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1.
Chinese Journal of Lung Cancer ; (12): 756-763, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922143

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Segmentectomy has gradually become one of the standard surgical methods for small pulmonary nodules with early lung cancer on imaging. This study aimed to investigate the perioperative outcomes of patients who underwent uniport video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) segmentectomy for identifying the intersegmental boundary line (IBL) by the near-infrared fluorescence imaging with intravenous indocyanine green (ICG) method or the modified inflation-deflation (MID) method and assess the feasibility and effectiveness of the ICG fluorescence (ICGF)-based method.@*METHODS@#We retrospectively analyzed the perioperative data in total 198 consecutive patients who underwent uniport VATS segmentectomy between February 2018 and August 2020. With the guidance of preoperative intelligent/interactive qualitative and quantitative analysis-three dimensional (IQQA-3D), the targeted segment structures could be precisely identified and dissected, and then the IBL was confirmed by ICGF-based method or MID method. Clinical effectiveness and postoperative complications of the two methods were evaluated.@*RESULTS@#An IBL was visible in 98% of patients by the ICGF-based group, even with the low-doses of ICG. The ICGF-based group was significantly associated with the shorter IBL clear presentation time [(23.59±4.47) s vs (1,026.80±318.34) s] (P0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#The ICGF-based method could highly accurately identify the IBL and make anatomical segmentectomy easier and faster, and therefore has the potential to be a feasible and effective technique to facilitate the quality of uniport VATS segmentectomy.


Subject(s)
Feasibility Studies , Humans , Indocyanine Green , Ion Transport , Lung Neoplasms/surgery , Pneumonectomy , Postoperative Complications , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
2.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 303-314, ago. 2019. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040528

ABSTRACT

Los canales de cloruros, de sodio, de bicarbonato y los de agua (aquaporinas) se coordinan para mantener la cubierta líquido superficial de las vías respiratorias, que es necesaria para el aclaramiento mucociliar. El mecanismo general para el transporte de electrolitos y agua depende principalmente de la expresión diferencial y distribución de los transportadores y bombas de iones. Los iones y el agua se mueven a través de las vía paracelular o transcelular. La ruta transcelular del transporte de electrolitos requiere un transporte activo (dependiente de ATP) o pasivo (siguiendo gradientes electroquímicos) de iones. La ruta paracelular es un proceso pasivo que está controlado, en última instancia, por los gradientes electroquímicos transepiteliales predominantes. La fibrosis quística es una enfermedad hereditaria que se produce por mutaciones en el gen que codifica la proteína reguladora de la conductibilidad transmembrana de la fibrosis quística (CFTR) que actúa como un canal de cloro y cumple funciones de hidratación del líquido periciliar y mantenimiento del pH luminal. La disfunción del canal de cloro en el epitelio respiratorio determina una alteración en las secreciones bronquiales, con aumento de su viscosidad y alteración de la depuración mucociliar y que asociado a procesos infecciosos puede conducir a daño pulmonar irreversible. La disfunción del CFTR, también se ha visto implicado en la patogénesis de la pancreatitis aguda, en la enfermedad pulmonar obstructiva crónica y la hiperreactividad en el asma. Existen fármacos que aprovechan los mecanismos fisiológicos en el transporte de iones, con un objetivo terapéutico.


The chloride channels, sodium and bicarbonate channels, and aquaporin water channels are coordinated to maintain the airway surface liquid that is necessary for mucociliary clearance. The general mechanism for the transport of electrolytes and fluids depends mainly on the differential expression and distribution of ion transporters and pumps. Ions and water move through the paracellular or transcellular pathways. The transcellular route of electrolyte transport requires an active transport (dependent on ATP) or passive (following electrochemical gradients) of ions. The paracellular pathway is a passive process that is ultimately controlled by the predominant transepithelial electrochemical gradients. Cystic fibrosis is a hereditary disease that is produced by mutations in the gene that encode cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulatory protein (CFTR) that acts as a chloride channel and performs functions of hydration of periciliary fluid and maintenance of luminal pH. The dysfunction of the chlorine channel in the respiratory epithelium determines an alteration in the bronchial secretions, with an increase in its viscosity and alteration of the mucociliary clearance and that associated with infectious processes can lead to irreversible lung damage. CFTR dysfunction has also been implicated in the pathogenesis of acute pancreatitis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and bronchial hyperreactivity in asthma. There are drugs that exploit physiological mechanisms in the transport of ions with a therapeutic objective.


