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Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(1): 233-244, 01/03/2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1371191


Objective. Describe the effect the teach back method on promoting the health literacy of health ambassadors in Urmia County in 2020. Methods. In the present quasi-experiment, 200 persons over 14 years old participated. They were divided into two research groups, a control (n=100) and an intervention (n=100). The sampling method was simple randomization and the data collection instrument was a questionnaire comprised of demographic information and health literacy (HELIA). The educational intervention took 4 sessions each 45 minutes in length following the teach back method. The questionnaire-based data were collected once before the intervention and once again three months after the intervention. Results. The present findings showed that 54% of the control group and 50% of the intervention group had a good or very good level of health literacy before the intervention(p>0.05). However, after the intervention, 52% of the control and 78% of the intervention group had a good or very good level of health literacy. The present findings revealed that the mean scores of health literacy dimensions (access to information, reading, understanding, appraisal, decision-making) and the overall health literacy score were significantly higher in the intervention group than the control (after the intervention). Wilcoxon's test results showed that the mean difference of the overall health literacy scores and the dimensions before and after the intervention were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion. In the light of the present findings, we can conclude that participatory methods and the teach back method can improve health literacy, acquire reliable information and adopt healthy behaviors.

Objetivo. Describir el efecto del método teach-back en la promoción de la alfabetización en salud de los embajadores de la salud en el condado de Urmia, Irán en 2020. Métodos. En el presente estudio cuasiexperimental participaron 200 personas mayores de 14 años. Mediante muestreo de aleatorización simple se asignaron los grupos de investigación: de control (n=100) y de intervención (n=100). Se empleó un instrumento para la recogida de datos que contenía información demográfica y el instrumento Health Literacy for Iranian Adults -HELIA-. La intervención educativa consistió en 4 sesiones de 45 minutos, siguiendo el método teach- back. Los datos basados en el cuestionario se recogieron antes de la intervención y tres meses después de la misma. Resultados. Los hallazgos mostraron que el 54% del grupo de control y el 50% del grupo de intervención tenían un nivel bueno o muy bueno de conocimientos sobre alfabetización en salud antes de la intervención (p>0.05). Sin embargo, después de la intervención, el 52% del grupo de control y el 78% del grupo de intervención tenían un nivel bueno o muy bueno de conocimientos sanitarios. Los presentes resultados revelaron que las puntuaciones medias de las dimensiones de la alfabetización en salud acceso a la información, lectura, comprensión, valoración, toma de decisiones y de la puntuación global fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo de intervención que en el de control a los 3 meses después de la intervención. Finalmente, los resultados de la prueba de Wilcoxon mostraron que la diferencia media de las puntuaciones de la alfabetización en salud y de las dimensiones antes y después de la intervención eran estadísticamente significativas (p<0.001). Conclusión. A la luz de los resultados, se pudo concluir que la aplicación del método teach-back puede mejorar los conocimientos sobre la alfabetización en salud, además de ayudar a adquirir información fiable y a adoptar comportamientos saludables.

Objetivo. Descrever o efeito do método teach-back na promoção da alfabetização em saúde dos embaixadores da saúde no condado de Urmia, Irã em 2020. Métodos. No presente estudo quase-experimental participaram 200 pessoas maiores de 14 anos. Mediante amostragem de aleatória simples foram designados aos grupos de investigação: de controle (n=100) e de intervenção (n=100). Se empregou um instrumento para o recolhimento de dados que continha informação demográfica e o instrumento Health Literacy for Iranian Adults -HELIA-. A intervenção educativa consistiu em 4 sessões de 45 minutos, seguindo o método teach- back. Os dados baseados no questionário se recolheram antes da intervenção e três meses depois dela. Resultados. As descobertas mostraram que 54% do grupo de controle e 50% do grupo de intervenção tinham um nível bom ou muito bom de conhecimentos sobre alfabetização em saúde antes da intervenção (p>0.05). Porém, depois da intervenção, 52% do grupo de controle e 78% do grupo de intervenção tinham um nível bom ou muito bom de conhecimentos sanitários. Os presentes resultados revelaram que as pontuações médias das dimensões da alfabetização em saúde acesso à informação, leitura, compreensão, valoração, toma de decisões e da pontuação global foram significativamente maiores no grupo de intervenção que no de controle aos 3 meses depois da intervenção. Finalmente, os resultados da prova de Wilcoxon mostraram que a diferença média das pontuações da alfabetização em saúde e das dimensões antes e depois da intervenção eram estatisticamente significativas (p<0.001). Conclusão. À luz dos resultados, se pôde concluir que a aplicação do método teach-back pode melhorar os conhecimentos sobre a alfabetização em saúde, além de ajudar a adquirir informação confiável e a adotar comportamentos saudáveis.

