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1.
J. Health Biol. Sci. (Online) ; 10(1): 1-6, 01/jan./2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1370924

ABSTRACT

Objective: to evaluate the molecular interaction of silibinin with the targets ALS3 and SAP5. Methodology: Molecular docking protocols were conducted to analyze the binding interaction of silibinin with ALS3 and SAP5. Results: Eleven interactions of ALS3 with silibinin and four with fluconazole were found, while six interactions were observed of SAP5 with silibinin and four with fluconazole. Conclusion: Molecular docking between silibinin and ALS3 identified important interactions, but no significant interactions were observed with SAP5, even though silibinin can exhibit affinity and interactions with other SAP5 sites.


Objetivo: Avaliar a interação molecular da silibinina com os alvos ALS3 e SAP5. Metodologia: Protocolos de docking molecular foram conduzidos para analisar a interação de ligação da silibinina com ALS3 e SAP5. Resultados: Foram encontradas onze interações de ALS3 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol, enquanto seis interações foram observadas de SAP5 com silibinina e quatro com fluconazol. Conclusão: Docking molecular entre silibinina e ALS3 identificou interações importantes, mas não foram observadas interações significativas com SAP5, embora a silibinina possa apresentar afinidade e interações com outros sítios SAP5.


Subject(s)
Candida albicans , Silymarin , Proteins , Invasive Fungal Infections
2.
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 44(1): 32-39, Jan.-Mar. 2022. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364905

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Invasive fungal diseases represent important causes of morbidity and mortality among pediatric oncohematological patients. Acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis is a rare and aggressive disease that occurs mainly in immunocompromised patients. The mortality rate is high and therefore, accurate and early diagnosis is essential. Objectives The aim of this study was to describe the frequency of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis among pediatric oncohematological patients and characterize them with confirmed diagnoses. Methods This was a retrospective study that analyzed the medical records of pediatric patients diagnosed with oncohematological diseases and suspected fungal infections, who were included after obtaining informed consent, from January to December 2017, in the pediatric unit of a tertiary university hospital. Data collected from medical record analysis included the following: underlying diagnosis, absolute neutrophil count, clinical presentation, culture and biopsy results, surgical procedures performed, survival and mortality. Results A total of 27 patients were evaluated, with three suspected cases of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis. Histopathological and microbiological analyses confirmed two cases. In both cases, the pathogen isolated in the culture was Fusarium sp. The two confirmed cases were female, aged 12 and 14 years, both with an absolute neutrophil count of 10 cells/μL. The underlying disease of the first patient was acute myeloid leukemia (subtype M5), whereas the second patient presented idiopathic bone marrow aplasia. Conclusion Both confirmed cases of acute invasive fungal rhinosinusitis presented with constitutional symptoms and signs of nasal and sinusital inflammation. This demonstrates the importance of fever as a symptom in immunocompromised patients and it should prompt otorhinolaryngological investigation.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Fusariosis , Invasive Fungal Infections , Hematologic Diseases , Sinusitis , Febrile Neutropenia , Fusarium
3.
Afr. J. Clin. Exp. Microbiol ; 23(1): 14-21, 2022. figures, tables
Article in English | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1355316

ABSTRACT

Invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) are major causes of morbidity and mortality among hospitalized patients all over the world with a global prevalence of 15%. Since the first case of COVID-19 was reported on February 27, 2020, in Nigeria, it had been discovered across all geopolitical zones in Nigeria. As the medical community confronts the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, determining whether patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 develop fungal complications, especially invasive aspergillosis, is crucial. This review aimed to highlight the fungal co-infections that might be associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, and modalities for their diagnosis, prevention, and management, with the view to reducing the high mortality associated with these infections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Invasive Fungal Infections , COVID-19 , Antifungal Agents , SARS-CoV-2
4.
Rev. Hosp. Ital. B. Aires (2004) ; 41(4): 187-192, dic. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS, UNISALUD | ID: biblio-1366967

ABSTRACT

La sinusitis micótica alérgica es una enfermedad inflamatoria de la mucosa rinosinusal producida por hongos que pueden aislarse de la cavidad de nasal de individuos sanos. Se produce indirectamente por los hongos que actúan como antígeno y desencadenan una reacción inmunológica mediada por IgE que origina pólipos y una secreción mucosa espesa con detritus e hifas denominada mucina. Su presentación clínica más frecuente es una sinusitis crónica unilateral o bilateral con pólipos. Con menos frecuencia, las sustancias originadas por la desgranulación de los eosinófilos producen remodelación o destrucción ósea y la sinusitis puede simular una neoplasia. Se describe el caso clínico de un paciente que padeció una sinusitis micótica alérgica con destrucción ósea masiva de la base del cráneo y que tuvo extensión intracraneal extradural e intraorbitaria de la enfermedad. Fue tratado con éxito mediante cirugía y corticoides. (AU)


