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Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(4): 317-322, Apr. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280043


Abstract Fetal thyroid complications in pregnancy are uncommon, and are commonly related to the passage of substances through the placenta. The excessive iodine intake during the pregnancy is a well-known mechanism of fetal thyroid enlargement or goiter, and invasive procedures have been proposed for the treatment of fetal thyroid pathologies. In the present report, we demonstrate two cases from different centers of prenatal diagnosis of fetal thyroid enlargement and/or goiter in three fetuses (one pair of twins, wherein both fetuses were affected, and one singleton pregnancy). The anamnesis revealed the ingestion of iodine by the patients, prescribed from inadequate vitamin supplementation. In both cases, the cessation of iodine supplement intake resulted in a marked reduction of the volume of the fetal thyroid glands, demonstrating that conservative treatmentmay be an option in those cases. Also, clinicians must be aware that patients may be exposed to harmful dosages or substances during pregnancy.

Resumo As complicações fetais da tireoide na gravidez são incomuns e são comumente relacionadas à passagem de substâncias pela placenta. A ingestão excessiva de iodo durante a gravidez é um mecanismo bem conhecido de aumento da tireoide ou bócio fetal, e procedimentos invasivos foram propostos para o tratamento de patologias da tireoide fetal. No presente relato de caso, demonstramos dois casos de diferentes centros de diagnóstico pré-natal de aumento da tireoide fetal e/ou bócio em três fetos (um par de gêmeos, em que ambos os fetos foram afetados, e uma gravidez única). A anamnese revelou a ingestão de iodo pelos pacientes prescrita por suplementação inadequada de vitaminas. Nos dois casos, a interrupção da ingestão de suplemento de iodo resultou em uma redução acentuada do volume das glândulas tireoides fetais, demonstrando que o tratamento conservador pode ser uma opção nestes casos. Além disso, os médicos devem estar cientes de que as pacientes podem ser expostas a doses ou substâncias nocivas durante a gravidez.

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Adult , Prenatal Care/methods , Dietary Supplements/adverse effects , Goiter/etiology , Iodine/adverse effects , Self Care/adverse effects , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Ultrasonography, Prenatal , Imaging, Three-Dimensional , Diseases in Twins/etiology , Diseases in Twins/diagnostic imaging , Fetal Diseases/etiology , Fetal Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Goiter/diagnostic imaging , Iodine/administration & dosage
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 63(3): 306-311, May-June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011174


ABSTRACT Objective To determine the prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women. Materials and methods The search was performed in the electronic databases Medline (PubMed), Latin American and Caribbean Literature in Health Sciences (Lilacs) and Scopus. Review studies, experimental studies, those with adolescent pregnant women (< 20 years) and iodine supplementation were excluded. The selection followed the steps of identifying the articles in the databases, deleting the duplicates, and reading the titles, abstracts, and then the entire article. The search for the articles occurred in September 2017, using the descriptors "pregnant" and "iodine deficiency" NOT "supplementation" in English, Portuguese and Spanish. Results Thirteen articles were included, the deficiency prevalence ranged from 16.1% to 84.0%, and the median of iodine intake was insufficient in 75% of the studies. There is no classification for mild, moderate or severe levels of iodine deficiency in pregnant women, which makes it impossible to know the real dimension of the problem. Conclusion The high prevalence of insufficient iodine intake in pregnant women, observed worldwide, shows the need for a population classification in order to direct public policies. Arch Endocrinol Metab. 2019;63(3):306-11

Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Global Health , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/deficiency , Prevalence , Nutritional Requirements
Rev. Soc. Bras. Clín. Méd ; 17(2): 90-92, abr.-jun. 2019. graf.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1026515


Objetivo: Avaliar o perfil epidemiológico de pacientes com diagnóstico de carcinoma diferenciado de tireoide. Métodos: Estudo analítico descritivo, realizado por meio da análise e da coleta de dados de 34 prontuários de pacientes em seguimento em um ambulatório de endocrinologia de um hospital público em São Paulo. Foram incluídos todos os pacientes em acompanhamento no ambulatório com diagnóstico de tumores diferenciados; foram excluídos os menores de 18 anos e/ou com diagnóstico de outras neoplasias de tireoide (que não tumores diferenciados). Resultados: A idade dos pacientes variou de 25 a 84 anos ao diagnóstico, com média de 51 anos, tendo sido representados por 32 mulheres (94,11%) e 2 homens (5,88%). A maioria dos tumores (41,17%) possuía tamanho entre 1 e 2cm. A maior parte dos pacientes tinha baixo risco de recorrência, e todos foram tratados cirurgicamente. Conclusão: O tumor diferenciado mais frequente é o subtipo papilífero. Sua prevalência se dá em mulheres, com média de idade ao diagnóstico de 51 anos. (AU)

