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1.
SOBECC ; 26(3): 147-155, 30-09-2021.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1342355

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Avaliar o impacto de campos adesivos impregnados com iodo (CAII) na prevenção de infecção de sítio cirúrgico (ISC) de coluna vertebral. Método: Coorte retrospectiva que comparou desfecho de ISC em pacientes que utilizaram CAII com os que não usaram, de 2015 a 2019. Resultados: A frequência geral de ISC foi de 16,7%, com a taxa de ISC para os que utilizaram CAII de 40% e, entre os que não usaram, de 60%; p = 0,728; intervalo de confiança de 95% (IC95%) 0,19­3,11. A normotermia foi o único fator protetor independente para ISC (p = 0,043). O tratamento de complicações infecciosas acarretou o incremento de custo hospitalar de 83,6% a cada dia de atendimento. Os pacientes que utilizaram CAII tiveram 10 (± 4,9) dias a menos de permanência hospitalar. Conclusões: Os resultados sugerem que o uso de CAII não foi associado a menor risco de ISC. Esses dados podem ser úteis para o planejamento cirúrgico e a segurança do paciente.


Objective: To evaluate the impact of iodine-impregnated incision drapes (IIIDs) to prevent surgical site infection (SSI) in the spine. Method: Retrospective cohort study comparing SSI outcome in patients in which IIIDs were and were not used, from 2015 to 2019. Results: The overall frequency of SSI was 16.7%, with SSI rate among patients using and not using IIIDs of 40% and 60%, respectively; p = 0.728; 95% confidence interval (95%CI) 0.19­3.11. Normothermia was the only independent protective factor for SSI (p = 0.043). The treatment of infectious complications resulted in hospital costs increase of 83.6% each day of care. Patients who were treated with IIIDs stayed 10 days less (± 4.9) in hospital. Conclusions: The results suggest that the use of IIIDs was not associated with a lower risk of SSI. These data can be useful for surgical planning and patient safety.


Objetivo: Evaluar el impacto de las paños quirúrgicos adhesivos impregnados de yodo (IIIDS) en la prevención de la infección del sitio quirúrgico (ISQ) de la columna. Método: Cohorte retrospectiva que comparó el resultado de ISQ en pacientes que usaron IIIDS con los que no lo hicieron, de 2015 a 2019. Resultados: La frecuencia general de ISQ fue del 16.7%, con una tasa de ISQ para los que usaron IIIDS del 40% y, entre los que no lo usaron, 60%; p = 0,728; Intervalo de confianza del 95% (IC 95%) 0,19­3,11. La normotermia fue el único factor protector independiente para la ISQ (p = 0,043). El tratamiento de las complicaciones infecciosas supuso un aumento de los costes hospitalarios del 83,6% por día de atención. Los pacientes que utilizaron IIIDS tuvieron 10 (± 4,9) días menos de estancia hospitalaria. Conclusiones: Los resultados sugieren que el uso de IIIDS no se asoció con un menor riesgo de ISQ. Estos datos pueden ser útiles para la planificación quirúrgica y la seguridad del paciente.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spine , Surgical Wound Infection , Surgicenters , Products with Antimicrobial Action , Iodine
2.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 33-37, jun. 2021.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284253