Health Behavior , Access to Information , Health Literacy , Teach-Back Communication , Iran
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922537


OBJECTIVE@#Some epidemic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused many physical, psychological, and social challenges, despite the existence of treatment strategies. Many people are looking for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent such diseases. The present study was performed to determine how some types of CAM were being used during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran.@*METHODS@#The present study had a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. All Iranian residents above 17 years old were eligible to participate in the study. A total of 782 participants completed a demographic information questionnaire, a questionnaire about their use of CAMs and a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the CAMs they used. Web-based sampling was conducted from 20 April 2020 to 20 August 2020.@*RESULTS@#Of the participants, 84% used at least one type of CAM during the COVID-19 outbreak. The most used CAMs were dietary supplements (61.3%), prayer (57.9%), and herbal medicines (48.8%). The majority of the participants (50%-66%) have used CAMs to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 or to reduce anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. CAM use was associated with sex, having children, place of residence, COVID-19 status, and source of gathering information about CAM (P < 0.05). All 32 participants who had been infected with COVID-19 used at least one type of CAM for treatment or alleviation of the disease symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#During the COVID-19 outbreak, some types of CAM, particularly nutritional supplements, medicinal herbs, and prayer, were commonly used to prevent COVID-19 and reduce pandemic-related anxiety.

Adolescent , COVID-19 , Child , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Iran , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210044, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365224


ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effects of coloring beverages on the color stability of two types of hybrid ceramics with different surface treatments. Material and Methods 180 specimens of two hybrid ceramics (Vita Enamic and Mazic Duro) and a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II) were prepared (n=60 in each group). Half of the discs in each group were glazed while the other was polished. The specimens were then divided into three subgroups and immersed in distilled water, carrot juice, and coffee. The overall color difference (∆E) was calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color space. Data were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA; Tukey's honest significant difference was also done for pairwise comparisons (α=0.05). Results Vita Mark II specimens revealed less overall color changes compared to other groups. The ∆E of the glazed Vita Enamic specimens was greater than polished specimens following immersion in distilled water (p=0.03) and coffee (p=0.001), but it was not significant for carrot juice. The same results were obtained for polished Mazic Duro specimens. Relatively similar amounts of ∆E were recorded in polished and glazed subgroups of Vita Mark II. Conclusion The ∆E of hybrid ceramics was higher than Vita Mark II. Polishing could be recommended for surface treatment of hybrid ceramics instead of glazing, saving time and facilitating the process.

Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Surface Properties , Beverages , Color , Dental Cements , Distilled Water , Ceramics , Analysis of Variance , Dental Prosthesis , Computer-Aided Design/instrumentation , Coffee , Dental Porcelain , Coloring Agents , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Iran/epidemiology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22210268, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364472


Abstract: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare agent. It rapidly reacts with the cutaneous tissues and other tissues, leading to various devastating long-term effects on human health. Mustard-exposed veterans suffer from its chronic skin problems, including itching, burning sensation, and eczema. We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) on chronic skin lesions and quality of life of sulfur mustard-exposed veterans. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 60 sulfur mustard-exposed patients were evaluated. Thirty patients received myrtle essence 5% cream (case group) and 30 patients received Eucerin cream (placebo group) twice in a day for one month. Then, We assessed the chronic skin problems and itching-related parameters (such as the itching time, severity, distribution, frequency, and calculated itching score), duration of sleep, number of waking up at night, and quality of life in the both groups. Our analysis of data revealed that application of myrtle cream effectively decreased skin problems including; itching and burning sensation. Additionally, myrtle markedly decreased skin lesion symptoms such as excoriation in the case group as compared with before treatment. Noticeably, myrtle cream significantly improved quality of life of the patients in the case group. The present study provides more in-depth information regarding the protective role of myrtle on the sulfur mustard-induces skin complication. Also, myrtle effectively improved quality of life of the sulfur mustard-exposed veterans.

