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Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 24: e220108, 2024. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529144


Abstract Objective: To study the frequency of self-medication and knowledge about out-of-counter drugs during the COVID-19 pandemic in a group of Iranian dental students. Material and Methods: A descriptive cross-sectional study was conducted among dental undergraduates from September 2021 to November 2021 after receiving ethical clearance from the Kerman Medical University Ethical Committee. A valid and reliable questionnaire, consisting of demographic data and questions about self-medication and knowledge about out-of-counter drugs, was sent to participants via E-mail. Data was analyzed by SPSS 26 software by using a t-test. The P-value was considered at a 0.05% significant level. Results: A total of 88 students participated in the study with a mean age of 21.39±3.71 years. Prevalence of self-medication was found in 53.4%. The most common cause for self-medication was headache. Acetaminophen was the most commonly used medicine for self-medication. Females had more self-medication than males, but there was no significant differences. There was no significant differences between entering year to university and self-medication. Younger students had significantly more self-medication (p=0.007). Knowledge about out-of-counter drugs was moderate. Conclusion: Moderate self-medication as noticed. The out-of-counter drugs were the most used. Although out-of-counter drugs seem relatively safe, their improper use can cause serious side effects. Dental students need to be educated regarding appropriate safe medication and out-of-counter drugs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Self Medication , Students, Dental , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Nonprescription Drugs , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , COVID-19/prevention & control , Iran
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 68-72, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970975


PURPOSE@#To prepare for future possible communicable disease epidemics/pandemics, health care providers should know how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced injured patients. This study aimed to compare epidemiologic features, outcomes, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of trauma patients admitted to a university-affiliated hospital before and during the pandemic.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was performed on data from the National Trauma Registry of Iran. All injured patients admitted to the hospital from July 25, 2016 to March 10, 2021 were included in the study. The patients were excluded if they had hospital length of stay less than 24 h. The injury outcomes, trauma mechanisms, and therapeutic and diagnostic procedures of the 2 periods: before (from July 25, 2016 to February 18, 2020) and during (from February 19, 2020 to March 10, 2021) COVID-19 pandemic were compared. All analyses were performed using STATA version 14.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX).@*RESULTS@#Totally, 5014 patients were included in the registry. Of them, 773 (15.4%) were registered after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic on February 19, 2020, while 4241 were registered before that. Gender, education level, and cause of injury were significantly different among the patients before and after the beginning of the pandemic (p < 0.001). In the ≤ 15 years and ≥ 65 years age groups, injuries decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.001). The frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admission decreased from 694 (16.4%) to 88 (11.4%) (p < 0.001). The mean length of stay at the hospital (days) and at the ICU (days) declined as follow: 8.3 (SD = 17.2) vs. 5.5 (SD = 6.1), p < 0.001 and 7.5 (SD = 11.5) vs. 4.5 (SD = 6.3), p < 0.022. The frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures before and during the pandemic was as follows, respectively: ultrasonography 905 (21.3%) vs. 417 (53.9%) (p < 0.001), echocardiography 313 (7.4%) vs. 107 (13.8%) (p < 0.001), angiography 1597 (37.7%) vs. 534 (69.1%) (p < 0.001), MRI 166 (3.9%) vs. 51 (6.6%) (p < 0.001), surgery 3407 (80.3%) vs. 654 (84.6%) (p < 0.001), and internal/external fixation 1215 (28.6%) vs. 336 (43.5%) (p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The pandemic affected the epidemiology of traumatic patients in terms of gender, age, educational level, and trauma mechanism. It changed the outcomes of injured patients: ICU admission, length of stay at the hospital and ICU decreased. The patients received more diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during the pandemic. To be more precise, more research is needed on the details.

Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Registries , Trauma Centers , COVID-19 Testing
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 3394-3403, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981475


This study retrieved Croci Stigma related literature from CNKI, Wanfang, VIP, and Web of Science database, and used bibliometrics and CiteSpace 6.1.R2 software to analyze the published Croci Stigma related articles in Chinese and English from 2000 to 2022. The authors, research institutions, and keywords were visualized and analyzed, and the current status and development trend of Croci Stigma research was summarized by combining the information extraction methods. A total of 1 846 Chinese articles and 2 703 English articles were screened out and included. The results showed a generally steady increase in the number of Croci Stigma related articles. The results of the visualization analysis showed that there were more collaborations between researcher teams and major research institutions in English articles than Chinese articles. The Chinese articles was mainly published by China Pharmaceutical University, and most of the inter-institutional collaborations occurred in neighboring regions. The English articles was mainly published by Iranian institutions, and most of the cooperation occurred within the country, with less transnational cooperation. Keywords analysis showed that the research on Croci Stigma was mainly focused on chemical compositions, pharmacological effects, mechanisms, quality control, etc. It was predicted that the future research hotspots of Croci Stigma would mainly focus on pharmacological mechanism and clinical efficacy. The current research related to Croci Stigma still needs to be developed, cooperation should be strengthened, and more in-depth research should be conducted.