Subject(s)
Humans , Biological Transport, Active/physiology , Mucociliary Clearance/physiology , Ion Transport/physiology , Chloride Channels/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/metabolism , Cystic Fibrosis/metabolism , Chloride Channels/physiology , Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator/physiology , Cystic Fibrosis/physiopathology
3.
Asian Spine Journal ; : 672-681, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762959

ABSTRACT

The lumbar foramen is affected by different degenerative diseases, including extraforaminal disc herniation, foraminal stenosis (FS), and degenerative or spondylolytic spondylolisthesis. The purpose of this study was to describe percutaneous stenoscopic lumbar decompression with a paramedian approach (para-PSLD) for foraminal/extraforaminal lesions. All operative procedures were performed using a complete uniportal endoscopic instrument system. The para-PSLD can be easily applied to patients with FS and narrow disc space or facet joint hypertrophy. The anatomical view of a para-PSLD is similar to that of a conventional open surgery and allows for good visualization of the foraminal/extraforaminal areas. We suggest that para-PSLD is an alternative and minimally invasive procedure to treat degenerative lumbar foraminal/extraforaminal stenoses.


Subject(s)
Constriction, Pathologic , Decompression , Humans , Hypertrophy , Ion Transport , Spinal Stenosis , Spondylolisthesis , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Zygapophyseal Joint
4.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-770063

ABSTRACT

Lumbar decompressive surgery is a standard surgery for lumbar spinal stenosis. Many surgical techniques have been introduced, ranging from open surgery to percutaneous procedures. Minimally invasive techniques are preferred because of the less postoperative pain and shorter hospital stay. Uniportal percutaneous endoscopic decompression has technical difficulties due to the narrow field. Biportal percutaneous endoscopic decompression is a satisfactory technique that can compensate for the shortcomings and provide sufficient decompression.


Subject(s)
Decompression , Endoscopy , Ion Transport , Length of Stay , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Pain, Postoperative , Spinal Stenosis
5.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 555-561, 2019.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777156

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present study was to establish a cell model of volume-regulated anion channel subunit LRRC8A and investigate the physiological characteristics of LRRC8A. The eukaryotic expression vectors of LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L were constructed and transfected into Fischer rat thyroid (FRT) cells by Lipofectamine 2000. The FRT cell lines co-expressing LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L were obtained by antibiotic screening. The expression of LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L in FRT cells was detected by the inverted fluorescence microscope. The fluorescence quenching kinetic experiment was done to verify the function and effectiveness of the cell model. Then the cell model was utilized to study the physiological characteristics of LRRC8A, such as the characteristics of anion transport, the opening of LRRC8A by osmotic pressure, the effect of anion transport velocity, and the effect of chloride channel inhibitors on LRRC8A anion channel. The results of the inverted fluorescence microscope showed that LRRC8A was expressed on the cell membrane and YFP-H148Q/I152L was expressed in the cytoplasm. The results of fluorescence quenching kinetic test showed that under the condition of low osmotic state, LRRC8A could transport some kinds of anions, such as iodine and chloride ions. Osmotic pressure played a key role in the regulation of LRRC8A volume-regulated anion channel opening. Chloride channel inhibitors inhibited ion transport of LRRC8A channel in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that LRRC8A has the characteristics of classic volume-regulated anion channels by using the cell model of FRT cells co-expressing LRRC8A and YFP-H148Q/I152L.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anions , Cells, Cultured , Chloride Channels , Ion Transport , Membrane Proteins , Physiology , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Rats , Rats, Inbred F344 , Thyroid Gland , Cell Biology , Transfection
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761855