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCCIÓN: el tiroides exhibe una gran avidez por el yodo radioactivo (I131) que al ser fijado por ésta glándula puede determinarse, desde afuera, aprovechando el hecho de que las radiaciones gamma atraviesan los tejidos blandos del cuello y pueden registrarse (Gammagrafía) a distancias apreciables. Desde 1962 Bolivia cuenta con esta tecnología, sin embargo, no cuenta con trabajos similares desde la declaración de país libre de enfermedades secundarias a la deficiencia de Yodo en 1997. El objetivo fue determinar valores de la captación tiroidea de I131 a las 24 horas en adultos jóvenes eutiroideos, residentes de gran altitud. MÉTODO: se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal, en 76 sujetos obtenidos por intención y seleccionados mediante una entrevista clínica, examen físico dirigido y un consentimiento informado. El procedimiento fue ejecutado por personal calificado en el INAMEN siguiendo las recomendaciones de la OIEA. RESULTADOS: el valor de la captación tiroidea de I131 en 24 horas fue de 18,23 + 5,79% (rango 7,70 ­ 39,70). DISCUSIÓN: los expertos recomiendan establecer valores de referencia actualizados en cada región. Se han descrito variaciones de los valores normales influenciados por el sexo y edad; esta última, aparentemente por una hipofunción tiroidea inversamente proporcional con la edad. CONCLUSIÓN: el valor referencial encontrado en nuestro estudio es concordante con los establecidos en el extranjero, sin embargo, con una tendencia incrementada. Podría deberse a la secuencia cronológica de los estudios comparados en países que ya habían establecido políticas de yodación más tempranamente.


INTRODUCTION: the thyroid exhibits a great avidity for radioactive iodine (I131) which, when fixed by this gland, can be determined from the outside, taking advantage of the fact that gamma radiation passes through the soft tissues of the neck and can be registered (scintigraphy) at appreciable distances. Since 1962, Bolivia has had this technology, however, it does not have similar studies since the declaration of a country free of diseases secondary to iodine deficiency in 1997. The objective was to determine values of the thyroid uptake of I131 at 24 hours in euthyroid young adults, high altitude residents. METHOD: a descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out in 76 subjects obtained by intention and selected by means of a clinical interview, directed physical examination and informed consent. The procedure was carried out by qualified personnel at INAMEN, following IAEA recommendations. RESULTS: the value of the thyroid uptake of I131 in 24 hours was 18.23 + 5.79% (range 7.70 - 39.70). DISCUSSION: experts recommend establishing up-to-date reference values in each region. Variations in normal values influenced by sex and age have been described; the latter, apparently due to a thyroid hypofunction inversely proportional to age. CONCLUSION: the reference value found in our study is consistent with those established abroad, however, with an increased trend. It could be due to the chronological sequence of comparative studies in countries that had already established iodination policies earlier.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iodine , Thyroid Gland , Gamma Rays , Informed Consent
3.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 119(1): S1-S7, feb. 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1147352

ABSTRACT

El hipertiroidismo es el cuadro clínico resultante del exceso de hormonas tiroideas debido a hiperfunción glandular. Es una enfermedad rara en niños y adolescentes, pero con una alta morbilidad. La causa más frecuente es la enfermedad de Graves. El objetivo de esta publicación es realizar una revisión y actualización del hipertiroidismo infantojuvenil para guiar su detección y derivación temprana al endocrinólogo pediatra. Debe ser considerado cuando el niño o adolescente presente síntomas asociados a esta patología y bocio de grado variable. Se confirma con el perfil bioquímico característico.El tratamiento consiste, inicialmente, en bloquear los efectos del exceso de hormonas tiroideas con betabloqueantes y, además, disminuir su producción con drogas antitiroideas como primera elección. Ante efectos secundarios a su administración, recidivas o ausencia de remisión de la enfermedad, se optará por el tratamiento definitivo: yodo radioactivo o cirugía con el objetivo de lograr el hipotiroidismo o eutiroidismo


Hyperthyroidism is a serious and rare disorder in childhood characterized by the overproduction of thyroid hormones by the thyroid gland. Graves disease is the most common cause. The objective of this paper is to review and update hyperthyroidism in children and adolescents aiming to guide its early detection and referral to the pediatric endocrinologist. The disease should be suspected if typical symptoms and goiter are present and has to be confirmed with the characteristic biochemical profile. Initially, treatment to block the effect of the thyroid excess is needed. Antithyroid drugs are the recommended first-line treatment to diminish hormone production. Alternative treatments, such us radioactive iodine or thyroidectomy, are considered in cases of adverse effects to drugs, relapse or non-remission of the disease, in order to achieve hypothyroidism or euthyroidism.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Hyperthyroidism/diagnosis , Hyperthyroidism/drug therapy , Antithyroid Agents/therapeutic use , Graves Disease , Hyperthyroidism/etiology , Hyperthyroidism/therapy , Iodine/therapeutic use
4.
Bol. méd. postgrado ; 37(1): 44-49, Ene-Jun 2021. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1147879

