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1.
Arq. Inst. Biol ; 88: e00182020, 2021. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1357872

ABSTRACT

Sweet potato, Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam (Convolvulaceae), is an essential crop for food security in developing countries. Euscepes postfasciatus (Fairmaire) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) is one of the main pests of I. batatas in tropical and subtropical regions. It feeds on the tuberous roots of I. batatas and induces perforations tunnel-shaped with excrement. The objective of this study was to register, for the first time, the occurrence of E. postfasciatus in I. batatas in the municipality of Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Individuals of E. postfasciatus were found in the larval, pupal and adult stages feeding on the roots, in the genotypes, Brasilândia Branca, Rubisol, UFVJM01, UFVJM02, UFVJM03, UFVJM04, UFVJM08, UFVJM18, UFVJM91, UFVJM291 and UFVJM526 in a greenhouse at the Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM). Euscepes postfasciatus injuries formed superficial and deep galleries with the presence of excrement and unpleasant odor. The record of E. postfasciatus in I. batatas in the municipality of Diamantina is important to develop local strategies for integrated pest management of the crop in the region.(AU)


Subject(s)
Ipomoea , Weevils , Tropical Climate , Coleoptera , Agricultural Pests , Food Supply
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 40(6): 443-450, June 2020. ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1135645

ABSTRACT

Poisonous plants are a significant cause of death among adult cattle in Brazil. Plants that affect the central nervous system are widely spread throughout the Brazilian territory and comprise over 30 toxic species, including the genus Ipomoea, commonly associated with a lysosomal storage disease and a tremorgenic syndrome in livestock. We describe natural and experimental Ipomoea pes caprae poisoning in cattle from a herd in the Northside of Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Affected cattle presented episodes of severe ataxia, abnormal posture followed by falling, muscular tremor, contraction, and spasticity, more prominent in the limbs, intensified by movement and forthcoming, and recumbence. Grossly, a substantial amount of leaves and petioles were found in the rumen. Histopathological examination showed degenerative neuronal changes, mostly in cerebellar Purkinje cells, which were confirmed with Bielschowsky silver. The characteristic clinical changes and mild histological lesion strongly suggested a tremorgenic syndrome. Lectin- immunohistochemistry evaluation reinforced this hypothesis; all lectins tested failed to react with affect neurons and Purkinje cells, which ruled out an underlying lysosomal storage disease. One calf given I. pes caprae leaves experimentally developed clinical signs similar to natural cases. On the 28th day of the experiment, the plant administration was suspended, and the calf recovered within four days. I. pes caprae's spontaneous tremorgenic syndrome in cattle is conditioned to exclusive feeding for several months. We were able to experimentally reproduce toxic clinical signs 12 days following the ingestion.(AU)


A intoxicação por plantas tóxicas está entre as três causas de morte mais importantes em bovinos adultos no Brasil. O grupo das plantas que causam alterações neurológicas, muito bem representada no país, encerra mais de trinta espécies tóxicas, entre as quais do gênero Ipomoea, amplamente distribuídas no território brasileiro. As plantas tóxicas desse gênero podem causar doenças do armazenamento ou síndrome tremorgênica. Descrevem-se a intoxicação natural e reprodução experimental por Ipomoea pes caprae em bovinos, verificada no norte do Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Foram observados episódios de intensa ataxia locomotora, postura anormal seguida de queda, incapacidade de levantar-se, tremores, contrações, espasticidades musculares nos membros, intensificados após estimulação ou a simples aproximação e decúbito. Nos bovinos afetados há mais de 6 meses, os sinais clínicos tornavam-se permanentes. À necropsia havia apenas significativa quantidade de folhas e pecíolos da planta no rúmen. O estudo histopatológico evidenciou lesões neuronais degenerativas principalmente nos neurônios de Purkinje. A impregnação argêntica pela técnica de Bielschowsky ratificou esses achados microscópicos. As lesões histológicas sutis associadas ao quadro clínico indicam que trata-se de intoxicação tremorgênica. O fato de não haver nenhum armazenamento intracitoplasmático, confirmado pelo resultado do estudo lectino-histoquímico (não houve afinidade das lectinas Con-A, WGA e sWGA e de outras lectinas empregadas aos neurônios de Purkinje e outros neurônios afetados), é suficiente para descartar a possibilidade de tratar-se de doença do armazenamento. No bezerro intoxicado experimentalmente verificaram-se sinais clínicos semelhantes, entretanto, com a interrupção do fornecimento da planta no 28º dia, os sinais clínicos desapareceram após quatro dias. I. pes caprae causa síndrome tremorgênica espontânea em bovinos, quando ingerida como alimentação exclusiva durante períodos prolongados (muitos meses). Experimentalmente, os primeiros sinais clínicos da intoxicação foram reproduzidos após 12 dias de ingestão da planta.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Plant Poisoning/epidemiology , Cattle Diseases , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/etiology , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/pathology , Ipomoea/poisoning , Tremor/etiology , Tremor/veterinary , Neurotoxicity Syndromes/veterinary
3.
Braz. j. biol ; 80(1): 47-56, Feb. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089288

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study aimed to evaluate the effects of florivory and of the patrolling ants associated to EFNs-extrafloral nectaries, on the frequency of floral visitors, using the specie Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa (Martius and Choise) in Caatinga area. The floral attributes of the species were characterized. The effect of florivoria on the frequency of visitors and the influence of the presence of ants associated with the NEFs on the pollinator visit rate were evaluated. The rate of natural florivoria was recorded and collected floral visitors and ants over eight months. The damage on floral structure and the presence of ants foraging in the flowers causes a decrease in the number of total visits. The results may be justified by the fact that the floral damage consisted in the loss of important floral attributes. These effects for Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa can affect reproductive success, since it is a self-incompatible species and depends on the activity of the pollinators for their fertilization to occur.