Bibliometrics , China , Crocus , Iran
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 193-198, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981932


PURPOSE@#To identify risk factors for developing pressure ulcers (PUs) in the acute care period of traumatic spinal fracture patients with or without spinal cord injuries (SCIs).@*METHODS@#Data were collected prospectively in participating the National Spinal column/Cord Injury Registry of Iran (NSCIR-IR) from individuals with traumatic spinal fractures with or without SCIs, inclusive of the hospital stay from admission to discharge. Trained nursing staff examined the patients for the presence of PUs every 8 h during their hospital stay. The presence and grade of PUs were assessed according to the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification. In addition to PU, following data were also extracted from the NSCIR-IR datasets during the period of 2015 - 2021: age, sex, Glasgow coma scale score at admission, having SCIs, marital status, surgery for a spinal fracture, American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS), urinary incontinence, level of education, admitted center, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), hypertension, respiratory diseases, consumption of cigarettes, diabetes mellitus and length of stay in the hospital. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).@*RESULTS@#Altogether 2785 participants with traumatic spinal fractures were included. Among them, 87 (3.1%) developed PU during their hospital stay and 392 (14.1%) had SCIs. In the SCI population, 63 (16.1%) developed PU during hospital stay. Univariate logistic regression for the whole sample showed that marital status, having SCIs, urinary incontinence, level of education, treating center, number of days in the ICU, age, and Glasgow coma scale score were significant predictors for PUs. However, further analysis by multiple logistic regression only revealed the significant risk factors to be the treating center, marital status, having SCIs, and the number of days in the ICU. For the subgroup of individuals with SCIs, marital status, AIS, urinary incontinence, level of education, the treating center, the number of days in the ICU and the number of days in the hospital were significant predictors for PUs by univariate analysis. After adjustment in the multivariate model, the treating center, marital status (singles vs. marrieds, OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.55 - 6.03, p = 0.001), and number of days in the ICU (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.09, p < 0.001) maintained significance.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These data confirm that individuals with traumatic spinal fractures and SCIs, especially single young patients who suffer from urinary incontinence, grades A-D by AIS, prolonged ICU stay, and more extended hospitalization are at increased risk for PUs; as a result strategies to minimize PU development need further refinement.

Humans , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/complications , Iran/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Spine , Registries , Urinary Incontinence/complications , Suppuration/complications
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 199-203, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981923


PURPOSE@#Spine injury is one of the leading causes of death and mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, pattern and outcome of trauma patients with spine injury referred to the largest trauma center in southern Iran during the last 3 years.@*METHODS@#This is a cross-sectional study conducted between March 2018 and June 2021 in the largest trauma center in the southern Iran. The data collection form included the age, sex, injury location (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), cause of injury (traffic accidents, falls, and assaults), length of hospital stay, injured segment of spine injury, severity of injury, and outcome. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS software version 24.@*RESULTS@#Totally 776 cases of spine injury were identified. The spine injury rate was 17.0%, and the mortality rate was 15.5%. Cervical spine injury (20.4%) more often occulted in motorcycle accident, and thoracic spine injury (20.1%) occulted in falls. The highest and lowest rates of spine injurys were related to lumbar spine injury (30.2%) and cervical spine injury (21.5%), respectively. There was a statistically significant relationship between the mechanism of injury and the location of spine injury (p < 0.001). And patients with lumbar spine injury had the highest mortality rate (16.7%). Injury severity score (OR= 1.041, p < 0.001) and length of stay (OR = 1.018, p < 0.001) were strong predictors of mortality in trauma patients with spine injury.@*CONCLUSION@#The results of the study showed that the incidence of traumatic spine injury rate was approximately 17.0% in southern of Iran. Road traffic injury and falls are the common mechanism of injury to spine. It is important to improve the safety of roads, and passengers, as well as work environment, and improve the quality of cars. Also, paying attention to the pattern of spine injury may assist to prevent the missing diagnosis of spine injury in multiple trauma patients.

Humans , Incidence , Trauma Centers , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spinal Injuries/etiology , Neck Injuries , Accidents, Traffic
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 290-296, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-1009481


PURPOSE@#This study aimed to investigate the possible association between psychological disorders and risky driving behavior (RDB) in Iran.@*METHODS@#This case-control study conducted in Shiraz, Iran in 2021. The case group included drivers with psychological disorders and the control group included those without any disorders. The inclusion criteria for selecting patients were: active driving at the time of the study, being 18 - 65 years old, having a driving license, having a psychological disorder including depression, bipolar disorder, anxiety spectrum disorder, or psychotic disorder spectrum confirmed by a psychiatrist, and completing an informed consent form. The exclusion criterion was the existence of conditions that interfered with answering and understanding the questions. The inclusion criteria for selecting the healthy cases were: active driving at the time of the study, being 18 - 65 years old, having a driving license, lack of any past or present history of psychiatric problems, and completing an informed consent form. The data were gathered using a researcher-made checklist and Manchester driving behavior questionnaire. First, partition around medoids method was used to extract clusters of RDB. Then, backward logistic regression was applied to investigate the association between the independent variables and the clusters of RDB.@*RESULTS@#The sample comprised of 344 (153 with psychological disorder and 191 without confirmed psychological disorder) drivers. Backward elimination logistic regression on total data revealed that share of medical expenditure ≤ 10% of total household expenditure (OR = 3.27, 95% CI: 1.48 - 7.24), psychological disorder (OR = 3.08, 95% CI: 1.67 - 5.70), and substance abuse class (OR = 6.38, 95% CI: 3.55 - 11.48) were associated with high level of RDB.@*CONCLUSION@#Substance abuse, psychological illnesses, and share of medical costs from total household expenditure were found to be main predictors of RDB. Further investigations are necessary to explain the impact of different psychological illnesses on driving behavior.

