreed upon, and tools were developed to ensure a comprehensive approach to analgesia, sedation, delirium, early mobility and family engagement for adult patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome due to COVID-19. Discussion: Given the new order generated in intensive therapies due to the advancing COVID-19 pandemic, we propose to not leave aside the usual good practices but to adapt them to the particular context generated. Our consensus is supported by scientific evidence and national and international experience and will be an attractive consultation tool in intensive therapies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Respiratory Distress Syndrome, Newborn/therapy , Delirium/therapy , Consensus , Pain Management/standards , COVID-19/complications , Analgesia/standards , Psychomotor Agitation/therapy , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Delirium/diagnosis , Early Ambulation , Checklist , Pain Management/methods , COVID-19/drug therapy , Analgesia/methods , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
5.
Rev. cuba. med. trop ; 72(3): e478, sept.-dic. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1156541

ABSTRACT

Introducción: La neumonía asociada a la atención de salud empeora el pronóstico clínico del paciente y genera presión económica sobre los sistemas de salud. Objetivo: Determinar el riesgo de adquirir esta enfermedad en pacientes expuestos a ventilación/intubación y otros factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos. Métodos: Estudio transversal analítico. Población de estudio, pacientes hospitalizados en el Hospital Nacional Adolfo Guevara Velazco del Cusco en el 2017. Se seleccionó una muestra conformada por dos grupos: con diagnóstico de neumonía y sin este. El tamaño de muestra calculado fue de 67 (15 grupo neumonía y 52 grupo no neumonía). El análisis inferencial se realizó en dos etapas, utilizando pruebas de contraste de hipótesis y luego regresión logística. Se recogieron factores intrínsecos y extrínsecos de cada paciente. Resultados: La mayoría de pacientes correspondió al sexo femenino (53,7 por ciento). La mediana de edad fue de 70,6 años. El servicio de unidad de cuidados intensivos tuvo la mayor proporción de casos (42,9 por ciento). Se encontró asociación significativa con el uso de ventilación/ intubación y, además con los factores extrínsecos como traqueostomía, aspiración de secreciones, nutrición enteral y transfusión sanguínea. Ninguno de los factores intrínsecos tuvo asociación significativa en el análisis bivariado. En el análisis de regresión logística los pacientes sometidos a ventilación/intubación tuvieron 5,27 veces el riesgo de contraer neumonía y los pacientes sometidos a transfusión sanguínea tuvieron 12,75 veces el riesgo. Conclusiones: Los pacientes expuestos a ventilación/intubación tuvieron mayor riesgo de desarrollar neumonía asociada a la atención de salud. La transfusión sanguínea también fue un factor asociado(AU)


Introduction: Healthcare-associated pneumonia worsens the clinical prognosis of patients and exerts economic pressure on health systems. Objective: Determine the risk for healthcare-associated pneumonia among patients exposed to ventilation / intubation and other intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Methods: An analytical cross-sectional study was conducted of the patients admitted to Adolfo Guevara Velazco National Hospital in Cusco in the year 2017. A sample was chosen which was composed of two groups: with and without a pneumonia diagnosis. The estimated sample size was 67 (15 in the pneumonia group and 52 in the non-pneumonia group). Inferential analysis was performed along two stages, using hypothesis contrast tests followed by logistic regression. Intrinsic and extrinsic factors were collected for each patient. Results: Most patients were female (53.7 percent). Mean age was 70.6 years. The intensive care unit service had the highest proportion of cases (42.9 percent). A significant association was found with the use of ventilation / intubation, as well as with extrinsic factors such as tracheostomy, secretions aspiration, enteral nutrition and blood transfusion. None of the intrinsic factors had a significant association in the bivariate analysis. In the logistic regression analysis, patients subjected to ventilation / intubation had 5.27 times the risk of contracting pneumonia, whereas patients subjected to blood transfusion had 12.75 times the risk. Conclusions: Patients exposed to ventilation / intubation were at greater risk of developing healthcare-associated pneumonia. Blood transfusion was another associated factor(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Risk Factors , Healthcare-Associated Pneumonia/epidemiology , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Peru , Cross-Sectional Studies
6.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 667-677, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155776

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives Positioning during endotracheal intubation (ETI) is critical to ensure its success. We aimed to determine if the ramping position improved laryngeal exposure and first attempt success at intubation when compared to the sniffing position. Methods PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane CENTRAL databases were searched systematically from inception until January 2020. Our primary outcomes included laryngeal exposure as measured by Cormack-Lehane Grade 1 or 2 (CLG 1/2), CLG 3 or 4 (CLG 3/4), and first attempt success at intubation. Secondary outcomes were intubation time, use of airway adjuncts, ancillary maneuvers, and complications during ETI. Results Seven studies met our inclusion criteria, of which 4 were RCTs and 3 were cohort studies. The meta-analysis was conducted by pooling the effect estimates for all 4 included RCTs (n = 632). There were no differences found between ramping and sniffing positions for odds of CLG 1/2, CLG 3/4, first attempt success at intubation, intubation time, use of ancillary airway maneuvers, and use of airway adjuncts, with evidence of high heterogeneity across studies. However, the ramping position in surgical patients is associated with increased likelihood of CLG 1/2 (OR = 2.05, 95% CI 1.26 to 3.32, p = 0.004) and lower likelihood of CLG 3/4 (OR = 0.49, 95% CI 0.30 to 0.79, p = 0.004), moderate quality of evidence. Conclusion Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the ramping position may benefit surgical patients undergoing ETI by improving laryngeal exposure. Large scale well designed multicentre RCTs should be carried out to further elucidate the benefits of the ramping position in the surgical and intensive care unit patients.