Resumo Este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da florivoria e do patrulhamento de formigas nos NEFs - nectários extraflorais sobre a frequência dos visitantes florais, utilizando a espécie Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa (Martius e Choise), em uma área de Caatinga. Os atributos florais da espécie foram caracterizados. Foram avaliados o efeito da florivoria sobre a frequência dos visitantes e a influência da presença de formigas associadas aos NEFs sobre a taxa de visita de polinizadores. Ao longo de oito meses foram registrados a taxa de florivoria natural foi registrada e realizada a coleta de visitantes florais e formigas. Os danos na estrutura floral e presença de formigas forrageando nas flores provocam decréscimo no número de visitas totais. Os resultados podem ser justificado pelo fato de que o dano floral consistiu na perda de atributos florais importantes. Estes efeitos para Ipomoea carnea subs. fistulosa podem afetar o sucesso reprodutivo, uma vez que é uma espécie autoincompatível e depende da atividade dos polinizadores para que a sua fecundação ocorra.


Subject(s)
Animals , Ants , Convolvulaceae , Ipomoea , Flowers , Pollination
4.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(11): 2044-2051, Nov. 2018. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976409

ABSTRACT

Numerous plant species worldwide including some Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) and Sida (Malvaceae) species in Brazil cause lysosomal storage disease in herbivores and are known to contain swainsonine and calystegines as the main toxic compounds. The aim of this work was to determine swainsonine and calystegines concentrations in species of Convolvulaceae from the semiarid region of Pernambuco. Seven municipalities in the Moxotó region were visited and nine species were collected and screened for the presence of swainsonine and calystegines using an HPLC-APCI-MS method. The presence and concentration of these alkaloids within the same and in different species were very variable. Seven species are newly reported here containing swainsonine and/or calystegines. Ipomoea subincana contained just swainsonine. Ipomoea megapotamica, I. rosea and Jacquemontia corymbulosa contained swainsonine and calystegines. Ipomoea sericosepala, I. brasiliana, I. nil, I. bahiensis and I. incarnata contained just calystegines. The discovery of six Ipomoea species and one Jacquemontia species containing toxic polyhydroxy alkaloids reinforces the importance of this group of poisonous plants to ruminants and horses in the semiarid region of Pernambuco. Epidemiological surveys should be conducted to investigate the occurrence of lysosomal storage disease associated to these new species.(AU)


Numerosas espécies de plantas em todo o mundo, incluindo algumas espécies de Ipomoea (Convolvulaceae) e Sida (Malvaceae) no Brasil, causam doença de armazenamento lisossomal em herbívoros e são conhecidas por conterem swainsonina e calisteginas como princípios tóxicos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a concentração de swainsonina e calisteginas em espécies de Convolvulaceae da região semiárida de Pernambuco. Sete municípios na região do Sertão do Moxotó foram visitados, onde foram coletadas amostras das folhas de nove espécies de Convolvulaceae para avaliação da presença de swainsonina e calisteginas utilizando-se cromatografia líquida com espectrometria de massa. A presença e concentração destes alcaloides nas folhas de plantas da mesma espécie e dentre as espécies foram muito variáveis. Seis novas espécies de Ipomoea e uma espécie de Jacquemontia contendo swainsonina e/ou calisteginas são relatadas neste estudo. Ipomoea subincana continha apenas swainsonina. Ipomoea megapotamica, I. rosea e Jacquemontia corymbulosa continham swainsonina e calisteginas. Ipomoea sericosepala, I. brasiliana, I. nil, I. bahiensis e I. incarnata continham apenas calisteginas. A descoberta de novas espécies de Ipomoea e Jacquemontia contendo alcaloides polihidroxílicos tóxicos reforçam a importância deste grupo de plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e equinos na região semiárida de Pernambuco. Pesquisas epidemiológicas devem ser realizadas para investigar a ocorrência de doença de depósito lisossomal associada a essas novas espécies.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Plants, Toxic/poisoning , Swainsonine/poisoning , Convolvulaceae/poisoning , Ipomoea/toxicity , Ruminants , Lysosomal Storage Diseases/veterinary , Horses
5.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(5): 835-839, May 2018. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-955410