Allergic fungal sinusitis is an inflammatory disease of the rhinosinusal mucosa caused by fungi that can be isolated from the nasal cavity of healthy individuals. The pathology is produced indirectly by the fungus that acts as an antigen and triggers an IgE-mediated allergic reaction that causes polyps and a thick mucous discharge with detritus and hyphae called mucin. Its most common clinical presentation is unilateral or bilateral chronic sinusitis with polyps. Less commonly, substances originated by the degranulation of eosinophils cause bone remodeling or destruction, and sinusitis can simulate a neoplasia. We describe the clinical case of a patient who suffered from allergic fungal sinusitis with massive bone destruction of the skull base and who had intracranial, extradural and intraorbital extension of the disease. He was successfully treated with surgery and corticosteroids.Key words: allergic fungal sinusitis, intracranial extension, endoscopic surgery, transorbital transpalpebral approach. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Sinusitis/diagnostic imaging , Skull Base/physiopathology , Rhinitis, Allergic/diagnostic imaging , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnostic imaging , Curvularia/pathogenicity , Sinusitis/surgery , Sinusitis/drug therapy , Prednisone/administration & dosage , Skull Base/surgery , Budesonide/administration & dosage , Rhinitis, Allergic/surgery , Rhinitis, Allergic/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/surgery , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy
5.
Infectio ; 25(3): 197-199, jul.-set. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1250093

ABSTRACT

Abstract Mycetoma is a chronic and slow-developing granulomatous disease characterized by the triad of large painless tumour-like subcutaneous swellings, the formation of sinuses, and discharge that usually contains grains. Phellinus spp. are saprophytic wood-decaying filamentous basidiomycetes. They are an under-recognised cause of invasive fungal infections and are rarely reported worldwide. We report a 59-year-old male patient with mycetoma caused by Phellinus spp. The diagnosis was confirmed with clinical examination, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study, soft tissue and bone biopsy culture, and polymerase chain reaction. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported case of mycetoma due to Phellinus spp. without chronic granulomatous disease (CGD).


Resumen El micetoma es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica y de lento desarrollo caracterizada por la tríada de grandes inflamaciones subcutáneas similares a tumores indoloras, la formación de los senos nasales y secreción que generalmente contiene granos. Phellinus spp. son basidiomicetos filamentosos saprofitos que descomponen la madera. Son un poco reconocido causa de infecciones fúngicas invasivas y rara vez se informan en todo el mundo. Presentamos un paciente masculino de 59 años con micetoma causado por Phellinus spp. El diagnostico se confirmó con examen clínico, estudio de resonancia magnética (RM), cultivo de biopsia de tejido blando y óseo y reacción en cadena de la polimerasa. A lo mejor que sepamos, este es el primer caso reportado de micetoma debido a Phellinus spp. sin enfermedad granulomatosa crónica (EGC).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Basidiomycota , Phellinus , Mycetoma , Brazil , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Invasive Fungal Infections , Mycoses
6.
Article in French | AIM, AIM | ID: biblio-1353553

ABSTRACT

Introduction : Les candidoses systémiques sont des affections graves responsables d'une mortalité élevée. L'objectif de ce travail est de décrire l'épidémiologie des candidoses systémiques dans les services à haut risque au CHU et au CAC de BATNA. Patients et méthodes : Il s'agit d'une étude prospective descriptive durant une période de trois ans (1er janvier 2016 au 31 décembre 2018). Les patients inclus sont ceux ayant au moins un prélèvement profond positif á Candida spp. Résultats : Un total de 69 cas de candidoses systémiques correspondant à 75 isolats et concernant 63 patients a pu être analysé. L'incidence globale était de 2,62 cas pour 1000 admissions. Les principaux motifs d'hospitalisation étaient les hémopathies malignes et le choc septique. La présence d'une colonisation ( 2 sites), une antibiothérapie á large spectre, d'un cathéter intra vasculaire, une corticothérapie, une chimiothérapie, une neutropénie étaient les facteurs de risque les plus retrouvés. L'analyse des souches isolées a montré la prédominance des espèces non albicans. L'index de colonisation ≥ 0,5 a été significativement associé au risque de candidose systémique. L'utilisation des Azolés a été associée á un taux de mortalité le plus élevé (19%). Le taux de mortalité est significativement élevé 51%. Conclusion : Les facteurs de risque et un index de colonisation ≥ 0,5 dans les services á haut risque constituent un facteur prédictif de candidose systémique. La prise en charge thérapeutique doit être instaurée pour réduire le taux de mortalité et éviter les complications liées á ces infections.