Humans , Adolescent , Young Adult , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Automobile Driving , Iran , Case-Control Studies , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk-Taking
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e220103, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529114


ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and compare children with and without parental care. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 schoolchildren with parental care and 100 orphans in Kerman, Iran. After fulfilling the questionnaire voluntarily, a clinical examination was performed, and indices such as decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), molar-incisor hypoplasia (MIH), modified gingival index (MGI), traumatic dental injury (TDI), and malocclusion were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25 via the ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient test, Chi-Square test, and descriptive statistics. Results: Children without parents scored poorly for OHQRoL items compared to those with parents (p<0.001). DMFT was not significantly related to OHRQoL; however, missing teeth were correlated with the CPQ11-14 overall. Also, the TDI index had a significant relationship with CPQ mean score (p=0.02). Moreover, the difference in the mean CPQ11-14 score in children with TDI in the two groups was significant regarding the quality of life (0.031). Conclusion: OHRQoL differed significantly between children in the two groups, which can be influenced by gender and habits. Due to the vulnerability of welfare-supported children without parental care, these findings emphasize the value of preventive and health-promoting measures for this group of children.

Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life/psychology , Oral Health/education , Child Health , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Iran/epidemiology
Odovtos (En línea) ; 24(3)dic. 2022.
Article in English | LILACS, SaludCR | ID: biblio-1406168


Abstract This study aimed to investigate self-medication in the COVID-19 outbreak among patients attending the dental clinic of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences. The total number of patients who took part in this research was 306, and they were questioned using a 28-item questionnaire after signing a permission form. SPSS26 was used to gather and analyze the data. There were 196 women and 110 males among the patients.The results showed that the prevalence of self-medication was 53.9%, and a lower educational level was associated with self-medication. The most common problem for self-medicating was toothache, and the most frequent drug was Ibuprofen. The majority of the participants reported that their relatives/friends suggested the drugs to them. The main source of obtaining the drugs was pharmacies. The major reasons for self-medication were the high cost of dental treatments and fear of COVID-19.

Resumen Este estudio tuvo como objetivo investigar la automedicación durante la pandemia de COVID-19 entre los pacientes que asisten a la clínica dental de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Zanjan. El número total de pacientes que participaron en esta investigación fue de 306, y fueron interrogados mediante un cuestionario de 28 ítems después de firmar un formulario de autorización. SPSS26 se utilizó para recopilar y analizar los datos. Entre los pacientes había 196 mujeres y 110 varones. Los resultados mostraron que la prevalencia de automedicación fue del 53,9%, y un menor nivel educativo se asoció con la automedicación. El problema más común para la automedicación fue el dolor de "muelas", y el fármaco más frecuente fue el ibuprofeno. La mayoría de los participantes informaron que sus familiares/ amigos les sugirieron los medicamentos. La principal fuente de obtención de los medicamentos fueron las farmacias. Las principales razones para la automedicación fueron el alto costo de los tratamientos dentales y el miedo al COVID-19.

Humans , Male , Female , Self Medication/trends , COVID-19 , Iran
Article in English | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1410305


Splenectomy is necessary in beta thalassemia major patients when the spleen becomes hyperactive, leading to extreme destruction of erythrocytes. This study assessed the ferritin effect on serum pneumococcal antibody response following pneumococcal vaccination, in patients with beta thalassemia major after splenectomy. In this case series study, convenience sampling was used to recruit 347 splenectomised beta thalassemia patients under the auspices of Jahrom University of Medical Sciences. Demographic data such as age, sex, and time after splenectomy were recorded by a questionnaire. All participants had been splenectomised and received a dose of Pneumovax1 23 vaccine 14 days before surgery. The IgG antibody responses to pneumococcal vaccine and levels of serum specific ferritin were determine by commercial enzyme immunoassay kits. For the analysis, SPSS software version 16 was used. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Most of the participants (63.4 percent) were hypo-responders to pneumococcal vaccine. Also, serum anti-pneumococcal IgG antibody was related to post splenectomy duration and serum ferritin (p 0.05). An important result was a relation of serum anti-pneumococcal IgG antibody to serum ferritin according to post splenectomy duration groups. Therefore, in three groups of post splenectomy duration, the serum ferritin was higher in hypo-responder than in good responder subjects. Our results indicate that serum anti-pneumococcal IgG antibody decreased with increment of serum ferritin and post splenectomy duration. Thus, there is a need to re-address the approach towards revaccination in this immune-compromised group of patients by administering a booster pneumococcal vaccination in an attempt to recover immunity and reduce morbidity(AU)