ABSTRACT

Em um levantamento feito nos anos de 2015 e 2016 no estado de Sergipe, com o objetivo de conhecer as plantas tóxicas para ruminantes e equídeos, foram visitadas propriedades rurais em 16 municípios, englobando as mesorregiões do litoral, agreste e sertão. Para isso foram realizadas entrevistas a 32 produtores e 10 a médicos veterinários da região. De acordo com o levantamento, Amorimia spp., Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea asarifolia, Palicourea aeneofusca e Poiretia punctata são responsáveis por mortes de animais gerando prejuízos consideráveis aos produtores. Surtos esporádicos de intoxicações por Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Mimosa tenuiflora, Pannisetum purpureum e Manihot esculenta também foram relatados. Alguns produtores relataram surtos isolados de intoxicações por Ziziphus joazeiro e citrus sp, plantas não conhecidas anteriormente como tóxicas.(AU)


In a survey on toxic plants for ruminants and equidae conducted in 2015 and 2016 in the state of Sergipe, farms from16 municipalities of different microregions (litoral, agreste and sertão) were visited. Thirty two farmers and 10 veterinarians were interviewed about the occurrence of known toxic plants in the state of Sergipe and poisoning by plants previously unknown. According to the survey, Amorimia spp., Crotalaria retusa, Ipomoea asarifolia, Palicourea aeneofusca and Poiretia punctata are important causes of death on livestock in the region. Sporadic poisonings by Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa, Mimosa tenuiflora, Pannisetum purpureum and Manihot esculenta were also registered. Some farmers reported poisoning by Ziziphus joazeiro and Citrus spp., which had not been reported previously as toxic.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Plants, Toxic/toxicity , Ruminants , Horses , Manihot , Ipomoea , Mimosa
6.
Mycobiology ; : 129-138, 2017.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-729302

ABSTRACT

In this study, we aimed to characterize fungal samples from necrotic lesions on collar regions observed in different sweetpotato growing regions during 2015 and 2016 in Korea. Sclerotia appeared on the root zone soil surface, and white dense mycelia were observed. At the later stages of infection, mother roots quickly rotted, and large areas of the plants were destroyed. The disease occurrence was monitored at 45 and 84 farms, and 11.8% and 6.8% of the land areas were found to be infected in 2015 and 2016, respectively. Fungi were isolated from disease samples, and 36 strains were preserved. Based on the cultural and morphological characteristics of colonies, the isolates resembled the reference strain of Sclerotium rolfsii. Representative strains were identified as S. rolfsii (teleomorph: Athelia rolfsii) based on phylogenetic analysis of the internal transcribed spacer and large subunit genes along with morphological observations. To test the pathogenicity, sweetpotato storage roots were inoculated with different S. rolfsii strains. ‘Yulmi’ variety displayed the highest disease incidence, whereas ‘Pungwonmi’ resulted in the least. These findings suggested that morphological characteristics and molecular phylogenetic analysis were useful for identification of S. rolfsii.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Fungi , Humans , Incidence , Ipomoea batatas , Ipomoea , Korea , Mothers , Soil , Virulence
7.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 18(1,supl.1): 215-222, 2016. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-782982

ABSTRACT

RESUMO O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a atividade alelopática dos lixiviados das raízes e folhas secas de Asemeia extraaxillaris sobre o crescimento de corda de viola Ipomoea cordifolia em casa de vegetação, para avaliação dos efeitos sobre o estresse oxidativo. Nos bioensaios foram utilizadas três concentrações (0,25 - 5,00 e 10,00 g) e um controle, com quatro repetições de 10 plantas, cultivadas em solo durante 30 dias. Os lixiviados possuem ação alelopática e o maior efeito foi verificado para o pó das raizes. O efeito inibitório foi dose-dependente e o aumento do estresse oxidativo foi observado pelos níveis da catalase, peroxidase, superóxido dismutase, glutationa redutase, peroxidação lipídica e síntese de formazan. Concluiu-se que A. extraaxillaris possui substâncias capazes de afetar a emergência, o crescimento e o estresse oxidativo de I. cordifolia.


ABSTRACT The purpose of this article is to assess the allelopathic activity of leachates from the roots and dried leaves of Asemeia extraaxillaris on the germination and growth of corda de viola (Ipomoea cordifolia) in a greenhouse, and evaluate its effect on oxidative stress. For the bioassays, three concentrations (0.25, 5.00, and 10.00 g) and one control were used, with four replications of 10 plants, cultivated in soil for 30 days. The leachates exhibited allelopathic action, and the greatest effect was found in the root powder. The inhibitory effect was dose-dependent and the increase in oxidative stress was observed by the levels of catalase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione reductase, lipid peroxidation, and formazan synthesis. It was affirmed that A. extraaxillaris contains substances capable of affecting seedling emergence, growth, and oxidative stress in I. cordifolia.


Subject(s)
Allelopathy , Ipomoea/classification , Percolation/classification , Polygalaceae/classification , Oxidative Stress
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812632

ABSTRACT

In the present study, two new compounds from Ipomoea cairica were identified and demonstrated to have α-glucosidase inhibitory activity. They were isolated by column chromatography on silica gel and sephadex LH-20 and finally purified by prep-HPLC, with their structures being elucidated by spectroscopic methods, such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and HR-TOF-MS, and chemical methods. Compounds 1 and 2, named cairicoside A and cairicoside B, were evaluated for α-glucosidase inhibitory activity by the MTT method, with the IC50 values being 25.3 ± 1.6 and 28.5 ± 3.3 μmol·L(-1), respectively.