Background: Systemic candidiasis are serious conditions responsible for high mortality. The objective of this work is to describe the epidemiology of systemic candidiasis in high-risk departments at the UHC and the ACC of BATNA. Patients and methods: This is a descriptive prospective study over a period of three years (January 1, 2016 to December 31, 2018). The patients included are those with at least one positive deep sample for Candida spp. Results: 69 cases of systemic candidiasis corresponding to 75 isolates and concerning 63 patients could be analyzed. The overall incidence was 2.62 cases per 1,000 admissions. The main reasons for hospitalization were hematologic malignancies and septic shock. The presence of colonization ( 2 sites), broad-spectrum antibiotic therapy, an intravascular catheter, corticosteroid therapy, chemotherapy, neutropenia were the most common risk factors. Analysis of the isolated strains showed the predominance of nonalbicans species. Colonization index ≥ 0.5 was significantly associated with the risk of systemic candidiasis. Azole's use was associated with the highest mortality rate (19%). The mortality rate is significantly high 51%. Conclusion. Risk factors and a colonization index ≥ 0.5 in high-risk wards are a predictor of systemic candidiasis. Therapeutic care must be instituted to reduce the mortality rate and avoid complications linked to these infections


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Candida albicans , Disease Management , Invasive Fungal Infections , Azoles , Risk Factors , Academic Medical Centers
7.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1362816

ABSTRACT

Objective: To investigate the mortality attributed to fungal infections, in Brazil between 2003 and 2013. Methods: This ecological study relied on official data collected from the Sistema de Informação Sobre Mortalidade ­ Mortality Information System database. The mycoses were identified by the 10th revision of the International Classification of Diseases, which included categories B35­B49 in its first chapter. Results: Overall, 11,991,935 deaths were reported in the aforementioned period. The deaths of 4,192 individuals were primarily attributed to mycoses. High annual mortality rates were observed in all Brazilian regions, except in the Northeast. The main recorded mycoses were paracoccidioidomycosis (35.6%) and cryptococcosis (24.1%). There was a downward trend in the number of deaths due to paracoccidioidomycosis. In addition, 10,925 death certificates listed mycoses as an associated cause of death. Cryptococcosis (89.7%) and histoplasmosis (89.4%) were the most common mycoses associated with deaths in HIV patients. Conclusions: There was a downward trend in the number of deaths stemming from invasive fungal infections. However, opportunistic mycoses follow been a significant cause of death, especially in HIV patients.


Objetivo: Investigar a mortalidade atribuída para as infecções fúngicas, no Brasil, entre 2003 e 2013. Métodos: Trata-se de um estudo ecológico, em que os dados foram obtidos do Sistema de Informação sobre Mortalidade (SIM), disponíveis na plataforma do DATASUS. As micoses foram identificadas por meio da 10ª revisão da Classificação Internacional de Doenças (CID-10), a qual incluiu as categorias B35-B49 no primeiro capítulo da CID-10. Resultados: No total, 11.991.935 óbitos foram notificados no período do estudo. Os óbitos de 4,192 indivíduos foram atribuídos às micoses. Foram observadas elevadas taxas de mortalidade em todas as regiões brasileiras, com exceção do Nordeste. As principais micoses registradas foram paracoccidioidomicose (35,6%) e criptococose (24,1%). Houve uma tendência na redução do número de óbitos em relação à paracoccidioidomicose. Além disso, em 10.925 declarações de óbitos informavam que as micoses foram causas associadas ao óbito. Criptococose (89,7%) e Histoplasmose (89,4%) foram as micoses mais comumente associadas ao óbito, principalmente em pacientes HIV positivos. Conclusões: Houve uma tendencia na diminuição dos óbitos por infecções fúngicas invasivas. Entretanto, micoses oportunistas continuam sendo importantes causas de morte, especialmente em indivíduos HIV positivos.


Subject(s)
Invasive Fungal Infections , Paracoccidioidomycosis , Patients , Mortality , Cryptococcosis
8.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 115: e200430, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | SES-SP, LILACS, SES-SP | ID: biblio-1135256

ABSTRACT

Despite the medical advances and interventions to improve the quality of life of those in intensive care, people with cancer or severely immunocompromised or other susceptible hosts, invasive fungal diseases (IFD) remain severe and underappreciated causes of illness and death worldwide. Therefore, IFD continue to be a public health threat and a major hindrance to the success of otherwise life-saving treatments and procedures. Globally, hundreds of thousands of people are affected every year with Candida albicans, Aspergillus fumigatus, Cryptococcus neoformans, Pneumocystis jirovecii, endemic dimorphic fungi and Mucormycetes, the most common fungal species causing invasive diseases in humans. These infections result in morbidity and mortality rates that are unacceptable and represent a considerable socioeconomic burden. Raising the general awareness of the significance and impact of IFD in human health, in both the hospital and the community, is hence critical to understand the scale of the problem and to raise interest to help fighting these devastating diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Fungi/isolation & purification , Fungi/classification , Quality of Life , Immunocompromised Host , Cost of Illness , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/mortality , Intensive Care Units
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828724