Resumo Objetivos A posição do paciente durante a Intubação Traqueal (IT) é fundamental para o sucesso do procedimento. Nosso objetivo foi determinar se a posição de rampa melhorou a visualização laríngea e o êxito na primeira tentativa de intubação quando comparada à posição olfativa. Métodos Os bancos de dados PubMed, EMBASE e Cochrane CENTRAL foram pesquisados de forma sistemática a partir da data em que os bancos de dados foram estabelecidos até janeiro de 2020. Nossos desfechos primários incluíram a visualização laríngea avaliada como Cormack‐Lehane Grau 1 ou 2 (CLG 1/2), Cormack‐Lehane Grau 3 ou 4 (CLG 3/4) e o êxito na primeira tentativa de intubação. Os desfechos secundários foram o tempo de intubação, uso de dispositivos adjuvantes para manuseio de vias aéreas, manobras auxiliares e complicações durante a IT. Resultados Sete estudos preencheram nossos critérios de inclusão, dos quais 4 eram Estudos Clínicos Randomizados (ECR) e 3 eram estudos de coorte. A meta‐análise foi conduzida combinando as estimativas de efeito para todos os 4 ECR incluídos (n = 632). Não foram encontradas diferenças entre as posições de rampa e olfativa para razão de chances de CLG 1/2, CLG 3/4, sucesso na primeira tentativa de intubação, tempo de intubação, uso de manobras auxiliares das vias aéreas e uso de dispositivos adjuvantes de vias aéreas, havendo evidência de alta heterogeneidade nos estudos. No entanto, a posição de rampa em pacientes cirúrgicos está associada com maior probabilidade de CLG 1/2 (OR = 2,05; 95% IC 1,26 a 3,32; p = 0,004) e menor probabilidade de CLG 3/4 (OR = 0,49; 95% IC 0,30 a 0,79; p = 0,004), com qualidade moderada de evidência. Conclusão Nossa meta‐análise demonstrou que a posição de rampa pode beneficiar pacientes cirúrgicos submetidos a IT, melhorando a visualização laríngea. ECR multicêntricos bem projetados com amostras grandes devem ser realizados para esclarecer ainda mais os benefícios da posição de rampa nos pacientes cirúrgicos e na unidade de terapia intensiva.


Subject(s)
Humans , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Patient Positioning/instrumentation , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Posture , Time Factors , Cohort Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Larynx
7.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 682-685, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155770

ABSTRACT

Abstract Myotonic dystrophy type-1 (Steinert disease) is an autosomal dominant, progressive multisystem disease in which myotonic crisis can be triggered by several factors including pain, emotional stress, hypothermia, shivering, and mechanical or electrical stimulation. In this report, dexmedetomidine-based general anesthesia, in combination with a thoracic epidural for laparoscopic cholecystectomy in a patient with Steinert disease, is presented. An Aintree intubation catheter with the guidance of a fiberoptic bronchoscope was used for intubation to avoid laryngoscopy. Prolonged anesthetic effects of propofol were reversed, and recovery from anesthesia was accelerated using an intravenous infusion of theophylline.


Resumo A Distrofia Miotônica (DM) tipo-1 (Doença de Steinert) é uma doença multissistêmica progressiva autossômica dominante em que a crise miotônica pode ser desencadeada por vários fatores, incluindo dor, estresse emocional, hipotermia, tremores e estímulo mecânico ou elétrico. O presente relato descreve anestesia geral realizada com dexmedetomidina em combinação com peridural torácica para colecistectomia laparoscópica em paciente com Doença de Steinert. Para evitar laringoscopia, a intubação traqueal foi realizada utilizando cateter de intubação Aintree guiado por broncofibroscopia óptica. Os efeitos anestésicos prolongados do propofol foram revertidos e a recuperação anestésica foi acelerada pelo uso de infusão intravenosa de teofilina.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Cholecystectomy, Laparoscopic/methods , Analgesics, Non-Narcotic , Dexmedetomidine , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Myotonic Dystrophy/complications , Theophylline/administration & dosage , Anesthesia Recovery Period , Propofol , Bronchoscopes , Analgesics, Opioid , Hypnotics and Sedatives , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Middle Aged
8.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(6): 595-604, Nov.-Dec. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1155768