Subject(s)
Glycoside Hydrolase Inhibitors , Pharmacology , Ipomoea , Chemistry , Molecular Structure , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Resins, Plant , Pharmacology , Spectrum Analysis , alpha-Glucosidases
9.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(11): 1073-1076, nov. 2014. ilus, graf, mapas
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-736030

ABSTRACT

Ipomoea asarifolia é uma das principais plantas tóxicas para ruminantes nas regiões Norte e Nordeste. A intoxicação ocorre na época das secas quando há escassez de forragem e é mais frequente em ovinos do que em outras espécies, porem casos espontâneos também são relatados em caprinos, bovinos e búfalos. Este trabalho relata a ocorrência de 18 surtos de intoxicação em bovinos por I. asarifolia que ocorreram de agosto de 2012 a fevereiro de 2013 no estado do Rio Grande Norte. De um total de 1704 bovinos, 202 (11,8%) adoeceram e 34 (2%) morreram. Em seis propriedades onde havia ovinos estes também se intoxicaram. Foram observados também sinais clínicos em bezerros e cordeiros confinados, sem acesso às pastagens, que se intoxicaram pela ingestão do leite das mães que ingeriam I. asarifolia a pasto.(AU)


Ipomoea asarifolia is one of the main poisonous plants in the North and Northeast of Brazil. The poisoning occurs during the dry season when there is shortage of forage, and is more common in sheep; however spontaneous cases are also reported in goats, cattle and buffaloes. This paper reports 18 outbreaks of poisoning in cattle by I. asarifolia which occurred from August 2012 to February 2013 in the state of Rio Grande do Norte. From a total of 1,704 cattle, 202 (11.8%) were affected and 34 (2%) died. On six farms sheep were also affected. Poisoning outbreaks were also observed in lambs and calves that had no access to the pastures but suckled milk from cows and ewes that had ingested I. asarifolia.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Sheep , Ipomoea/poisoning , Epidemiologic Studies , Toxicological Symptoms
10.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 34(11): 1085-1088, nov. 2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: lil-736033

ABSTRACT

With the aim to determine if the tremorgenic toxin of Ipomoea asarifolia is eliminated in milk, three groups of Swiss female mice received, immediately after giving birth until weaning, a ration containing 20% or 30% of dry I. asarifolia. All the offspring of the females that received 20% or 30% I. asarifolia showed tremors 2-4 days after birth. The offspring of the females that received 20% I. asarifolia recovered 4-7 days after weaning. The offspring of the females that received 30% of the plant in the ration died while showing tremors before weaning or up to two days after weaning. It is concluded that the tremorgenic compound of I. asarifolia or its toxic metabolites are eliminated in milk, and that lactating mice may be used as a model for the determination of the toxic compound(s) in this plant.(AU)


Com o objetivo de determinar se a toxina tremorgênica da Ipomoea asarifolia é eliminada pelo leite, três grupos de camundongos fêmeas da linhagem Swiss receberam, imediatamente após o parto até o desmame, ração contendo 20% ou 30% de folhas secas de I. asarifolia. Todos os filhotes das fêmeas que receberam 20% ou 30% de I. asarifolia apresentaram tremores 2-4 dias após o nascimento. Os filhotes das fêmeas que receberam 20% de I. asarifolia se recuperam 4-7 dias após o desmame. Os filhotes das fêmeas que receberam 30% da planta na ração morreram antes do desmame ou até dois dias após o desmame, ainda apresentando tremores. Conclui-se que o componente tremorgênico de I. asarifolia ou seus metabólitos são eliminados no leite, e que camundongos fêmeas em lactação podem ser usados como um modelo para a determinação do(s) composto(s) tóxico(s) desta planta.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Mice , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Inactivation, Metabolic , Ipomoea/poisoning , Milk/chemistry , Toxicological Symptoms
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812292

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To investigate the active chloroform fraction of the ethanol extract of Ipomoea carnea flowers on hematological changes in toluene diisocyanate-induced inflammation in Wistar rats.@*METHOD@#Except for the control group, all of the rats were sensitized with intranasal application of 5 μL of 10% toluene diisocyanate (TDI) for 7 days. One week after second sensitization, all of the rats were provoked with 5 μL of 5% TDI to induce airway hypersensitivity. After the last challenge, blood and bronchoalvelor lavage (BAL) fluid were collected and subjected to total and differential leucocytes count. Flash chromatography was performed on the most active chloroform fraction to isolate an individual component.@*RESULTS@#Treatment with the ethanolic extract and its chloroform fraction at an oral dose of 200 mg·kg⁻¹ showed a significant decrease in circulating neutrophil and eosinophil in blood and BAL as compared with standard dexamethasone (DEXA). The structure of the compound obtained from chloroform fraction of Ipomea carnea was elucidated as stigmast-5, 22-dien-3β-ol on the basis of spectral data analysis.@*CONCLUSION@#The chloroform fraction was found to be more effective to suppress airway hyper reactivity symptoms, and decreased count of both total and differential inflammatory cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Asthma , Blood , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Eosinophils , Metabolism , Female , Flowers , Chemistry , Hematology , Inflammation , Blood , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Ipomoea , Chemistry , Leukocyte Count , Male , Molecular Structure , Neutrophils , Metabolism , Phytotherapy , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Rats , Rats, Wistar , Stigmasterol , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Therapeutic Uses , Toluene 2,4-Diisocyanate
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330343