ABSTRACT

Con el objetivo de describir las recidivas de carcinoma papilar de tiroides (CPT) en pacientes tiroidectomizados atendidos en el Servicio Autónomo Oncológico del estado Lara, se realizó un estudio descriptivo transversal de recolección retrospectiva de datos de 140 historias clínicas de pacientes con diagnóstico de CPT registrados durante el lapso 2006-2017. Los pacientes incluidos se caracterizaron por un promedio de edad de 46,67 ± 13,94 años, siendo los más afectados los grupos de 41-50 años y 51-60 años; se observó un predominio del sexo femenino (86,33%). La intervención quirúrgica más realizada en estos pacientes fue la tiroidectomía total (44,29%) y tiroidectomía total con vaciamiento ganglionar (41,43%); 35,71% de los pacientes recibieron Iodo-131 como tratamiento adyuvante. El porcentaje de recidivas fue de 4,29%, siendo las recidivas más frecuentes la local y regional (33,33%, respectivamente); 66,67% de los casos de recidiva aparecieron en los primeros 5 años. De los pacientes con recidivas, 50% se les practicó tiroidectomía total y recibieron Iodo-131. Con estos resultados se aporta información epidemiológica actual sobre el CPT en nuestro centro con el fin de contribuir en la preparación de los servicios de cirugía y oncología para la atención de este grupo de pacientes(AU)


With the aim of describing the recurrences of papillary thyroid carcinoma in thyroidectomized patients treated at the Autonomous Oncology Service of Lara State, a cross-sectional descriptive retrospective study was conducted examining 140 medical records of patients with a diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma registered during the period 2006-2017. Patients had an average age of 46.67 ± 13.94 years, being the most affected the 41-50 years and 51-60 years groups (26.43%, respectively); a predominance of females was observed (86.33%). The most performed surgical intervention was total thyroidectomy (44.29%) and total thyroidectomy with lymph node dissection (41.43%). Likewise, 35.71% received Iodine-131 as adjuvant treatment. The percentage of recurrences was 4.29%, being the most frequent local and regional with a prevalence of 33.33%, respectively; in addition, 66.67% of recurrences appeared during the first 5 years; 50% of these patients underwent total thyroidectomy and received Iodine-131. With these results, current information is provided in order to contribute to the preparation of surgical and oncological services for the care of cases of papillary thyroid carcinoma. It is important to maintain oncological follow-up in order to evaluate the evolution and prognosis of the different types of recurrences according to the place of appearance(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Thyroidectomy , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/pathology , Iodine/therapeutic use , Medical Oncology , Neoplasm Recurrence, Local
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878699

