Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 229
Filter
1.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210076, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 general dentists in Kerman. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including personal information (gender, age, marital status, condition and place and years of employment, and the average of weekly working hours) and a valid and reliable questionnaire of occupational hazards, including 24 questions about occupational hazards (6 domain) and nine questions about criteria for the prevention of the risks of dentistry. The t-test, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results 92 (49.2%) were men. The mean and standard deviation of the score of occupational hazards was 27.04±16.21 out of 96, and the criteria of prevention were 22.00±7.28 out of 36. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between single statuses, years of occupational and type of employment, weekly work hours and occupational hazards, participation in occupational injury identification courses, and hepatitis vaccination. In addition, there were significant correlations between gender, age, weekly work hours, and preventive measures. Moreover, 3.2% of dentists were in a high-risk group and 26.2% were weak in preventive measures. Conclusion A total of 32.6% of dentists are at moderate risk of occupational hazards, and 10.7% meet the prevention criteria properly. It is recommended to hold training classes to identify occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among dentists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Occupational Risks , Risk Factors , Dentists , Iran/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Dentistry/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Occupational Health , Disease Prevention , Occupational Injuries
2.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210044, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effects of coloring beverages on the color stability of two types of hybrid ceramics with different surface treatments. Material and Methods 180 specimens of two hybrid ceramics (Vita Enamic and Mazic Duro) and a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II) were prepared (n=60 in each group). Half of the discs in each group were glazed while the other was polished. The specimens were then divided into three subgroups and immersed in distilled water, carrot juice, and coffee. The overall color difference (∆E) was calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color space. Data were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA; Tukey's honest significant difference was also done for pairwise comparisons (α=0.05). Results Vita Mark II specimens revealed less overall color changes compared to other groups. The ∆E of the glazed Vita Enamic specimens was greater than polished specimens following immersion in distilled water (p=0.03) and coffee (p=0.001), but it was not significant for carrot juice. The same results were obtained for polished Mazic Duro specimens. Relatively similar amounts of ∆E were recorded in polished and glazed subgroups of Vita Mark II. Conclusion The ∆E of hybrid ceramics was higher than Vita Mark II. Polishing could be recommended for surface treatment of hybrid ceramics instead of glazing, saving time and facilitating the process.


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Surface Properties , Beverages , Color , Dental Cements , Distilled Water , Ceramics , Analysis of Variance , Dental Prosthesis , Computer-Aided Design/instrumentation , Coffee , Dental Porcelain , Coloring Agents , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Iran/epidemiology
3.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 688-692, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355634

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Although COVID-19 pandemic significantly induces mortality, many of the patients who recovered present other medical problems such as alopecias. Telogen effluvium is a common alopecia that is usually related to previous events such as acute febrile diseases, including COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of telogen effluvium in COVID-19. Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 526 patients with documented telogen effluvium that recovered from COVID-19. Demographic data, concurrent alopecia, associated diseases, and COVID-19 severity were recorded. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: The mean age of the 526 patients (410 females, 116 males) was 30.97±9.592 years, with 7.65 ± 1.739 weeks of mean time of alopecia onset. Vitamin D deficiency (24.3%), androgenetic alopecia (78.2%), and grade III COVID-19 severity were the most common findings. Alopecia onset was significantly earlier in the younger age group, females, in hypothyroidism, and more severe coronavirus infection. Higher grade coronavirus infection was significantly seen in males, higher ages, earlier onset, and androgenic alopecia. Study limitations: Performing a single-center study and considering limited variables. Conclusion: Although Coronavirus 2 infection can be an important factor in telogen effluvium induction, other factors such as associated diseases, drug intake and emotional stress may also be involved. In the cases of early onset of alopecia, concomitant diseases such as hypothyroidism and severe coronavirus infection can occur, thus, the presence of various factors in telogen effluvium induction should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alopecia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Iran/epidemiology
4.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
5.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044

ABSTRACT

Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)


Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The dietary habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic could affect the urinary risk factors in kidney stone formers. In this study, we investigated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on 24-h urine metabolites, as a surrogate for dietary intake, in patients with kidney stones, in Tehran, Iran.@*METHODS@#We evaluated the medical records of all patients with urolithiasis who visited in our stone prevention clinic from the beginning of COVID-19 in Iran to 1 year later (Feb 2020-Feb 2021) and compared it with the patients' medical records in the same period a year before COVID-19 (Feb 2019-Feb 2020).@*RESULTS@#The results of our stone prevention clinic showed a decrease in the number of visits during COVID-19. Twenty-four-hour urine urea, sodium, and potassium were significantly lower, and 24-h urine magnesium was significantly higher during COVID-19. Higher 24-h urine oxalate was only shown in patients with the first-time visit, whereas lower 24-h urine uric acid and citrate were only shown in patients with the follow-up visits.@*CONCLUSIONS@#COVID-19 pandemics may change some of the dietary habits of the patients, including lower salt, protein, and fruit and vegetable intake. Although economic issues, restricted access, or sanitation issues may be the reason for the undesirable dietary changes, the importance of a quality diet should be discussed with all patients, as possible. Since the number of patients visited in the stone clinic was lower during COVID-19, virtual visits could be an excellent alternative to motivate patients with kidney stones.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney , Kidney Calculi/prevention & control , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
7.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Occupational contact with blood and body fluids poses a significant risk to healthcare workers. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors affecting needlestick injuries (NSI) in healthcare personnel in Iran.@*METHODS@#In March 2020, researchers studied six international databases such as Medline/PubMed, ProQuest, ISI/WOS, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar for English papers and two Iranian databases (MagIran and SID) for Persian papers. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist was used to assess quality of studies. The method of reporting was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.@*RESULTS@#A total of 43 articles were included in the analysis. Results showed that females (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.58, P value = 0.009), younger age (OR = 2.75, 95 % CI 2.27-3.33, P value < 0.001, rotated shift workers (OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.47-3.15, P value < 0.001), not attending training courses (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07-1.56, P value = 0.006), working in the surgery ward (OR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.33-2.50, P value < 0.001), less work experience (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.04-1.95, P value = 0.025) apposed a greater risk factors for NSI among healthcare workers.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on the results of this review, factors such as young age, less work experience, work shift, and female gender are considered as strong risk factors for NSI injury in Iran. Preventive measures including education programs can reduce the burden of NSI among healthcare personnel.


Subject(s)
Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Needlestick Injuries/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#School closure is one of the main policies of global health care strategies performed worldwide. Despite all benefits, there might be some threats for younger groups spending their time in quarantine. This study aims to determine the impacts of lockdown and school closure on children's major lifestyle aspects, especially their leisure and sleep pattern during the COVID-19 pandemic.@*METHODS@#For the purpose of this study, an online questionnaire was distributed from 14th to 31st of March 2020 among the schools and students from the first grade to the 12th grade (before university) in Fars province, southern Iran. The questionnaire consisted of five sections which included data regarding the students' general information, activity priorities, adherence to quarantine, attitude toward school closure, and sleep patterns.@*RESULTS@#In our study, 20,697 filled questionnaires were received from the participants with an average age of 13.76 years; 29.7% of them were male, 80.6% were from urban areas, and 83.3% were from public schools. The overall first preference of students during school closure was mobile and computer games (30.1%), followed by studying (26.6%) and watching television (13.8%). Our results demonstrated that the majority of students adhered to social distancing and there was also a significant correlation among education levels and desire for schools to be closed till the end of the semester (P = 0.015). Also, regarding sleep patterns, the majority (53.5%) had above 12 h of sleep throughout the day.@*CONCLUSION@#It seems that lockdown following COVID-19 pandemic has changed various aspects of the students' lifestyle remarkably, especially by increasing screen time and even sleep duration and pattern. We believe that certain strategies should be implemented by the Health and Educational Ministry to control not only the visible side effects of the quarantine period, but also the collateral consequences on their psychological and mental health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , COVID-19/psychology , Child , Female , Humans , Iran/epidemiology , Life Style , Male , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sleep Hygiene , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
9.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143391