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: In this study, we aimed to investigate the predictive value of different airway assessment tools, including parts of the Simplified Predictive Intubation Difficulty Score (SPIDS), the SPIDS itself and the Thyromental Height Test (TMHT), in intubations defined as difficult by the Intubation Difficulty Score (IDS) in a group of patients who have head and neck pathologies. Methods: One hundred fifty-three patients who underwent head and neck surgeries were included in the study. The Modified Mallampati Test (MMT) result, Thyromental Distance (TMD), Ratio of the Height/Thyromental Distance (RHTMD), TMHT, maximum range of head and neck motion and mouth opening were measured. The SPIDSs were calculated, and the IDSs were determined. Results: A total of 25.4% of the patients had difficult intubations. SPIDS scores >10 had 86.27% sensitivity, 71.57% specificity and 91.2% Negative Predictive Value (NPV). The results of the Receiver Operating Curve (ROC) analysis for the airway screening tests and SPIDS revealed that the SPIDS had the highest area under the curve; however, it was statistically similar to other tests, except for the MMT. Conclusions: The current study demonstrates the practical use of the SPIDS in predicting intubation difficulty in patients with head and neck pathologies. The performance of the SPIDS in predicting airway difficulty was found to be as efficient as those of the other tests evaluated in this study. The SPIDS may be considered a comprehensive, detailed tool for predicting airway difficulty.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: Neste estudo, avaliamos o valor preditivo de diferentes ferramentas de avaliação das vias aéreas, incluindo componentes do Escore Simplificado Preditivo de Intubação Difícil (ESPID), o próprio ESPID e a Medida da Altura Tireomentoniana (MATM), em intubações definidas como difícies pelo Escore de Dificuldade de Intubação (EDI) em um grupo de pacientes com patologia de cabeça e pescoço. Método: Incluímos no estudo 153 pacientes submetidos a cirurgia de cabeça e pescoço. Coletamos os resultados do Teste de Mallampati Modificado (TMM), Distância Tireomentoniana (DTM), Razão Altura/Distância Tireomentoniana (RADTM), MATM, amplitude máxima de movimentação da cabeça e pescoço e da abertura da boca. Os ESPIDs foram calculados e os EDIs, determinados. Resultados: Observamos intubação difícil em 25,4% dos pacientes. Os escores de ESPID > 10 tiveram sensibilidade de 86,27%, especificidade de 71,57% e valor preditivo negativo de 91,2% (VPN). O resultado da análise da curva de operação do receptor (curva ROC) para os testes de avaliação das vias aéreas e ESPID mostrou que o ESPID tinha a maior área sob a curva; no entanto, foi estatisticamente semelhante a outros testes, exceto para o TMM. Conclusões: O presente estudo demonstra o uso prático do ESPID na previsão da dificuldade de intubação em pacientes com patologia de cabeça e pescoço. O desempenho do ESPID na predição de via aérea difícil mostrou-se tão eficiente quanto os demais testes avaliados neste estudo. O ESPID pode ser considerado ferramenta abrangente e detalhada para prever via aérea difícil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Young Adult , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Neck/surgery , Neck Dissection/statistics & numerical data , Thyroid Gland/surgery , Tongue Neoplasms/surgery , Nasopharyngeal Neoplasms , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Range of Motion, Articular , Sensitivity and Specificity , Outcome Assessment, Health Care , Mandibular Advancement , Head and Neck Neoplasms/surgery , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Laryngectomy/statistics & numerical data , Maxillofacial Injuries/surgery , Middle Aged , Mouth/physiology , Neck/anatomy & histology
10.
Rev. chil. pediatr ; 91(5): 691-696, oct. 2020. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1144267

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: El cambio de cánula de traqueostomía en niños constituye un procedimiento clave, sin embargo, falta claridad en algunos de sus aspectos. OBJETIVO: Caracterizar el cambio de cánula de traqueostomía en niños de una institución de larga estadía hospitalaria. PACIENTES Y MÉTODO: Estudio retrospectivo observacional analítico en base al registro clínico de 2 años de niños hospitalizados usuarios de traqueostomía. Las variables evaluadas fueron: motivo de cambio de traqueostomía, número y marca de traqueostomía, operador y participantes (ayudantes/espectadores) del procedimiento, complicaciones y contexto educacional. RESULTADOS: 630 cambios de cánula de traqueostomía fueron analizados. Los operadores más frecuentes fueron familiares (33,7%). El principal motivo de cambio fue rutina (83,3%). Un 10,7% de los cambios presentó alguna complicación, siendo la más frecuente el sangrado periostoma (47,37%) y el primer intento frustro (34,21%). No existió asociación entre la presencia de balón y complicaciones (p = 0,24), tampoco con el uso de ventilación mecánica (p = 0,8) u operador (p = 0,74). CONCLUSIÓN: El cambio de rutina de cánula de traqueostomía en niños con vía aérea artificial prolongada es un procedimiento seguro, realizable tanto por profesionales de la salud como por familiares debidamente instruidos.