Humans , Middle Aged , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Chemical Warfare Agents/toxicity , Myrtus communis/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Mustard Gas/toxicity , Pruritus/chemically induced , Quality of Life , Veterans , Indicators of Quality of Life , Eczema/chemically induced , War Exposure/adverse effects , Iran
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210076, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365222


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 general dentists in Kerman. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including personal information (gender, age, marital status, condition and place and years of employment, and the average of weekly working hours) and a valid and reliable questionnaire of occupational hazards, including 24 questions about occupational hazards (6 domain) and nine questions about criteria for the prevention of the risks of dentistry. The t-test, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results 92 (49.2%) were men. The mean and standard deviation of the score of occupational hazards was 27.04±16.21 out of 96, and the criteria of prevention were 22.00±7.28 out of 36. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between single statuses, years of occupational and type of employment, weekly work hours and occupational hazards, participation in occupational injury identification courses, and hepatitis vaccination. In addition, there were significant correlations between gender, age, weekly work hours, and preventive measures. Moreover, 3.2% of dentists were in a high-risk group and 26.2% were weak in preventive measures. Conclusion A total of 32.6% of dentists are at moderate risk of occupational hazards, and 10.7% meet the prevention criteria properly. It is recommended to hold training classes to identify occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among dentists.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Occupational Risks , Risk Factors , Dentists , Iran/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Dentistry/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Occupational Health , Disease Prevention , Occupational Injuries
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(12): 919-925, Dec. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1357095


Abstract Objective Endometriosis is a hormone-dependent chronic inflammatory disease with symptoms such as pelvic pain, which affect the physical, emotional, and social health of women in reproductive age. The current overview article aims to explore the effect of complementary medicine on the treatment or in mitigating the risk of endometriosis. Methods This is an overview article done in Iran. Two separate researchers systematically searched 3 databases (Medline, Scopus, and Cochrane Central Register Trials) until September 2020. The methodological quality of each study was assessed using the assessment of multiple systematic reviews (AMSTAR) tool. Results The results of two reviews suggested that physical activity, tobacco smoking, diet, coffee and caffeine intake had no effect on mitigating the risk of endometriosis or improving its treatment, but acupuncture successfully reduced pain and related marker (serum CA-125) levels. Conclusion As endometriosis is an annoying disease with many complications and is hard to diagnose and treat, related studies in complementary medicine can help patients with endometriosis. Based on the relevant literature review, among the complementary medicine available for the treatment or to mitigate the risk of endometriosis, only acupuncture seems to alleviate the pain of endometriosis.

Resumo Objetivo A endometriose é uma doença inflamatória crônica hormono-dependente com sintomas como dores pélvicas, que afetam a saúde física, emocional e social de mulheres em idade reprodutiva. O presente artigo de visão geral tem como objetivo explorar o efeito da medicina complementar no tratamento ou na mitigação do risco de endometriose. Métodos Trata-se de um artigo de visão geral feito no Irã. Dois pesquisadores separados pesquisaram sistematicamente 3 bancos de dados (Medline, Scopus e Cochrane Central Register Trials) até setembro de 2020. A qualidade metodológica de cada estudo foi avaliada usando a ferramenta avaliação da qualidade dos relatos de revisão sistemática (AMSTAR, na sigla em inglês). Resultados Os resultados de duas revisões sugeriram que atividade física, tabagismo, dieta, consumo de café e cafeína não tiveram efeito na redução do risco de endometriose ou na melhoria do tratamento, mas a acupuntura reduziu com sucesso a dor e os níveis de marcadores relacionados (CA-125 sérico). Conclusão Como a endometriose é uma doença incômoda, com muitas complicações e de difícil diagnóstico e tratamento, estudos relacionados em medicina complementar podem ajudar pacientes com endometriose. Com base na revisão da literatura relevante, entre os medicamentos complementares disponíveis para o tratamento ou risco de endometriose, apenas a acupuntura parece aliviar a dor da endometriose.