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To assess the efficacy and safety of fluconazole in the prophylaxis of invasive fungal infection in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants.@*METHODS@#Databases including PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Wanfang Data, Weipu, and CNKI were searched for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of prophylactic fluconazole in VLBW infants. Review Manager 5.3 software was used to perform a Meta analysis of the included studies.@*RESULTS@#A total of 12 RCTs were included, involving 1 679 VLBW infants. The Meta analysis showed that prophylactic fluconazole significantly reduced the incidence of invasive fungal infection (RR=0.44, 95%CI: 0.27-0.71, P0.05). No significant differences were found in the incidence of fluconazole resistance and complications between the fluconazole and control groups (P>0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Prophylactic fluconazole can effectively and safely prevent invasive fungal infection in VLBW infants, even at a small dose.


Subject(s)
Antifungal Agents , Fluconazole , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Very Low Birth Weight , Invasive Fungal Infections
10.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 395-409, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089309

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT In the present paper we summarize the suggestions of a multidisciplinary group including experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases who reviewed the medical literature to elaborate a consensus document (CD) for the diagnosis and clinical management of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in children with hematologic cancer and those who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. All major multicenter studies designed to characterize the epidemiology of IFDs in children with cancer, as well as all randomized clinical trials addressing empirical and targeted antifungal therapy were reviewed. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, the best evidence available to support the recommendations were selected. Algorithms for early diagnosis and best clinical management of IFDs are also presented. This document summarizes practical recommendations that will certainly help pediatricians to best treat their patients suffering of invasive fungal diseases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/therapy , Opportunistic Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Consensus , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology
11.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 732-741, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058105

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) por hongos filamentosos es cada vez más frecuente. Objetivo: Estudiar la epidemiología de la EFI en adultos hospitalizados en nuestro centro. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes adultos de un hospital universitario en Santiago, Chile, con EFI por hongos filamentosos entre enero de 2005 y diciembre de 2015. Resultados: Se identificaron 125 episodios, siendo 48% categoria probada, 40% probable y 11% posible según criterios EORTC/MSG, incidencia global 0,47 x 1.000 egresos, 57% pacientes masculinos y edad de 50 ± 16 años. El 66,4% tenía patología hematológica, 11,2% trasplante de órgano sólido, 11,2% enfermedad reumatológica, 11,2% otra condición. Los factores de riesgo fueron neutropenia 44%, corticoterapia 21%, inmunosupresores 13%. Los hongos más frecuentemente identificados fueron Aspergillus spp (53,6%), Mucorales (16%), Fusarium spp (8,8%), Alternaria spp (5,6%), otros filamentosos (3,2%). Todos recibieron antifúngicos, 82% monoterapia, 18% terapia combinada, hubo defocación quirúrgica en 90% de mucormicosis. La mortalidad global fue 42%. Al comparar 2005-2009 vs 2010-2015, hubo un aumento significativo de la incidencia y una tendencia a menor mortalidad en el segundo período. Conclusiones: Durante un período de 10 años, observamos un aumento de la incidencia de EFI por filamentosos, aspergilosis fue la etiología más frecuente y la mortalidad global fue 42%.


Background: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) due to filamentous fungi is increasingly common. Aim: To study the epidemiology of EFI in hospitalized adults in our center. Methods: Retrospective study of adult patients of a university hospital in Santiago, Chile, with EFI due to filamentous fungi between January 2005 and December 2015. Results: 125 episodes were identified, being 48% proven, 40% probable and 11% possible according to EORTC/MSG criteria, overall incidence was 0.47/1,000 admissions, 57% male patients and age 50 ± 16 years. 66.4% had hematological pathology, 11.2% solid organ transplant, 11.2% rheumatology diseases, 11.2% other conditions. The risk factors were neutropenia 44%, corticosteroid therapy 21%, immunosuppressants 13%. The most frequent mould identified were Aspergillus spp (53.6%), Mucorales (16%), Fusarium spp (8.8%), Alternaria spp (5.6%) and other filamentous (3.2%). All received antifungals, 82% monotherapy, 18% combined therapy, there was surgical defocation in 90% of mucormycosis. The overall mortality was 42%. When comparing 2005-2009 vs 2010-2015, there was a significant increase in incidence and a tendency to lower mortality in the second period. Conclusions: Over a period of 10 years, we observed an increase in the incidence of EFI by filamentous, aspergillosis was the most frequent etiology and the overall mortality was 42%.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Fungi , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
12.
Infectio ; 23(3): 271-304, July-Sept. 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1002162