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has proven safe and effective for pulmonary wedge resection and lobectomy. The objective of this study was to evaluate the safety and feasibility of uniportal VATS segmentectomy by comparing its outcomes with those of the multiportal approach at a single center. METHODS: The records of 84 patients who underwent VATS segmentectomy from August 2010 to August 2018, including 33 in the uniportal group and 51 in the multiportal group, were retrospectively reviewed and analyzed. RESULTS: Anesthesia and operative times were similar in the uniportal and multiportal groups (215 minutes vs. 220 minutes, respectively; p=0.276 and 180 minutes vs. 198 minutes, respectively; p=0.396). Blood loss was significantly lower in the uniportal group (50 mL vs. 100 mL, p=0.013) and chest tube duration and hospital stay were significantly shorter in the uniportal group (2 days vs. 3 days, p=0.003 and 4 days [range, 1–14 days] vs. 4 days [range, 1–62 days], p=0.011). The number of dissected lymph nodes tended to be lower in the uniportal group (5 vs. 8, p=0.056). CONCLUSION: Our preliminary experience indicates that uniportal VATS segmentectomy is safe and feasible in well-selected patients. A randomized, prospective study with a large group of patients and long-term follow-up is necessary to confirm these results.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Chest Tubes , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ion Transport , Length of Stay , Lymph Nodes , Mastectomy, Segmental , Operative Time , Prospective Studies , Retrospective Studies , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-763720

ABSTRACT

The retained functionality of the sodium iodide symporter (NIS) expressed in differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC) cells allows the further utilization of post-surgical radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, which is an effective treatment for reducing the risk of recurrence, and even the mortality, of DTC. Whereas, the dedifferentiation of DTC could influence the expression of functional NIS, thereby reducing the efficacy of RAI therapy in advanced DTC. Genetic alternations (such as BRAF and the rearranged during transfection [RET]/papillary thyroid cancer [PTC] rearrangement) have been widely reported to be prominently responsible for the onset, progression, and dedifferentiation of PTC, mainly through activating the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling cascades. These genetic alternations have been suggested to associate with the reduced expression of iodide-handling genes in thyroid cancer, especially the NIS gene, disabling iodine uptake and causing resistance to RAI therapy. Recently, novel and promising approaches aiming at various targets have been attempted to restore the expression of these iodine-metabolizing genes and enhance iodine uptake through in vitro studies and studies of RAI-refractory (RAIR)-DTC patients. In this review, we discuss the regulation of NIS, known mechanisms of dedifferentiation including the MAPK and PI3K pathways, and the current status of redifferentiation therapy for RAIR-DTC patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , In Vitro Techniques , Iodine , Ion Transport , Isotopes , Mortality , Protein Kinases , Recurrence , Sodium Iodide , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Transfection
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-717306

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: We report our surgical technique for nonintubated uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) pulmonary resection and early postoperative outcomes at a single center. METHODS: Between January and July 2017, 40 consecutive patients underwent nonintubated uniportal VATS pulmonary resection. Multilevel intercostal nerve block was performed using local anesthesia in all patients, and an intrathoracic vagal blockade was performed in 35 patients (87.5%). RESULTS: Twenty-nine procedures (72.5%) were performed in patients with lung cancer (21 lobectomies, 6 segmentectomies, and 2 wedge resections), and 11 (27.5%) in patients with pulmonary metastases, benign lung disease, or pleural disease. The mean anesthesia time was 166.8 minutes, and the mean operative duration was 125.9 minutes. The mean postoperative chest tube duration was 3.2 days, and the mean hospital stay was 5.8 days. There were 3 conversions (7.5%) to intubation due to intraoperative hypoxemia and 1 conversion (2.5%) to multiportal VATS due to injury of the segmental artery. There were 7 complications (17.5%), including 3 cases of prolonged air leak, 2 cases of chylothorax, 1 case of pleural effusion, and 1 case of pneumonia. There was no in-hospital mortality. CONCLUSION: Nonintubated uniportal VATS appears to be a feasible and valid surgical option, depending on the surgeon’s experience, for appropriately selected patients.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Local , Hypoxia , Arteries , Chest Tubes , Chylothorax , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Intercostal Nerves , Intubation , Ion Transport , Length of Stay , Lung Diseases , Lung Neoplasms , Mastectomy, Segmental , Minimally Invasive Surgical Procedures , Neoplasm Metastasis , Pleural Diseases , Pleural Effusion , Pneumonia , Thoracic Surgery , Thoracic Surgery, Video-Assisted
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-787018