Humans , Female , Complementary Therapies , Endometriosis/prevention & control , Exercise , Pelvic Pain/etiology , Pelvic Pain/prevention & control , Iran
Biomédica (Bogotá) ; 41(4): 651-659, oct.-dic. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355740


Abstract | Introduction: Identifying obesity risk factors as a health problem facing communities is crucial given its complexity. The vitamin D receptor gene has been reported as a possible cause of this disease. Objective: To study the association of the VDR gene ApaI, BsmI, and Ta qI polymorphisms with obesity in an Iranian population. Materials and methods: We analyzed the genotypes of 348 obese (BMI≥30 kg/m2) and 320 non-obese people (BMI: 18.5-24.9 kg/m2) using PCR-RFLP. We measured FBS, TG, total cholesterol, and HDL and LDL cholesterol levels in an automatic biochemical analyzer. Results: We found significantly higher BMI, FBS, and TG levels in the obese group compared to the control. In the obese individuals, the frequency of genotype AA was 47.1% and that of the combined Aa+aa genotype, 52.9% while in the control group they were 30% and 70%, respectively (p=0.024, 95% confidence interval (CI)=1.100-3.933, odds ratio (OR)=2.08). A and a alleles frequencies for the ApaI polymorphism were statistically significant in the two groups (allele A vs. a; p=0.017). No significant relationship was observed between Ta qI genotypes and alleles in the control and obese subjects. Conclusion: We found that VDR ApaI (rs7975232 C/A) polymorphism appeared to be a risk factor for obesity. Especially, the A allele and the AA genotype in ApaI were associated with the obesity phenotypes.

Resumen | Introducción. La determinación de los factores de riesgo de la obesidad en la población iraní como problema de salud de la comunidad es crucial dada su complejidad. El gen receptor de la vitamina D (VDR) se ha mencionado como posible causante de dicha enfermedad. Objetivo. El objetivo del estudio fue investigar la asociación de los polimorfismos Apal, Bsml y Ta ql, con el gen VDR y la obesidad en una población iraní. Materiales y métodos. Se analizaron genotipos de 348 individuos obesos (BMI≥30 kg/m²) y 320 no obesos (BMI: 18,5-24,9 kg/m²) mediante reacción en cadena de la polimerasa y polimorfismos de longitud de fragmentos de restricción (PCR-RFLP). Para medir los niveles de glucemia en ayunas, tiroglobulina (TG), colesterol total, colesterol HDL y colesterol LDL, se utilizó un analizador bioquímico automático. Resultados. Los índices de masa corporal, glucemia en ayunas y TG fueron significantemente más elevados en el grupo de los obesos que en el de control. En los individuos obesos, la incidencia del genotipo AA fue de 47,1 % y la del genotipo combinado Aa+aaa fue de 52,9 %, en tanto que en el grupo de control estas cifras fueron, respectivamente, de 30 y 70 % (p=0,024; IC95% 1,100-3,933; la razón de probabilidades (OR) fue de 2,08. La frecuencia de los alelos "A" y "a" para el polimorfismo Apal en ambos grupos fue estadísticamente significativa (alelo A Vs. A; p=0,017). No se observó ninguna relación significativa entre los genotipos Ta ql y los alelos en los sujetos obesos y, tampoco, en los controles. Conclusión. El polimorfismo Apal del gen VDR (rs 7975232C/A) sería un factor de riesgo para la obesidad. El alelo y el genotipo AA en dicho polimorfismo se asociaron con los fenotipos de obesidad.

Vitamin D , Obesity/genetics , Polymorphism, Genetic , Body Mass Index , Iran
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 688-692, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355634


Abstract Background: Although COVID-19 pandemic significantly induces mortality, many of the patients who recovered present other medical problems such as alopecias. Telogen effluvium is a common alopecia that is usually related to previous events such as acute febrile diseases, including COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of telogen effluvium in COVID-19. Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 526 patients with documented telogen effluvium that recovered from COVID-19. Demographic data, concurrent alopecia, associated diseases, and COVID-19 severity were recorded. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: The mean age of the 526 patients (410 females, 116 males) was 30.97±9.592 years, with 7.65 ± 1.739 weeks of mean time of alopecia onset. Vitamin D deficiency (24.3%), androgenetic alopecia (78.2%), and grade III COVID-19 severity were the most common findings. Alopecia onset was significantly earlier in the younger age group, females, in hypothyroidism, and more severe coronavirus infection. Higher grade coronavirus infection was significantly seen in males, higher ages, earlier onset, and androgenic alopecia. Study limitations: Performing a single-center study and considering limited variables. Conclusion: Although Coronavirus 2 infection can be an important factor in telogen effluvium induction, other factors such as associated diseases, drug intake and emotional stress may also be involved. In the cases of early onset of alopecia, concomitant diseases such as hypothyroidism and severe coronavirus infection can occur, thus, the presence of various factors in telogen effluvium induction should be considered.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alopecia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Iran/epidemiology
Invest. educ. enferm ; 39(3): 149-160, 15 octubre del 2021. Tab, Ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1348636