ABSTRACT

Abstract Invasive Candidiasis (IC) and candidemia (as its most frequent manifestation) have become the main cause of opportunistic mycosis at hospital settings. This study, made by members of the Colombian Association of Infectious Diseases (ACIN), was aimed at providing a set of recommendations for the management, follow-up and prevention of IC / candidemia and mucous membrane candida infection in adult, pediatric and neonatal patients in a hospital setting, including the hemato-oncological and critical care units. All the data obtained through an exhaustive search were reviewed and analyzed in a comprehensive manner by all the members of the group, and the recommendations issued are being made after a careful review of the scientific literature available and the consensus of all specialists involved; the emergence of Candida Spp. problem is highlighted and a correct orientation to health professionals regarding the management of patients with candidiasis is provided in a rational and practical way, emphasizing patient evaluation, diagnostic strategies, prophylaxis, empirical treatment, directed treatment and preventative therapy.


Resumen La Candidiasis Invasora (CI) y la candidemia, como su manifestación más frecuente, se ha convertido en la principal causa de micosis oportunista a nivel hospitalario. Este manuscrito realizado por miembros de la Asociación Colombiana de Infectología (ACIN), tuvo como objetivo proporcionar un conjunto de recomendaciones para manejo, seguimiento y prevención de la CI/candidemia y de la infección candidiásica de mucosas, en población adulta, pediátrica y neonatal, en un entorno hospitalario, incluyendo las unidades hemato-oncológicas y unidades de cuidado crítico. Todos los datos obtenidos mediante una búsqueda exhaustiva, fueron revisados y analizados de manera amplia por todos los miembros del grupo, y las recomendaciones emitidas se elaboraron luego de la evaluación de la literatura científica disponible, y el consenso de todos los especialistas involucrados, reconociendo el problema de la emergencia de las infecciones por Candida Spp. y brindando una correcta orientación a los profesionales de la salud sobre el manejo de pacientes con enfermedad candidiásica, de una forma racional y práctica, enfatizando en la evaluación del paciente, estrategias de diagnóstico, profilaxis, tratamiento empírico, tratamiento dirigido y terapia preventiva.


Subject(s)
Infant, Newborn , Adult , Candidemia , Candidiasis, Invasive , Mycoses , Patient Care Management , Colombia , Disaster Management , Invasive Fungal Infections , Neutropenia/diagnosis
13.
Rev. cuba. med. mil ; 48(3): e276, jul.-set. 2019. fig
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1126637

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Las infecciones fúngicas invasivas son producidas casi universalmente por Candida o Aspergillus, pero se identifican otros hongos que requieren abordajes individualizados, principalmente en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. El micetoma es una enfermedad granulomatosa crónica, generalmente limitada a la piel y al tejido subcutáneo; sin embargo, existen localizaciones como la torácica y abdominal, consideradas de mal pronóstico, debido a una diseminación visceral. Objetivo: Mostrar otra alternativa de diseminación visceral de un micetoma, en un paciente que fue sometido a un trasplante renal. Caso clínico: Paciente que se sometió a un trasplante de riñón de un donante de cadáver. Se le diagnosticó micetoma por Candida albicans en el brazo derecho y daño pulmonary. Tuvo buena respuesta al tratamiento. Comentarios: Las infecciones fúngicas invasivas son cada vez más frecuentes en la práctica clínica, especialmente en pacientes inmunodeprimidos. En la actualidad, hay nuevos medicamentos disponibles que son útiles para el tratamiento de estos pacientes, pero el pronóstico continúa siendo desalentador en muchos casos. Estas entidades tienen la capacidad de afectar a diferentes órganos, lo cual condiciona un compromiso grave para el paciente(AU)


Introduction: Invasive fungal infections are almost universally produced by Candida or Aspergillus, but other fungi are identified that require individualized approaches, mainly in immunocompromised patients. Mycetoma is a chronic granulomatous disease, usually limited to the skin and subcutaneous tissue; however, there are localizations such as the thoracic and abdominal, considered of poor prognosis due to a visceral dissemination. Objective: To show another alternative of visceral dissemination of a mycetoma in a patient who underwent a kidney transplant. Clinical case: We report the case of a female patient who underwent a kidney transplant from a cadaveric donor. She had a diagnosis of Candida albicans mycetoma in the right arm and lung damage. She had a good response to treatment. Comments: Invasive fungal infections are becoming more frequent in clinical practice, especially affecting immunosuppressed patients. At present, new drugs are available that are useful in the treatment of these patients, but the prognosis continues to be discouraging in many cases. These infections have the capacity to affect different organs, which determines a serious problem for the patient(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Middle Aged , Candida albicans , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Invasive Fungal Infections
14.
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(4): 403-413, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1042655

