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1.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e250280, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355867

ABSTRACT

Abstract Endozoochory by waterbirds is particularly relevant to the dispersal of non-flying aquatic invertebrates. This ecological function exercised by birds has been demonstrated in different biogeographical regions, but there are no studies for the neotropical region. In this work, we identified propagules of invertebrates in faeces of 14 syntopic South American waterbird species representing six families, and hatched additional invertebrates from cultured faeces. We tested whether propagule abundance, species richness and composition varied among bird species, and between the cold and warm seasons. We found 164 invertebrate propagules in faecal samples from seven different waterbirds species, including eggs of the Temnocephalida and Notonectidae, statoblasts of bryozoans (Plumatella sp.) and ephippia of Cladocera. Ciliates (including Paramecium sp. and Litostomatea), nematodes and rotifers (Adineta sp. and Nottomatidae) hatched from cultured samples. Potential for endozoochory was confirmed for 12 of 14 waterbird species. Our statistical models suggest that richness and abundance of propagules are associated with bird species and not affected by seasonality. Dispersal by endozoochory is potentially important to a broad variety of invertebrates, being promoted by waterbirds with different ecological and morphological traits, which are likely to drive the dispersal of invertebrates in neotropical wetlands.


Resumo A endozoocoria promovida por aves aquáticas é particularmente relevante para a dispersão de invertebrados aquáticos não-voadores. Essa função ecológica exercida pelas aves tem sido demonstrada para diferentes regiões biogeográficas, porém, não existem estudos para a região neotropical. Neste trabalho nós identificamos propágulos de invertebrados encontrados em fezes de 14 espécies sintópicas de aves aquáticas da América do Sul, representando seis famílias de aves, e também invertebrados emergidos de amostras fecais cultivadas em laboratório. Testamos se a abundância, riqueza de espécies e composição de propágulos de invertebrados variavam entre as espécies de aves e entre estações. Nós encontramos 164 propágulos de invertebrados em amostras fecais de sete espécies de aves, incluindo ovos de Temnocephalida e Notonectidae, estatoblastos de briozoários (Plumatella sp.) e efípios de Cladocera. Ciliados (incluindo Paramecium sp. e Litostomatea), nematóides e rotíferos (Adineta sp. e Nottomatidae) eclodiram de amostras cultivadas. O potencial para endozoocoria foi confirmado para 12 das 14 espécies de aves aquáticas investigadas. Nossos modelos estatísticos sugerem que a riqueza e abundância de propágulos estão associadas às espécies de aves e não são afetadas pela sazonalidade. A dispersão por endozoocoria é importante para uma ampla variedade de invertebrados, sendo promovida por aves aquáticas com diferentes características ecológicas e morfológicas as quais provavelmente regulam a dispersão de invertebrados entre áreas úmidas neotropicais.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Wetlands , Invertebrates , Seasons , Birds
2.
Braz. j. biol ; 84: e251566, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | MEDLINE, LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1355890

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Seybouse is the second largest river basin in Algeria, hosting an important biodiversity and providing various ecosystem services. This watershed is highly influenced by agricultural and industrial activities, which threaten its biodiversity and ecosystem integrity. The use of benthic macroinvertebrates as biological indicators has a long tradition in developed countries and integrated into all assessments of the ecological quality of river systems. However, the macroinvertebrates of many North African regions are still not well studied, including those of the Seybouse river. The aim of this study is to assess the inventory and ecological role of benthic macroinvertebrates in inland waters of the Seybouse River and determine the impact of pollution on their spatial distributions. We sampled the benthic macrofauna of Wadi Seybouse and its affluents using regular surveys in three sites, of which one was in the upper Seybouse Bouhamdane in Medjez Amar and two in the middle Seybouse. Between December 2019 and May 2020, 10 physico-chemical parameters (pH, EC, OD, water speed, NO3, Salinity, NO2, MES, turbidity, depth) were measured in order to establish a health state diagnosis of these aquatic ecosystems. The complementary biological approach by the analysis of populations of macroinvertebrates identified 7482 individuals and 40 taxa divided into five classes: Crustaceans which were the most dominant, insects with the main orders (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera and Odonata), Molluscs, Nematodes and Annelids. The physico-chemical analyzes and the application of the organic pollution indices indicated a strong to excessive pollution for all sites, especially in Seybouse upstream


Resumo O Seybouse é um rio no nordeste da Argélia, é o segundo maior rio, tem uma área de captação de cerca de 6.500 km2 que acolhe cerca de 1,5 milhões de habitantes. Importantes atividades agrícolas e industriais são desenvolvidas nesta bacia hidrográfica. O uso de macroinvertebrados bentônicos como indicadores biológicos tem uma longa tradição em países desenvolvidos e está integrado em todas as avaliações da qualidade ecológica dos sistemas fluviais. O objetivo deste estudo foi revisar o inventário e o papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas interiores do rio Seybouse e determinar o impacto da poluição em suas distribuições. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros países e rios argelinos. Este estudo enfoca a macrofauna bentônica de Wadi Seybouse e seus afluentes. Foram prospectados 03 locais, um no alto Seybousse Bouhamdane em Medjez Amar e dois no meio Seybousse Salah Salah Salah e Oued Zimba. Entre dezembro de 2019 e maio de 2020, dez parâmetros físico-químicos (pH, CE, DO, velocidade da água, NO3, Salinidade, NO2, MES, turbidez, deth) foram medidos para estabelecer um diagnóstico do estado de saúde desses ecossistemas aquáticos. A abordagem biológica complementar pela análise de populações de macroinvertebrados identificou 7.482 indivíduos e 40 táxons divididos em cinco classes: Crustáceos que são os mais dominantes, Insetos com as ordens principais (Ephemeroptera, Diptera, Trichoptera, Heteroptera e Odonata), Moluscos, Nematóides e Anelídeos. As análises físico-químicas e a aplicação dos índices de poluição orgânica, indicaram uma poluição forte a excessiva para todos os locais especialmente Salah Salah Salah.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ecosystem , Invertebrates , Environmental Monitoring , Biodiversity , Rivers
4.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e240484, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249278