ABSTRACT

Although radioiodine has been applied in thyroid diseases including carcinoma for over 70 years, it was only in 1996 that the basic molecular mechanism of iodine uptake was identified. Iodide is actively transported into the thyroid via a membrane glycoprotein known as sodium iodide symporter (NIS). NIS mediates radioiodine uptake into thyroid normal and cancer cells. The knowledge on NIS expression has provided scientific background to the empirical management of thyroid carcinoma. Based on recent studies of the NIS gene, this paper provides current clinical applications and future studies.


Subject(s)
Genetic Therapy , Humans , Iodine , Ion Transport , Membrane Glycoproteins , Sodium Iodide , Sodium , Theranostic Nanomedicine , Thyroid Diseases , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
10.
Yonsei Medical Journal ; : 746-753, 2018.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-716429

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: The present study investigated the dynamics and prognostic role of messenger RNA (mRNA) expression responsible for 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in FDG positron emission tomography (PET) and radioactive iodine (131I) uptake in whole-body radioactive iodine scans (WBS) in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The primary and processed data were downloaded from the Genomic Data Commons Data Portal. Expression data for sodium/iodide symporter (solute carrier family 5 member 5, SLC5A5), hexokinase (HK1–3), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), and glucose transporter (solute carrier family 2, SLC2A1–4) mRNA were collected. RESULTS: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA were negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA and positively correlated with SLC2A4 mRNA. In PTC with BRAF mutations, expressions of SLC2A1, SLC2A3, HK2, and HK3 mRNA were higher than those in PTC without BRAF mutations. Expression of SLC5A5, SLC2A4, HK1, and G6PD mRNA was lower in PTC without BRAF mutation. PTCs with higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA had more favorable disease-free survival, but no association with overall survival. CONCLUSION: Expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was negatively correlated with SLC2A1 mRNA. This finding provides a molecular basis for the management of PTC with negative WBS using 18F-FDG PET scans. In addition, higher expression of SLC5A5 mRNA was associated with less PTC recurrence, but not with deaths.


Subject(s)
Disease-Free Survival , Fluorodeoxyglucose F18 , Genome , Glucose Transport Proteins, Facilitative , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Hexokinase , Humans , Iodine , Ion Transport , Positron-Emission Tomography , Recurrence , RNA, Messenger , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-738943

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Sodium-iodine symporter (NIS) is a marker for the degree of differentiation in thyroid cancer. The genetic factors or microenvironment surrounding tumors can affect transcription of NIS. In this study, we investigated the NIS mRNA expression according to mutational status and coexistent lymphocytic thyroiditis in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The RNA expression levels of NIS in the samples from database of The Caner Genome Atlas (TCGA; n=494) and our institute (n=125) were analyzed. RESULTS: The PTCs with the BRAFV600E mutation and the coexistence of BRAFV600E and TERT promoter mutations showed significantly lower expression of NIS (p < 0.001, respectively), and those with BRAF-like molecular subtype also had reduced expression of NIS (p < 0.001). NIS expression showed a positive correlation with thyroid differentiation score (r=0.593, p < 0.001) and negative correlations with expressions of genes involved in ERK signaling (r=−0.164, p < 0.001) and GLUT-1 gene (r=−0.204, p < 0.001). The PTCs with lymphocytic thyroiditis showed significantly higher NIS expression (p=0.013), regardless of mutational status. CONCLUSION: The NIS expression was reduced by the BRAFV600E mutation and MAPK/ERK pathway activation, but restored by the presence of lymphocytic thyroiditis.