ABSTRACT

Resumen La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) es una entidad que afecta pacientes inmunocomprometidos y críticamente enfermos. En los últimos años, el número de pacientes con riesgo de presentarla viene en aumento, con el consecuente incremento de la formulación de antifúngicos de manera profiláctica, anticipada o empírica. Algunos estudios que evaluaron el uso adecuado de antifúngicos han mostrado que hasta 72% de las formulaciones pueden ser inapropiadas, exponiendo a los pacientes al riesgo de efectos adversos e interacciones medicamentosas, con mayores costos de la atención. Se han recomendado diferentes intervenciones para el control y el uso racional de antimicrobianos, conocidas como "antimicrobial stewardship", las que se pueden aplicar al uso de antifúngicos denominándose "antifungal stewardship"". Se presenta una revisión de la literatura médica sobre el uso apropiado de antifúngicos y el impacto de la implementación de programas de optimización del uso de estos medicamentos en algunos centros.


Invasive fungal disease (IFD) is a condition affecting immunosuppressed and critically ill patients. Recently there has been an increase in the amount of patients at risk for IFD, which implies an increase in the prescription of antifungal agents as prophylactic, pre-emptive or empiric therapy. Some studies evaluating appropriateness of antifungal prescription have shown that inappropriate formulations reach 72%, exposing patients to side effects, pharmacological interactions and rising costs. Some groups have recommended many interventions to control and make a rational use of antimicrobials, into strategies known as "antimicrobial stewardship", these interventions are useful also for antifungal agents and it has been named "antifungal stewardship". Here we present a narrative review of the scientific literature showing published articles about appropriate use of antifungal agents and the experience of some centers after implementing antifungal stewardship programs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Inappropriate Prescribing/prevention & control , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Antimicrobial Stewardship/methods , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Antifungal Agents/adverse effects , Immunocompromised Host , Drug Monitoring , Inappropriate Prescribing/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis
15.
Infectio ; 23(1): 55-57, Jan.-Mar. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-975564

ABSTRACT

Resumen Las micosis rino-cerebral, rino-orbito-cerebral y sinusopulmonar ocasionadas por especies de Mucorales y de Aspergillus se constituyen como una causa importan te de infección fúngica invasora asociada a una mortalidad mayor al 30%. La coinfección por dos o más especies en la forma rino-orbito-cerebral es infrecuente. Se describe un paciente con linfoma no Hodgkin, expuesto a múltiples esquemas quimioterápicos, en remisión completa, que presentó micosis con compromiso rino-orbito-cerebral por Aspergillus sclerotiorum y Rhizopus microsporum de rápida progresión con necesidad de tratamiento quirúrgico agresivo y terapia anti fúngica sistémica y local.


Abstract Rhino-orbital-cerebral and pulmonary mycosis caused by Mucorales and Aspergillus species have become an important cause of invasive fungal infection, with a 30% overall mortality rate. Rhino-orbital-cerebral disease caused by two or more species is uncommon. We present a patient with non-Hodgkin lymphoma, ex posed to aggressive chemotherapy, under complete remission, with acute onset of rhino-orbital-cerebral disease caused by Aspergillus sclerotiorum and Rhizopus microsporum, treated with aggressive surgery and both local and systemic antifungal therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Aspergillus , Rhizopus/virology , Signs and Symptoms, Respiratory , Mucorales , Mycoses , Lymphoma, Non-Hodgkin , Causality , Coinfection , Invasive Fungal Infections , Microsporum
16.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776655

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To evaluate the clinical value of droplet digital PCR (ddPCR) in rapid and accurate diagnosis of invasive fungal infection (IFI) in neonates.@*METHODS@#The highly conserved sequence of fungi 18S RNA was selected as the target sequence, and primers were designed to establish a ddPCR fungal detection system. Blood samples were collected from 83 neonates with high-risk factors for IFI and/or related clinical symptoms in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of a hospital in Shenzhen, China. Blood culture and ddPCR were used for fungal detection.@*RESULTS@#The ddPCR fungal detection system had a specificity of 100% and a sensitivity of 3.2 copies/μL, and had a good reproducibility. Among the 22 blood samples from neonates with a confirmed or clinical diagnosis of IFI, 19 were detected positive by ddPCR. Among the 61 blood samples from neonates who were suspected of IFI or had no IFI, 2 were detected positive by ddPCR.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ddPCR technique can be used for the detection of neonatal IFI and is a promising tool for the screening and even diagnosis of neonatal IFI.


