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Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-928676


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the clinical characteristics and risk factors of invasive fungal infection (IFI) occurenced in patients with acute leukemia (AL) during treatment in tropical regions.@*METHODS@#The clinical data of 68 AL patients admitted to the Hainan Hospital of PLA General Hospital from April 2012 to April 2019 was retrospectively analyzed. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the factors affecting the occurrence of IFI in AL patients.@*RESULTS@#Among the 68 patients, 44 were acute myeloid leukemia, 24 were acute lymphoblastic leukemia, 39 were male, 29 were female and the median age was 41(13-75) years old. The 68 patients received 242 times of chemotherapy or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation(HSCT), including 73 times of initial chemotherapy or inducting chemotherapy after recurrence, 14 times of HSCT, 155 times of consolidating chemotherapy. Patients received 152 times of anti-fungal prophylaxis, including 77 times of primary anti-fungal prophylaxis and 75 times of secondary anti-fungal prophylaxis. Finally, the incidence of IFI was 31 times, including 24 times of probable diagnosis, 7 times of proven diagnosis, and the total incidence of IFI was 12.8%(31/242), the incidence of IFI in inducting chemotherapy was 24.66%(18/73), the incidence of IFI in HSCT patients was 28.57% (4/14), the incidence of IFI in consolidating chemotherapy was 5.80% (9/155). Multivariate analysis showed that inducting chemotherapy or HSCT, the time of agranulocytosis ≥7 days, risk stratification of high risk were the independent risk factors for IFI in AL patients during treatment in tropical regions.@*CONCLUSION@#The incidence of IFI in patients with AL in the tropics regions is significantly higher than that in other regions at homeland and abroad. Anti-fungal prophylaxis should be given to the patients with AL who have the high risk factors of inducting chemotherapy or HSCT, time of agranulocytosis ≥7 days and risk stratification of high risk.

Adult , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Female , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Humans , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Leukemia, Myeloid, Acute/drug therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
Rev. chil. infectol ; 36(6): 732-741, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1058105


Resumen Introducción: La enfermedad fúngica invasora (EFI) por hongos filamentosos es cada vez más frecuente. Objetivo: Estudiar la epidemiología de la EFI en adultos hospitalizados en nuestro centro. Metodología: Estudio retrospectivo de pacientes adultos de un hospital universitario en Santiago, Chile, con EFI por hongos filamentosos entre enero de 2005 y diciembre de 2015. Resultados: Se identificaron 125 episodios, siendo 48% categoria probada, 40% probable y 11% posible según criterios EORTC/MSG, incidencia global 0,47 x 1.000 egresos, 57% pacientes masculinos y edad de 50 ± 16 años. El 66,4% tenía patología hematológica, 11,2% trasplante de órgano sólido, 11,2% enfermedad reumatológica, 11,2% otra condición. Los factores de riesgo fueron neutropenia 44%, corticoterapia 21%, inmunosupresores 13%. Los hongos más frecuentemente identificados fueron Aspergillus spp (53,6%), Mucorales (16%), Fusarium spp (8,8%), Alternaria spp (5,6%), otros filamentosos (3,2%). Todos recibieron antifúngicos, 82% monoterapia, 18% terapia combinada, hubo defocación quirúrgica en 90% de mucormicosis. La mortalidad global fue 42%. Al comparar 2005-2009 vs 2010-2015, hubo un aumento significativo de la incidencia y una tendencia a menor mortalidad en el segundo período. Conclusiones: Durante un período de 10 años, observamos un aumento de la incidencia de EFI por filamentosos, aspergilosis fue la etiología más frecuente y la mortalidad global fue 42%.