ABSTRACT

Objective To investigate the intra-and inter-observer reproducibility of iodine concentrations of abdominal parenchymal organs based on spectral CT.Methods The water-free iodine images of the venous phase were retrospectively obtained from 50 patients with abdominal dynamic spectral CT scans.The iodine concentrations were measured in the left,right and caudate lobes of liver,spleen,pancreas and bilateral kidneys.Intraclass correlation coefficient(ICC)and Bland-Altman plot were employed to analyze the intra-and inter-observer reproducibility.Results The intra-observer ICCs of the left,right and caudate lobes of liver,spleen,pancreas,and left and right kidneys were 0.938(0.894,0.965),0.932(0.884,0.961),0.939(0.895,0.965),0.947(0.909,0.970),0.912(0.851,0.949),0.946(0.906,0.969)and 0.907(0.842,0.946),which indicated good intra-observer reproducibility.The inter-observer ICCs of the left,right and caudate lobes of liver,spleen,pancreas,and left and right kidneys were 0.947(0.909,0.970),0.927(0.875,0.958),0.943(0.902,0.968),0.956(0.924,0.975),0.934(0.887,0.962),0.927(0.875,0.958)and 0.892(0.818,0.937),which indicated good inter-observer reproducibility.Bland-Altman plots presented that more than 95% points of the intra-observer differences located within 95% CI of limits of agreement for the caudate lobe of liver,spleen,pancreas and bilateral kidneys,which was same as inter-observer differences of the caudate lobe of liver,spleen and right kidney.Conclusion The iodine concentration measurement based on the spectral CT presented good intra-and inter-observer reproducibility for the caudate lobe of liver and spleen.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodine , Observer Variation , Reproducibility of Results , Retrospective Studies , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
6.
Rev. Inst. Adolfo Lutz ; 79(Único): 1-4, 31 mar. 2020. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, ColecionaSUS, SES-SP, CONASS, SESSP-ACVSES, SESSP-IALPROD, SES-SP, SESSP-IALACERVO | ID: biblio-1342958

ABSTRACT

Foi realizada reavaliação sobre o estado de preservação de ovos de helmintos e cistos de protozoários mantidos por cerca de 40 anos em solução de iodo­mercurato de potássio a 0,2%. Foi observado que ovos de Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostomidae e Trichuris trichiura e oocistos de Isospora belli mantiveram­se em condições adequadas para a sua identificação ao microscópio ótico comum. No material examinado, foi possível verificar a presença de miracídio em ovo de Schistosoma mansoni, forma larvada em ovo de T. trichiura e esporozoitos em oocistos de I. belli. (AU)


A reassessment was carried out on the preservation status of helminth eggs and protozoan cysts maintained for about 40 years in 0.2% potassium iodine­mercurate solution. It was observed that Schistosoma mansoni, Ancylostomidae and Trichiuris trichiura eggs and Isospora belli oocysts were kept in conditions suitable for their identification under a common light microscope. In the examined material, it was possible to verify the presence of miracidium in S. mansoni egg, larvae in T. trichiuraegg and sporozoites in I. belli oocysts. (AU)


Subject(s)
Mercury Compounds , Storage of Substances, Products and Materials , Oocysts , Helminths , Iodine , Potassium
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816634

ABSTRACT

In 2017, the first Korean nationwide data on serum thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels, serum free thyroxine (fT4) levels, and urinary iodine concentration (UIC) were published based on a population of 7,061 Koreans who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey VI. The mean TSH level was 2.16 mIU/L, with a reference interval of 0.59 to 7.03 mIU/L (men 2.09 mIU/L, women 2.24 mIU/L, P<0.001). A U-shaped association was found between serum TSH levels and age. The mean fT4 level was 1.25 ng/dL, and its reference interval was 0.92 to 1.60 ng/dL (men 1.29 ng/dL, women 1.20 ng/dL, P<0.0001). Serum fT4 levels decreased with age (P for trend <0.0001). Serum thyroid peroxidase antibody (TPOAb) was detected in 7.30% of participants (men 4.33%, women 10.62%). TPOAb titers tended to increase with age, and were higher in women than in men. The median UIC was 294 µg/L, and UIC showed a U-shaped relationship with age. According to the World Health Organization recommendations, only 23% of participants were in the adequate range of iodine intake, while 65% were in the above requirements or excessive, and 12% in insufficient. The prevalence of overt hyperthyroidism and hypothyroidism in Koreans was 0.34% to 0.54% and 0.73% to 1.43%, respectively.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Hyperthyroidism , Hypothyroidism , Iodide Peroxidase , Iodine , Korea , Male , Nutrition Surveys , Prevalence , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine , World Health Organization
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-816622