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Cautín River is closely related with the economic development of Temuco city, (38°S; Chile). Existing knowledge of the Cautín River is limited to information about its biological characteristics as a reference for the evaluation and assessment of water quality. The object of this study was to develop taxonomic characterisation of the benthic macroinvertebrates along the main course of the Cautín River, and to study the community structure using correlation analysis between community parameters. To carry out this research, the macroinvertebrate community was studied in 10 sampling sites distributed along the main course of the river. The samples were taken in summer (1997 and 2000), when optimal hydrological conditions existed. Analysis of the samples showed that the benthic fauna was composed of 56 taxa, the dominant group being insects with 48 taxa. Three main sectors were recognised in the course of the Cautín River: high, middle and low. Each sector has restricted-distribution species, while other species are widely distributed along the river. These distribution patterns seem to be influenced by dissolved oxygen concentration, temperature, altitudinal distribution and anthropo-cultural activity, present at every sampling site. Finally, this research provides a first approach to the biology of the Cautín River. Further studies could be planned on the basis of this knowledge to investigate water quality indicators based on macroinvertebrate communities.


Resumo O rio Cautín está intimamente relacionado ao desenvolvimento econômico da cidade de Temuco (38°S; Chile). Quanto ao conhecimento total do rio Cautín, existem informações limitadas sobre as características biológicas que podem servir de referência para a avaliação da qualidade da água. Este estudo tem o objetivo de caracterizar os macroinvertebrados bentônicos taxonomicamente ao longo do curso principal do rio Cautín e estudar a estrutura da comunidade usando análise de correlação entre os parâmetros dela. Para realizar esta pesquisa, a comunidade de macroinvertebrados foi estudada em dez locais de estudo distribuídos ao longo do rio principal. As amostras foram coletadas no verão (1997 e 2000), em razão das condições hidrológicas ideais. A análise das amostras mostrou que a fauna bentônica é composta de 56 táxons, sendo o grupo dominante o de insetos com 48 táxons. Na distribuição do principal no curso do rio, três setores são reconhecidos: alto, médio e baixo no rio Cautín. Cada setor possui espécies de distribuição restrita e outro com ampla distribuição ao longo do rio. Esses padrões de distribuição parecem influenciar a concentração de oxigênio dissolvido, a temperatura, a distribuição altitudinal e a atividade antropocultural desenvolvida em todos os locais de amostragem. Finalmente, esta pesquisa fornece uma primeira abordagem biológica do rio Cautín e, de acordo com esses conhecimentos, um estudo posterior pode ser planejado em relação aos indicadores de qualidade da água e com base nas comunidades de macroinvertebrados.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rivers , Invertebrates , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Cities , Ecosystem
5.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e232805, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153457

ABSTRACT

Abstract One of the biological indicators most used to determine the health of a fluvial ecosystem are the benthic macroinvertebrates. The presence of recurrent species in a wide gradient of latitudes, dominates the biogeographic pattern of the benthic macroinvertebrates in Chilean fresh waters, nevertheless the knowledge on the communitarian ecology of these in the Chilean rivers continues to be scarce. Null models became a powerful statistical tool for describing the ecological mechanisms that drive the structure of an ecological community and the underlying patterns of diversity. The objective of this study was to determine the community structure of benthic invertebrates in the Allipén River by describing their composition, richness and abundance of species through richness models and null models based on presence/absence. The results reveal a high family richness and low diversity, three phyla, five classes, 11 orders and 28 families were identified in the study area during the four seasons of the year. The Arthropoda phylum was the most representative in abundance and richness. Regarding to richness, Trichoptera (7 families) and Diptera (6 families) followed by Ephemeroptera (3 families) were the orders that showed the greatest diversity of families, however, a low diversity with a H'≤ 1.5 nit was registered in the study area. We demonstrated through the null models, the randomization in the species associations corresponding to the three analyzed sites. The information provided here contributes to the understanding of the ecological patterns of the invertebrate communities in the Allipén River, establishing the basis for more complex ecological studies.


Resumo Um dos indicadores biológicos mais utilizados para determinar a saúde de um ecossistema fluvial são os macroinvertebrados bentônicos. A presença de espécies recorrentes em um amplo gradiente de latitudes domina o padrão biogeográfico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos nas águas doces do Chile; no entanto, o conhecimento sobre a ecologia comunitária destes nos rios chilenos continua escasso. Os modelos nulos se tornaram uma poderosa ferramenta estatística para descrever os mecanismos ecológicos que orientam a estrutura de uma comunidade ecológica e os padrões subjacentes da diversidade. O objetivo deste estudo foi determinar a estrutura da comunidade de invertebrados bentônicos no rio Allipén, descrevendo sua composição, riqueza e abundância de espécies através de modelos de riqueza e modelos nulos baseados na presença / ausência. Os resultados revelam alta riqueza de espécies e baixa diversidade, sendo identificados três filos, cinco classes, 11 ordens e 28 famílias na área de estudo durante as quatro estações do ano. O filo de Arthropoda foi o mais representativo em abundância e riqueza. Em relação à riqueza, Trichoptera (7) e Diptera (6) seguidos por Ephemeroptera (3) foram as ordens que mostraram a maior diversidade de famílias, no entanto, uma baixa diversidade com H'≤ 1,5 nit foi registrada na área de estudo. Demonstramos através dos modelos nulos, a randomização nas associações de espécies correspondentes aos três locais analisados. As informações aqui fornecidas contribuem para a compreensão dos padrões ecológicos das comunidades de invertebrados no rio Allipén, estabelecendo a base para estudos ecológicos mais complexos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Ecosystem , Rivers , Chile , Environmental Monitoring , Fresh Water , Invertebrates
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 81(3): 750-764, July-Sept. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1153377