Subject(s)
Genome , Ion Transport , RNA , RNA, Messenger , Thyroid Gland , Thyroid Neoplasms , Thyroiditis, Autoimmune
12.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761234

ABSTRACT

Inner ear is composed of cochlea, vestibule, and endolymphatic sac which are enclosed by thin layer of epithelial cells. The enclosed space is filled with fluid named as endolymph where the [K⁺] is high and [Na⁺] is low. This unique ion composition is very important in maintaining normal hearing and balance function by providing K⁺ ions into sensory hair cells, which finally depolarize hair cells to facilitate the transport of sound and acceleration stimulation to central nervous system. The ion composition of inner ear is maintained by various ion transport through ion channels, transporters, and exchangers in the inner ear sensory and extra-sensory epithelium. The disruption of normal endolymphatic ion composition by the deterioration of the function of those ion channels can cause dysfunction of sensory epithelium, which consequently results in hearing and balance disorders. One of the possible pathology from the disruption of inner ear ion homeostasis is endolymphatic hydrops which is a phenomenon of excessive fluid accumulation of inner ear. The dysfunction of ion channels in inner ear epithelium can be an etiology of Ménière's disease since endolymphatic hydrops is a main pathological finding of the disease. In this review, we discussed about the possible pathological mechanism of Ménière's disease as a perspective of channelopathy as well as the role of various ion channels in the regulation of inner ear fluid volume based on the findings revealed by electrophysiological studies.


Subject(s)
Acceleration , Central Nervous System , Channelopathies , Cochlea , Ear, Inner , Electrophysiology , Endolymph , Endolymphatic Hydrops , Endolymphatic Sac , Epithelial Cells , Epithelium , Hair , Hearing , Homeostasis , Ion Channels , Ion Transport , Ions , Meniere Disease , Pathology
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-727981

ABSTRACT

Several human diseases have been associated with mitochondrial voltage-dependent anion channel-1 (VDAC1) due to its role in calcium ion transportation and apoptosis. Recent studies suggest that VDAC1 may interact with endothelium-dependent nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Decreased VDAC1 expression may limit the physical interaction between VDAC1 and eNOS and thus impair nitric oxide production, leading to cardiovascular diseases, including pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this report, we conducted meta-analysis of genome-wide expression data to identify VDAC1 influenced genes implicated in PAH pathobiology. First, we identified the genes differentially expressed between wild-type and Vdac1 knockout mouse embryonic fibroblasts in hypoxic conditions. These genes were deemed to be influenced by VDAC1 deficiency. Gene ontology analysis indicates that the VDAC1 influenced genes are significantly associated with PAH pathobiology. Second, a molecular signature derived from the VDAC1 influenced genes was developed. We suggest that, VDAC1 has a protective role in PAH and the gene expression signature of VDAC1 influenced genes can be used to i) predict severity of pulmonary hypertension secondary to pulmonary diseases, ii) differentiate idiopathic pulmonary artery hypertension (IPAH) patients from controls, and iii) differentiate IPAH from connective tissue disease associated PAH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia , Apoptosis , Calcium , Cardiovascular Diseases , Connective Tissue Diseases , Fibroblasts , Gene Expression , Gene Ontology , Humans , Hypertension , Hypertension, Pulmonary , Ion Transport , Lung Diseases , Mice , Mice, Knockout , Nitric Oxide , Nitric Oxide Synthase , Pulmonary Artery , Transcriptome
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-57413