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess sociodemographic factors and cancer information on patients' quality of life with head and neck cancer. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 patients with head and neck cancer who attended in one of the oncology centers in Mashhad, Iran, from September 2019 to December 2019. Data was collected through a questionnaire consisted of demographic information (gender, age, educational level, and job) and cancer information (type, location, treatment, clinical stage) and standard quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-H&N35). Data analyzed in SPSS22 software using T, ANOVA, Linear regression tests at 0.05 significant levels. Results: 49 participants (72.1%) were men. The mean age was 60.48 ± 13.74 years. Forty-nine participants (72.1%) had squamous cell carcinoma and 26 participants (38.2%) had a larynx tumor. Forty-six participants (67.6%) were in clinical stage 3, mainly with a problem and complain about hard food swallowing, xerostomia and speech. The mean score of QLQ-H&N35 was 42.06 ± 20.12 from 90. Quality of life in 47.1% of cases was moderate. There was no significant relationship between gender, job, educational level, type and location of cancer (p>0.05). There was a significant relationship between the patient's age, clinical stage, type of treatment, and quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusion: Quality of life in 47.1% was moderate. Clinical stage, age of patients and type of treatment statically and significantly affected the quality of life. Assessing quality of life in HNC patients can identify important side effects of treatment that affected quality of life and look for ways to improve QoL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Radiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Iran/epidemiology , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance
10.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351221

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To examine the level of the accumulating success of the modern Resin-Based Endodontic Surgery (RES) and comparison with Endodontic Microsurgery (EMS) and finally offer a replacement at the predicted final results of EMS. Material and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, Google Scholar have been utilized as electronic databases for systematic literature until 2019. Therefore, Endnote X9, which can be provided in the market, has been applied to manage the electronic titles. Searches have been made with keywords "Endodontic Microsurgery OR EMS", "Resin-Based Endodontic Surgery OR RES", "Regenerative Endodontic Therapy", "Root-End Filling", "Root-End Surgery", "Periapical Surgery" and "Endodontics". Thus, this systematic review has been conducted concerningthe basic investigation of the PRISMA Statement-Preferred Reporting Items designed for the Meta-analyses and Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of RES =19 and EMS =31 with potential pertinent abstracts and topics were discovered in manual and electronic searches. Then, three articles for RES and four studies for EMS publications satisfied our inclusion criteria necessary for systematically reviewing the studies. The analysis showed the success rate for EMS as equal to 1.16 times the probability of the success rate for RES. Conclusion: Micro-surgical procedures superiorly achieved the predictable high success rate for the Root-end surgery compared to conventional methods.


Subject(s)
Root Canal Obturation/instrumentation , Root Canal Therapy/instrumentation , Tooth, Nonvital/surgery , Endodontics , Regenerative Endodontics/instrumentation , Surgical Procedures, Operative , Iran/epidemiology , Microsurgery
11.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143388

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the postoperative pain and clinical and radiographic success of pulpotomized primary molars using two materials, Ferric Sulfate (FS) and Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) cement, over a period of 3 and 6 months. Material and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on a total of 38 teeth selected from 19 patients aged 3-9 years. FS 15.5% and CEM cement were used as pulpotomy agents. Permanent restorations were Stainless Steel Crowns (SSCs) in both groups. Patients were recalled for follow-up at 3 and 6 months intervals for clinical and radiographic assessment. Postoperative pain was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale up to ten days following the treatment. The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: At 6 months, a 100% clinical success rate was observed in the FS and CEM cement groups. The radiographic success rate in the FS group was 94.7%, whereas 100% in the CEM cement group at 6 months. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the teeth that received either FS or CEM cement as pulpotomy agents following the procedure (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were favorable outcomes of FS and CEM cement in pulpotomy of primary molar teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pain, Postoperative/pathology , Pulpotomy/instrumentation , Tooth, Deciduous , Ferric Sulfate , Visual Analog Scale , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Randomized Controlled Trial , Iran/epidemiology
12.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To use qualitative research methods to evaluate the experiences of patients with chronic oral diseases. Material and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit patients from the Oral Medicine Unit of Kerman University Dental School. An experienced independent facilitator convened the focus groups and conducted individual interviews in a non-clinical setting. Focus groups were mixed regarding their gender, age, chronic oral mucosal condition, time since diagnosis, and severity. A total of 39 patients participated in the study, including patients with oral lichen planus, pemphigus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and leukoplakia. Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed that patient views could be divided into the following themes: biopsychosocial issues, treatment limitations and side effects, unpredictability of the conditions and the potential for malignant transformation. Chronic oral mucosal conditions affected patients' daily lives in various areas, from physical health and functioning to concerns about their future. Conclusion: The oral medicine practitioner's role in treating patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases extended beyond active management and symptomatic relief to the management of all aspects of these conditions that affected their daily lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Stomatitis, Aphthous/diagnosis , Chronic Disease , Oral Medicine , Qualitative Research , Interviews as Topic/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Focus Groups/methods , Lichen Planus, Oral/diagnosis , Iran/epidemiology
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155000