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Recently, there has been some controversy regarding the role of radioactive iodine (RAI) ablation in the treatment of low-risk differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC), especially papillary thyroid microcarcinoma (PTMC). This study aimed to compare quality of life (QoL) parameters between patients with PTMC who underwent total thyroidectomy (TT) alone and those who underwent TT with RAI ablation.METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, patients with PTMC who underwent TT with/without RAI remnant ablation were prospectively enrolled between June 2016 and October 2017. All patients completed three questionnaires: the 12-item short-form health survey (SF-12), thyroid cancer-specific quality of life (THYCA-QoL) questionnaire, and fear of progression (FoP) questionnaire.RESULTS: The TT and TT with RAI groups comprised 107 and 182 patients, respectively. The TT with RAI group had significantly lower serum thyrotropin (TSH) levels than the TT group. However, after matching for TSH levels between the groups (n=100 in both groups), there were no significant differences in baseline characteristics. According to the SF-12, the score for general health was significantly lower in the TT with RAI group than in the TT group (P=0.047). The THYCA-QoL also showed a significant difference in the “felt chilly” score between groups (P=0.023). No significant differences in FoP scores were observed between the groups.CONCLUSION: Patients with PTMC who underwent TT with RAI ablation experienced more health-related problems than those managed with TT alone. These findings support the idea that RAI ablation should be carefully considered in patients with low-risk DTCs.


Subject(s)
Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Surveys , Humans , Iodine , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878677

ABSTRACT

Objective To identify the optimal mono-energetic enhanced spectral CT for renal cortex in cortical phase based on the iodine concentration. Methods Fifty patients with normal renal function received the abdominal enhanced spectral CT examination.The iodine concentration and CT values of the multiple mono-energetic spectral images were measured on renal cortex in cortical phase,and the correlation between the iodine concentration and the CT values and the coefficient of variation(CV)were analyzed. Results The correlation analysis demonstrated that the correlation coefficient was 0.994,0.994,0.993,0.987,0.976,0.960,and 0.938 between mono-energetic spectral CT images(40-100 keV with interval 10 keV,respectively)and iodine concentration(all


Subject(s)
Contrast Media , Humans , Iodine , Kidney Cortex/diagnostic imaging , Radiographic Image Interpretation, Computer-Assisted , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
11.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 306-311, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011174

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women. Materials and methods The search was performed in the electronic databases Medline (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs) and Scopus. Review studies, experimental studies, those with adolescent pregnant women (< 20 years) and iodine supplementation were excluded. The selection followed the steps of identifying the articles in the databases, deleting the duplicates, and reading the titles, abstracts, and then the entire article. The search for the articles occurred in September 2017, using the descriptors "pregnant" and "iodine deficiency" NOT "supplementation" in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results Thirteen articles were included, the deficiency prevalence ranged from 16.1% to 84.0%, and the median of iodine intake was insufficient in 75% of the studies. There is no classification for mild, moderate or severe levels of iodine deficiency in pregnant women, which makes it impossible to know the real dimension of the problem. Conclusion The high prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women, observed worldwide, shows the need for a population classification in order to direct public policies. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(3):306-11


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Global Health , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/deficiency , Prevalence , Nutritional Requirements
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781570