Objective. To determine the relationship between spiritual intelligence (SI) and professional self-concept (PSC) among Iranian nurses. Methods. This is a correlation study. A convenience sampling method was used and 344 nurses were selected from hospitals of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Data collection standard tools included two validated scales: Cowin's Nurse Self-Concept Questionnaire (36 items scored ranged from 1 to 8; Maximum score=288; 6 subcategories: General Nurse Self-Concept, Knowledge, Care, Communication, Staff Relation and Leadership) and Abdollahzadeh's SI Questionnaire (29 items scored ranged from 0 to 5; Maximum score=145; 2 subcategories: Relying on the inner core and Understanding and communicating with the origin of the universe. Results. The mean total score of PSC was 220.3±30.61 and 120.67±16.13 for SI. There was a significant statistical correlation between PSC (r=0.348, p<0.0001) and almost all subcategories and SI. The results of the regression analysis showed that SI predicts 13.3% of the variance of PSC (p<0.0001). Conclusion. Considering the correlation of SI and PSC among Iranian nurses, it is suggested that strategies be used to train and promote the SI of nurses.

Objetivo. Determinar la relación entre la inteligencia espiritual y el autoconcepto profesional entre las enfermeras iraníes. Métodos. Se trata de un estudio correlacional. Se utilizó un método de muestreo por conveniencia y se seleccionaron 344 enfermeras de los hospitales de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Jahrom. Los instrumentos de recolección de los datos incluían dos escalas validadas: Cuestionario de autoconcepto de la enfermera de Cowin (36 ítems con puntuaciones que van de 1 a 8; puntuación máxima=288; 6 subcategorías: Autoconcepto enfermero general, Conocimiento, Cuidados, Comunicación, Relación con el personal y Liderazgo) y el Cuestionario de Inteligencia Espiritual de Abdollahzadeh (29 ítems puntuados de 0 a 5; Puntuación máxima=145; 2 subcategorías: Apoyarse en el núcleo interno y Comprender y comunicarse con el origen del universo). Resultados. La puntuación total media del Autoconcepto Profesional fue de 220.3±30.61 y de 120.67±16.13 para Inteligencia Espiritual. Hubo una correlación estadística significativa entre el puntaje total de la escala Autoconcepto Professional (r=0.348, p<0.0001) y de casi todas sus subcategorías, con la Inteligencia Espiritual. Los resultados del análisis de regresión mostraron que la Inteligencia Espiritual predice el 13.3% de la varianza del autoconcepto profesional (p<0.0001). Conclusión. Existe correlación entre la Inteligencia Espiritual y el Autoconcepto Profesional entre las enfermeras iraníes. En este sentido, se sugiere que se utilicen estrategias para formar y promover la Inteligencia Espiritual de las enfermeras.

Objetivo. Determinar a relação entre inteligência espiritual e autoconceito profissional entre enfermeiras iranianas. Métodos. Este é um estudo correlacional. Um método de amostragem de conveniência foi usado e 344 enfermeiras foram selecionadas dos hospitais da Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Os instrumentos de coleta de dados incluíram duas escalas validadas: Questionário de autoconceito do enfermeiro de Cowin (36 itens com pontuação variando de 1 a 8; pontuação máxima = 288; 6 subcategorias: Autoconceito geral de enfermagem, Conhecimento, Cuidado, Comunicação, Relacionamento com a equipe e Liderança) e o Questionário de Inteligência Espiritual de Abdollahzadeh (29 itens pontuados de 0 a 5; Pontuação máxima = 145; 2 subcategorias: Baseando-se no núcleo interno e entendendo e se comunicando com a origem do universo. Resultados. A pontuação total média para o profissional do autoconceito foi de 220.3 ± 30.61 e 120.67 ± 16.13 para Inteligência Espiritual, houve correlação estatisticamente significante entre a pontuação total da escala de Autoconceito Profissional (r = 0.348, p <0.0001) e quase todas as suas subcategorias, com Inteligência Espiritual. Os resultados da análise de regressão mostraram que a Inteligência Espiritual prediz 13.3% da variância do autoconceito ou profissional (p <0.0001). Conclusão. Existe uma correlação entre Inteligência Espiritual e Autoconceito Profissional entre os enfermeiros iranianos,