INTRODUCTION: Changing the tracheostomy tube in children is a key procedure, however, some of its aspects re main unclear. OBJECTIVE: To characterize the tracheostomy tube change in children from a long-stay health institution. PATIENTS AND METHOD: Retrospective observational analytical study based on the 2-year clinical record of hospitalized children who underwent tracheostomy. The variables evaluated were the reason for tracheostomy tube change, size and brand of the tube, operator and participants (assistants/spectators) of the procedure, complications, and education. RESULTS: We analyzed 630 tracheostomy tube changes. The most frequent operators were relatives (33.7%). The main reason for the change was routine (83.3%). 10.7% of the changes presented some complications, where the most frequent was peristomal bleeding (47.37%) and the first failed attempt (34.21%). There was no association between the presence of balloon and complications (p = 0.24), nor with the use of Mechanical Ventilation (p = 0.8) or the operator (p = 0.74). CONCLUSION: The routine change of the tracheostomy tube in children with prolonged artificial airway use is a safe procedure, which can be performed by both health professionals and properly trained family members.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Tracheostomy , Intubation, Intratracheal/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Retrospective Studies , Follow-Up Studies , Clinical Competence/statistics & numerical data , Medical Errors/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation
11.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(3): 433-438, jul.-set. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138510

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Descrever o uso do bloqueio neuromuscular e de outras práticas entre os médicos brasileiros atuantes em unidades de terapia intensiva para pacientes adultos. Métodos: Um levantamento nacional on-line foi aplicado a intensivistas brasileiros. As questões foram selecionadas utilizando o método Delphi e avaliavam os dados demográficos dos médicos, as características da unidade de terapia intensiva, as práticas relativas ao manuseio das vias aéreas e o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular e sedação durante a intubação endotraqueal na unidade de terapia intensiva. Como desfecho secundário, aplicamos uma análise multivariada para avaliar fatores associados com o uso do bloqueio neuromuscular. Resultados: Responderam ao questionário 565 intensivistas de todas as regiões do país. A maioria dos que responderam era homens (65%), com média de idade de 38 ± 8,4 anos, e 58,5% dos participantes tinham título de especialista em terapia intensiva. Apenas 40,7% dos intensivistas relataram o uso de bloqueio neuromuscular durante todas ou em mais de 75% das intubações endotraqueais. Na análise multivariada, o número de intubações realizadas por mês e a especialização do médico em anestesiologia se associaram diretamente com o uso frequente de bloqueio neuromuscular. Etomidato e cetamina foram utilizados mais comumente na situação clínica de hipotensão e choque, enquanto propofol e midazolam foram mais comumente prescritos em situações de estabilidade hemodinâmica. Conclusão: O relato de uso de bloqueio neuromuscular foi baixo entre intensivistas, e os fármacos sedativos foram escolhidos segundo a estabilidade hemodinâmica do paciente. Estes resultados podem ajudar no delineamento de futuros estudos relativos ao manuseio das vias aéreas no Brasil.


Abstract Objective: To describe the use of neuromuscular blockade as well as other practices among Brazilian physicians in adult intensive care units. Methods: An online national survey was designed and administered to Brazilian intensivists. Questions were selected using the Delphi method and assessed physicians' demographic data, intensive care unit characteristics, practices regarding airway management, use of neuromuscular blockade and sedation during endotracheal intubation in the intensive care unit. As a secondary outcome, we applied a multivariate analysis to evaluate factors associated with the use of neuromuscular blockade. Results: Five hundred sixty-five intensivists from all Brazilian regions responded to the questionnaire. The majority of respondents were male (65%), with a mean age of 38 ( 8.4 years, and 58.5% had a board certification in critical care. Only 40.7% of the intensivists reported the use of neuromuscular blockade during all or in more than 75% of endotracheal intubations. In the multivariate analysis, the number of intubations performed monthly and physician specialization in anesthesiology were directly associated with frequent use of neuromuscular blockade. Etomidate and ketamine were more commonly used in the clinical situation of hypotension and shock, while propofol and midazolam were more commonly prescribed in the situation of clinical stability. Conclusion: The reported use of neuromuscular blockade was low among intensivists, and sedative drugs were chosen in accordance with patient hemodynamic stability. These results may help the design of future studies regarding airway management in Brazil.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Neuromuscular Blockade/methods , Airway Management/methods , Hypnotics and Sedatives/administration & dosage , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Brazil , Surveys and Questionnaires , Critical Care/methods , Intensive Care Units
12.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(4): 434-439, July-Aug. 2020. graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137195