ABSTRACT

Abstract Soft-bottom macrobenthic invertebrates are sensitive to natural or anthropogenic changes in aquatic ecosystems. The distribution patterns of sublittoral macrobenthic species in Guanabara Bay were studied from 2005 to 2007. Samples were collected at ten stations during six surveys throughout the rainfall regime (dry, early and late rainy). Ten replicates were collected at each station by Gravity corer or skin diving. Van Dorn bottles (bottom water) and by Ekman sediment sampler (granulometry) provided material for abiotic data. Stations were grouped into sectors (Entrance, Intermediary and Inner) based on abiotic data and location. The Redundancy Analysis (RDA) and Parsimonious RDA for all years and each annual cycle showed indicator taxa with high dominance in each sector. PERMANOVA indicated a regular seasonality between the surveys for the first annual cycle (p <0.05), and an atypical pattern for the second (p> 0.05), possibly due the low rainfall observed during this period. The mosaic of soft-bottom substrates infers structural variables, and patterns of temporal distribution were basically influenced by parameters those indicating pollution and the SACW (South Atlantic Central Water) intrusion, as well as ecological attributes among species, such as: predation, competition. The Ervilia concentrica and Cypridinidae could be used as indicators for anthropic and natural impacts in the Guanabara Bay for the Entrance sector, while Cyprideis salebrosa and Cyprideis sp. for the Intermediary sector and Heleobia australis for the Inner sector.


Resumo Os invertebrados macrobentônicos são sensíveis as alterações naturais e antrópicas nos ecossistemas aquáticos. O padrão de distribuição das espécies macrobentônicas do infralitoral da Baía de Guanabara foram estudados de 2005 até 2007. Amostras foram coletadas em dez estações durante seis campanhas em todo o regime pluviométrico (seco, pré e pós chuvoso). Dez réplicas foram coletadas em cada estação por meio do amostrador Gravity corer ou por mergulho livre. Os dados abióticos foram coletados por meio de garrafa oceanográfica do tipo van Dorn (água de fundo) e por busca fundo do tipo Ekman (granulometria). As estações foram agrupadas em setores (Entrada, Intermediária e Interna) baseada nos dados abióticos e localização. A Análise de Redundância (RDA) e RDA Parcimoniosa para todos os anos e em cada ano evidenciou taxa indicadores como elevada dominância em cada setor. A PERMANOVA indicou sazonalidade regular entre as campanhas para o primeiro ciclo anual (p<0.05), padrão atípico para o segundo ano (p> 0.05), possivelmente por causa da baixa pluviosidade observada durante esse período. O mosaico do substrato não consolidado infere que as variáveis estruturais, e os padrões de distribuição temporal foram basicamente influenciadas por parâmetros que indicam poluição e intrusão de ACAS (Água Central do Atlântico Sul), bem como atributos ecológicos entre espécies, tais como: predação, competição, entre outros. Ervilia concentrica e Cypridinidae podem ser utilizados como indicadores de alterações naturais e antrópicos no setor da Entrada da Baía de Guanabara, enquanto Cyprideis salebrosa e Cyprideis sp. para o setor Intermediário e Heleobia australis para o setor Interno.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Bays , Brazil , Environmental Monitoring , Geologic Sediments , Crustacea , Invertebrates
7.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(2): 362-367, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1132389

ABSTRACT

Abstract The rocky shores in Chile have a wide invertebrate species diversity, that include species with marked abundances in determined regions. The aim of the present study is to analyse the spatial distribution pattern in different marine invertebrate species in rocky shore of Araucania region, considering if these species have random, uniform or associated patterns, and extrapolate if these patterns have Poisson, binomial or negative binomial distribution respectively. The results revealed the presence mainly of gastropods molluscs that would graze on benthic algae, these species have mainly aggregated pattern that has a robust negative binomial distribution pattern. The obtained results agree with observations for marine benthic fauna that mentioned the presence of aggregated pattern, has negative binomial distribution. Other ecological topics about spatial distribution were discussed.


Resumo As costas rochosas no Chile têm uma ampla diversidade de espécies de invertebrados, que incluem espécies com abundância marcada em determinadas regiões. O objetivo do presente estudo é analisar o padrão de distribuição espacial em diferentes espécies de invertebrados marinhos na costa rochosa da região de Araucanía, considerando se essas espécies possuem padrões aleatórios, uniformes ou associados, e extrapolar se esses padrões possuem distribuição binomial de Poisson, binomial ou negativa. respectivamente. Os resultados revelaram a presença principalmente de moluscos gastrópodes que pastam em algas bentônicas, estas espécies têm principalmente agregado padrão que tem um padrão robusto de distribuição binomial negativa, padrão agregado de grupos, e a fauna de água doce que apresenta distribuição binomial negativa. Outros tópicos ecológicos sobre distribuição espacial foram discutidos.


Subject(s)
Animals , Gastropoda , Invertebrates , Chile , Ecosystem , Aquatic Organisms
8.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 215-228, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089301

ABSTRACT

Abstract The Cautin river is located in the 137 years old Araucania region, Chile (38°S), and is characterized by alterations through human interference due agriculture and towns in its surrounding basin, the presence of salmonids, and by its mixed regime, originated from snow melting in summer and rains in winter. The aim of the present study was to make a review of the inventory and ecological role of the benthic inland water macroinvertebrates of the River Cautin, in order to understand their importance in the ecosystem of the river. The fauna of this river includes a fauna composed of endemic and introduced fish, which has, however, been only poorly studied until now. The literature revealed the presence of abundant populations of Diptera, Trichoptera and Ephemeroptera larval stages, and few crustaceans specifically amphipods and freshwater crabs along the river's course. Many of these macroinvertebrates are prey for both introduced salmonids and native fishes. Similar results have been reported for other southern Argentinean and Chilean Patagonian rivers.