ABSTRACT

Guanylyl cyclase C (GC-C) is a member of a family of enzymes that metabolize GTP to cGMP and was first identified as a receptor for heat-stable enterotoxin. Guanylin (GNY) has since been identified as an endogenous ligand for GC-C in the intestine of several mammalian species. The GNY/GC-C system regulates ion transportation and pH in the mucosa. Recently, it was reported that GC-C and GNY are involved in lipid metabolism in rat mesenteric adipose tissue macrophages. To examine the role of GC-C and GNY in lipid metabolism in cattle, we used a bovine mesenteric adipocyte primary culture system and a coculture system for bovine adipocytes and GNY-/GC-C-expressing macrophages. Fat droplets were observed to accumulate in bovine mesenteric adipocytes cultured alone, whereas few fat droplets accumulated in adipocytes indirectly cocultured with macrophages. We also observed that GC-C was present in bovine mesenteric adipose tissue, and that fat droplet accumulation decreased after in vitro GNY administration. Expressions of mRNAs encoding lipogenic factors decreased significantly in adipocytes after either coculture or GNY administration. These results suggest that the GNY/GC-C system is part of the control system for lipid accumulation in bovine mesenteric adipose tissue.


Subject(s)
Adipocytes , Adipose Tissue , Animals , Cattle , Coculture Techniques , Enterotoxins , Guanosine Triphosphate , Guanylate Cyclase , Humans , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , In Vitro Techniques , Intestines , Ion Transport , Lipid Metabolism , Macrophages , Mucous Membrane , Rats , RNA, Messenger
15.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-728575

ABSTRACT

Intracellular calcium (Ca²⁺) oscillation is an initial event in digestive enzyme secretion of pancreatic acinar cells. Reactive oxygen species are known to be associated with a variety of oxidative stress-induced cellular disorders including pancreatitis. In this study, we investigated the effect of hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂) on intracellular Ca²⁺ accumulation in mouse pancreatic acinar cells. Perfusion of H₂O₂ at 300 µM resulted in additional elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and termination of oscillatory Ca²⁺ signals induced by carbamylcholine (CCh) in the presence of normal extracellular Ca²⁺. Antioxidants, catalase or DTT, completely prevented H₂O₂-induced additional Ca²⁺ increase and termination of Ca²⁺ oscillation. In Ca²⁺-free medium, H₂O₂ still enhanced CCh-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ levels and thapsigargin (TG) mimicked H₂O₂-induced cytosolic Ca²⁺ increase. Furthermore, H₂O₂-induced elevation of intracellular Ca²⁺ levels was abolished under sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca²⁺ ATPase-inactivated condition by TG pretreatment with CCh. H₂O₂ at 300 µM failed to affect store-operated Ca²⁺ entry or Ca²⁺ extrusion through plasma membrane. Additionally, ruthenium red, a mitochondrial Ca²⁺ uniporter blocker, failed to attenuate H₂O₂-induced intracellular Ca²⁺ elevation. These results provide evidence that excessive generation of H₂O₂ in pathological conditions could accumulate intracellular Ca²⁺ by attenuating refilling of internal Ca²⁺ stores rather than by inhibiting Ca²⁺ extrusion to extracellular fluid or enhancing Ca²⁺ mobilization from extracellular medium in mouse pancreatic acinar cells.


Subject(s)
Acinar Cells , Animals , Antioxidants , Calcium , Carbachol , Catalase , Cell Membrane , Cytosol , Extracellular Fluid , Hydrogen Peroxide , Hydrogen , Ion Transport , Mice , Pancreatitis , Perfusion , Reactive Oxygen Species , Reticulum , Ruthenium Red , Thapsigargin
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-83810