Humans , Self Concept , Spiritualism , Intelligence , Iran , Nurses
Hematol., Transfus. Cell Ther. (Impr.) ; 43(3): 256-262, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346251


The under-representation of women in blood donation can lead to blood shortages. We aimed to determine the factors, which encourage or impede blood donations in women. The findings can help us in designing effective recruitment strategies that could encourage women to donate blood to cover the patients' needs. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Shiraz, Iran, from the 1st of January 2017 to the 1st of August 2017 on women aged 18-60 years old. The demographic characteristics of the participants, the reasons that motivate blood donors and the factors that discourage non-donors were surveyed. Reasons for lapses in donors were also mentioned. The most frequent reasons for blood donation were altruistic causes (94.4%), moral and personal obligations (89.1%), the feeling of responsibility (82.7%), and awareness of the positive effects on their health (77.4%). The most common deterrents in non-donors were fear of developing anemia (68.4%) or weakness and dizziness (66%), unsuitability due to certain medical conditions (62.4%), and lack of a situation in which they were asked to donate blood (61.8%). Although altruistic reasons are the chief motivating factors for women to donate blood, the overall female contribution in blood donation remains low. Therefore, it is necessary to take measures aiming at informing women about the importance of blood donation and to reduce fears based on misinformation. Confidence in the blood donation organization must be a major consideration in future recruitment strategies to reassure women about the safety of blood donation.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Blood Donors , Iran , Motivation
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281


ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.

RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.

Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 65(3): 376-380, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1285146


SUMMARY Carney complex (CNC) is a rare syndrome of multiple endocrine and non-endocrine tumors. In this paper we present a 23-year-old Iranian woman with CNC who harbored a novel mutation (c.642dupT) in PRKAR1A gene. This patient presented with pituitary macroadenoma, acromegaly, recurrent atrial myxoma, Cushing's syndrome secondary to primary pigmented nodular adrenocortical disease and pigmented schwanoma of the skin. PRKAR1A gene was PCR amplified using genomic DNA and analyzed for sequence variants which revealed the novel mutation resulting in substitution of amino acid cysteine instead of the naturally occurring valine in the peptide chain and a premature stop codon at position 18 (V215CfsX18). This change leads to development of tumors in different organs due to lack of tumor suppressive activity secondary to failure of synthesis of the related protein.

Humans , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Acromegaly/genetics , Cushing Syndrome/genetics , Carney Complex/genetics , Myxoma/surgery , Myxoma/genetics , Cyclic AMP-Dependent Protein Kinase RIalpha Subunit/genetics , Iran , Mutation
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044


Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)

Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)

Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
Rev. bras. ginecol. obstet ; 43(2): 126-130, Feb. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156095


Abstract Objective The present study aimed to assess the effect of Melissa Officinalis L. (a combination of lemon balm with fennel fruit extract) compared with citalopram and placebo on the quality of life of postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance. Methods The present study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo clinical trial among 60 postmenopausal women with sleep disturbance who were referred to a university hospital from 2017 to 2019. The participants were randomized to receive M. Officinalis L. (500 mg daily), citalopram (30 mg) or placebo once daily for 8 weeks. The Menopause-Specific Quality of Life (MENQOL) questionnaire was self-completed by each participant at baseline and after 8 weeks of the intervention and was compared between groups. Results The mean for all MENQOL domain scores were significantly improved in the M. Officinalis L. group compared with citalopram and placebo (p < 0.001). The mean ± standard deviation (SD) after 8 weeks in the M. Officinalis L., citalopram and placebo groups was 2.2 ± 0.84 versus 0.56 ± 0.58 versus 0.36 ± 0.55 in the vasomotor (p < 0.001), 1.02 ± 0.6 versus 0.28 ± 0.2 versus 0.17 ± 0.1 in the psychomotor-social (p < 0.001), 0.76 ± 0.4 versus 0.25 ± 0.1 versus 0.11 ± 0.1 in the physical and 2.3 ± 1.0 versus 0.35 ± 0.5 versus 0.41 ± 0.5 in the sexual domain, respectively. Conclusions The results revealed that M. Officinalis L. may be recommended for improving the quality of life of menopausal women with sleep disturbance. Trial registration The present study was registered by the name "Comparison of the efficacy of citalopram and compound of Asperugo procumbens and foeniculum vulgare in treatment of menopausal disorders" with the code IRCT2013072714174N1 in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCT).