Resumo O rio Cautin está localizado na região de Araucania, no Chile (38°S), é caracterizado por alterações através da interferência humana devido à agricultura e as cidades da bacia circundante, a presença de salmonídeos e pelo seu regime misto, originado pela queda de neve verão e chuvas no inverno. O objetivo do presente estudo foi fazer uma revisão do papel ecológico dos macroinvertebrados bentônicos das águas interiores do rio Cautin, para entender sua importância no ecossistema do rio. A fauna deste rio inclui uma fauna composta de espécies de peixes endêmicos e introduzidos, que, no entanto, tem sido mal estudada até agora. A literatura revelou a presença de abundantes populações de estádios de larvas Diptera, Trichoptera e Ephemeroptera, e poucos crustáceos especificamente anfípodes e caranguejos de água doce ao longo do curso do rio. Muitos desses macroinvertebrados são presas tanto para salmonídeos introduzidos quanto para peixes nativos. Resultados semelhantes foram relatados para outros rios sul da Patagônia Chilena e Argentina.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ecosystem , Fishes , Invertebrates , Chile , Population Dynamics , Environmental Monitoring , Food Chain , Rivers
9.
Braz. j. biol ; 79(4): 722-734, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1001488

ABSTRACT

Abstract Small hydroelectric power plants (SHP) have been considered as an alternative for the generation of electricity with reduced environmental impacts. Nevertheless, no studies have addressed changes in a particular kind of river macrohabitat commonly affected by SHPs, the knickzones. This study aimed to assess the impact of a SHP construction on the aquatic macroinvertebrate fauna associated with two basaltic knickzones located in Sapucaí-Mirim River, Southeast Brazil. The first, considered as a functional knickzone, follows the natural dynamics of the river flow and preserves the original rock substrate. The second, considered as non-functional knickzone, was permanently flooded after the SHP construction and the consolidated rock substrate was changed by fine sediment. Sampling was carried out in two seasonal periods and the data were analysed through multivariate analysis. It was observed differences in composition and structure of the macroinvertebrates community between the knickzones and periods. The functional knickzone exhibited a much higher richness, 72 taxa compared to 44 in the non-functional, as well as a large number of exclusive taxa (38, being only nine exclusive to the non-functional). Diversity, equitability and density mean values were also higher in the functional knickzone. The limnological parameters varied significantly between dry and rainy seasons but not between the distinct knickzones. This kind of macrohabitats and its potential role for the rivers biodiversity is practically unknown. In the scenery of fast SHP expansion, further studies and protection measures are necessary.


Resumo Atualmente, a instalação de pequenas centrais hidrelétricas (PCHs) tem sido a alternativa mais visada quando a questão é suprir a demanda energética, considerando-se os menores impactos ambientais possíveis. Contudo, são escassos os trabalhos que avaliam as alterações causadas por esses empreendimentos, principalmente no que se diz respeito a um tipo de macro-habitat de rios, os pedrais. Assim, este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o impacto da construção de uma PCH na fauna de macroinvertebrados aquáticos associada a dois pedrais basálticos, localizados no rio Sapucaí-Mirim, no Sudeste do Brasil. O primeiro, considerado como um pedral funcional, segue a dinâmica natural do fluxo do rio e possui o substrato rochoso original. O segundo, considerado como pedral não funcional, foi permanentemente inundado após a construção da PCH e o substrato consolidado foi alterado por sedimentos finos. A amostragem foi realizada em dois períodos sazonais e os dados foram analisados através de análise multivariada. Foram observadas diferenças na composição e estrutura da comunidade de macroinvertebrados entre os pedrais e períodos. O pedral funcional apresentou uma riqueza muito maior, 72 táxons em comparação com 44 no não funcional, bem como um grande número de táxons exclusivos (38, sendo apenas nove exclusivos do não-funcional). Os valores médios da diversidade, equitabilidade e densidade também foram maiores no pedral funcional. Os parâmetros limnológicos variaram significativamente entre as estações seca e chuvosa, mas não entre os diferentes pedrais. Este tipo de macro-habitat e seu potencial papel para a biodiversidade dos rios são praticamente desconhecidos. Assim, mais estudos e medidas de proteção são necessários, principalmente diante do atual cenário de rápida expansão das PCHs.


Subject(s)
Animals , Power Plants , Biota/physiology , Rain , Seasons , Brazil/epidemiology , Limnology/methods , Environmental Monitoring/methods , Rivers , Floods , Ecological Parameter Monitoring/methods , Invertebrates/classification , Invertebrates/physiology
10.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-759905

ABSTRACT

The nineteenth century neuroscience studied the instinct of animal to understand the human mind. In particular, it has been found that the inheritance of unconscious behavior like instinct is mediated through ganglion chains, such as the spinal cord or sympathetic nervous system, which control unconscious reflexes. At the same time, the theory of Inheritance of Acquired Characteristics (hereafter ‘IAC’) widely known as Lamarck's evolutionary theory provided the theoretical frame on the origin of instinct and the heredity of action that the parental generation's habits were converted into the nature of the offspring generation. Contrary to conventional knowledge, this theory was not originally invented by Lamarck, and Darwin also did not discard this theory even after discovering the theory of natural selection in 1838 and maintained it throughout his intellectual life. Above all, in the field of epigenetics, the theory of ‘IAC’ has gained attention as a reliable scientific theory today. Darwin discovered crucial errors in the late 1830s that the Lamarck version's theory of ‘IAC’ did not adequately account for the principle of the inheritance of unconscious behavior like instinct. Lamarck's theory regarded habits as conscious and willful acts and saw that those habits are transmitted through the brain to control conscious actions. Lamarck's theory could not account for the complex and elaborate instincts of invertebrate animals, such as brainless ants. Contrary to Lamarck's view, Darwin established the new theory of ‘IAC’ that could be combined with contemporary neurological theory, which explains the heredity of unconscious behavior. Based on the knowledge of neurology, Darwin was able to translate the ‘principle of habit’ into a neurological term called ‘principle of reflex’. This article focuses on how Darwin join the theory of ‘IAC’ with nineteenth century neuroscience and how the neurological knowledge from the nineteenth century contributed to Darwin's overcoming of Lamarck's ‘IAC’. The significance of this study is to elucidate Darwin's notion of ‘IAC’ theory rather than natural selection theory as a principle of heredity of behavior. The theory of ‘IAC’ was able to account for the rapid variation of instincts in a relatively short period of time, unlike natural selection, which operates slowly in geological time spans of tens of millions of years. The nineteenth century neurological theory also provided neurological principles for ‘plasticity of instinct,’ empirically supporting the fact that all nervous systems responsible for reflexes respond sensitively to very fine stimuli. However, researchers of neo-Darwinian tendencies, such as Richard Dawkins and evolutionary psychologists advocating the ‘selfish gene’ hypothesis, which today claim to be Darwin's descendants, are characterized by human nature embedded in biological information, such as the brain and genes, so that it cannot change at all. This study aims to contribute to reconstructing the evolutionary discourse by illuminating Darwin's insights into the “plasticity of nature” that instincts can change relatively easily even at the level of invertebrates such as earthworms.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Brain , Epigenomics , Ganglion Cysts , Heredity , Human Characteristics , Humans , Instinct , Invertebrates , Nervous System , Neurology , Neurosciences , Oligochaeta , Parents , Psychology , Reflex , Selection, Genetic , Spinal Cord , Sympathetic Nervous System , Transcutaneous Electric Nerve Stimulation , Wills
11.
Braz. j. biol ; 78(3): 408-413, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-951580