Subject(s)
China , Humans , Infant, Newborn , Invasive Fungal Infections , Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reproducibility of Results
17.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1672-1677, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775667

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the clinical characteristics, prevention and treatment of invasive fungal disease (IFD).@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 164 patients who met the diagnostic criteria of IFD in our center from January 2012 to January 2015 were retrospectively analyzed. The incidence, clinical characteristics, related factors, treatment methods and prognosis were analyzed.@*RESULTS@#Among 1289 cases of blood diseases, 164 cases suffered from IFD with inciduce of 12.7%. The main infection sites were as followed: lung, blood and gastrointestinal tract, with incidence of 84.2%, 5.5% and 3% respectively. The funge was found in 35 cases by detection; among fungi, the detected rate of candida albicans. aspergillus and candida glabrata was more high with 51.5%, 20% and 14.3% respectively. Among 164 childen with blood deseases complicated by IFD, 36 cases gained complete remission, 97 cases gained partial remission, 10 cases were stable, 11 cases were progressive and 10 cases died, the overall effective rate reached 81.1%. The univariate analysis showed that the gramulopenia, granulocyte recovery, long-term use of corticosteroid and immuno-suppressive agents, as well as different grades of diagnosis were significant factors affecting the efficacy of antifungal therapy for blood disease children with IFD, the multivariate analysis further showed that the granulocyte recovery and diagnosis grades were independent prognostic factors affecting the therapeutic efficacy for IFD children. The overall survival rate of IFD children with 12 weeks of antifungal treatnment was 81.7%, out of which the survival rate of IFD children at 12 weeks of treatment with itraconazole, voriconazole, amphotericin B and caspofungin was 81.4%, 80%, 69.4% and 97.1% respectively, there were significant differences in survival rate between each other by long rank test. In addition of caspofungin, the other 3 kinds of drugs had toxic side effects of different degrees, but IFD children could tolerated these effects after symptomatic treatment.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of IFD in children with blood deseases in our hospital is 12.7%, the lung is most common infective site, moreover patogens of IFD mainly is candida. The promotion of granulocyte recovery and early stratified diagnosis can contribule to the treatment of IFD. For the IFD children with better economic condition, the caspofungin is a potent antifungal agent with high efficacy, low toxicity and better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Amphotericin B , Antifungal Agents , Child , Hematologic Diseases , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections , Retrospective Studies
18.
Journal of Experimental Hematology ; (6): 1678-1681, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775666

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the diagnostic value of (1, 3) -β-D-glucan and galactomannan (GM) tests in the patients with acute leukemia complicated by invasive fungal disease, and explore the application of serological detection (G/GM) and lung CT for early diagnosis of invasive fungal disease (IFD).@*METHODS@#A total of 493 patients with acute leukemia complicated by high risk invasive fungal infection, also receival G and GM tests, in Department of hematology of our hospital from June 2016 to December 2016 were selected and were divided into IFD-confirmed group (62 cases) including confirmed and clinical diagnesed IFD, and IFD-unconfirmed group (431 cases) including suspected IFD and non-IFD according to the diagnostic criteria of IFD. The results of G and GM tests in patients of 2 groups were analyzed, then the diagnostic efficacy of G and GM done and combination evaluated. In addition, 26 patients whose lung CT negative at hospitalization, moreover, presentation of changes in lung by CT during hospitalization and serological G and GM test positive were selected, and the difference of time between serological that postive and presentation of changes in lung by CT were compared for the estimation of early diagnotic value.@*RESULTS@#The positive rate of (1, 3) -β-D-glucan in IFD-confirmed group and IFD-unconfirmed group was 56.5% and 10.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, that of galactomannan test was 41.9% and 9.0%, respectively. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of (1, 3) -β-D-glucan was 56%, 90%, 44% and 92%, and that of galactomannan was 42%、91%、40% and 93%, respectively. Moreover, the combination of (1, 3) -β-D-glucan and galactomannan could raise the sensitivity to 69% and specificity to 98%. The positive results of serological detection (G/GM) come earlier about five days than CT changes.@*CONCLUSION@#Both (1, 3) -β-D-glucan and galactomannan test have high sensitivity and specificity, and the combination of them can improve the diagnostic efficacy, and make the clinical antifungal therapy more precisely. In the early clinical diagnosis of IFD, the positive results of serological detection coming earlier than lung CT.