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To observe the effect of alcohol extracts from Pharbitidis Semen on the proliferation and metastasis of Lewis lung cancer, and study its anti-tumor mechanism.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>In vitro, MTT assay and scratch assay were adopted to detect the effect of alcohol extracts from Pharbitidis Semen on the proliferation and metastasis of Lewis lung cancer cells. The cell autophagy was detected by the acridine orange staining. The gap-junction intercellular communication (GJIC) was investigated by the fluorescent yellow transfer. The expression of aquaporin 1 (AQP1) was analyzed by the Western blotting. In vivo, the subcutaneous implant model and the experimental pulmonary metastasis model of Lewis lung cancer in mice were established to evaluate the anti-tumor and anti-metastasis effects of alcohol extract from Pharbitidis Semen. The serum carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) and beta2 microglobulin (beta2-MG) of mice bearing Lewis lung cancer were detected by the electrochemiluminesence immunoassay. The expressions of lung AQP1 and Connexin 43 (Cx43) were examined by the immunohistochemical method.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>In vitro, alcohol extracts from Pharbitidis Semen inhibited the cell proliferation in a dose-dependent matter, significantly prevented the cell migration, down-regulated AQP1 proteins of cells, promoted GJIC, and decreased the serum-free autophagy of tumor cells. In vivo, compared with untreated model mice, alcohol extracts from Pharbitidis Semen inhibited the tumor growth in a dose-dependent matter, prevented the tumor metastasis and prolonged the life span of mice bearing Lewis lung cancer, while decreasing serum CEA and beta2-MG of mice bearing Lewis lung cancer, enhancing the immumohistochemical staining intensity of Cx43 and weakening aquaporins AQP1 positive intensity.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Alcohol extracts from Pharbitidis Semen could prevent the proliferation and metastasis in Lewis lung cancer cells. Its mechanism may be related to the promotion of GJIC and the down-regulation of AQP1.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Antineoplastic Agents , Aquaporin 1 , Genetics , Metabolism , Carcinoma, Lewis Lung , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Cell Line, Tumor , Connexin 43 , Genetics , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Humans , Ipomoea , Chemistry , Lung Neoplasms , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Pathology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Neoplasm Metastasis , Seeds , Chemistry
13.
Indian J Exp Biol ; 2013 Dec; 51(12): 1109-1119
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-150299

ABSTRACT

Plausible interactions between food contaminants and natural constituents in vivo and protective effect of polyphenols present in I. aquatica against carbofuran toxicity in Charles Foster rats were evaluated. Determinations based on antioxidant enzyme activities showed significant alterations in glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and catalase in tissues (liver and brain) and plasma of pesticide treated group while polyphenolic extracts from I. aquatica (IAE) attenuated their activities when given alongwith carbofuran. IAE decreased enhanced lipid peroxidation levels in plasma and erythrocyte membrane and cholesterol levels in brain and plasma. IAE also minimized histopathological degenerative changes produced by carbofuran. While single cell gel electrophoresis showed that secondary metabolites in leafy vegetables produced a combinatorial effect with pesticide at cellular level, DNA fragmentation level in bone marrow cells showed a decline in the IAE treated rats. Food safety adversely affected by various chemical contaminants can be retained by plant polyphenols and secondary plant constituents that can be found together in bolus. Therefore, the present study gives an insight into the protective role of naturally found polyphenols against pesticide toxicity.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antioxidants/administration & dosage , Antioxidants/chemistry , Carbofuran/toxicity , Catalase/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/blood , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/drug therapy , Chemical and Drug Induced Liver Injury/enzymology , Glutathione Peroxidase/blood , Ipomoea/chemistry , Lipid Peroxidation/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Male , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Plant Extracts/chemistry , Polyphenols/administration & dosage , Polyphenols/chemistry , Rats , Superoxide Dismutase/blood
14.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 33(7): 867-872, jul. 2013. ilus, mapas, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-683229

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to reproduce the poisoning of Ipomoea verbascoidea in goats and describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of spontaneous poisoning by this plant in Pernambuco. For this, we studied the epidemiology of the disease in seven municipalities in the semiarid region of the State. Three spontaneously poisoned goats were examined and then euthanized and necropsied (Group I). To reproduce the disease, the dried leaves of I. verbascoidea containing 0.02% swainsonine were supplied at doses of 4g/kg (0.8mg swainsonine/kg) to two groups of three animals. The goats in Group II received daily doses of the plant during 40 days and were euthanized on the 41st day of the experiment. Goats from Group III received daily doses of the plant during 55 days and were euthanized on the 120th day of the experiment. Other three goats constituted the control group (Group IV). In experimental groups, the brain lesions were evaluated by histopathology; additionally the cerebellar lesions were evaluated by morphometry, by measuring the molecular layer thickness, the number of Purkinje cells and the area of the cell bodies of these cells. The main clinical signs and microscopic lesions in goats poisoned were similar to those reported by swainsonine containing plants. In goats of GII and GIII, the first nervous signs were observed between 22th and 29th days; clinically, the disease developed by these animals was similar to the spontaneous cases. The goats of GIII did not recover from the neurologic signs. These results show that the consumption of the plant by 26-28 days after observation of the first clinical signs is enough to cause irreversible damage. By morphometric analysis, the molecular layer of the cerebellum of the goats of Group I and III were thinner than those of goats in the control group, and Purkinje neurons were atrophic. It is suggested that these changes are responsible for the neurological picture observed in goats that stop eating the plant and have sequelae of poisoning.