ABSTRACT

Abstract Even though the Onychophora represent a whole phylum, observations of their activity pattern in nature are almost non-existent. Here we report on the relationship between humidity and light and activity pattern of a new species of velvet worm, genus Epiperipatus, from four years of field observations in the South Pacific of Costa Rica. We found that most activity occurs during the driest and darkest nights of the year, in contrast with theoretical predictions.


Resumo Onychophora constituem um filo de animais. Não obstante, as observações do comportamento sazonal das espécies de "peripatos" na natureza são praticamente inexistentes. Com base em quatro anos de observações em campo, nós demostramos a relação entre umidade e luz, e padrão de atividade diária de uma nova espécie no gênero Epiperipatus, do Pacífico Sul da Costa Rica. Descobrimos que a maioria das atividades ocorre durante as noites mais secas e mais escuras do ano, em total contraste com as previsões teóricas.


Subject(s)
Animals , Behavior, Animal/physiology , Humidity , Invertebrates/radiation effects , Invertebrates/physiology , Light , Species Specificity , Temperature , Population Dynamics , Climate , Ecosystem , Costa Rica , Biodiversity
12.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(3): 1244-1257, jul.-sep. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977381

ABSTRACT

Resumen En Colombia la actividad ganadera es de gran importancia para la economía rural y la oferta alimentaria del país. Con el fin de determinar el impacto de la ganadería y de los corredores ribereños sobre la comunidad de macroinvertebrados acuáticos en microcuencas Andinas, se seleccionaron nueve fuentes de agua de cabecera en el municipio de Villamaría (Caldas, Colombia), cinco de ellas con bosques ribereños y cuatro totalmente desprotegidas. En cada quebrada durante junio 2013 se recolectaron macroinvertebrados acuáticos usando una red D y una Surber, se tomaron muestras de agua, se midieron características del cauce y se determinó el índice de calidad de hábitat. En total se recolectaron 98 934 individuos distribuidos en nueve clases, 17 órdenes, 56 familias y 92 géneros. Veneroida fue el orden que presentó mayor abundancia seguido de Trichoptera, Diptera, Tubificida y Ephemeroptera. Coleoptera fue el orden que presentó mayor riqueza de géneros con 28, seguido de Diptera con 18, Trichoptera con 11, Ephemeroptera con 10 y Odonata con ocho. Las quebradas con corredor ribereño fueron significativamente más profundas, tuvieron mayor proporción de grava e Índice de Calidad de Hábitat y presentaron mayor riqueza de géneros que las quebradas desprotegidas (P < 0.05). Los géneros Acrobis, Ferrisia, Eurygerris, Heleobia y Pisidium, el nitrógeno total, el nitrógeno amoniacal y la proporción de limo, estuvieron correlacionados con las quebradas sin bosques ribereños, mientras que el género Rhagovelia, la subfamilia Chironominae, el índice de calidad de hábitat y la proporción de grava y piedras se correlacionaron con arroyos que tienen bosques ribereños. Los resultados de este estudio confirman que la presencia de bosques en zonas de ribera ayuda a amortiguar el impacto negativo que generan las prácticas ganaderas sobre las microcuencas y mejoran los servicios ambientales que estas prestan, por lo que se recomienda mantener la franja de vegetación ribereña en arroyos que la poseen y permitir el establecimiento de esta en arroyos desprovistos de bosque en sus las laderas.


Abstract In Colombia, livestock activity is of great importance for the rural economy and the country's food supply. In order to measure the impact of cattle raising and riparian corridors on the composition and diversity of benthic macroinvertebrates in Andean microbasins, nine headwater streams were selected in the municipality of Villamaría (Caldas, Colombia), five of them with riparian corridors and four without protection. During July 2013, macroinvertebrate samples were collected using D-net and Surber nets, and each streams was characterized according to water quality, channel metrics and habitat quality score. In total 98 934 individuals were collected, distributed in nine classes, 17 orders, 56 families and 92 genera. Veneroidea was the most abundant order followed by Trichoptera, Diptera, Tubificida and Ephemeroptera. Coleoptera was the richest order with 28 genera, followed by Diptera with 18, Trichoptera with 11, Ephemeroptera with 10 and Odonata with 8. Streams with riparian corridors were deeper, had higher proportion of coarse substrates and Habitat Quality Score and presented higher genus diversity than those unprotected (P < 0.05). The genera Ferrisia, Eurygerris, Heleobia and Pisidium; total nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen and silt proportion on the streambed were correlated with unprotected streams, whilst the genus Rhagovelia, the subfamily Chironominae, the Habitat Quality Score and the proportion of coarse substrates were correlated with streams with riparian corridors. This information confirms that riparian corridors help reducing the negative impact generated by cattle ranching practices and improve the provision of environmental services, and therefore it is recommended to maintain or restore the strip of riparian vegetation to protect the streams in cattle ranching landscapes. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(3): 1244-1257. Epub 2018 September 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Tropical Ecosystem , Aquatic Organisms , Invertebrates , Animal Husbandry/methods , Interbasin Transfer , Colombia
13.
Univ. sci ; 23(2): 291-317, May-Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-979549