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives When planning the management of a predicted difficult airway, it is important to determine which strategy will be followed. Video laryngoscopy is a major option in scenarios with factors suggesting difficult airway access. It is also indicated in rescue situations, when there is tracheal intubation failure with direct laryngoscopy. The objective of the present report was to show the efficacy of using the video laryngoscope as the first device for a patient with a large tumor that occupied almost the entire anterior portion of the oral cavity. Case report An 85 year-old male patient, 162 cm, 70 kg, ASA Physical Status II, Mallampati IV classification, was scheduled for resection of an angiosarcoma located in the right maxillary sinus that invaded much of the hard palate and the upper portion of the oropharynx. He was conscious and oriented, with normal blood pressure, heart and respiratory rates and, despite the large tumor in the oral cavity, he showed no signs of respiratory failure or airway obstruction. After intravenous cannulation and monitoring, sedation was performed with 1 mg of intravenous midazolam, and a nasal cannula was placed to provide oxygen, with a flow of 2 L min−1. Then, the target-controlled infusion of remifentanil with an effect site concentration of 2 ng mL−1 was initiated, according to Minto's pharmacokinetic model. Ventilation was maintained spontaneously during airway handling. A trans-cricothyroid block was performed, with 8 mL of 1% lidocaine solution injected into the tracheal lumen. Slight bleeding did not prevent the use of an optical method for performing tracheal intubation. The entire oral cavity was sprayed with 1% lidocaine. The McGraph video laryngoscope with the difficult intubation blade was used, and an armored tube with a guide wire inside was used for tracheal intubation, performed on the first attempt with appropriate glottis visualization. Conclusion The video laryngoscope occupies a prominent position in cases in which access to the airway is difficult. In the present case it was useful. It can be used as first choice or as a rescue technique. The video laryngoscope is an appropriate alternative and should be available for facing the ever-challenging difficult airway patient.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos No planejamento da abordagem a uma via aérea difícil prevista, é importante determinar qual será a estratégia a ser seguida. A videolaringoscopia é uma ótima opção em situações em que existam fatores indicadores de dificuldade de acesso à via aérea. Também é indicada em situações de resgate, quando houve insucesso na tentativa de intubação com a laringoscopia direta. O objetivo deste relato é mostrar a eficácia da utilização do videolaringoscópio como primeiro dispositivo diante de paciente com grande tumor que ocupava quase a totalidade da porção anterior da cavidade oral. Relato do caso Paciente com 85 anos, sexo masculino, 162 cm, 70 kg, estado físico ASA II, classificação de Mallampati IV, foi escalado para a ressecção de um angiossarcoma localizado no seio maxilar direito que invadia grande parte do palato duro e da porção superior da orofaringe. Apresentava-se lúcido, consciente e orientado, com valores de pressão arterial, frequência cardíaca e respiratória normais e, apesar do grande tumor na cavidade oral, não apresentava qualquer sinal de insuficiência respiratória ou de obstrução das vias aéreas. Após venóclise, foi feita monitorização e sedação com 1 mg de midazolam, por via venosa, e colocado cateter nasal para administração de oxigênio, com fluxo de 2 L.min-1. Em seguida, foi iniciada a infusão alvo-controlada de remifentanil com concentração efeito de 2 ng.mL-1 segundo o modelo farmacocinético de Minto. A ventilação foi mantida em espontânea durante a manipulação da via aérea. Foi realizado bloqueio transcricotireóideo, sendo injetados 8 mL de solução de lidocaína a 1% na luz traqueal. Um pequeno sangramento não impediu que um método óptico fosse utilizado para realizar a intubação traqueal. Toda a cavidade oral recebeu o spray de lidocaína tópica a 1%. Foi utilizado o videolaringoscópio McGraph com a lâmina de intubação difícil, e um tubo aramado com fio guia no seu interior, foi utilizado para a intubação traqueal, que foi realizada na primeira tentativa, com boa visualização da glote. Conclusão O videolaringoscópio ocupa uma posição de destaque nos casos em que o acesso à via aérea é difícil. No presente caso, a sua utilização foi útil. Ele pode ser utilizado como primeira opção ou como técnica de resgate. Nas condições sempre preocupantes diante de um paciente com via aérea difícil, o videolaringoscópio deve estar disponível, constituindo-se uma boa opção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged, 80 and over , Mouth Neoplasms/surgery , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Laryngoscopy/methods , Hemangiosarcoma/surgery , Video Recording , Laryngoscopes , Remifentanil/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , Laryngoscopy/instrumentation , Lidocaine/administration & dosage
13.
Medwave ; 20(6): e7950, 31-07-2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1119716

ABSTRACT

El objetivo de este artículo es revisar las características del SARS-CoV-2, los aspectos clínico-epidemiológicos de COVID-19 y las implicaciones que tienen para los anestesiólogos al realizar procedimientos generadores de aerosoles. Se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos PubMed, Scopus, SciELO y Web of Science hasta el 9 de abril de 2020, utilizando las palabras: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Se incluyeron 48 artículos con información sobre el manejo del paciente en el perioperatorio o en la unidad de cuidados intensivos ante la sospecha o confirmación de infección por SARS-CoV-2. En general, se recomienda el aplazamiento de las cirugías electivas por no más de seis a ocho semanas, de acuerdo a las condiciones clínicas de los pacientes. En el caso de cirugías de urgencia o emergencia, se revisan tópicos del sistema de protección personal así como las estrategias recomendadas para la realización de los procedimientos.


The purpose of this article is to review the characteristics of SARS-CoV-2, the clinical-epidemiological aspects of COVID-19, and the implications anesthesiologists when performing aerosol-generating procedures. A search of PubMed/MEDLINE, Scopus, SciELO, and Web of Science databases was performed until April 9, 2020, using the words: "COVID-19 or COVID19 or SARS-CoV-2 and anesthesiology or anesthesia". Forty-eight articles with information on the management of the patient in the perioperative period or the intensive care unit when suspected or confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection were included. In general, the postponement of elective surgeries for no more than 6 to 8 weeks, depending on the clinical condition of the patients is recommended. In the case of urgent or emergency surgeries, we review the use of personal protection gear, as well as the recommended strategies for carrying out the procedure.