O objetivo deste trabalho foi reproduzir a intoxicação por Ipomoea verbascoidea em caprinos e descrever os aspectos epidemiológicos, clínicos e histopatológicos da intoxicação espontânea por essa planta no Estado de Pernambuco. Para isso, realizou-se o acompanhamento da epidemiologia da doença em sete municípios do semiárido pernambucano. Três caprinos espontaneamente intoxicados foram examinados e, em seguida eutanasiados e necropsiados (Grupo I). Para reproduzir experimentalmente a doença, as folhas secas de I. verbascoidea contendo 0,02% de swainsonina, foram fornecidas na dose de 4g/kg (0,8mg de swainsonina/kg) a dois grupos de três animais. Os caprinos do Grupo II receberam a planta diariamente por 40 dias e foram eutanasiados no 41º dia de experimento. Os caprinos do Grupo III receberam a planta diariamente por 55 dias e foram eutanasiados no 120º dia de experimento. Outros três caprinos constituíram o grupo controle (Grupo IV). Nos grupos experimentais, as lesões encefálicas foram avaliadas por histopatologia e adicionalmente avaliaram-se as lesões cerebelares por morfometria, mediante mensuração da espessura da camada molecular, do número de neurônios de Purkinje e da área dos corpos celulares dessas células. Os principais sinais clínicos e lesões microscópicas foram semelhantes aos previamente reportados em animais intoxicados por plantas que contem swainsonina. Nos caprinos do GII e GIII, os primeiros sinais clínicos foram observados entre o 22º e 29º dia de experimento; clinicamente a doença desenvolvida por esses animais foi semelhante aos casos espontâneos. Nenhum dos caprinos do GIII se recuperou dos sinais neurológicos. Esse resultado evidencia que o consumo da planta por 26-28 dias após a observação dos primeiros sinais clínicos é suficiente para provocar lesões irreversíveis. Pela análise morfométrica, a camada molecular do cerebelo dos caprinos do Grupo I e III eram mais delgadas que às dos caprinos do grupo controle, e os neurônios de Purkinje estavam atróficos. Sugere-se que essas alterações sejam responsáveis pelo quadro clínico neurológico observado nos caprinos que deixam de ingerir a planta e apresentam seqüelas da intoxicação.


Subject(s)
Animals , Poisoning/veterinary , Ipomoea/toxicity , Plants, Toxic/toxicity , Convolvulaceae , Neurons/enzymology , Neurons/chemistry
15.
Biosci. j. (Online) ; 29(3): 760-766, may/june 2013.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-914612

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o potencial alelopático do extrato aquoso de raiz de Sapindus saponaria L. (sabão-de-soldado) sobre a germinação de diásporos e crescimento de plântulas de Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Link (capim-arroz) e Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer) O'Donell (corda-de-viola). O extrato aquoso foi preparado na proporção de 100 g de material vegetal seco para 1000 mL de água destilada, produzindo-se a concentração de 10%. A partir dele, foram feitas diluições em água destilada para 7,5, 5,0 e 2,5%. O extrato da raiz de S. saponaria não inibiu a germinabilidade dos diásporos de capim-arroz e corda-de-viola. A maior atividade alelopática ocorreu sobre o crescimento das plântulas, sendo evidenciado pelo alto índice de plântulas anormais, pela redução no comprimento da parte aérea e, principalmente, no comprimento da raiz. O efeito inibitório foi dependente da concentração e variou de acordo com a espécie receptora estudada.


The aim of this study was to evaluate the allelopathic potential of aqueous extract of Sapindus Saponaria L. (soapberry) root on diaspore germination and seedling growth of Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Link (barnyardgrass) and Ipomoea grandifolia (Dammer) O'Donell (morningglory). The aqueous extract was prepared in a proportion of 100 g of dry plant material in 1000 mL of distilled water, resulting in 10% concentration. The dilutions were made with distilled water to 7.5, 5.0 and 2.5%. The root extract of S. saponaria did not inhibit the germination of the barnyardgrass and morningglory diaspores. The highest allelopathic activity occurred on seedlings growth, being evidenced by the high rate of abnormal seedlings, reduction in shoot length and mainly on root length. The inhibitory effect was concentration-dependent and varied with the receptor species studied.