Objective: To evaluate the epidemiological profile of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma. Methods: Th is i s a d escriptive, analytical study performed through the analysis and collection of data from 34 medical records of patients being followed in an endocrinology clinic of a public hospital in the city of São Paulo. All patients being followed at the outpatients' department with a diagnosis of differentiated thyroid carcinoma were included, and those under 18 and/or with diagnosis of other cancer of the thyroid (other than differentiated tumors) were excluded. Results: the patients' ages ranged from 25 to 84 years at diagnosis, an average of 51 years represented by 32 women (94.11%) and 2 men (5.88%). Most tumors (41.17 %) were between 1 and 2cm. Most patients showed low risk of recurrence, and all were surgically treated. Conclusion: The most frequent differentiated tumor was the papillary one. Its prevalence was on women, with an average age at diagnosis of 51 years. There were only two patients with recurrent disease, and one with metastasis to the lung that died. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Profile , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/epidemiology , Recurrence , Thyroidectomy/statistics & numerical data , Medical Records , Prevalence , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/surgery , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/classification , Thyroid Cancer, Papillary/drug therapy , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/therapeutic use , Neoplasm Metastasis
EMHJ-Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal. 2016; 22 (5): 301-308
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-181483


This study aimed at establishing updated data on iodine nutrition among schoolchildren in Saudi Arabia. A cross-sectional cluster survey among schoolchildren aged 8-10 years was conducted during February-April 2012. Children were clinically examined for goitre, urine and household salt samples were collected to estimate urinary iodine concenteration [UIC] and iodine content in salt. The overall goitre prevalence at the national level among 4 016 children was 4.2%. The prevalence was < 5% in all regions of the country except southern region with a prevalence of 12.7%. The median UIC of 2224 samples was 133 microg/L, with 74.3% of the surveyed children with UIC>/=100 microg/L. Analysis of salt samples [n = 4242] revealed that 69.8% of households were consuming adequately iodized salt. The findings suggest iodine sufficiency at the national level, however southern region still has a goitre prevalence of mild degree severity and the proportion of households consuming adequately iodized salt is still below recommendations

Humans , Female , Male , Child , Iodine/administration & dosage , Child , Students , Cross-Sectional Studies , Deficiency Diseases/diet therapy , Prevalence
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 59(6): 501-506, Dec. 2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767929


Objective Consuming a low-iodine diet (LID) is a widely accepted practice before administering radioiodine (131I) to evaluate and to treat thyroid disease. Although this procedure is well established for the management of patients with differentiated thyroid cancer, its use in patients with benign disease is unclear. So, we aimed to evaluate the influence of a LID on the outcome in patients with Graves’ disease (GD) treated with131I. Subjects and methods We evaluated 67 patients with GD who were divided into 2 groups: one group (n = 31) consumed a LID for 1-2 weeks, and the second group (n = 36) was instructed to maintain a regular diet (RD). Results The LID group experienced a 23% decrease in urinary iodine after 1 week on the diet and a significant 42% decrease after 2 weeks on the diet. The majority (53%) of the patients in the LID group had urinary iodine levels that were consistent with deficient iodine intake. However, there was no difference in the rate of hyperthyroidism’s cure between the LID and the RD groups 6 months after 131I therapy. Furthermore, the therapeutic efficacy did not differ in patients with varying degrees of sufficient iodine intake (corresponding urinary iodine levels: < 10 μg/dL is deficient; 10-29.9 μg/dL is sufficient; and > 30 μg/dL is excessive). Conclusion In the present study, we demonstrated that although a LID decreased urinary iodine levels, those levels corresponding with sufficient or a mild excess in iodine intake did not compromise the therapeutic efficacy of131I for the treatment of GD.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult , Graves Disease/diet therapy , Graves Disease/drug therapy , Iodine Radioisotopes/therapeutic use , Iodine/administration & dosage , Trace Elements/pharmacology , Combined Modality Therapy , Follow-Up Studies , Food, Formulated , Iodine/urine , Nutritional Status , Treatment Outcome
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec ; 67(2): 642-646, Mar-Apr/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1100011


Este estudo avaliou a capacidade de Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica isolada de produtos cárneos formar biofilme e testou sua resistência a diferentes sanitizantes. Vinte cepas foram avaliadas quanto à capacidade de formar biofilme em placas de microtitulação. As cepas formadoras de biofilme foram testadas em superfícies de polietileno de alta densidade, aço inoxidável e vidro e tiveram a sensibilidade ao hipoclorito de sódio e ao iodo avaliada. Duas cepas de Salmonella Enteritidis isoladas de produtos de frango apresentaram capacidade de formar biofilme nas superfícies testadas. Essas cepas alcançaram maiores populações nas superfícies do que aquelas não formadoras de biofilme, e foram mais difíceis de remover ou reduzir. Devido à ação sanitizante ser menos eficiente sobre bactérias formadoras de biofilme, esses micro-organismos podem persistir no biofilme formado sobre as superfícies de equipamentos e utensílios e ocasionalmente contaminar os alimentos antes da sua expedição, aumentando dessa forma o risco de ocorrência de doenças transmitidas por alimentos.(AU)