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Before iodination of Swedish table salt in 1936, iodine deficiency resulting in goitre and hypothyroidism was common. Sweden has become iodine sufficient, as shown in a national survey in 2007, proving its iodination fortification programme effective for the general population. The objective of this study was to collect drinking water from water treatment plants nationally and test if water iodine concentration (WIC) correlated to urinary iodine concentration (UIC) of school-aged children in a national survey 2007 to former goitre frequency in 1929 and to thyroid volume data in 2007.@*METHODS@#In 2012, 166 treatment plants, located in 57% (166 of 290) of all Swedish municipalities, were asked to collect drinking water samples of approximately 10 ml. In 2007, tap water samples of the same volume were collected from 30 randomly selected schools for the national survey. Analysis of WIC was done in both treatment plants in 2012 (n = 166) and tap water in 2007 (n = 30). The correlation of WIC to the children's UIC and thyroid volume after iodination was tested based on data from the national survey in 2007. The association of WIC to former goitre frequency was tested based on pre-iodination data, derived from a map of goitre frequency drawn in 1929.@*RESULTS@#The median WIC from water treatment plants was 4.0 μg/L (range 0-27 μg/L). WIC was similar in coastal and inland areas, for both ground and surface water. WIC correlated with historical goitre areas and was lower in the goitre areas than in non-goitre areas (p < 0.001). WIC in the same municipalities as the schools correlated with the UIC of children (p < 0.01), but not with their thyroid volume.@*CONCLUSIONS@#WIC still contributes to iodine nutrition in Sweden, but iodination overrides the goitre effect.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Drinking Water , Chemistry , Female , Food, Fortified , Goiter , Epidemiology , History , History, 20th Century , History, 21st Century , Humans , Iodine , Urine , Male , Sodium Chloride, Dietary , Sweden , Epidemiology , Thyroid Gland
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781365

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#This study aimed to investigate the value of normalized iodine concentration (NIC), spectral attenuation curve slope (SACS), area under curve (AUC), and iodine concentration difference (ICD) generated from spectral CT in the assessment of parotid gland tumors.@*METHODS@#Ninety-two patients with pathologically confirmed parotid gland tumors underwent arterial phase- and venous phase-enhanced CT in spectral CT. The patients were divided into the pleomor-phic adenoma group (group A), Warthin tumor group (group B), basal cell tumor group (group C), and malignant tumor group (group D). The SACS, AUC, NIC, ICD were measured and analyzed. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA, and statistical significance was set at P<0.05.@*RESULTS@#SACS(AP), AUC(AP), and NIC(AP) in group A were lower than those in other groups; SACS(VP) and AUC(VP) in group C were higher than those in other groups; NIC(AP) and NIC(VP) in group D were higher than those in other groups; and ICD in group B was a positive number. The difference in SACS(AP) and AUC(AP) in groups B and C, SACS(VP) and AUC(VP) in groups C and D, and ICD in groups A and C were not statistically significant. By contrast, the diffe-rence between the other groups was statistically significant (P<0.05). The difference in NIC(AP) between groups A and B and groups C and D and the difference in NIC(VP) between groups A and C, groups A and D, and groups B and C were statistically significant (P=0.005, 0.025, 0.002, 0.038, and 0.049, respectively).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Multi-quantitative parameters from spectral CT might be helpful in differentiating various types of parotid gland tumors.


Subject(s)
Diagnosis, Differential , Humans , Iodine , Parotid Gland , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763720

ABSTRACT

The retained functionality of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expressed in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cells allows the further utilization of post-surgical radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, which is an effective treatment for reducing the risk of recurrence, and even the mortality, of DTC. Whereas, the dedifferentiation of DTC could influence the expression of functional NIS, thereby reducing the efficacy of RAI therapy in advanced DTC. Genetic alternations (such as BRAF and the rearranged during transfection [RET]/papillary thyroid cancer [PTC] rearrangement) have been widely reported to be prominently responsible for the onset, progression, and dedifferentiation of PTC, mainly through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascades. These genetic alternations have been suggested to associate with the reduced expression of iodide-handling genes in thyroid cancer, especially the NIS gene, disabling iodine uptake and causing resistance to RAI therapy. Recently, novel and promising approaches aiming at various targets have been attempted to restore the expression of these iodine-metabolizing genes and enhance iodine uptake through in vitro studies and studies of RAI-refractory (RAIR)-DTC patients. In this review, we discuss the regulation of NIS, known mechanisms of dedifferentiation including the MAPK and PI3K pathways, and the current status of redifferentiation therapy for RAIR-DTC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Iodine , Ion Transport , Isotopes , Mortality , Protein Kinases , Recurrence , Sodium Iodide , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Transfection
15.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 20-24, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-719480