Subject(s)
Sapindus , Echinochloa , Ipomoea , Pheromones
16.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 32(8): 707-714, ago. 2012. ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-649508

ABSTRACT

A aversão alimentar condicionada é uma técnica que pode ser utilizada em animais para evitar a ingestão de plantas tóxicas. A técnica foi utilizada em uma fazenda para controlar a intoxicação por Turbina cordata e em outra para Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa. Os caprinos eram presos à noite, e na manhã do dia seguinte lhes era ofertada a planta verde, recém-colhida, por dez minutos. Os caprinos que ingerissem qualquer quantidade da planta eram identificados, pesados e tratados com LiCl na dose de 175mg/kg peso vivo através de sonda esofágica. No rebanho da fazenda na que havia T. cordata a técnica foi aplicada a cada dois meses durante o período em que a planta é encontrada. Durante todo o experimento, de dezembro de 2009 a abril de 2011 não ocorreu nenhum novo caso de intoxicação no rebanho e diminuiu gradualmente o número de animais avertidos e a quantidade de planta que ingeriam os mesmos durante o processo de aversão. Na fazenda na que ocorria intoxicação por I. carnea a maioria de rebanho foi avertido em dezembro de 2010, 15-20 dias antes do início das chuvas, e os animais não ingeriram a planta espontaneamente no campo até setembro-outubro de 2011, durante o período da seca, quando havia extrema carência de forragem e iniciaram a ingerir a planta no campo. Posteriormente, apesar de três tratamentos aversivos com 21 dias de intervalo, os animais continuaram a ingerir a planta e ocorreram casos clínicos. A técnica de aversão alimentar condicionada demonstrou ser eficiente e viável para o controle da intoxicação por T. cordata. Para a intoxicação por I. carnea a técnica impediu a ingestão da planta somente durante a época de chuvas, mas não durante a seca, quando há pouca disponibilidade de forragem. A diferença nos resultados com as duas plantas é, aparentemente, resultante das condições epidemiológicas diferentes nas que ocorrem as intoxicações. T. cordata desaparece durante a maior parte do período de seca. A planta rebrota e fica verde durante o fim de seca, quando diminui a oferta de forragem, por curto espaço de tempo, permanecendo verde durante a época de chuvas. I. carnea, por crescer próximas as fontes de água, em áreas húmidas, permanece verde durante todo o período da seca, quando é maior a escassez de forragem, favorecendo desta forma a ingestão da planta pelos animais.


Conditioned food aversion is used to train livestock to avoid the ingestion of toxic plants. This technique was used to control Turbina cordata poisoning in goats in one farm, and to control Ipomoea carnea subsp. fistulosa poisoning in another farm. The goats were penned at night and the next morning the green plants were offered for 10 minutes. Goats that ingested any amount of the plant were treated through a gastric tube with 175mg of LiCl/kg body weight. In the flock in which the poisoning by T. cordata was occurring, the goats were averted every two months during the period that the plant was found in the pastures. During the experiment, from December 2009 to April 2011, new cases of poisoning were not observed, and there was a progressive decrease in the number of goats that ingested the plant and were averted. In the farm where I. carnea poisoning was occurring, most of the goats were averted in December 2010, 15-20 days before the first rains. The goats of this flock did not ingest the plant spontaneously in the field until September-October 2011, when, due to the dry season, there was a severe forage shortage, and the goats started to ingest the plant in the field. Later, despite three aversive treatments with 21 days intervals, the goats continued to ingest the plant and some animals became poisoned. In conclusion, conditioned food aversion was effective in to control intoxication by T. cordata. The technique was also effective in conditioning goats to avoid consuming I. carnea during the rainy season, but not during the dry season, with low forage availability in the field. The differences in these results seem to be due to the epidemiology of both poisonings: T. cordata is senescent and unavailable during most of the dry period, and green biomass is typically available either at the very end of the dry season, for a short period of time, and during the rainy season when there is no shortage of forage. In contrast, I. carnea grows in wet areas near water sources, and stays green during the dry period when there is a lack of other forage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Lithium Chloride/administration & dosage , Feeding Behavior , Feeding Behavior , Ipomoea/toxicity , Sheep/immunology , Convolvulaceae/toxicity , Plant Poisoning/veterinary , Swainsonine/toxicity
17.
Acta sci., Biol. sci ; 34(2): 217-223, Apr.-June 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-860008

ABSTRACT

As trepadeiras são plantas com alta representatividade nas florestas tropicais e de grande importância ecológica, apontadas como um dos fatores básicos que diferencia florestas tropicais de temperadas. Este trabalho apresenta as espécies de trepadeiras da Estação Ecológica do Caiuá (EECAIUÁ), município de Diamante do Norte, Estado do Paraná, inserida na floresta estacional semidecidual (FES) submontana, situada à margem do rio Paranapanema. Foram encontradas 17 famílias, 44 gêneros e 53 espécies. As cinco famílias mais ricas em número de espécies perfazem juntas 57% do total encontrado. As trepadeiras herbáceas ocorrem em menor número quando comparadas às lianas, e quanto à estratégia utilizada para ascender, as volúveis são as mais diversas, seguidas pelas de órgãos preensores (gavinhas) e escandentes. Uma chave de identificação para famílias, baseada em caracteres vegetativos, foi produzida para as famílias desta localidade com as famílias encontradas em outras duas no Norte do Paraná.