Subject(s)
Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/epidemiology , Anesthesiology/standards , Occupational Diseases/prevention & control , Respiration, Artificial/methods , Respiration, Artificial/standards , Surgical Procedures, Operative/methods , Elective Surgical Procedures , Aerosols , Pandemics , Symptom Assessment/methods , Personal Protective Equipment , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/standards , Anesthesia, Conduction/methods , Anesthesia, Epidural/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods , Anesthesia, Spinal/methods , Anesthesiology/organization & administration , Nerve Block/methods
14.
Rev. bras. ter. intensiva ; 32(2): 295-300, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1138477

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: Avaliar a efetividade dos diferentes métodos que estimam a profundidade de inserção do tubo orotraqueal em crianças. Métodos: Estudo observacional e transversal, no qual foram incluídas crianças entre 29 dias e 2 anos, internadas em uma unidade de terapia intensiva pediátrica e ventiladas mecanicamente. Foram avaliadas as fórmulas baseadas na altura [(altura/10) + 5], no diâmetro interno do tubo (tubo orotraqueal × 3) e peso (peso + 6), verificando-se qual delas apresentou melhor concordância com a profundidade ideal de inserção do tubo orotraqueal avaliado por radiografia. Resultados: A correlação entre a fórmula da altura e a profundidade ideal observada no raio X foi forte, com r = 0,88, p < 0,05 e o coeficiente de correlação de concordância de 0,88; a correlação do peso com a profundidade no raio X foi de r = 0,75, p < 0,05 e coeficiente de correlação de concordância de 0,43; e a fórmula do tubo orotraqueal × profundidade no raio X foi de r = 0,80, p < 0,05 e coeficiente de correlação de concordância de 0,78. A análise de concordância de Lin mostrou que as medidas apresentaram concordância fraca (< 0,90). Conclusão: As fórmulas que estimam a profundidade de inserção do tubo orotraqueal em crianças apresentaram-se pouco precisas e discordantes com o método padrão-ouro de avaliação pelo raio X, com necessidade da criação de um novo método, baseado nas variáveis antropométricas (peso e altura) e na idade, que seja eficaz para guiar os profissionais de saúde das unidades de terapia intensiva pediátricas, no momento da intubação.


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the effectiveness of the different formulas for estimating the insertion depth of an endotracheal tube in children. Methods: This was an observational and cross-sectional study that included children between 29 days and 2 years of age who were hospitalized in a pediatric intensive care unit and mechanically ventilated. The formulas based on height [(height/10) + 5], the inner diameter of the tube (endotracheal tube × 3), and weight (weight + 6) were evaluated to determine which of them showed better concordance with the ideal insertion depth of the endotracheal tube as evaluated by X-ray. Results: The correlation between the height-based calculation and the ideal depth observed on X-ray was strong, with r = 0.88, p < 0.05, and a concordance correlation coefficient of 0.88; the correlation between the weight-based calculation and depth on X-ray was r = 0.75, p < 0.05, and concordance correlation coefficient 0.43; and the correlation between endotracheal tube diameter-based calculation and depth on X-ray was r = 0.80, p < 0.05, and concordance correlation coefficient 0.78. Lin's concordance correlation analysis indicated that the measurements showed weak concordance (< 0.90). Conclusion: The formulas that estimate the insertion depth of the endotracheal tube in children were not accurate and were discordant with the gold-standard method of X-ray evaluation. There is a need for a new method based on anthropometric variables (weight and height) and age that is effective in guiding health professionals of pediatric intensive care units at the time of intubation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Respiration, Artificial , Intensive Care Units, Pediatric , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Body Height/physiology , Body Weight/physiology , Radiography, Thoracic/methods , Cross-Sectional Studies , Age Factors
15.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 70(1): 9-14, Jan.-Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1137140