Subject(s)
Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections , Diagnosis , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute , Mannans
19.
Arch. Health Sci. (Online) ; 25(3): 41-45, 21/12/2018.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1046416

ABSTRACT

Introdução: Os avanços médicos das últimas décadas contribuíram para aumentar a sobrevida de pacientes críticos e com a resposta imune comprometida. Consequentemente, a população em risco de adquirir infecções de origem fúngica também cresceu. Com altas taxas de morbidade e mortalidade, o difícil diagnóstico deste tipo de infecção, em conjunto com terapias ineficazes, gera elevados custos e sobrecarga ao sistema de saúde. Objetivos: Padronizar um método molecular de detecção fúngica diretamente do sangue e avaliar esta técnica comparativamente com a atualmente considerada padrão-ouro (hemocultura), associando aspectos clínicos, tempo de realização das técnicas e os custos envolvidos. Casuística e Métodos:Neste sentido, 94 pacientes com suspeita de infecção de corrente sanguínea foram submetidos a uma técnica de nestedPCR para detecção de DNA fúngico. Resultados: A técnica molecular foi positiva em 48,9% das amostras, enquanto que a hemocultura foi positiva em apenas 13,0% dos casos. Esses resultados demonstram uma alta sensibilidade do nested PCR e com um valor preditivo negativo de 100% em pacientes com suspeita clínica de infecção fúngica sistêmica e em situações de risco. O tempo de realização do método e os custos associados a ele, em comparação à hemocultura, também demonstraram seu potencial para uso clínico. Conclusões: Em comparação com a hemocultura, o método padronizado de nestedPCR constitui um teste rápido e economicamente viável capaz de descartar uma infecção sistêmica provocada por fungo, podendo facilitar o diagnóstico e evitar terapias ineficientes e caras, diminuir o tempo de internação e os impactos econômicos gerados por esse tipo de infecção.


Introduction: Medical advances in the past decades have contributed to the increase of survival of critically ill patients and the ones with impaired immune response. Consequently, the population at risk of acquiring a fungal infection also has increased. This type of infection generates expensive costs and heavy burden to the Health system. It also brings high morbidity and mortality rates, difficulty in diagnosing, and ineffective therapies. Objectives: Standardize a molecular method of fungal detection directly from blood and compare this technique with the blood culture, which is currently considered the gold standard. It associates clinical aspects, time, and costs involved. Patients and Methods: In this sense, 94 patients with suspected bloodstream infection were submitted to the technique of nested PCR for detection of fungal DNA. Results: The molecular technique was positive in 48.9% of the samples, while the blood culture was positive in only 13% of the cases. These results demonstrate high sensibility of the nested PCR and negative predictive value of 100%. The performing time and the costs associated with the method also demonstrated its value for clinical use. Conclusions: Therefore, the nested PCR is a quick and economically viable test, capable of ruling out a systemic infection caused by fungus, being able to facilitate the diagnosis, avoid inefficient and expensive therapies, and decrease the length of hospital stay, reducing the burden caused by this type of infection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Diagnostic Techniques and Procedures/statistics & numerical data , Invasive Fungal Infections/blood , Molecular Biology/methods
20.
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 360-370, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974244

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Background: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) affect >1.5 million people per year. Nevertheless, IFIs are usually neglected and underdiagnosed. IFIs should be considered as a public-health problem and major actions should be taken to tackle them and their associated costs. Aim To report the incidence of IFIs in four Mexican hospitals, to describe the economic cost associated with IFIs therapy and the impact of adverse events such as acute kidney injury (AKI), liver damage (LD), and ICU stay. Methods: This was a retrospective, transversal study carried-out in four Mexican hospitals. All IFIs occurring during 2016 were included. Incidence rates and estimation of antifungal therapy's expenditure for one year were calculated. Adjustments for costs of AKI were done. An analysis of factors associated with death, AKI, and LD was performed. Results: Two-hundred thirty-eight cases were included. Among all cases, AKI was diagnosed in 16%, LD in 25%, 35% required ICU stay, with a 23% overall mortality rate. AKI and LD showed higher mortality rates (39% vs 9% and 44% vs 18%, respectively, p < 0.0001). The overall incidence of IFIs was 4.8 cases (95% CI = 0.72-8.92) per 1000 discharges and 0.7 cases (95% CI = 0.03-1.16) per 1000 patients-days. Invasive candidiasis showed the highest incidence rate (1.93 per 1000 discharges, 95% CI = −1.01 to 2.84), followed by endemic IFIs (1.53 per 1000 discharges 95% CI = −3.36 to 6.4) and IA (1.25 per 1000 discharges, 95% CI = −0.90 to 3.45). AKI increased the cost of antifungal therapy 4.3-fold. The total expenditure in antifungal therapy for all IFIs, adjusting for AKI, was $233,435,536 USD (95% CI $6,224,993 to $773,810,330). Conclusions: IFIs are as frequent as HIV asymptomatic infection and tuberculosis. Costs estimations allow to assess cost-avoidance strategies to increase targeted driven therapy and decrease adverse events and their costs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cost of Illness , Acute Kidney Injury/economics , Invasive Fungal Infections/economics , Intensive Care Units/economics , Liver Diseases/economics , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Disease Management , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/economics
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