ABSTRACT

Abstract Black flies are abundant benthic organisms in well-oxygenated running water and are considered effective bioindicators of water quality. Information on the ecology of these organisms at the species level is important, since up to now information has mainly been available on a family level. The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition of black flies and their relationships to a group of physical and chemical factors in four small rivers of the Eastern Hills around Bogotá, Colombia. These headwaters are protected by the Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá. Black fly larvae and pupae were collected during four sampling periods during the dry season to the early rainy season of 2012. Multivariate methods were used to determine the presence of each species in relation to dissolved oxygen, nitrates, pH, temperature, and water velocity. PCA ordination revealed a physicochemical environment with a tendency towards a certain homogeneity in the four rivers studied. The DCA ordination confirmed that in La Vieja River the G. ortizi complex dominated while S. muiscorum was dominant in the other three rivers. Similarly, according to the NMDS, the composition of black flies in Arzobispo and Chorro de Padilla rivers was similar, while that of El Delirio and La Vieja rivers were different, especially in this last river. The rivers had low species richness (four species and one species complex). Simulium muiscorum was negatively correlated with dissolved oxygen, temperature and current velocity while S. ignescens was associated with slightly more oxygenated waters and S. furcilatum with faster currents. The low species diversity and richness for the four rivers is consistent with previous reports of low Neotropical diversity of black flies. Results showed that simuliid species could possibly be good indicators of the environmental conditions of Eastern Hills rivers around Bogotá.


Resumen Las moscas negras son organismos bénticos abundantes en corrientes de agua bien oxigenadas y se consideran bioindicadores efectivos de la calidad de agua. La información sobre la ecología de estos organismos a nivel de especie es importante, ya que hasta el momento, ha estado disponible principalmente solo a nivel de familia. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la composición de moscas negras y sus relaciones con un grupo de factores físicos y químicos en cuatro ríos pequeños de los Cerros Orientales alrededor de Bogotá, Colombia. Estos nacimientos están protegidos por la Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá, Colombia. Se colectaron larvas y pupas de moscas negras a lo largo de cuatro períodos de muestreo, desde la estación seca hasta la estación lluviosa de 2012. Se utilizaron métodos multivariados para determinar la presencia de cada especie en relación con: oxígeno disuelto, nitratos, pH, temperatura y velocidad del agua. La ordenación por PCA reveló un ambiente fisicoquímico con tendencia hacia la homogeneidad en los cuatro ríos estudiados. La ordenación por DCA confirmó que en el río La Vieja dominó el complejo G. orti%i, mientras que S. muiscorum fue dominante en los otros tres. De igual forma de acuerdo con el análisis NMDS, la composición de moscas negras en los ríos Arzobispo y Chorro de Padilla fue similar, mientras que en los ríos El Delirio y La Vieja fue diferente, especialmente en este último. Los ríos presentaron baja riqueza de especies (cuatro especies y un complejo de especies). Simulium muiscorum se correlacionó negativamente con el oxígeno disuelto, temperatura y velocidad de la corriente, mientras que S. ignescens estuvo asociado con aguas ligeramente más oxigendas y S. furcilatum, con corrientes más rápidas. La baja diversidad y riqueza para los cuatro ríos es consistente con reportes previos de baja diversidad neotropical de moscas negras. Los resultados muestran que las especies de simúlidos podrían ser buenos indicadores de las condiciones ambientales de los ríos de los Cerros Orientales de Bogotá.


Resumo As moscas negras são organismos bentônicos abundantes em correntes de água bem oxigenadas e se consideram bioindicadores efetivos da calidade de água. A informação sobre a ecologia de estes organismos quanto a espécie é importante, pois até o momento, há informação somente em nível de família. O objetivo de este estudo foi avaliar a composição de moscas negras e suas relações com um grupo de fatores físicos e químicos em quatro rios pequenos dos Cerros Orientais nas redondezas de Bogotá, Colômbia. As nascentes estão protegidas pela Empresa de Acueducto y Alcantarillado de Bogotá, Colômbia. Foram coletadas larvas e poupas de moscas negras ao longo de quatro períodos de amostragem, desde a estação seca até a estação chuvosa de 2012. Foram utilizados métodos multivariados para determinar a presença de cada espécie em relação com: oxigênio dissolvido, nitratos, pH, temperatura e velocidade da água. A ordenação por PCA revelou um ambiente físico-químico com tendência à homogeneidade nos quatro rios estudados. A ordenação por DCS confirmou que no rio La Vieja dominou o complexo G. orti%i, enquanto que S. muiscorum foi dominante nos outros três rios. Igualmente, de acordo com a análise NMDS, a composição de moscas negras nos rios Arzobispo e Chorro de Padilla foi similar, enquanto que nos rios El delírio e La Vieja foi diferente, em especial neste último. Os rios apresentaram baixa riqueza de espécies (quatro espécies e um complexo de espécies). S. muiscorum se correlacionou negativamente com o oxigênio dissolvido, temperatura e velocidades da corrente, enquanto que S. ignescens foi associado com águas ligeiramente mais oxigenadas e S. furcilatum, com correntes mais rápidas. A baixa diversidade e riqueza para os quatro rios é consistente com reportes prévios de baixa diversidade neotropical de moscas negras. Os resultados mostram que espécies de Simulium poderiam ser boas indicadoras das condições ambientais dos rios dos Cerros Orientais de Bogotá.