ABSTRACT

Hypokalemia causes metabolic alkalosis and morphological changes of the kidney. K⁺ balance is regulated not only by ion channels or pump gene, but also by various genes including NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Previous study suggested the possibility that Akt and ERK kinase may be involved in Nrf2 transcriptional gene activation. In present study, we investigate the alterations of Akt, p-Akt, ERK, p-ERK protein in both normal kidney and K⁺-deficient diet kidney using Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemisrty. Our western blot data showed that the expression of Akt and p-Akt was increased gradually in K⁺-depleted diet (from 1W-3W) compared to normal group. The expression of ERK and p-ERK was markedly increased in K⁺-depleted diet 2W in comparison with normal group. Based on our immunostaining results, Akt protein immunoreactivity was prominently increased in outer medullary collecting duct, especially in K⁺-depleted diet 2 weeks. The localization of p-Akt proteins in K⁺-depleted groups was not different from normal group, but the immunoreactivity was significantly increased in distal convoluted tubule, macula densa and outer medullary thick ascending limb in K⁺-depleted diet 1 and 2 weeks groups. ERK protein immunoreactivity was prominently increased in outer medullary collecting duct, especially in K⁺-depleted diet 2 and 3 weeks. The localization of p-ERK proteins in K⁺-depleted groups was not different from normal group, but the immunoreactivity was prominently increased in the nucleus of outer medullary collecting duct especially in K⁺-depleted diet 2 weeks. Taken together, we suggest that the expression of p-Akt was gradually increased in K⁺-depleted groups of kidney, but the expression of p-ERK was markedly increased in K⁺-depleted diet 2 week group. Hence, the promotion of AKT and ERK phosphorylation in hypokalemic condition may be involved in the regulation of ion channels, ion transporters and subsequent intracellular signal transduction.


Subject(s)
Alkalosis , Animals , Blotting, Western , Diet , Extremities , Hypokalemia , Ion Channels , Ion Transport , Kidney , NF-E2-Related Factor 2 , Phosphorylation , Phosphotransferases , Rats , Signal Transduction , Transcriptional Activation
17.
Acta Physiologica Sinica ; (6): 323-334, 2016.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-331651

ABSTRACT

Ion channels and transporters represent two major types of pathways of transmembrane transport for ions. Distinct from ion channels which conduct passive ionic diffusion, ion transporters mediate active transport of ions. In the perspective of biochemistry, ion transporters are enzymes that catalyze the movement of ions across the plasma membrane. In the present review, we selected the Na(+)/HCO3(-) cotransporter (NBC) as an example to analyze the key biochemical and biophysical properties of ion transporters, including stoichiometry, turnover number and transport capacity. Moreover, we provided an analysis of the electrophysiological principles of NBC based on the laws of thermodynamics. Based on the thermodynamical analysis, we showed how the stoichiometry of an NBC determines the direction of its ion transport. Finally, we reviewed the methodology for experimental determination of the stoichiometry of NBC, as well as the physiological significance of the stoichiometry of NBCs in specific tissues.


Subject(s)
Electrophysiological Phenomena , Ion Transport , Sodium-Bicarbonate Symporters
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285263

ABSTRACT

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and free radicals cause oxidative stress, which induces cellular injuries, metabolic dysfunction, and even cell death in various clinical abnormalities. Fullerene (C60) is critical for scavenging oxygen free radicals originated from cell metabolism, and reduced glutathione (GSH) is another important endogenous antioxidant. In this study, a novel water-soluble reduced glutathione fullerene derivative (C60-GSH) was successfully synthesized, and its beneficial roles in protecting against H2O2-induced oxidative stress and apoptosis in cultured HEK 293T cells were investigated. Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy and (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance were used to confirm the chemical structure of C60-GSH. Our results demonstrated that C60-GSH prevented the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated cell damage. Additionally, C60-GSH pretreatment significantly attenuated H2O2-induced superoxide dismutase (SOD) consumption and malondialdehyde (MDA) elevation. Furthermore, C60-GSH inhibited intracellular calcium mobilization, and subsequent cell apoptosis via bcl-2/bax-caspase-3 signaling pathway induced by H2O2 stimulation in HEK 293T cells. Importantly, these protective effects of C60-GSH were superior to those of GSH. In conclusion, these results suggested that C60-GSH has potential to protect against H2O2-induced cell apoptosis by scavenging free radicals and maintaining intracellular calcium homeostasis without evident toxicity.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , Calcium , Metabolism , Caspase 3 , Genetics , Metabolism , Cell Survival , Fullerenes , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Gene Expression Regulation , Glutathione , Pharmacology , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Hydrogen Peroxide , Pharmacology , Ion Transport , Malondialdehyde , Metabolism , Oxidative Stress , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2 , Genetics , Metabolism , Reactive Oxygen Species , Metabolism , Signal Transduction , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , bcl-2-Associated X Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285258