Sleep Wake Disorders/drug therapy , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Citalopram/therapeutic use , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Melissa , Quality of Life , Sleep Wake Disorders/psychology , Plant Extracts/administration & dosage , Citalopram/administration & dosage , Double-Blind Method , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Outcome , Serotonin Uptake Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Postmenopause , Iran , Phytotherapy , Middle Aged
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 356-359, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922709


PURPOSE@#The median time from the event leading to the spinal cord injury (SCI) to the time of decompressive surgery is estimated to be 6.9 days in Iran, which is much longer than the proposed ideal time (less than 24 h) in published guidelines. The current qualitative study aimed to determine the reasons for the observed decompression surgery delay in Iran from the perspective of neurosurgeons.@*METHODS@#This qualitative study is designed to perform content analysis on the gathered data from face-to-face semi-structured interviews with 12 Iranian neurosurgeons.@*RESULTS@#The findings of the current study suggest that patient-related factors constitute more than half of the codes extracted from the interviews. Overall, the type of injury, presence of polytrauma, and surgeons' wrong attitude are the main factors causing delayed spinal cord decompression in Iranian patients from the perspective of neurosurgeons. Other notable factors include delay in transferring patients to the trauma center, delay in availability of necessary equipment, and scarce medical personnel.@*CONCLUSION@#In the perspective of neurosurgeons, the type of injury, presence of polytrauma, and surgeons' wrong attitude are the leading reasons for delayed decompressive surgery of individuals with SCI in Iran.

Decompression , Humans , Iran , Neurosurgeons , Spinal Cord Injuries/surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922206


BACKGROUND@#The dietary habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic could affect the urinary risk factors in kidney stone formers. In this study, we investigated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on 24-h urine metabolites, as a surrogate for dietary intake, in patients with kidney stones, in Tehran, Iran.@*METHODS@#We evaluated the medical records of all patients with urolithiasis who visited in our stone prevention clinic from the beginning of COVID-19 in Iran to 1 year later (Feb 2020-Feb 2021) and compared it with the patients' medical records in the same period a year before COVID-19 (Feb 2019-Feb 2020).@*RESULTS@#The results of our stone prevention clinic showed a decrease in the number of visits during COVID-19. Twenty-four-hour urine urea, sodium, and potassium were significantly lower, and 24-h urine magnesium was significantly higher during COVID-19. Higher 24-h urine oxalate was only shown in patients with the first-time visit, whereas lower 24-h urine uric acid and citrate were only shown in patients with the follow-up visits.@*CONCLUSIONS@#COVID-19 pandemics may change some of the dietary habits of the patients, including lower salt, protein, and fruit and vegetable intake. Although economic issues, restricted access, or sanitation issues may be the reason for the undesirable dietary changes, the importance of a quality diet should be discussed with all patients, as possible. Since the number of patients visited in the stone clinic was lower during COVID-19, virtual visits could be an excellent alternative to motivate patients with kidney stones.

COVID-19 , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney , Kidney Calculi/prevention & control , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880361


BACKGROUND@#Occupational contact with blood and body fluids poses a significant risk to healthcare workers. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors affecting needlestick injuries (NSI) in healthcare personnel in Iran.@*METHODS@#In March 2020, researchers studied six international databases such as Medline/PubMed, ProQuest, ISI/WOS, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar for English papers and two Iranian databases (MagIran and SID) for Persian papers. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist was used to assess quality of studies. The method of reporting was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.@*RESULTS@#A total of 43 articles were included in the analysis. Results showed that females (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.58, P value = 0.009), younger age (OR = 2.75, 95 % CI 2.27-3.33, P value < 0.001, rotated shift workers (OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.47-3.15, P value < 0.001), not attending training courses (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07-1.56, P value = 0.006), working in the surgery ward (OR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.33-2.50, P value < 0.001), less work experience (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.04-1.95, P value = 0.025) apposed a greater risk factors for NSI among healthcare workers.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on the results of this review, factors such as young age, less work experience, work shift, and female gender are considered as strong risk factors for NSI injury in Iran. Preventive measures including education programs can reduce the burden of NSI among healthcare personnel.

Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Needlestick Injuries/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880351


BACKGROUND@#School closure is one of the main policies of global health care strategies performed worldwide. Despite all benefits, there might be some threats for younger groups spending their time in quarantine. This study aims to determine the impacts of lockdown and school closure on children's major lifestyle aspects, especially their leisure and sleep pattern during the COVID-19 pandemic.@*METHODS@#For the purpose of this study, an online questionnaire was distributed from 14th to 31st of March 2020 among the schools and students from the first grade to the 12th grade (before university) in Fars province, southern Iran. The questionnaire consisted of five sections which included data regarding the students' general information, activity priorities, adherence to quarantine, attitude toward school closure, and sleep patterns.@*RESULTS@#In our study, 20,697 filled questionnaires were received from the participants with an average age of 13.76 years; 29.7% of them were male, 80.6% were from urban areas, and 83.3% were from public schools. The overall first preference of students during school closure was mobile and computer games (30.1%), followed by studying (26.6%) and watching television (13.8%). Our results demonstrated that the majority of students adhered to social distancing and there was also a significant correlation among education levels and desire for schools to be closed till the end of the semester (P = 0.015). Also, regarding sleep patterns, the majority (53.5%) had above 12 h of sleep throughout the day.@*CONCLUSION@#It seems that lockdown following COVID-19 pandemic has changed various aspects of the students' lifestyle remarkably, especially by increasing screen time and even sleep duration and pattern. We believe that certain strategies should be implemented by the Health and Educational Ministry to control not only the visible side effects of the quarantine period, but also the collateral consequences on their psychological and mental health.

Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sleep Hygiene , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351221


ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the level of the accumulating success of the modern Resin-Based Endodontic Surgery (RES) and comparison with Endodontic Microsurgery (EMS) and finally offer a replacement at the predicted final results of EMS. Material and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, Google Scholar have been utilized as electronic databases for systematic literature until 2019. Therefore, Endnote X9, which can be provided in the market, has been applied to manage the electronic titles. Searches have been made with keywords "Endodontic Microsurgery OR EMS", "Resin-Based Endodontic Surgery OR RES", "Regenerative Endodontic Therapy", "Root-End Filling", "Root-End Surgery", "Periapical Surgery" and "Endodontics". Thus, this systematic review has been conducted concerningthe basic investigation of the PRISMA Statement-Preferred Reporting Items designed for the Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of RES =19 and EMS =31 with potential pertinent abstracts and topics were discovered in manual and electronic searches. Then, three articles for RES and four studies for EMS publications satisfied our inclusion criteria necessary for systematically reviewing the studies. The analysis showed the success rate for EMS as equal to 1.16 times the probability of the success rate for RES. Conclusion: Micro-surgical procedures superiorly achieved the predictable high success rate for the Root-end surgery compared to conventional methods.

Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Tooth, Nonvital/surgery , Endodontics , Regenerative Endodontics/instrumentation , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Iran/epidemiology , Microsurgery
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143388


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the postoperative pain and clinical and radiographic success of pulpotomized primary molars using two materials, Ferric Sulfate (FS) and Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) cement, over a period of 3 and 6 months. Material and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on a total of 38 teeth selected from 19 patients aged 3-9 years. FS 15.5% and CEM cement were used as pulpotomy agents. Permanent restorations were Stainless Steel Crowns (SSCs) in both groups. Patients were recalled for follow-up at 3 and 6 months intervals for clinical and radiographic assessment. Postoperative pain was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale up to ten days following the treatment. The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: At 6 months, a 100% clinical success rate was observed in the FS and CEM cement groups. The radiographic success rate in the FS group was 94.7%, whereas 100% in the CEM cement group at 6 months. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the teeth that received either FS or CEM cement as pulpotomy agents following the procedure (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were favorable outcomes of FS and CEM cement in pulpotomy of primary molar teeth.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pain, Postoperative/pathology , Pulpotomy/instrumentation , Tooth, Deciduous , Ferric Sulfate , Visual Analog Scale , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Randomized Controlled Trial , Iran/epidemiology