Background: Invasive fungal disease (IFD) due to filamentous fungi is increasingly common. Aim: To study the epidemiology of EFI in hospitalized adults in our center. Methods: Retrospective study of adult patients of a university hospital in Santiago, Chile, with EFI due to filamentous fungi between January 2005 and December 2015. Results: 125 episodes were identified, being 48% proven, 40% probable and 11% possible according to EORTC/MSG criteria, overall incidence was 0.47/1,000 admissions, 57% male patients and age 50 ± 16 years. 66.4% had hematological pathology, 11.2% solid organ transplant, 11.2% rheumatology diseases, 11.2% other conditions. The risk factors were neutropenia 44%, corticosteroid therapy 21%, immunosuppressants 13%. The most frequent mould identified were Aspergillus spp (53.6%), Mucorales (16%), Fusarium spp (8.8%), Alternaria spp (5.6%) and other filamentous (3.2%). All received antifungals, 82% monotherapy, 18% combined therapy, there was surgical defocation in 90% of mucormycosis. The overall mortality was 42%. When comparing 2005-2009 vs 2010-2015, there was a significant increase in incidence and a tendency to lower mortality in the second period. Conclusions: Over a period of 10 years, we observed an increase in the incidence of EFI by filamentous, aspergillosis was the most frequent etiology and the overall mortality was 42%.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Chile/epidemiology , Retrospective Studies , Fungi , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 23(6): 395-409, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089309


ABSTRACT In the present paper we summarize the suggestions of a multidisciplinary group including experts in pediatric oncology and infectious diseases who reviewed the medical literature to elaborate a consensus document (CD) for the diagnosis and clinical management of invasive fungal diseases (IFDs) in children with hematologic cancer and those who underwent hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. All major multicenter studies designed to characterize the epidemiology of IFDs in children with cancer, as well as all randomized clinical trials addressing empirical and targeted antifungal therapy were reviewed. In the absence of randomized clinical trials, the best evidence available to support the recommendations were selected. Algorithms for early diagnosis and best clinical management of IFDs are also presented. This document summarizes practical recommendations that will certainly help pediatricians to best treat their patients suffering of invasive fungal diseases.

Humans , Child , Hematologic Neoplasms/microbiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/therapy , Opportunistic Infections , Brazil/epidemiology , Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/epidemiology , Consensus , Invasive Fungal Infections/etiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology
Braz. j. infect. dis ; 22(5): 360-370, Sept.-Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-974244


ABSTRACT Background: Invasive fungal infections (IFIs) affect >1.5 million people per year. Nevertheless, IFIs are usually neglected and underdiagnosed. IFIs should be considered as a public-health problem and major actions should be taken to tackle them and their associated costs. Aim To report the incidence of IFIs in four Mexican hospitals, to describe the economic cost associated with IFIs therapy and the impact of adverse events such as acute kidney injury (AKI), liver damage (LD), and ICU stay. Methods: This was a retrospective, transversal study carried-out in four Mexican hospitals. All IFIs occurring during 2016 were included. Incidence rates and estimation of antifungal therapy's expenditure for one year were calculated. Adjustments for costs of AKI were done. An analysis of factors associated with death, AKI, and LD was performed. Results: Two-hundred thirty-eight cases were included. Among all cases, AKI was diagnosed in 16%, LD in 25%, 35% required ICU stay, with a 23% overall mortality rate. AKI and LD showed higher mortality rates (39% vs 9% and 44% vs 18%, respectively, p < 0.0001). The overall incidence of IFIs was 4.8 cases (95% CI = 0.72-8.92) per 1000 discharges and 0.7 cases (95% CI = 0.03-1.16) per 1000 patients-days. Invasive candidiasis showed the highest incidence rate (1.93 per 1000 discharges, 95% CI = −1.01 to 2.84), followed by endemic IFIs (1.53 per 1000 discharges 95% CI = −3.36 to 6.4) and IA (1.25 per 1000 discharges, 95% CI = −0.90 to 3.45). AKI increased the cost of antifungal therapy 4.3-fold. The total expenditure in antifungal therapy for all IFIs, adjusting for AKI, was $233,435,536 USD (95% CI $6,224,993 to $773,810,330). Conclusions: IFIs are as frequent as HIV asymptomatic infection and tuberculosis. Costs estimations allow to assess cost-avoidance strategies to increase targeted driven therapy and decrease adverse events and their costs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cost of Illness , Acute Kidney Injury/economics , Invasive Fungal Infections/economics , Intensive Care Units/economics , Liver Diseases/economics , Incidence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Disease Management , Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , Acute Kidney Injury/therapy , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/complications , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Hospitalization/economics , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Mexico/epidemiology , Antifungal Agents/economics
Med. infant ; 23(1): 18-23, Marzo 2016. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-881823