La esplenectomía es necesaria en pacientes con beta talasemia mayor cuando el bazo se vuelve hiperactivo, lo que lleva a una destrucción extrema de los eritrocitos. Este estudio evaluó el efecto de la ferritina sobre la respuesta de anticuerpos antineumocócicos en suero después de la vacunación antineumocócica, en pacientes con talasemia beta mayor a los que se les realizó esplenectomía. En este estudio de serie de casos, se utilizó un muestreo de conveniencia para reclutar a 347 pacientes con beta talasemia esplenectomizados bajo los auspicios de la Universidad de Ciencias Médicas de Jahrom. Los datos demográficos como la edad, el sexo y el tiempo después de la esplenectomía se registraron mediante un cuestionario. Todos los participantes fueron esplenectomizados y recibieron una dosis de la vacuna Pneumovax® 23, 14 días antes de la cirugía. Las respuestas de anticuerpos IgG a la vacuna neumocócica y los niveles de ferritina sérica específica se determinaron mediante estuches comerciales de inmunoensayo enzimático. Para el análisis se utilizó el programa SPSS versión 16. Un valor de p inferior a 0,05 se consideró estadísticamente significativo. La mayoría de los participantes (63,4 por ciento) resultaron hiporrespondedores a la vacuna antineumocócica. Además, el anticuerpo sérico antineumocócico IgG se relacionó con la duración de la esplenectomía y la ferritina sérica (p0,05). Un resultado importante fue la relación del anticuerpo sérico IgG antineumocócico con la ferritina sérica según los grupos de duración postesplenectomía. Por lo tanto, en tres grupos de duración posterior a la esplenectomía, la ferritina sérica fue mayor en los sujetos con hiporrespuesta que en los sujetos con buena respuesta. Nuestros resultados indican que el anticuerpo sérico IgG antineumocócico disminuyó con el incremento de la ferritina sérica y la duración posterior a la esplenectomía. Por lo tanto, existe la necesidad de volver a abordar el enfoque hacia la revacunación en este grupo de pacientes inmunocomprometidos mediante la administración de una vacunación antineumocócica de refuerzo en un intento por recuperar la inmunidad y reducir la morbilidad(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Splenectomy/methods , beta-Thalassemia/epidemiology , Pneumococcal Vaccines/therapeutic use , Ferritins/therapeutic use , Iran
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 11(1): 1-14, may. 11, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1399980


Purpose: This study aimed to determine the prevalence and length of the anterior loop (AL) of the inferior alveolar nerve, and evaluate the emergence direction of the mental nerve and the location of mental foramen in a group of Iranian patients. Material and Methods: This study was carried out on CBCT scans of 150 patients (57 males and 93 females; mean age 40.8 ±14.33 years). The presence and extent of the AL was determined in reconstructed images. The emergence path of the mental nerve was classified into three groups: anteriorly directed emergence, right-angled pattern of emergence, and posteriorly directed emergence. The location of mental foramen relative to adjacent premolars was determined. Results: AL was identified in 14.7% of the cases with a mean length of 1.39± 0.91 mm (range 0.25 to 3.50 mm). No significant differences were observed in the prevalence and extent of the AL between genders (p>0.05). The right-angled pattern of emergence was more dominant (43.7%). The most prevalent location of mental foramen was between the first and second premolars (68.3%). There was no significant association between the presence of AL with the path of emergence of the mental nerve (p=0.627) or the location of the mental foramen (p= 0.10 0). Conclusion: The prevalence of anterior loop was relatively low in the present sample (14.7%) with a length range of 0.25 to 3.5 mm. Due to the importance of this anatomic variation in implant surgery, it is suggested to carefully assess CBCT images before the surgical procedure to avoid neurosensory complications.

Propósito: Este estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la prevalencia y la longitud del loop anterior (LA) del nervio alveolar inferior, y evaluar la dirección de emergencia del nervio mentoniano y la ubicación del foramen mentoniano en un grupo de pacientes iraníes. Material y Métodos: Este estudio se llevó a cabo en exploraciones de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico de 150 pacientes (57 hombres y 93 mujeres; edad media 40,8 ± 14,33 años). La presencia y extensión de la LA se determinó en imágenes reconstruidas. La vía de emergencia del nervio mentoniano se clasificó en tres grupos: emergencia dirigida anteriormente, patrón de emergencia en ángulo recto y emergencia dirigida posteriormente. Se determinó la ubicación del foramen mentoniano en relación con los premolares adyacentes. Resultados: Se identificó LA en el 14,7% de los casos con una longitud media de 1,39± 0,91 mm (rango 0,25 mm a 3,50 mm). No se observaron diferencias significativas en la prevalencia y extensión de la AL entre sexos (p>0,05). El patrón de emergencia en ángulo recto fue más dominante (43,7%). La localización más prevalente del foramen men-toniano fue entre el primer y segundo premolar (68,3%). No hubo asociación significativa entre la presencia de AL con la vía de emergencia del nervio mentoniano (p=0,627) o la ubicación del foramen mentoniano p=0,100).Conclusión: La prevalencia de asa anterior fue rela-tivamente baja en la presente muestra (14,7%) con un rango de longitud de 0,25 mm a 3,5 mm. Debido a la importancia de esta variación anatómica en la cirugía de implantes, se sugiere evaluar cuidadosamente las imágenes de tomografía computarizada de haz cónico antes del procedimiento quirúrgico para evitar complicaciones neurosensoriales.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Dental Implants , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Mandible/surgery , Mandible/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Anatomic Variation , Mental Foramen/surgery , Iran , Mandibular Nerve/surgery
Invest. educ. enferm ; 40(1): 233-244, 01/03/2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BDENF, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1371191