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Poor monitoring of tracheal tube cuff pressure may result in patient complications. The objective method of using a manometer is recommended to keep safe cuff pressure values (20‒30 cm H2O). However, as manometers are not readily available, anesthesiologists use subjective methods. We aimed to assess appropriateness of a subjective method for attaining cuff pressure and the expertise level of manometer handling among anesthesiology staff and residents in a university teaching hospital. Methods: Prospective observational study, recruiting participants that performed tracheal intubation and the subjective method for tube cuff inflation. Patients with difficult airway, larynx and trachea anatomic abnormality and emergency procedures were not included. Up to 60 minutes after tracheal intubation, an investigator registered the cuff pressure using an aneroid manometer (AMBU®) connected to the tube pilot balloon. Results: Forty-seven anesthesiologists were included in the study - 24 residents and 23 staff. Mean (SD) and medians (IQR) measured in cmH2O were, respectively, 52.5 (27.1) and 50 (30‒70). We registered 83% of measurements outside the recommended pressure range, with no difference between specialists and residents. The level of expertise with the objective method was also similar in both groups. Pressure adjustments were performed in 76.6% of cases. Conclusion: The subjective method for inflating the tracheal tube cuff resulted in a high rate of inadequate cuff pressures, with no difference in performance between anesthesiology specialists and residents.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: O controle inadequado da pressão dos balonetes dos tubos traqueais pode resultar em complicações. A técnica objetiva com uso de manômetro é a recomendada para manutenção de valores seguros de pressão (20-30 cm H2O). Mas como ese instrumento é pouco disponível, os anestesiologistas recorrem a técnicas subjetivas. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a adequação da técnica subjetiva para obtenção das pressões dos balonetes e o nível de experiência com uso do manômetro entre médicos especialistas e residentes de anestesiologia de um Hospital Universitário. Método: Estudo observacional prospectivo, com participantes que realizaram intubação traqueal e técnica subjetiva para insuflação dos balonetes. Pacientes com via aérea difícil, anormalidades anatômicas de laringe e traqueia, risco de broncoaspiração e os casos de emergência não foram incluídos. Até 60 minutos após a intubação, um investigador registrava a pressão do balonete utilizando um manômetro aneroide (AMBU®) conectado ao balonete guia do tubo. Resultados: Quarenta e sete anestesiologistas foram incluídos no estudo - 24 residentes e 23 especialistas. As pressões (cm H2O) média (DP) e mediana (IQR) encontradas foram, respectivamente, 52,5 (27,1) e 50 (30-70). Da amostra, 83% estavam fora da faixa adequada de pressão, sem diferença entre especialistas e residentes. O nível de experiência com a técnica objetiva também foi semelhante entre os grupos. Correção da pressão foi realizada em 76,6% dos casos. Conclusões: A técnica subjetiva para insuflar os balonetes dos tubos traqueais resultou em alta prevalência de pressões inadequadas, sem diferença no desempenho entre especialistas e residentes.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Young Adult , Internship and Residency , Anesthesiology/education , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
17.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 18: eAO4805, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039729

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To simulate different diameters of endotracheal tubes and to verify the fluid dynamics aspects by means of flow and resistance measurements. Methods Fluid dynamics software was used to calculate mean flow and airway resistance in endotracheal tube with a diameter of 6.0, 7.0, 7.5, 8.0, 9.0 and 10.0mm at normal body temperature and under constant pressure. The same measurements were taken in the fusion of the first 22cm of a 9.0mm endotracheal tube with 10.0mm diameter, and with the end part in 12cm of a 6.0mm endotracheal tube with 7.0mm diameter. Results The fusion of the first 22cm of an endotracheal tube of 10.0mm diameter with the terminal part in 12cm of an endotracheal tube of 6.0mm diameter, preserving the total length of 34cm, generated average flow and airway resistance similar to that of a conventional 7.5mm endotracheal tube. Conclusion This simulation study demonstrates that a single-sized endotracheal tube may facilitate endotracheal intubation without causing increased airway resistance.


RESUMO Objetivo Simular diferentes diâmetros de tubos endotraqueais e verificar os aspectos fluidinâmicos, considerando medições de fluxo e resistência. Métodos Foi utilizado um software de fluidinâmica para calcular o fluxo médio e a resistência das vias aéreas nos tubos endotraqueais com diâmetro de 6,0, 7,0, 7,5, 8,0, 9,0 e 10,0mm, em temperatura corporal normal e pressão constante. As mesmas medidas foram realizadas na fusão dos primeiros 22cm de um tubo endotraqueal de 9,0 e 10,0mm de diâmetro, com a parte terminal em 12cm de um tubo endotraqueal de 6,0 e 7,0mm de diâmetro. Resultados A fusão dos primeiros 22cm de um tubo endotraqueal de diâmetro 10,0 mm com a parte terminal em 12cm de um tubo endotraqueal de 6,0mm de diâmetro, preservando o comprimento total de 34cm, gerou fluxo médio e resistência de vias aéreas semelhantes aos de um tubo endotraqueal convencional de 7,5mm. Conclusão Um tubo endotraqueal de tamanho único pode facilitar a intubação endotraqueal, sem causar aumento de resistência na via aérea.


Subject(s)
Computer Simulation , Equipment Design/instrumentation , Intubation, Intratracheal/instrumentation , Respiration, Artificial/instrumentation , Airway Resistance , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods
18.
Rev. chil. med. intensiv ; 35(3)2020. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1292491

ABSTRACT

Posterior a una extubación programada existe un porcentaje de pacientes que fracasa y requiere reintubación (~20%), este evento es conocido como fracaso de extubación, el cual se asocia con mayor morbimortalidad. Para prevenir el fracaso de extubación se han propuesto terapias como la ventilación no invasiva (VNI) y la cánula nasal de alto flujo (CNAF). Estas terapias son capaces de entregar soporte respiratorio postextubación y justifican su uso en los efectos fisiológicos que son capaces de inducir, en dónde el impacto sobre el esfuerzo respiratorio e intercambio de gases sería fundamental. Con esta racionalidad fisiológica se han desarrollado diversos estudios en diferentes contextos clínicos, esto con el fin de dilucidar cuál terapia es la mejor alternativa. En esta revisión narrativa pretendemos describir y analizar los diversos efectos fisiológicos que induce la VNI y la CNAF


Subject(s)
Humans , Oxygen Inhalation Therapy , Respiratory Insufficiency/therapy , Airway Extubation/methods , Noninvasive Ventilation/methods , Respiratory Insufficiency/physiopathology , Ventilator Weaning , Work of Breathing/physiology , Functional Residual Capacity/physiology , Retreatment , Cannula , Intensive Care Units , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Lung Volume Measurements/methods
19.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(6): 626-630, nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057473