Introducción: Las infecciones fúngicas invasivas (IFI) son una causa importante de morbimortalidad en pacientes inmunocomprometidos. En las últimas décadas se produjo un incremento, variaciones epidemiológicas y avances en los métodos de diagnóstico y tratamiento de las mismas. El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar las características epidemiológicas, clínicas y de evolución de IFI en pacientes hematooncológicos. Material y Métodos: Estudio de cohorte observacional retrospectivo y prospectivo. Se incluyeron pacientes con edades entre 1 mes y 18 años con diagnóstico de enfermedad hemato-oncológica admitidos en Hospital Juan P. Garrahan en el período 01/2010 - 04/2014 con diagnóstico de IFI según la EORTC. Resultados: Durante el período de estudio se incluyeron 124 pacientes con IFI. La incidencia fue de 2,65 casos /100 episodios febriles. Las enfermedades de base correspondieron a leucemias agudas en 66,1% (n:82) y a trasplante de médula ósea en 27,4%. Los períodos de mayor riesgo de aparición de IFI fueron las etapas de inducción (21,8%), recaída (16,9%) y re- inducción (12,9%). En general las IFI (n: 110; 88,7%) ocurrieron en el contexto de neutropenia febril. La documentación microbiológica demostró el predominio de Aspergillus spp. especies de Candida no albicans y baja prevalencia de mucorales. Se evidenció co-infección en 80 pacientes (64,5%). El tratamiento antifúngico empírico fue anfotericina liposomal en 48,8% de los pacientes, 46,3% recibió anfotericina desoxicolato y 4,9% voriconazol. Ingresaron a la UCI 30 pacientes (31,5%). La evolución de los pacientes con IFI fue favorable en 77,4%, de los casos; mientras que fallecieron 28 (22,6%). Del total de los pacientes fallecidos, 23 (82%) tuvieron una infección concomitante. Conclusiones: La incidencia de IFI documentada en nuestro estudio fue de 2,65 casos /100 episodios febriles, las leucemias agudas fueron las patologías de base más frecuentemente asociadas y la mayoría de las IFI se asoció a neutropenia febril. Aspergillus spp. fue el hongo más frecuentemente hallado. La mortalidad relacionada a IFI fue de 22,6% La presencia de co-infecciones se asoció con peor evolución (AU)

Introduction: Fungal invasive infections (FII) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in immunocompromised patients. Over the past decades an increase in incidence, epidemiologic variations, diagnostic methods, and treatment has occurred. The aim of this study was to analyze epidemiological and clinical features and outcome of FII in hematology-oncology patients. Material and Methods: An observational retrospective and prospective cohort study. Patients aged between 1 month and 18 years with hematology-oncology disease admitted to Hospital Juan P. Garrahan from 01/2010 to 04/2014 diagnosed with FII according to the EORTC were included. Results: During the study period 124 patients with FII were included. Incidence was 2,65 cases /100 febrile episodes. Underlying diseases were acute leukemia in 66,1% (n:82) and bone marrow transplantation in 27,4%. The periods of increased risk of FII were the induction (21,8%), relapse (16,9%), and re-induction (12,9%) stages. FII occurred typically in the context of febrile neutropenia (n: 110; 88,7%). Microbiology predominantly showed Aspergillus spp, non-albicans Candida spp, and a lower prevalence of mucor sp. Co-infection was observed in 80 patients (64,5%). Empirical antifungal therapy was liposomal amphotericin in 48.8% of the patients, amphotericin B deoxycholate in 46.3%, and voriconazole in 4,9%. Thirty patients (31,5%) were admitted to the ICU. Outcome of patients with FII was favorable in 77,4% of the cases, while 28 (22,6%) died. Of all patients that died 23 (82%) had a concomitant infection. Conclusions: In our study, incidence of documented FII was 2,65 cases /100 febrile episodes. Acute leukemia was the most common underlying disease and the majority of FII were associated with febrile neutropenia. Aspergillus spp was the most commonly found fungus. FII-related mortality was 22,6%. The presence of coinfections was associated with worse outcome (AU)

Humans , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Antifungal Agents/administration & dosage , Bone Marrow Transplantation , Febrile Neutropenia , Immunocompromised Host , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Invasive Fungal Infections/drug therapy , Invasive Fungal Infections/epidemiology , Leukemia , Aspergillus/isolation & purification , Candida/isolation & purification