Stainless Steel , Biofilms , Salmonella enterica , Polyethylene , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Glass , Sodium Hypochlorite/administration & dosage , Iodine/administration & dosage , Meat Products/microbiology
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 1021-1027, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-150482


PURPOSE: The radioiodine ablation therapy is required for patients who underwent a total thyroidectomy. Through a comparative review of a low iodine diet (LID) and a restricted iodine diet (RID), the study aims to suggest guidelines that are suitable for the conditions of Korea. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study was conducted with 101 patients. With 24-hour urine samples from the patients after a 2-week restricted diet and after a 4-week restricted diet, the amount of iodine in the urine was estimated. The consumed radioiodine amounts for 2 hours and 24 hours were calculated. RESULTS: This study was conducted with 47 LID patients and 54 RID patients. The amounts of iodine in urine, the 2-week case and 4-week case for each group showed no significant differences. The amounts of iodine in urine between the two groups were both included in the range of the criteria for radioiodine ablation therapy. Also, 2 hours and 24 hours radioiodine consumption measured after 4-week restrictive diet did not show statistical differences between two groups. CONCLUSION: A 2-week RID can be considered as a type of radioiodine ablation therapy after patients undergo a total thyroidectomy.

Ablation Techniques , Adult , Carcinoma/metabolism , Diet , Female , Humans , Iodides/urine , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine Radioisotopes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Republic of Korea , Thyroid Neoplasms/metabolism , Thyroidectomy , Treatment Outcome
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(3): 153-160, sep. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752694


The iodine nutritional status of a population is mainly measured by urinary iodine excretion (UI) and thyroid volume determined by ultrasound (US). The surveillance of nutritional iodine levels in the Mexican population has been insufficient. Our aim was to determine the UI in random samples from adults living in an urban area. We selected a sample of healthy individuals over the age of 18 that were students, physicians or administrative personnel at our Institution and had no known thyroid disease. Thyroid volume was determined by ultrasound in all volunteers as well as thyroid hormones and antithyroid antibodies and a urine sample was obtained. One hundred and two volunteers with a median age of 29, participated in the study. The group’s median UI was 221 μg/L,interquartile range (IQR)(135.0 to 356.8) and no differences were observed between genders: women had a UI of 218.0 μg/L IQR (129.0 a 351.0) vs. 223.0 μg/L IQR (138.0 to 374.0) in males, p 0.941. Excessive dietary iodine intake was established in 31.4% of all volunteers according to their UI, placing them at risk of thyroid dysfunction. It is fundamental to evaluate the national iodine nutritional status in Mexico. We discuss the current status of the nutritional state in the Americas, emphasizing that in Latin America and the observed tendency in the region to ingest a diet high in iodine.

El estatus nutricional del yodo en una población, principalmente es medido por la excreción del yodo urinario (UI) y el cálculo del volumen tiroideo por ultrasonido (US). La vigilancia nutricional del yodo en la población en México ha sido escasa. El objetivo fue determinar la UI en una muestra casual en adultos sanos que habitan en un área urbana. Se seleccionó una muestra de individuos mayores de 18 años, entre estudiantes, médicos y trabajadores administrativos de nuestra institución, sanos, sin enfermedad tiroidea conocida. A todos los voluntarios se les determinó el volumen tiroideo por US, hormonas y anticuerpos antitiroideos y se les solicitó una muestra de orina. Participaron 102 voluntarios, mediana de 29 años. La mediana de la UI del grupo fue 221 μg/L, rango intercuartílico (RIQ) (135.0 a 356.8), no hubo diferencias entre géneros, las mujeres tuvieron una UI de, 218.0 μg/L RIQ (129.0 a 351.0) vs 223.0 μg/L RIQ (138.0 a 374.0) p 0.941. El 31.4% de los voluntarios mostraron una ingestión excesiva de yodo en la dieta de acuerdo a la UI, lo cual los coloca en riesgo de sufrir disfunción tiroidea. Es necesario considerar la evaluación Nacional del estatus nutricional del yodo, en México. En el artículo se discute la situación actual del estatus nutricional en las Américas, haciendo énfasis en Latinoamérica y a la tendencia de la región a la dieta excedida en yodo.

Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Feeding Behavior , Iodine/urine , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Hormones/blood , Cross-Sectional Studies , Diet Surveys , Health Status , Iodine/administration & dosage , Mexico , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Urban Population
Rev. Asoc. Méd. Argent ; 127(3): 27-29, Sept. 2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-753455


Desde épocas antiguas el bocio endémico fue considerado un problema grave, por su extensión y formas clínicas acentuadas, además de su asociación con el cretinismo, también endémico, especialmente en el NOA argentino, no así en el NEA, donde no se comunicaban casos de cretinismo. Estos problemas, de origen geológico, se dan por la pobreza de yodo en ese medio y, consecuentemente en las aguas de bebida. Este problema fue postergado hasta 1965 con la realización de dos encuestas nacionales, sobre muestras probabilísticas sobre 47.619 varones de 20 años en 10 provincias y, sobre 51.768 escolares. En 1967, con suficientes datos, por la extensión de la endemia se legisló con alcance nacional, con la Ley 17.259 que fue sancionada y promulgada en 1º de mayo de 1967. La misma establecía la obligatoriedad del expendio de sal yodada, para uso alimentario humano y animal con una parte de yodo en 30.000 partes de sal, que comenzó a hacerse efectiva en 1970. Investigaciones posteriores han demostrado la efectividad de las medidas sobre la patología tiroidea...

It was known since ends of XIX century the severity of endemic goiter and chretinism, specially in the northwest zone of the country. It has been considered a geological disease because of the lack of iodine in soils and waters. In 1965 the problem was considered and the first place steps were to qualificate how extense was the disease, and two surveys; one in probabilistic samples on 47,619 males of 20 years old, in 10 provinces, and another on 51,768 schoolchildren’s. In 1967 it was decided to legislate to reach the nation with the Law 17,259 approved in May the first, 1967. Effectiveness of the measures were probed by investigations made lately...

Goiter, Endemic/epidemiology , Congenital Hypothyroidism/epidemiology , Argentina , Chronology as Topic , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/therapeutic use
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 63(4): 338-361, dic. 2013. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-749957


Esta revisión de las recomendaciones de energía y nutrientes para la población Venezolana presenta los valores de hierro, yodo, zinc, selenio, cobre, molibdeno, vitamina C, vitamina E, vitamina K, carotenoides y polifenoles. Se adoptan definiciones internacionales de Ingestas Dietéticas de Referencia (DRIs por Dietary Reference Intakes) que incluyen: Ingesta Dietética Recomendada (RDA), Requerimiento Promedio Estimado (EAR), Ingesta Adecuada (AI) y Niveles de Ingesta Máximos Tolerables (UL). Las RDA para hierro: 11 mg/día para < 1 año, 7-10 mg/día niños, 8-11 mg/día para hombres, 8-18 mg/día para mujeres y 27 mg/día para embarazadas. RDA Yodo: 110-130 mg/ día recién nacidos, 90-120 mg/día niños y adolescentes y 150 mg/ día adultos, 220 mg/día embarazo y 290 mg/día lactancia. RDA Zinc: 2-3 mg/día < 1 año, 3-5 mg/día niños, 8-11 mg/día adolescentes y hombres, 8-9 mg/día adolescentes y mujeres, 12 mg/ día para embarazadas y 13 mg/día durante la lactancia. RDA Vitamina C: 40-50 mg/día recién nacidos, 15-45 mg/día niños, 75 mg/día adolescentes masculinos, 65 mg/día adolescentes femeninas, 90 mg/día hombres y 75 mg/día mujeres, 80-85 mg/día embarazadas y lactancia 115-120 mg/día. También se presentan valores de cobre, selenio, molibdeno, vitaminas E, K, carotenoides y polifenoles. Estas recomendaciones contribuirán al diseño de políticas adecuadas y eficientes que puedan ayudar a evitar o a tratar las consecuencias derivadas de la deficiencia o el exceso de estos nutrientes.

The review on iron, iodine, zinc, selenium, copper, molybdenum, vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin K, carotenoids and polyphenols recommendations for Venezuela comprise the definitions adopted worldwide known as Dietary Reference Intakes (DRIs) that include Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA), Estimated Average Requirement (EAR), Adequate Intake (AI) and Tolerable Upper Intake Levels (UL). The RDA for iron: 11 mg/day for infants < 1 year of age, 7 - 10 mg/day for children, 8-11 mg/day for males, 8-18 mg/day for females and 27 mg/day during pregnancy. RDA for iodine: 110-130 mg/day for infants, 90-120 mg/ day for children and adolescents, 150 mg/day for adults, 220 mg/ day for pregnancy and 290 mg/day during lactation. RDA Zinc: 2-3 mg/day for infants, 3-5 mg/day for children, 8-11 mg/day for male adolescents and adults, 8-9 mg/day for female adolescents and adults, 12 mg/day during pregnancy and 13 mg/day for lactation. RDA Vitamin C: 40-50 mg/day for infants, 15-45 mg/ day for children, 75 mg/day for male adolescents, 65 mg/day for female adolescents, 90 mg/day for adult males, 75 mg/day for adult females, 80-85 mg/day during pregnancy and 115-120 mg/ day during lactation. Recommendations for copper, selenium, molybdenum, vitamins E, K, carotenoids and polyphenols are also presented. These recommendations will help to design adequate and efficient policies that could help to avoid or to treat the consequences derived from the deficiency or the excess of these nutrients.

Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Middle Aged , Pregnancy , Young Adult , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Recommended Dietary Allowances , Trace Elements/administration & dosage , Vitamins/administration & dosage , Copper/administration & dosage , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iron, Dietary/administration & dosage , Molybdenum/administration & dosage , Reference Values , Selenium/administration & dosage , Venezuela , Zinc/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. endocrinol. metab ; 57(6): 473-482, ago. 2013. graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-685410


OBJECTIVE AND METHODS: To estimate median urinary iodine concentration (UIC), and to correlate it with global nutrition indicators and social gap index (SGI) in 50 elementary state schools from 10 municipalities in the State of Queretaro, Mexico. RESULTS: 1,544 students were enrolled and an above of requirements of iodine intake was found (median UIC of 297 µg/L). Iodine status was found as deficient, adequate, more than adequate and excessive in 2, 4, 19 and 25 schools, respectively. Seventy seven percent of table salt samples showed adequate iodine content (20-40 ppm), while 9.6% of the samples had low iodine content (< 15 ppm). Medians of UIC per school were positively correlated with medians of body mass index (BMI) by using the standard deviation score (SDS) (r = 0.47; p < 0.005), height SDS (r = 0.41; p < 0.05), and overweight and obesity prevalence (r = 0.41; p < 0.05). Medians of UIC per school were negatively correlated with stunting prevalence (r = -0.39; p = 005) and social gap index (r = -0.36; p < 0.05). Best multiple regression models showed that BMI SDS and height were significantly related with UIC (p < 0.05). CONCLUSIONS: There is coexistence between the two extremes of iodine intake (insufficient and excessive). To our knowledge, the observed positive correlation between UIC and overweight and obesity has not been described before, and could be explained by the availability and consumption of snack food rich in energy and iodized salt.

OBJETIVO E MÉTODOS: Estimar a concentração de iodo urinário (CIU) mediana e correlacioná-la com os indicadores de nutrição geral e com o índice de desigualdade social (IDS) de 50 escolas estaduais de ensino fundamental de 10 municípios do estado de Querétaro, no México. RESULTADOS: Utilizou-se um total de 1.544 crianças e encontrou-se uma ingestão acima das necessidades de iodo (CIU mediana de 297 µg/L). O nível de iodo determinado foi deficiente, adequado, mais do que adequado e excessivo em 2, 4, 19 e 25 escolas, respectivamente. Setenta e sete por cento de amostras de sal de mesa mostraram uma quantidade de iodo adequada (20-40 ppm), enquanto 9,6% das amostras tinham um teor de iodo baixo (< 15 ppm). As medianas de CIU por escola foram correlacionadas positivamente com as medianas do índice de massa corporal (IMC) usando o desvio-padrão da contagem (DP) (r = 0,47; p < 0.005), o DP da altura (r = 0,41; p < 0.05) e a prevalência de sobrepeso e de obesidade (r = 0,41; p < 0,05). As medianas de CUI por escola foram correlacionadas negativamente com a prevalência de desnutrição (r = -0.39; p = 005) e com o índice de desigualdade social (r = -0.36; p < 0,05). Os melhores modelos de regressão múltipla mostraram que a DP do IMC e a altura foram relacionados significativamente com a CIU (p < 0,05). CONCLUSÃO: Existe uma convivência entre os dois extremos de ingestão de iodo (insuficiente e excessiva). Em nosso conhecimento, a correlação positiva entre a CIU, o excesso de peso e a obesidade não foi descrita anteriormente e poderia ser explicada pela disponibilidade e consumo de alimentos ou refeições ricos(as) em energia e sal iodado.