Objective. Describe the effect the teach back method on promoting the health literacy of health ambassadors in Urmia County in 2020. Methods. In the present quasi-experiment, 200 persons over 14 years old participated. They were divided into two research groups, a control (n=100) and an intervention (n=100). The sampling method was simple randomization and the data collection instrument was a questionnaire comprised of demographic information and health literacy (HELIA). The educational intervention took 4 sessions each 45 minutes in length following the teach back method. The questionnaire-based data were collected once before the intervention and once again three months after the intervention. Results. The present findings showed that 54% of the control group and 50% of the intervention group had a good or very good level of health literacy before the intervention(p>0.05). However, after the intervention, 52% of the control and 78% of the intervention group had a good or very good level of health literacy. The present findings revealed that the mean scores of health literacy dimensions (access to information, reading, understanding, appraisal, decision-making) and the overall health literacy score were significantly higher in the intervention group than the control (after the intervention). Wilcoxon's test results showed that the mean difference of the overall health literacy scores and the dimensions before and after the intervention were statistically significant (p<0.001). Conclusion. In the light of the present findings, we can conclude that participatory methods and the teach back method can improve health literacy, acquire reliable information and adopt healthy behaviors.

Objetivo. Describir el efecto del método teach-back en la promoción de la alfabetización en salud de los embajadores de la salud en el condado de Urmia, Irán en 2020. Métodos. En el presente estudio cuasiexperimental participaron 200 personas mayores de 14 años. Mediante muestreo de aleatorización simple se asignaron los grupos de investigación: de control (n=100) y de intervención (n=100). Se empleó un instrumento para la recogida de datos que contenía información demográfica y el instrumento Health Literacy for Iranian Adults -HELIA-. La intervención educativa consistió en 4 sesiones de 45 minutos, siguiendo el método teach- back. Los datos basados en el cuestionario se recogieron antes de la intervención y tres meses después de la misma. Resultados. Los hallazgos mostraron que el 54% del grupo de control y el 50% del grupo de intervención tenían un nivel bueno o muy bueno de conocimientos sobre alfabetización en salud antes de la intervención (p>0.05). Sin embargo, después de la intervención, el 52% del grupo de control y el 78% del grupo de intervención tenían un nivel bueno o muy bueno de conocimientos sanitarios. Los presentes resultados revelaron que las puntuaciones medias de las dimensiones de la alfabetización en salud acceso a la información, lectura, comprensión, valoración, toma de decisiones y de la puntuación global fueron significativamente mayores en el grupo de intervención que en el de control a los 3 meses después de la intervención. Finalmente, los resultados de la prueba de Wilcoxon mostraron que la diferencia media de las puntuaciones de la alfabetización en salud y de las dimensiones antes y después de la intervención eran estadísticamente significativas (p<0.001). Conclusión. A la luz de los resultados, se pudo concluir que la aplicación del método teach-back puede mejorar los conocimientos sobre la alfabetización en salud, además de ayudar a adquirir información fiable y a adoptar comportamientos saludables.

Objetivo. Descrever o efeito do método teach-back na promoção da alfabetização em saúde dos embaixadores da saúde no condado de Urmia, Irã em 2020. Métodos. No presente estudo quase-experimental participaram 200 pessoas maiores de 14 anos. Mediante amostragem de aleatória simples foram designados aos grupos de investigação: de controle (n=100) e de intervenção (n=100). Se empregou um instrumento para o recolhimento de dados que continha informação demográfica e o instrumento Health Literacy for Iranian Adults -HELIA-. A intervenção educativa consistiu em 4 sessões de 45 minutos, seguindo o método teach- back. Os dados baseados no questionário se recolheram antes da intervenção e três meses depois dela. Resultados. As descobertas mostraram que 54% do grupo de controle e 50% do grupo de intervenção tinham um nível bom ou muito bom de conhecimentos sobre alfabetização em saúde antes da intervenção (p>0.05). Porém, depois da intervenção, 52% do grupo de controle e 78% do grupo de intervenção tinham um nível bom ou muito bom de conhecimentos sanitários. Os presentes resultados revelaram que as pontuações médias das dimensões da alfabetização em saúde acesso à informação, leitura, compreensão, valoração, toma de decisões e da pontuação global foram significativamente maiores no grupo de intervenção que no de controle aos 3 meses depois da intervenção. Finalmente, os resultados da prova de Wilcoxon mostraram que a diferença média das pontuações da alfabetização em saúde e das dimensões antes e depois da intervenção eram estatisticamente significativas (p<0.001). Conclusão. À luz dos resultados, se pôde concluir que a aplicação do método teach-back pode melhorar os conhecimentos sobre a alfabetização em saúde, além de ajudar a adquirir informação confiável e a adotar comportamentos saudáveis.