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to compare radioactive iodine (I-131) biokinetics after recombinant human TSH stimulation (rhTSH) and thyroid hormone withdrawal (THW) in patients with differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). External effective dose rates were measured using external detectors and imaged quantitatively at the time of discharge from the isolation wards. We retrospectively analyzed 32 patients who had been diagnosed with DTC, papillary or follicular, and underwent remnant ablation after either rhTSH stimulation (n=22) or THW (n=10). The uptake of I-131 by remnant thyroid tissue was measured from 20.0 cm, 100.0 cm and 200.0 cm distances using a handheld external detector. The remnant thyroid tissue measured by the whole body images two to five days from administration was 10.7+26.0% (range 0.5 to 60.0%). The values measured at 20 cm were best correlated to the thyroid residual uptake measured by SPECT/CT. The half-lives of I-131washout (T1/2) in rhTSH group measured by external detector were shorter than those of THW group. T1/2 becomes longer when it was measured over longer distances. They were 10.9, 12.3 and 13.1 hours at distances of 20, 100, and 200 cm in rhTSH group, respectively. The TWH group showed 12.8, 14.9 and 17.7 hours, respectively. We conclude that I-131 biokinetics can be measured by external detector after high dose I-131 therapy for DTC. It showed that washout of I-131 was faster after rhTSH stimulation than THW, and slower in patients with distant metastasis than those without metastasis.


Subject(s)
Body Image , Humans , Iodine , Iodine Radioisotopes , Neoplasm Metastasis , Neoplasm, Residual , Retrospective Studies , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroidectomy , Thyrotropin Alfa
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764090

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Levothyroxine (L-T4) monotherapy to normalize TSH level might be not sufficient to restore serum free triiodothyronine (fT3) levels in hypothyroid patients. This study aimed to compare the thyroid hormone levels in euthyroid L-T4 treated athyreotic patients and euthyroid healthy control subjects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We included 69 euthyroid L-T4 treated athyreotic female patients after total thyroidectomy and radioactive iodine ablation therapy and 90 euthyroid healthy female. Serum fT3 and free thyroxine (fT4) levels were simultaneously measured using two different assay kits (A and B). RESULTS: The serum fT4 level was higher in the athyreotic patients (kit A: p<0.001, kit B: p=0.046), and the serum fT3 level was higher in control subjects (kit A: p=0.047, kit B: p=0.102). In the control group, the serum fT3 level was stable and not correlated with the TSH level (kit A: tau=−0.10, p=0.18, kit B: tau=−0.06, p=0.40). However, in the patient group, the serum fT3 level was negatively correlated with the TSH level (kit A: tau=−0.22, p=0.012, kit B: tau=−0.31, p<0.001). All thyroid hormone parameters measured by kit A showed higher area under the curve values than those measured by kit B for distinguishing the patients from the control subjects. CONCLUSION: The serum fT3 levels in L-T4 treated athyreotic euthyroid patients were significantly lower than and varied from those of euthyroid healthy control subjects. Thus, L-T4 monotherapy might not be appropriate for some athyreotic patients to maintain optimal T3 levels.


Subject(s)
Female , Healthy Volunteers , Humans , Iodine , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones , Thyroidectomy , Thyroxine , Triiodothyronine
17.
Clinical Endoscopy ; : 497-501, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763469

ABSTRACT

A 62-year-old man with a flat early esophageal cancer was referred for endoscopic treatment. White light imaging revealed a pale red lesion, whereas linked color imaging (LCI) and blue laser imaging (BLI) yielded purple and brown images, respectively. Iodine staining demonstrated a large unstained area with a homogenous but very weak pink-color sign. This area appeared more clearly as purple and green on LCI and BLI, respectively; however, a different colored portion was observed at the 4 o'clock position inside the iodine-unstained area. Histopathology findings of the resected specimen revealed squamous intraepithelial neoplasia at the 4 o'clock position and an esophageal squamous cell carcinoma in the remaining iodine-unstained area. LCI and BLI combined with iodine staining produce characteristic images that overcomes the pink-color sign, reflecting the histological features of a flat esophageal neoplasm. This new method is useful for detailed evaluation of early flat squamous cell neoplasms.