Child , Female , Humans , Male , Health Status Indicators , Iodine/urine , Nutrition Surveys , Nutritional Status , Obesity/epidemiology , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Dwarfism/epidemiology , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/analysis , Mexico/epidemiology , Obesity/etiology , Prevalence , Socioeconomic Factors , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis
Rev. panam. salud pública ; 32(4): 281-286, Oct. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-659974


High dietary salt is a major cause of increased blood pressure, the leading risk for death worldwide. The World Health Organization (WHO) has recommended that salt intake be less than 5 g/day, a goal that only a small proportion of people achieve. Iodine deficiency can cause cognitive and motor impairment and, if severe, hypothyroidism with serious mental and growth retardation. More than 2 billion people worldwide are at risk of iodine deficiency. Preventing iodine deficiency by using salt fortified with iodine is a major global public health success. Programs to reduce dietary salt are technically compatible with programs to prevent iodine deficiency through salt fortification. However, for populations to fully benefit from optimum intake of salt and iodine, the programs must be integrated. This review summarizes the scientific basis for salt reduction and iodine fortification programs, the compatibility of the programs, and the steps that need to be taken by the WHO, national governments, and nongovernmental organizations to ensure that populations fully benefit from optimal intake of salt and iodine. Specifically, expert groups must be convened to help countries implement integrated programs and context-specific case studies of successfully integrated programs; lessons learned need to be compiled and disseminated. Integrated surveillance programs will be more efficient and will enhance current efforts to optimize intake of iodine and salt. For populations to fully benefit, governments need to place a high priority on integrating these two important public health programs.

El alto contenido de sal en la dieta es una causa principal de incremento de la presión arterial, el principal factor de riesgo de muerte a escala mundial. La Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) ha recomendado que el consumo de sal sea inferior a 5 g/d, una meta que solo logran una pequeña proporción de personas. La falta de yodo puede causar deficiencia cognoscitiva y motora y, si es grave, hipotiroidismo, con grave retraso mental y del crecimiento. Más de dos mil millones de personas en todo el mundo presentan riesgo de carencia de yodo. La prevención de la carencia de yodo mediante el empleo de sal yodada constituye una importante conquista de salud pública a escala mundial. Los programas cuyo objeto es reducir el contenido de sal en la dieta son técnicamente compatibles con los programas de prevención de la carencia de yodo mediante el enriquecimiento de la sal. Sin embargo, para que las poblaciones se puedan beneficiar plenamente de una ingesta óptima de sal y yodo, es preciso integrar ambos tipos de programa. Este estudio resume las bases científicas de los programas de reducción de sal y enriquecimiento con yodo, la compatibilidad de esos programas, y las medidas que deben adoptar la OMS, los gobiernos nacionales y las organizaciones no gubernamentales para garantizar que las poblaciones se beneficien plenamente de una ingesta óptima de sal y yodo. En concreto, es preciso reunir a grupos de expertos para ayudar a los países a aplicar programas integrados y llevar a cabo estudios de casos en contextos específicos de programas integrados eficaces; es preciso recopilar y difundir las enseñanzas extraídas. La integración de los programas de vigilancia los hará más eficaces y mejorará las iniciativas actuales para optimizar la ingesta de yodo y sal. Para que las poblaciones puedan beneficiarse plenamente, es preciso que los gobiernos asignen una alta prioridad a la integración de estos dos importantes tipos de programas de salud pública.

Humans , Health Promotion , Health Services Needs and Demand , Iodine/administration & dosage , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Deficiency Diseases/prevention & control , Global Health , Iodine/deficiency , Practice Guidelines as Topic
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(3): 213-219, Sept. 2012. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710624


Iodine is an essential constituent of thyroid hormones (TH). TH actively take part in critical periods of brain development during embryonic, fetal and postnatal stages. Therefore the absence of TH or iodine in these critical periods produces an irreversible brain damage. In fact, it is known that iodine deficiency is the leading cause of preventable brain damage worldwide. Because of the physiological adjustments during pregnancy iodine requirements increase significantly from 150 μg per day in non-pregnant adult women to 250 μg per day. Moreover, recent epidemiological studies around the world show that iodine intake during pregnancy is insufficient in many countries, even in developed countries like Australia, Spain and Italy. In the present work an overview of the importance of iodine nutrition during pregnancy is given.

Importancia del yodo en la gestación. El yodo es un nutrimento constituyente indispensable de las hormonas tiroideas (HT). Las HT participan activamente en periodos críticos del desarrollo cerebral durante las etapas embrionaria, fetal y posnatal. Por lo tanto la ausencia o deficiencia de las HT o de yodo en estas etapas del desarrollo produce un daño cerebral irreversible. De hecho, se sabe que la deficiencia de yodo es la principal causa de daño cerebral prevenible en el mundo. Debido a los ajustes fisiológicos propios de la gestación los requerimientos de yodo se incrementan notablemente, pasando de 150 μg al día en la mujer adulta no gestante a 250 μg al día durante el embarazo. Por otra parte, estudios epidemiológicos recientes hechos en todo el mundo muestran que el consumo de yodo durante la gestación es insuficiente en varios países; incluso en países desarrollados como Australia y España e Italia. En la presente revisión se da un panorama general de la importancia del consumo adecuado de yodo durante la gestación.