Climbers are highly represented in tropical forests and are of great ecological importance, having been identified as one of the key factors that differentiate tropical forests from temperate rainforests. This paper presents the climber species of the Caiuá Ecological Station (EECAIUÁ) in the City of Diamante do Norte, Paraná State; the Station is located in a submountainous seasonal semideciduous forest (SSF) and is situated on the edge of the Paranapanema river. We found 17 families, 44 genera and 53 species of vines. The five families with the greatest number of species jointly accounted for 57% of the total species found. Herbaceous vines occurred less frequently than did lianas. When considering the climbing strategy used by the species, the graspers were the most diverse, followed by those that had tendrils (scramblers) and climbers. An identification key based on vegetative characters of families found in other parts of northern Paraná was created for the families of this location.


Subject(s)
Forests , Ipomoea , Mikania
18.
Braz. oral res ; 26(2): 158-164, Mar.-Apr. 2012. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622912

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an organic extract obtained from Ipomoea alba L. (Convolvulaceae or OE 1493), on experimental periodontal disease in rats. Periodontitis was induced in thirty six Wistar rats: a first mandibular molar was randomly assigned to receive a ligature, whereas the contralateral molar was left unligated. Animals were randomly assigned to two groups and treated topically, three times a day, for 11 days, as follows: Control Group - vehicle-treated (n = 18), and Test Group - OE 1493-treated (n = 18). The rats were sacrificed on the 12th day. Morphometrical measurements from the cementoenamel junction to the bone crest were performed to determine alveolar bone loss, using standardized photographs. Single- and multi-dose acute toxicity assays were carried out after OE 1493 treatment. Morphometrical analysis demonstrated that topically-administered OE 1493 showed no effect on reducing bone loss when compared with the control group (p > 0.05). In addition, OE 1493 did not present toxicity. Within the limits of this investigation, it may be concluded that OE 1493 did not show any positive influence on the progression of ligature-induced periodontitis in rats, when administered according to the regimen used in the present study.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ipomoea/chemistry , Phytotherapy , Periodontitis/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Alveolar Bone Loss/drug therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Disease Progression , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors
19.
Braz. j. microbiol ; 43(1): 306-308, Jan.-Mar. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-622818

ABSTRACT

Spontaneous plants of Ipomoea acuminata ("morning glory") exhibiting white rust pustules were found in a field crop area of Planaltina, DF, in the fall season of 2010 and the disease causal agent was identified as Albugo ipomoea-panduratae (Oomycota). No reports of the association between A. ipomoea-panduratae and I. acuminata were known in Brazil previously to 2010. A reference specimen was deposited at the University of Brasilia Mycological Reference Collection.


Subject(s)
Plant Diseases/etiology , Iron Bacteria , Ipomoea/growth & development , Ipomoea/microbiology , Environmental Microbiology , Methods , Methods
20.
Rev. bras. plantas med ; 14(3): 470-475, 2012. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-658127

ABSTRACT

A Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet é uma trepadeira herbácea nativa, amplamente utilizada na medicina popular brasileira e inexistem informações sobre a propagação vegetativa. Em vista disso, objetivou-se avaliar a presença de folhas nas estacas, o substrato e a dose de reguladores vegetais mais adequados para a propagação por estaquia. Foram conduzidos dois experimentos, no primeiro, foram avaliados dois tipos de estacas (com e sem folhas) e quatro substratos (areia, casca de arroz carbonizada, latossolo vermelho distrófico + matéria orgânica - 1:1, latossolo vermelho distrófico + matéria orgânica + areia - 1:1:2), enquanto no segundo foram testadas cinco concentrações diferentes de AIB (0, 250, 500, 750 e 1000 mg L-1). Após 20 dias, obteve-se 86,2% de estacas enraizadas no substrato areia e, no segundo experimento, observou-se que o AIB não influenciou a porcentagem de enraizamento (94% em média). Conclui-se que a presença de folhas melhora a qualidade do enraizamento, que os substratos indicados para a propagação são areia e casca de arroz carbonizada devido ao maior enraizamento, fácil disponibilidade e baixo custo, e que a utilização de AIB na concentração 250 mg L-1 é a mais adequada para propagação por estaquia de I. cairica.


Ipomoea cairica (L.) Sweet is an herbaceous climbing plant widely used in Brazilian folk medicine and there is no information regarding its vegetative propagation. In view of this, the aim of this study was to evaluate the presence of leaves on stem cuttings and the most adequate substrate and level of plant growth regulators for propagation by stem cuttings of this morning glory. Two experiments were conducted, in the first, two types of stem cuttings (with and without leaves) and four substrates (sand; carbonized rice hull; Haplortox + organic matter - 1:1; Haplortox + organic matter + sand - 1:1:2) were evaluated, and in the second experiment five different concentrations of IBA (0, 250, 500, 750 and 1000 mg L-1) were tested. After 20 days, we obtained 86.2% of cuttings rooted in sand substrate and in the second experiment IBA did not affect the rooting percentage (94% on average). We can conclude that the presence of leaves improved the quality of rooting, the substrates indicated for propagation are sand and carbonized rice hull due to greater rooting, easy availability and low cost, and the use of IBA at 250 mg L-1 is more appropriate to propagation by stem cuttings of I. cairica.


Subject(s)
Convolvulaceae/classification , Ipomoea/growth & development , Plant Growth Regulators , Plant Leaves/adverse effects , Plants, Medicinal/growth & development
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