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: Cardiac Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) is a technique used for evaluation of children with congenital heart diseases. General anesthesia ensures immobility, particularly in uncooperative patients. However, chest wall movements can limit good quality scans. Prolonged apnea may be necessary to decrease respiratory motion artefacts, potentially leading to hypoxemia and other adverse events. The use of a high frequency jet ventilator may be a solution avoiding chest wall movements. Case report: We report four cases of pediatric patients, ASA II, aged between 4 and 15 years-old, scheduled for cardiac MRI. General anesthesia was proposed and parental informed consent was obtained. After general anesthesia was induced, an uncuffed endotracheal tube was inserted. Then, a 7Fr × 40 cm catheter was placed through the endotracheal tube. The proximal outlet of the catheter was attached through a connecting tube to a high frequency jet ventilator (Monsoon III®, Acutronic Medical Systems). Good quality MRI images were obtained. At the end of the procedures, we observed increased salivation and increased end-tidal CO2 (60-70 mmHg), in all patients. The patients were extubated after normocapnia was achieved and neuromuscular blockade reversed. Following appropriate recovery time, the four children were discharged home the same day. Conclusions: This case series demonstrates that the use of a high frequency jet ventilator for cardiac MRI was feasible, safe, providing good quality cardiac imaging and avoiding anesthesia personnel to be inside the hazardous environment of MRI room. Future studies are needed to confirm its safety and efficiency in pediatric patients.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A ressonância magnética (RM) cardíaca é uma técnica usada na avaliação de crianças com cardiopatias congênitas. A anestesia geral garante imobilidade, especialmente em pacientes não cooperadores, porém os movimentos da parede torácica podem limitar a boa qualidade dos exames. A apneia prolongada pode ser necessária para diminuir os artefatos do movimento respiratório, potencialmente levando à hipoxemia e outros eventos adversos. O uso de ventilação a jato de alta frequência pode ser uma solução para evitar os movimentos da parede torácica. Relato de caso: Relatamos quatro casos de pacientes pediátricos, ASA II, entre 4-15 anos, programados para ressonância magnética cardíaca. Uma anestesia geral foi proposta e assinaturas em termo de consentimento livre e esclarecido foram obtidas dos pais. Após a indução da anestesia geral, um tubo endotraqueal sem balonete foi inserido. Em seguida, um cateter de 7Fr × 40 cm foi inserido através do tubo endotraqueal. A saída proximal do cateter foi conectada, mediante um tubo conector, a um sistema de ventilação a jato de alta frequência (Monsoon III®, Acutronic Medical Systems). Imagens de ressonância magnética de boa qualidade foram obtidas. No fim dos procedimentos, observamos aumento tanto de salivação quanto de CO2 expirado (60-70 mmHg) em todos os pacientes. Os pacientes foram extubados após a obtenção de normocapnia e reversão do bloqueio neuromuscular. Após o tempo de recuperação apropriado, as quatro crianças receberam alta no mesmo dia. Conclusões: Esta série de casos demonstra que o uso de um sistema de ventilação a jato de alta frequência para ressonância magnética cardíaca é viável e seguro, além de fornecer imagens cardíacas de boa qualidade e evitar a presença da equipe de anestesia dentro do ambiente de risco da sala de ressonância magnética. Estudos futuros são necessários para confirmar sua segurança e eficiência em pacientes pediátricos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , High-Frequency Jet Ventilation/methods , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/methods , Heart Defects, Congenital/diagnostic imaging , High-Frequency Jet Ventilation/adverse effects , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Anesthesia, General/methods
20.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 69(5): 514-516, Sept.-Oct. 2019.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057456

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives: One-lung ventilation and selective intubation in neonates can be challenging due to intrinsic physiological specificities and material available. Ultrasound (US) is being increasingly used in many extents of anaesthesiology including confirmation of endotracheal tube position. Case report: We present a case report of a neonate proposed for pulmonary lobectomy by thoracoscopy in which lung exclusion was confirmed by ultrasound. Conclusion: US is a rapid, more sensitive and specific method than auscultation to evaluate tracheal intubation and lung exclusion.


Resumo Justificativa e objetivos: A ventilação monopulmonar e a intubação seletiva em recém-nascidos podem ser um desafio devido às especificidades fisiológicas intrínsecas e ao material disponível. O aparelho de ultrassom tem sido cada vez mais usado em muitas situações no campo da anestesia, incluindo a confirmação da posição do tubo endotraqueal. Relato de caso: Apresentamos o relato do caso de um recém-nascido proposto para lobectomia pulmonar por toracoscopia em que a exclusão pulmonar foi confirmada por ultrassom. Conclusão: O ultrassom é um método rápido, mais sensível e específico do que a ausculta para avaliar a intubação traqueal e a exclusão pulmonar.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Infant, Newborn , Auscultation , Ultrasonography , One-Lung Ventilation/methods , Intubation, Intratracheal/methods , Lung/diagnostic imaging , Stethoscopes
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