Female , Humans , Pregnancy , Dietary Supplements/standards , Iodine/administration & dosage , Nutritional Requirements , Fetal Development/drug effects , Fetal Development/physiology , Global Health , Reference Values , Thyroid Hormones/physiology
Rev. chil. endocrinol. diabetes ; 4(4): 283-289, oct. 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-640611


The endemic goiter, nutritional collective problem due to iodine deficience, constitutes a chronic disease with easy prevention and control, nevertheless still it constitutes a serious problem of public world health, being thought that about 650 million persons have goiter, 43 millions suffer from endemic cretinism and 1570 millions are in risk of suffering this disease for living in areas that present a deficit of iodine. Both patterns, deficit and the excess of iodine can conducted to a thyroid disease. The relation between the ingestion of iodine and the risk of disease corresponds to a U curve, where both, the low one and high ingestion of iodine it is associate to high risk of thyroid disease. To have a program of iodine supplementation, it should imply a constant vigilance of iodine nutrition to see its effect on the goiter prevalence in the population, to control his degree of fulfillment, to avoid a possible excess of ingestion of iodine it might help to correct any precocious alteration. Endemic goiter is not longer a problem in Chile. Salt iodination is in agreement with present legislation, but it is very important to have a continuous surveillance of iodine nutrition in Chile to control if salt fortification is appropiate.

Humans , Child , Goiter, Endemic/epidemiology , Goiter, Endemic/prevention & control , School Health Services , Iodine/administration & dosage , Goiter, Endemic/drug therapy , Chile , Iodine Deficiency , Latin America , Sex Distribution , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/epidemiology , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune/chemically induced , Iodine/urine
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135357


Background & objectives: Despite years of salt iodization, goitre continues to be a major public health problem worldwide. We examined the prevalence of goitre in the post-iodization phase and the relationship of goitre with micronutrient status and thyroid autoimmunity in school children of Chandigarh, north India. Methods: Two phase study; in the first phase, 2148 children of 6 to 16 yr were screened for goitre by two independent observers as per the WHO grading system. In the second phase, a case-control study, 191 children with goitre and 165 children without goitre were compared with respect to urinary iodine, iodine content of salt, serum levels of T3, T4, TSH, anti-TPO (thyroid peroxidase) antibody, haemoglobin, ferritin and selenium. Results: Prevalence of goitre in the studied subjects was 15.1 per cent (13.9% in 6 to 12 yr and 17.7% in 13 to 16 yr age group, P= 0.03). Median urinary iodine excretion in both the groups was sufficient and comparable (137 and 130 µg/l). 3.2 per cent children with goitre and 2.4 per cent without goitre had hypothyroidism (subclinical and clinical) and only one child with goitre had subclinical hyperthyroidism. Nine (4.9%) children in the goitre group and 3 (1.9%) in control group had anti-TPO antibody positivity. The median serum selenium levels were not different in both the groups (181.9 and 193.5 µg/l). Seventy one (37.4%) of the goitrous children had anaemia (haemoglobin <12 g/dl) as compared to 41 (24.8%) of the control group (P <0.01). More number of goitrous children (39, 20.6%) were depleted of tissue iron stores (serum ferritin <12 µg/l) as compared to controls (11, 6.4%; P<0.001). Serum ferritin level negatively correlated with the presence of goitre (r = - 0.22, P =0.008) and had an OR of 2.8 (CI 1.20 - 6.37, P =0.017). Interpretation & conclusions: There was a high prevalence of goitre in young children despite iodine repletion and low thyroid autoimmunity. The concurrent iron deficiency correlated with the presence of goiter. However, the cause and effect relationship between iron deficiency state and goitre requires further elucidation.

Adolescent , Autoimmunity/immunology , Case-Control Studies , Child , Female , Goiter, Endemic/diet therapy , Goiter, Endemic/epidemiology , Humans , India/epidemiology , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/metabolism , Male , Micronutrients/deficiency , Nutritional Status , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Thyroid Gland/immunology , Thyroid Hormones/metabolism
Rev. chil. obstet. ginecol ; 76(6): 412-416, 2011. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-612140