ABSTRACT

Swelling-activated chloride currents (ICl.swell) are thought to play a role in several physiologic and pathophysiologic processes and thus represent a target for therapeutic approaches. However, the mechanism of ICl.swell regulation remains unclear. In this study, we used the whole-cell patch-clamp technique to examine the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of ICl.swell in human atrial myocytes. Atrial myocytes were isolated from the right atrial appendages of patients undergoing coronary artery bypass and enzymatically dissociated. ICl.swell was evoked in hypotonic solution and recorded using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique. The PKC agonist phorbol dibutyrate (PDBu) enhanced ICl.swell in a concentration-dependent manner, which was reversed in isotonic solution and by a chloride current inhibitor, 9-anthracenecarboxylicacid. Furthermore, the PKC inhibitor bis-indolylmaleimide attenuated the effect and 4α-PDBu, an inactive PDBu analog, had no effect on ICl.swell. These results, obtained using the whole-cell patch-clamp technique, demonstrate the ability of PKC to activate ICl,swell in human atrial myocytes. This observation was consistent with a previous study using a single-channel patch-clamp technique, but differed from some findings in other species.


Subject(s)
Anthracenes , Pharmacology , Chloride Channels , Metabolism , Chlorides , Metabolism , Culture Media , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Evoked Potentials , Physiology , Heart Atria , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Humans , Hypotonic Solutions , Metabolism , Pharmacology , Indoles , Pharmacology , Ion Transport , Maleimides , Pharmacology , Myocytes, Cardiac , Cell Biology , Metabolism , Patch-Clamp Techniques , Phorbol 12,13-Dibutyrate , Pharmacology , Primary Cell Culture , Protein Kinase C , Metabolism
20.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-285254

ABSTRACT

Age-related hearing loss (AHL) is one of the most common sensory disorders among elderly persons. The inwardly rectifying potassium channel 5.1 (Kir5.1) plays a vital role in regulating cochlear K(+) circulation which is necessary for normal hearing. The distribution of Kir5.1 in C57BL/6J mice cochleae, and the relationship between the expression of Kir5.1 and the etiology of AHL were investigated. Forty C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups at 4, 12, 24 and 52 weeks of age respectively. The location of Kir5.1 was detected by immunofluorescence technique. The mRNA and protein expression of Kir5.1 was evaluated in mice cochleae using real-time polymerase-chain reactions (RT-PCR) and Western blotting respectively. Kir5.1 was detected in the type II and IV fibrocytes of the spiral ligament in the cochlear lateral wall of C57BL/6J mice. The expression levels of Kir5.1 mRNA and protein in the cochleae of aging C57BL/6J mice were down-regulated. It was suggested that the age-related decreased expression of Kir5.1 in the lateral wall of C57BL/6J mice was associated with hearing loss. Our results indicated that Kir5.1 may play an important role in the pathogenesis of AHL.


Subject(s)
Aging , Genetics , Metabolism , Animals , Cations, Monovalent , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Gene Expression Regulation , Ion Transport , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Microtomy , Potassium , Metabolism , Potassium Channels, Inwardly Rectifying , Genetics , Metabolism , Presbycusis , Genetics , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Genetics , Metabolism , Spiral Ligament of Cochlea , Metabolism
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