Subject(s)
Water Quality , Simuliidae , Environmental Biomarkers , Invertebrates
14.
Rev. biol. trop ; 66(2): 776-787, abr.-jun. 2018. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-977344

ABSTRACT

Resumen Holothuria grisea, a pesar de no ser considerado un recurso comercial, ha sido objeto de extracciones ilegales en Colombia, hecho que se vuelve más grave debido al vació de información biológica de estos organismos. Por esta razón, se estimó la densidad poblacional y estructura de talla de H. grisea en tres sectores del sur del golfo de Morrosquillo de abril a noviembre 2015. Para ello, se ubicaron mensualmente tres transectos circulares en cada sector de muestreo abarcando un área de 300 m2, donde se contabilizaron y midieron in situ los individuos encontrados. La densidad media de H. grisea en el área estudiada fue 0.4 ind m-2, presentándose los mayores valores en el sector La Ahumadera (1.09 ± 0.11 ind m-2) y los menores valores en el Banco de Arena (0.02 ± 0.004 ind m-2). El análisis de varianza señalo una diferencia significativa en los valores de densidad y talla de H. grisea en los sectores estudiados. La especie presentó una distribución de tallas unimodal, registrándose una talla promedio de 13.5 ± 0.91 cm con una talla mínima de 2.5 y una máxima de 30 cm, en general las tallas intermedias presentaron una mayor representatividad a lo largo de este estudio (77.2 %). Los aspectos biológicos presentados en este documento son de gran importancia para la conservación de esta especie y corresponde a un avance en el conocimiento de la clase Holothuroidea en el Caribe Colombiano.


Abstract Holothuria grisea, despite not being considered a commercial resource has been the subject of illegal extractions in Colombia, a fact that becomes more serious due to the empty of biological information of these organisms. For this reason the density population and size structure of H. grisea were evaluated in three sectors south of the gulf of Morrosquillo from April to November 2015. To this end, three circular transects were located each month in each sampling site covering an area of 300 m2, where individuals were counted and measured in situ. The average density of H. grisea in the study area was 0.4 ind m-2, with the highest values in the La Ahumadera (1.09 ± 0.11 ind m-2) and the lowest values in Banco de Arena (0.02 ± 0.004 ind m-2). The analysis of variance showed a significance in the values of density and size of H. grisea in the studied sectors. The species presented a unimodal distribution of sizes with an average size of 13.5 ± 0.9 cm with a minimum size of 2.5 and a maximum of 30 cm, intermediate sizes generally showed a higher representativeness throughout this study (77.2 %). The biological aspects presented in this paper are of great importance for the conservation of this species and corresponds to an advance in the knowledge of the Holothuroidea class in the Colombian Caribbean. Rev. Biol. Trop. 66(2): 776-787. Epub 2018 June 01.


Subject(s)
Animals , Sea Cucumbers/growth & development , Marine Fauna/analysis , Population Density , Invertebrates , Colombia , Holothuria/anatomy & histology
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758804

ABSTRACT

MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have important roles in all biological pathways in multicellular organisms. Over 1,400 human miRNAs have been identified, and many are conserved among vertebrates and invertebrates. Regulation of miRNA is the most common mode of post-transcriptional gene regulation. The miRNAs that are involved in the initiation and progression of cancers are termed oncomiRs and several of them have been identified in canine and human cancers. Similarly, several miRNAs have been reported to be down-regulated in cancers of the two species. In this review, current information on the expression and roles of miRNAs in oncogenesis and progression of human and canine cancers, as well the roles miRNAs have in cancer stem cell biology, are highlighted. The potential for the use of miRNAs as therapeutic targets in personalized cancer therapy in domestic dogs and their possible application in human cancer counterparts are also discussed.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biology , Carcinogenesis , Dogs , Gene Expression , Humans , Invertebrates , MicroRNAs , Neoplastic Stem Cells , Stem Cells , Vertebrates
16.
Experimental Neurobiology ; : 257-266, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716241

ABSTRACT

Cephalopods have the most advanced nervous systems and intelligent behavior among all invertebrates. Their brains provide comparative insights for understanding the molecular and functional origins of the human brain. Although brain maps that contain information on the organization of each subregion are necessary for a study on the brain, no whole brain atlas for adult cephalopods has been constructed to date. Here, we obtained sagittal and coronal sections covering the entire brain of adult Octopus minor (Sasaki), which belongs to the genus with the most species in the class Cephalopoda and is commercially available in East Asia throughout the year. Sections were stained using Hematoxylin and Eosin (H&E) to visualize the cellular nuclei and subregions. H&E images of the serial sections were obtained at 30~70-µm intervals for the sagittal plain and at 40~80-µm intervals for the coronal plain. Setting the midline point of the posterior end as the fiducial point, we also established the distance coordinates of each image. We found that the brain had the typical brain structure of the Octopodiformes. A number of subregions were discriminated by a Hematoxylin-positive layer, the thickness and neuronal distribution pattern of which varied markedly depending upon the region. We identified more than 70 sub-regions based on delineations of representative H&E images. This is the first brain atlas, not only for an Octopodiformes species but also among adult cephalopods, and we anticipate that this atlas will provide a valuable resource for comparative neuroscience research.