Antecedentes: Se están usando diferentes tipos de suplementación nutricional durante la gestación, sin embargo, existen escasez de estudios que se centren en los resultados metabólicos de los mismos. Objetivos: Comprobar si mediante la suplementación se logra el control del impacto de los múltiples cambios metabólicos que conlleva una gestación múltiple, usando análisis comunes. Método: Comparamos tres diferentes grupos de pacientes entre la semana gestacional 25 y 27. Un grupo de 46 gestaciones únicas, un grupo de 38 gestaciones gemelares espontáneas y otro grupo de 32 gestaciones gemelares tras técnicas de reproducción asistida. Comparamos niveles de colesterol LDL, HDL, triglicéridos, folato sérico, vitamina B12, homocisteína, hemoglobina, creatinina y plaquetas. Resultados: Los niveles de triglicéridos fueron más altos en ambos grupos de gemelares (p<0,001) y los niveles de colesterol fueron similares en los tres grupos. Las concentraciones de folato sérico fueron mayores en las gestaciones gemelares (p<0,001). El resto de parámetros estudiados fueron similares en los tres grupos. Conclusión: La suplementación siguiendo las recomendaciones de la ACOG y la SEGO es efectiva en el control de colesterol LDL, HDL, folato sérico, vitamina B12, homocisteína, hemoglobina, creatinina y plaquetas. Sólo los niveles de triglicéridos no se relacionan con la suplementación y pueden estar relacionados con mayor incidencia de colestasis y preeclampsia en gestaciones múltiples.

Background: Different ways of nutritional supplementation are being advised by physicians during pregnancy, but there is a lack of literature focused on its metabolical results. Aims: Check if the control of the impact that the multiple metabolic changes related to multiple pregnancies have on the mother's homeostasis is achieved with the supplementation, through common used blood tests. Method: We compare three different groups of patients between the 25 and 27th week of gestation. One group of 46 single pregnancies, a second group of 38 spontaneous twin pregnancies and another group of 32 twin pregnancies after assisted reproduction techniques. We compare the levels of LDL, HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, serum folic acid, Vit B12, homocysteine, haemoglobine, creatinine and platelets. Results: The levels of triglycerides were higher in both groups of twin pregnancies (p<0.001), but the levels of cholesterol remain similar. Folic acid concentrations were higher in the groups of twin pregnancies (p<0.001). The rest of levels studied were similar in the 3 groups. Conclusion: The supplementation following the ACOG and SEGO recommendations seems to be effective in controlling the values of LDL, HDL-cholesterol, serum folic acid, Vit B12, homocysteine, haemoglobine, creatinine and platelets. Only the levels of triglycerides appear unaffected by the supplementation and can be related with the higher incidence of preeclampsia and cholestasis seemed among twin pregnancies.

Humans , Adult , Female , Pregnancy , Dietary Supplements , Pregnancy, Multiple/metabolism , Pregnancy, Multiple/blood , Lipid Metabolism , Twins , Folic Acid/administration & dosage , Folic Acid/blood , Blood Glucose , Cholesterol, HDL/blood , Iron/administration & dosage , Homocysteine/blood , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Pregnancy Trimester, Second , Prenatal Care , Reproductive Techniques, Assisted , Triglycerides/blood , /blood , Iodine/administration & dosage
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 60(4): 355-359, dic. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-659110


O presente trabalho tem como objetivo avaliar a excreção urinária de iodo e relacionar com a sua quantidade presente no sal de consumo humano. Participaram do estudo 145 crianças de duas escolas: uma de zona rural e outra de urbana. Foram realizadas avaliação antropométrica e coleta de amostra de urina e do sal de cozinha cada uma das crianças voluntárias. Na escola rural, 3,8% das crianças apresentaram deficiência de iodo. Entretanto, a maioria dos valores de iodúria ficou acima de 300μg/L (62,03%) com 59,49% das amostras do sal de cozinha entre 20 e 60mg de iodo por quilo de sal. Para a escola urbana, 3,03% das crianças apresentaram iodúria inferior à 100μg/L, sendo que, 90,91% das crianças apresentaram valores de iodúria superior a 300μg/L. Desse total, 84,85% das amostras do sal de cozinha encontrava-se entre 20 e 60mg de iodo por quilo de sal. A deficiência de iodo na população estudada está controlada, destacando-se agora uma nova realidade de alta prevalência de excesso de iodo urinário.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the urinary excretion of iodine and relate it to the amount present in salt for human consumption. The study involved 145 children from two schools: a rural one and an urban one. We performed anthropometric measurements and collected a urine sample and a kitchen salt sample from each child. In the rural school, 3.38% of children had iodine deficiency. However, most of the values of urinary iodine were above 300 μg/L (62.03%) and 59.49% of the kitchen salt samples contained 20 to 60 mg iodine per kilo of salt. In the urban school, 3.03% of the children had urinary iodine excretion of less than 100 μg/L and 90.91% of the children had urinary iodine values exceeding 300 μg/L. Of this total, 84.85% of the kitchen salt samples contained 20 to 60 mg iodine per kilo of salt. Iodine deficiency is controlled in this population, with the current reality showing a high prevalence of excess urinary iodine.

Child , Female , Humans , Male , Iodine/administration & dosage , Iodine/urine , Nutritional Status , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/administration & dosage , Body Height , Body Mass Index , Body Weight , Rural Population , Sodium Chloride, Dietary/analysis , Urban Population