Health Behavior , Access to Information , Health Literacy , Teach-Back Communication , Iran
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e59224, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367792


Depression, anxiety and stress are common psychological disorders (PDs).This study aimed to assess the odds of co-occurrence of mentioned PDs in total sample and different levels of socio-demographic characteristics, specifically among a large sample of general adults.Ina cross-sectional, community-based study conducted among 4763 Iranian adults, depression and anxiety were assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and stress with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The loglinear analysis was applied to investigate their comorbidities. Based on selected models with pair-comorbidity of anxiety with stress, depression with stress, and anxiety with depression, the results showed the odds of comorbidity between anxiety and depression (odds ratio (OR) =12.29, 95%CI: 9.58-15.80), depression and stress (OR = 7.80, 95%CI:6.55-10.18), and stress and anxiety (OR = 4.62, 95%CI:3.71-5.75). Also, ORs of pair-comorbidities were the same, except between stress and anxiety for men compared to women (adjusted-OR = 6.47, 95%CI: 4.44-9.49 versus 3.85, 95%CI:2.95-5.00) and comorbidity between stress and depression for the participants withlower than 40 years compared to others (adjusted-OR = 9.03, 95%CI: 7.17-11.36 versus 6.41, 95%CI: 4.90-8.41), p< 0.05. Stress comorbidity with depression was higher level than other pair-comorbidities. Obvious discrepancies were also observed in terms of ORs of pair-comorbidities between three mentioned disorders in different levels of SDCs.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology
Psicol. reflex. crit ; 35: 32, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, INDEXPSI | ID: biblio-1406428


The Multidimensional Psychological Flexibility Inventory (MPFI) is a new 60-item self-report scale developed to assess the specific components of psychological flexibility and inflexibility proposed in the Hexaflex model of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT). The present study sought to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian version of the MPFI-60 in a community sample of 307 Iranian adults. The original study supported a 12-factor second-order structure consisting of 6 dimensions for psychological flexibility and 6 dimensions for psychological inflexibility. The Persian MPFI-60 demonstrated acceptable semantic and test content, internal structure, correlations with other variables, and internal consistency. It also evidenced in relation to anxiety, stress, depression, and self-compassion. Overall, the results indicate that the Persian MPFI-60 is a psychometrically sound measure in the Iranian context that enables researchers and clinicians to comprehensively assess the components of psychological flexibility and inflexibility within the Hexaflex model. (AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Cross-Cultural Comparison , Mental Health , Surveys and Questionnaires , Reproducibility of Results , Acceptance and Commitment Therapy , Psychometrics , Translations , Iran
Rev. cub. inf. cienc. salud ; 33: e1853, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | CUMED, LILACS | ID: biblio-1408115


The aim of the present study is to investigate the impact of health literacy of Iranian users on the accuracy of information on COVID-19 in virtual social networks. This is applied descriptive survey. The population includes all Iranian users of virtual networks (Telegram, WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram and etc.). In this study, 121 questionnaires were confirmed and studied. For descriptive statistics, SPSS (ver. 32) and for testing hypothesis, Lisrel have been used. The research findings show that according to Iranian users, Internet is the main source for obtaining information on COVID-19. Moreover, the most popular virtual network is WhatsApp. The aim of using virtual social networks is to access to news and information. The results of structural equations show that there is positive meaningful relation between the rate of health literacy and the accuracy of information on COVID-19 (p > 0.000, ß = 0.561). In addition, the health literacy can explain 40 percent variance of the accuracy of information on COVID-19 in virtual social networks. Moreover, the results show that there is meaningful difference between the educational level of Iranian users and the health literacy and accuracy of information on COVID-19 in virtual social networks. Concerning the results of this study and meaningful relation between the health literacy level and attention to accuracy of the information on COVID-19 in Iranian users, the authorities of health system are recommended to consider special planning and policies to increase the health literacy level of users in social networks. In this way, users will be able to verify the accuracy of information on COVID-19 by increasing their health literacy level and therefore, there would be less losses due to unawareness of health literacy and its adverse effect(AU)