Subject(s)
Carcinoma, Squamous Cell , Epithelial Cells , Esophageal Neoplasms , Humans , Iodine , Methods , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Squamous Cell
18.
Chonnam Medical Journal ; : 127-135, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763293

ABSTRACT

Most differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) patients have an excellent prognosis. However, about one-third of DTC patients with recurrent or metastatic disease lose the hallmark of specific iodine uptake initially or gradually and acquire radioactive iodine-refractory DTC (RAIR-DTC) with poor prognosis. Due to the potentially severe complications from unnecessarily repeated RAI therapy and encouraging progress of multiple targeted drugs for advanced RAIR-DTC patients, it has become crucial to identify RAIR-DTC early. In this review, we focus on the progress and controversies regarding the defining of RAIR-DTC, further with subsistent approaches and promising molecular nuclear medicine imaging in identifying RAIR-DTC, which may shed light on the proper management methodsof such patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iodine Radioisotopes , Iodine , Molecular Imaging , Nuclear Medicine , Prognosis , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762603

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Iodine is a major component of thyroid hormones. Both deficiency and excess of iodine are major risk factors for thyroid disease, making it important to accurately assess iodine level in the human body. Urinary iodine concentration (UIC) is a commonly used measure of iodine status. However, there is little research on iodine status and related characteristics in Korean adolescents. METHODS: Using data from the sixth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES VI) for the years 2013–2015, we analyzed UIC and thyroid function test results in adolescents aged 10–18 years and their parents. We also investigated the influence of socioeconomic factors and family history of thyroid disease on iodine status. RESULTS: Mean UIC in Korean adolescents was 963.5±55.7 μg/L. Among evaluated subjects, 6.6%±1.0%, 29.8%±1.7%, and 63.9%±1.9% had low (UIC<100 μg/L), adequate (UIC: 100–299.9 μg/L), and excess (UIC≥300 μg/L) iodine concentrations, respectively. Based on regional trends, the incidence of iodine deficiency exceeded 10% in several regions, even though there was a dominance of regions with excess iodine. Parental UIC, female sex, average monthly income, and expenditure were all found to affect the iodine status of Korean adolescents. CONCLUSIONS: Although regional differences exist, the iodine status in Korean adolescents is mainly affected by the eating habits of their families and socioeconomic factors. Therefore, monitoring of iodine status is necessary in this population.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Cross-Sectional Studies , Eating , Female , Health Expenditures , Human Body , Humans , Incidence , Iodine , Korea , Nutrition Surveys , Parents , Risk Factors , Socioeconomic Factors , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Function Tests , Thyroid Hormones
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762595

ABSTRACT

Preterm infants can suffer various thyroid dysfunctions associated with developmental immaturity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis, postnatal illness, medications, or iodine supply. The incidence of thyroid dysfunction among preterm infants is higher than that among term infants and has been increasing with improvement in the survival of preterm infants. Hypothyroxinemia is frequently observed during the first week of life in extreme preterm neonates, and the incidence of delayed thyrotropin elevation is high at the age of 2–6 weeks. Although the necessity of routine rescreening remains controversial, recent guidelines on screening for congenital hypothyroidism have recommended rescreening of all preterm neonates. Thyroid hormone replacement is recommended for persistent thyrotropin elevation with or without hypothyroxinemia. Hypothyroxinemia without thyrotropin elevation does not require treatment, and some potential risks of levothyroxine supplementation have been reported. Although most thyroid dysfunctions are transient, careful follow-up after discontinuation of levothyroxine is considered so as to avoid missing persistent hypothyroidism.


Subject(s)
Congenital Hypothyroidism , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Hypothyroidism , Incidence , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Infant, Premature , Iodine , Mass Screening , Thyroid Gland , Thyrotropin , Thyroxine
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