Subject(s)
Adult , Arm , Brain , Cephalopoda , Eosine Yellowish-(YS) , Far East , Hematoxylin , Histology, Comparative , Humans , Invertebrates , Nervous System , Neurons , Neurosciences , Octopodiformes
17.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(3): 1615-1628, July-Sept. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886750

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The food base in the subterranean environment consists mainly of allochthonous materials. In this environment the resources are distributed generally in a heterogeneous dispersed way and the distribution of resources and their availability determine where the terrestrial invertebrates will reside, which is important for understanding ecological relationships and to establish conservation strategies. Thus, we tested how the complexity of substrates influences the richness and composition of the subterranean terrestrial invertebrates in the Presidente Olegário karst area, southeastern Brazil. We carried out collections in six caves during both dry and wet seasons, using combined collection methods. We observed different distributions in relation to the substrate, because the environmental heterogeneity increases the amount of available niches for the fauna. Some taxa showed a preference for specific substrates, probably related to the availability of food resources and humidity and to body size restriction, emphasizing the niche differentiation between species. Anthropogenic impacts can cause irreversible alterations in the subterranean fauna because the subterranean environment is dependent on the surface for input of trophic resources. On-going impacts in the Presidente Olegario karst area, like agriculture, pastures, gas extraction, and hydroelectric projects, are therefore a serious threat to subterranean biodiversity and this region should be prioritized for conservation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Biodiversity , Caves , Invertebrates/classification , Seasons , Brazil , Population Density , Animal Distribution
18.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 39(1): 79-85, jan.-mar. 2017. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-846668

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the epibiosis of Ostrea cf. puelchana on Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, 1856), both collected from the estuary of the Paraíba River, in the state of Paraíba, northeastern Brazil. The basibiont crab was captured using a trap installed in mangrove area at a depth of about 2 meters. The oyster was closely attached to the left side of dorsal carapace covering most of the epibranchial, mesobranchial and metabranchial regions. Possible advantages and disadvantages for both the epibiont and the basibiont are discussed. We believe that young O. cf. puelchana may avoid a variety of potential predators due to the considerable movement capacity of C. exasperatus and may also serve as a small protective shield for the basibiont. However, the oyster, which is a bivalve with an epifaunal lifestyle, is likely to be negatively affected, mainly due to burrowing activity of the crab. This is the first record of epibiosis between bivalves of the genus Ostrea Linnaeus, 1758 and crabs of the genus Callinectes Stimpson, 1860.


O presente estudo descreve a epibiose de Ostrea cf. puelchana sobre Callinectes exasperatus (Gerstaecker, 1856), ambos coletados no estuário do Rio Paraíba, no estado da Paraíba, nordeste do Brasil. O caranguejo basibionte foi capturado usando uma armadilha instalada em área de mangue em cerca de 2 metros de profundidade. A ostra estava fixada sobre o lado esquerdo da carapaça dorsal cobrindo grande parte das regiões epibranquial, mesobranquial e metabranquial. Possíveis vantagens e desvantagens para ambos epibionte e basibionte são discutidas. O espécime jovem de O. cf. puelchana pode evitar uma variedade de predadores potenciais devido à considerável capacidade de deslocamento de C. exasperatus, ao mesmo tempo, essa espécie pode atuar como um escudo protetor para o basibionte. Entretanto, o ostreídeo possui um estilo de vida epifaunal, podendo ser afetado de forma negativa, principalmente devido à atividade de escavação do caranguejo. Este é o primeiro registro de epibiose entre bivalves do gênero Ostrea Linnaeus, 1758 e caranguejos do gênero Callinectes Stimpson, 1860.


Subject(s)
Bivalvia , Brachyura , Invertebrates , Marine Environment , Mollusca , Wetlands
19.
An. acad. bras. ciênc ; 89(1): 355-369, Jan,-Mar. 2017. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886634

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to verify the richness and density of aquatic benthic macroinvertebrates after exposure to fungicides and insecticides of the rice paddy fields. In the crop seasons of 2012/13 and 2013/14, field experiments were performed, which consisted of single-dose applications of the fungicides trifloxystrobin + tebuconazole and tricyclazole, and the insecticides lambda-cyhalothrin + thiamethoxam and diflubenzuron, in 10 m2 experimental plots, over rice plants in the R3 stage. Control plots with and without rice plants were maintained in order to simulate a natural environment. Soil samples were collected during rice cultivation for assessment of the macroinvertebrate fauna. Chemical-physical parameters assessed in the experiments included temperature, pH and oxygen dissolved in the water and pesticide persistence in the water and in the soil. The application of a single dose of the pesticides and fungicides in the recommended period does not cause significant negative effects over the richness and density of the macroinvertebrates. Tebuconazole, tricyclazole and thiamethoxam showed high persistence in the irrigation water of rice paddy fields. Thus, the doses and number of applications of these products in crops should be carefully handled in order to avoid contamination of the environment.


Subject(s)
Animals , Oryza , Crops, Agricultural , Wetlands , Fungicides, Industrial/toxicity , Insecticides/toxicity , Invertebrates/drug effects , Reference Values , Soil/chemistry , Time Factors , Water Quality , Water/chemistry , Environmental Monitoring , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Invertebrates/growth & development
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-180606

ABSTRACT

Chigger mites are parasites of rodents and other vertebrates, invertebrates, and other arthropods, and are the only vectors of scrub typhus, in addition to other zoonoses. Therefore, investigating their distribution, diversity, and seasonal abundance is important for public health. Rodent surveillance was conducted at 6 districts in Shandong Province, northern China (114–112°E, 34–38°N), from January to December 2011. Overall, 225/286 (78.7%) rodents captured were infested with chigger mites. A total of 451 chigger mites were identified as belonging to 5 most commonly collected species and 3 genera in 1 family. Leptotrombidium scutellare and Leptotrombidium intermedia were the most commonly collected chigger mites. L. scutellare (66.2%, 36.7%, and 49.0%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Apodemus agrarius, Rattus norvegicus, and Microtus fortis, respectively, whereas L. intermedia (61.5% and 63.2%) was the most frequently collected chigger mite from Cricetulus triton and Mus musculus, respectively. This study demonstrated a relatively high prevalence of chigger mites that varied seasonally in Shandong Province, China.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arthropods , Arvicolinae , China , Cricetinae , Cricetulus , Humans , Invertebrates , Mice , Mites , Murinae , Neptune , Parasites , Prevalence , Public Health , Rats , Rodentia , Scrub Typhus , Seasons , Trombiculidae , Vertebrates , Zoonoses
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