El objetivo del presente estudio es investigar el impacto de la alfabetización en salud relacionada con la COVID-19 en los usuarios iraníes de las redes sociales virtuales. Se aplicó una encuesta descriptiva, que incluyó a todos los usuarios iraníes de redes sociales virtuales (Telegram, WhatsApp, Twitter, Instagram, etc.). En el estudio se confirmaron y estudiaron 121 cuestionarios. Para estadística descriptiva se utilizó SPSS (versión 32) y Lisrel, para probar la hipótesis. La investigación indicó que, según los usuarios iraníes, Internet es la principal fuente de información sobre COVID-19; además, la red virtual más popular es WhatsApp. El objetivo del uso de las redes sociales virtuales es acceder a noticias e información. Los resultados de las ecuaciones estructurales muestran que existe una relación significativa y positiva entre la tasa de alfabetización en salud y la precisión de la información sobre COVID-19 (p > 0,000; ß = 0,561). Asimismo, la alfabetización en salud puede explicar una variación del 40 por ciento en la precisión de la información sobre COVID-19 en las redes sociales virtuales. También que existe una diferencia significativa entre el nivel educativo de los usuarios iraníes, la alfabetización en salud y la precisión de la información sobre COVID-19 en las redes sociales virtuales. Teniendo en cuenta los resultados de este estudio, se recomienda a las autoridades del sistema de salud que consideren una planificación y políticas especiales para aumentar el nivel de alfabetización en salud de los usuarios en redes sociales. De esta manera, estos últimos podrán verificar la información sobre COVID-19 y, por lo tanto, serían menores las pérdidas por desconocimiento(AU)

Humans , Male , Female , Information Dissemination , Health Literacy , Social Networking , Internet Access , COVID-19/epidemiology , Disinformation , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Iran
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1422266


Abstract Objective: To assess the level of moral skills in dental students and residents. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted on dental students and residents of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, selected by census sampling. Data collection tools included a demographic information checklist (age, gender, marital status, educational level (before basic sciences, after basic sciences, residency), and moral skills inventory questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a T-test and multiple regression analysis at a confidence level of 95%. Results: The total score of the moral skills questionnaire was about 44 out of 80, and there was no difference between males and females in moral skills (p=0.79). However, there was a significant difference in moral sensitivity between married and single students (p=0.036). Residents gained significantly higher moral integrity scores than students (p=0.046). Conclusion: The study highlights that the level of professional moral skills in Kerman dental students and residents was acceptable. Single students got higher scores in the moral sensitivity domain, although residents got the highest scores in the moral integrity domain. There was no significant correlation between gender and the level of moral skills (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ethics, Dental/education , Ethics, Professional/education , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Regression Analysis , Internship and Residency/ethics , Iran/epidemiology
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 65: e22210268, 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364472


Abstract: Sulfur mustard is one of the chemical warfare agent. It rapidly reacts with the cutaneous tissues and other tissues, leading to various devastating long-term effects on human health. Mustard-exposed veterans suffer from its chronic skin problems, including itching, burning sensation, and eczema. We aimed to evaluate the protective effects of Myrtus communis L. (myrtle) on chronic skin lesions and quality of life of sulfur mustard-exposed veterans. In this randomized, double-blind clinical trial, 60 sulfur mustard-exposed patients were evaluated. Thirty patients received myrtle essence 5% cream (case group) and 30 patients received Eucerin cream (placebo group) twice in a day for one month. Then, We assessed the chronic skin problems and itching-related parameters (such as the itching time, severity, distribution, frequency, and calculated itching score), duration of sleep, number of waking up at night, and quality of life in the both groups. Our analysis of data revealed that application of myrtle cream effectively decreased skin problems including; itching and burning sensation. Additionally, myrtle markedly decreased skin lesion symptoms such as excoriation in the case group as compared with before treatment. Noticeably, myrtle cream significantly improved quality of life of the patients in the case group. The present study provides more in-depth information regarding the protective role of myrtle on the sulfur mustard-induces skin complication. Also, myrtle effectively improved quality of life of the sulfur mustard-exposed veterans.

Humans , Middle Aged , Skin Diseases/chemically induced , Plant Extracts/therapeutic use , Chemical Warfare Agents/toxicity , Myrtus communis/therapeutic use , Phytotherapy , Mustard Gas/toxicity , Pruritus/chemically induced , Quality of Life , Veterans , Indicators of Quality of Life , Eczema/chemically induced , War Exposure/adverse effects , Iran
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210076, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365222


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 general dentists in Kerman. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including personal information (gender, age, marital status, condition and place and years of employment, and the average of weekly working hours) and a valid and reliable questionnaire of occupational hazards, including 24 questions about occupational hazards (6 domain) and nine questions about criteria for the prevention of the risks of dentistry. The t-test, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results 92 (49.2%) were men. The mean and standard deviation of the score of occupational hazards was 27.04±16.21 out of 96, and the criteria of prevention were 22.00±7.28 out of 36. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between single statuses, years of occupational and type of employment, weekly work hours and occupational hazards, participation in occupational injury identification courses, and hepatitis vaccination. In addition, there were significant correlations between gender, age, weekly work hours, and preventive measures. Moreover, 3.2% of dentists were in a high-risk group and 26.2% were weak in preventive measures. Conclusion A total of 32.6% of dentists are at moderate risk of occupational hazards, and 10.7% meet the prevention criteria properly. It is recommended to hold training classes to identify occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among dentists.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Occupational Risks , Risk Factors , Dentists , Iran/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Dentistry/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Occupational Health , Disease Prevention , Occupational Injuries
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210044, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365224


ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effects of coloring beverages on the color stability of two types of hybrid ceramics with different surface treatments. Material and Methods 180 specimens of two hybrid ceramics (Vita Enamic and Mazic Duro) and a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II) were prepared (n=60 in each group). Half of the discs in each group were glazed while the other was polished. The specimens were then divided into three subgroups and immersed in distilled water, carrot juice, and coffee. The overall color difference (∆E) was calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color space. Data were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA; Tukey's honest significant difference was also done for pairwise comparisons (α=0.05). Results Vita Mark II specimens revealed less overall color changes compared to other groups. The ∆E of the glazed Vita Enamic specimens was greater than polished specimens following immersion in distilled water (p=0.03) and coffee (p=0.001), but it was not significant for carrot juice. The same results were obtained for polished Mazic Duro specimens. Relatively similar amounts of ∆E were recorded in polished and glazed subgroups of Vita Mark II. Conclusion The ∆E of hybrid ceramics was higher than Vita Mark II. Polishing could be recommended for surface treatment of hybrid ceramics instead of glazing, saving time and facilitating the process.

Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Surface Properties , Beverages , Color , Dental Cements , Distilled Water , Ceramics , Analysis of Variance , Dental Prosthesis , Computer-Aided Design/instrumentation , Coffee , Dental Porcelain , Coloring Agents , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Iran/epidemiology
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 45-51, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922537


OBJECTIVE@#Some epidemic diseases such as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have caused many physical, psychological, and social challenges, despite the existence of treatment strategies. Many people are looking for complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) to prevent such diseases. The present study was performed to determine how some types of CAM were being used during the COVID-19 epidemic in Iran.@*METHODS@#The present study had a cross-sectional descriptive correlational design. All Iranian residents above 17 years old were eligible to participate in the study. A total of 782 participants completed a demographic information questionnaire, a questionnaire about their use of CAMs and a questionnaire about their satisfaction with the CAMs they used. Web-based sampling was conducted from 20 April 2020 to 20 August 2020.@*RESULTS@#Of the participants, 84% used at least one type of CAM during the COVID-19 outbreak. The most used CAMs were dietary supplements (61.3%), prayer (57.9%), and herbal medicines (48.8%). The majority of the participants (50%-66%) have used CAMs to prevent the transmission of COVID-19 or to reduce anxiety caused by the COVID-19 pandemic. CAM use was associated with sex, having children, place of residence, COVID-19 status, and source of gathering information about CAM (P < 0.05). All 32 participants who had been infected with COVID-19 used at least one type of CAM for treatment or alleviation of the disease symptoms.@*CONCLUSION@#During the COVID-19 outbreak, some types of CAM, particularly nutritional supplements, medicinal herbs, and prayer, were commonly used to prevent COVID-19 and reduce pandemic-related anxiety.

Adolescent , Child , Humans , COVID-19 , Complementary Therapies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Disease Outbreaks , Iran , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 230-236, 2022.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-929230


BACKGROUND@#Constipation is a common chronic bowel disorder with an incidence of more than 50% in the elderly population. Complementary and alternative medicine is a cost-effective and satisfactory treatment for constipation used widely by the elderly.@*OBJECTIVE@#This study evaluates the efficacy of an herbal formula made from Foeniculum vulgare Mill. and Rosa damascena for the treatment of constipation in an elderly population and consequent changes to their quality of life.@*DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTION@#This double-blind randomized active controlled clinical trial, with parallel group allocation ratio of 1:1, was conducted in a referral clinic in Afzalipour Hospital, affiliated to Kerman University of Medical Sciences in Kerman, Southeastern Iran. Individuals over 60 years of age, diagnosed with functional constipation (based on the Rome IV criteria), were included in this study. Participants received a sachet of 10 g F. vulgare and R. damascena (herbal formula group) or polyethylene glycol 4000 (PEG 4000 group) with a glass of warm water two times a day for 4 weeks and were followed up for 4 additional weeks.@*MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES@#Constipation severity, stool consistency, and the quality of life were used as the primary outcomes. Drug side effects were used as a secondary outcome. The outcomes were assessed using the Constipation Assessment Scale, the Bristol Stool Form Scale, and the Patient Assessment of Constipation Quality of Life questionnaire.@*RESULTS@#A total of 25 participants in each group completed the four-week treatment cycle and the eight-week follow-up. At the end of the four-week treatment cycle, all clinical outcomes had significant improvements in both groups (P < 0.05). The analysis of constipation severity (P < 0.001), stool consistency (P < 0.001), and the quality of life (P < 0.001) showed significant improvements with fewer side effects (mild diarrhea) and a longer duration of symptom relief in the herbal formula group compared to the PEG 4000 group.@*CONCLUSION@#Although both interventions significantly improved the treatment outcomes, constipation severity, stool consistency and the quality of life were improved more effectively by the herbal formula than by PEG 4000; however, the mechanism of action is not yet understood.@*TRIAL REGISTRATION@#This trial was registered in the Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (IRCTID: IRCT20200108046056N1).

Aged , Humans , Middle Aged , Constipation/drug therapy , Double-Blind Method , Foeniculum , Iran , Quality of Life , Rosa , Treatment Outcome