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the level of inflammatory factors of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and reactive protein C in benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Material and Methods: In this case-control study, patients who were referred because of an enlarged thyroid gland were selected, patients who had undergone surgery for the thyroid nodule were included in the study. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and reactive protein C were measured before surgery in patients who were candidates for thyroid surgery. The histopathological records of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant cases had a cytological evaluation of thyroid nodules by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The mean of ESR / CRP in both groups was compared using an independent t-test (p>0.05). Results: In malignant tumor type, in all patients, with Pill (PTC), analyzes in the malignant group showed a significant difference between the mean ESR / CRP in both groups with and without thyroid history. Sub-analyzes in the malignant group were significantly different between the mean ESR / CRP in both groups with and without thyroid histories (p=0.009) (40.16 ± 28.81). The association between ESR and CRP, ESR / CRP and tumor size, ESR / CRP and age in each group as well as in the whole patients were evaluated using Pearson correlation test, which showed a positive association between ESR age and ESR (p=0.024, r=0.375). In the malignant group, a negative correlation was found between the age and the CRP rate (p=0.027, r=-0.441), and in the total patients between the age and the rate (ES=0.043, r=-0.256). Conclusion: Factors such as ESR and CRP, which are considered acute phase reactors and their levels increase in acute inflammatory conditions, may not have a significant increase in chronic inflammatory conditions and malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Sedimentation/drug effects , Protein C , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Iran/epidemiology
14.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250455

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the knowledge and attitude of the students of Kerman dental school (Iran) about ethics in dental research. Material and Methods: This cross-section study was conducted on 307 dental students selected through the census sampling method. Data were collected by a researcher-made questionnaire consisting of 12 items about knowledge and 17 items about attitude toward research ethics. Data analyzed in SPSS software using t-test and linear regression test. P-values of less than 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Of the respondents, 33.9% were male and 66.1% were female, and 44% had good knowledge and 20.8% had a positive attitude about research ethics. A significant correlation was found between knowledge and attitude. A significant correlation was also observed between knowledge and participation in research workshops. Knowledge and attitude showed no significant correlation with gender or year of admission. Conclusion: Participants had appropriate knowledge and attitude about research ethics. There is some room for improvement in research ethics education concerning experimental works and retrospective studies on biologic samples. Holding research workshops with an introduction to ethical codes of research is recommended.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Students, Dental , Bioethics , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Dental Research , Ethics, Dental , Iran/epidemiology , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Retrospective Studies
15.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1250448

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To compare the airway changes and risks of sleep apnea after the bimaxillary orthognathic surgery and mandibular setback surgery in the growing patients with skeletal Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: MEDLINE, PubMed, Cochrane Library, Embase, ISI, Google scholar have been utilized as the electronic databases for performing systematic literature between 2010 to August 2020. The quality of the included studies has been assessed using MINORS. Meta-analysis was performed using Stata 16 software. Results: In electronic searches, a total of 218 potentially relevant abstracts and topics have been found. Finally, 23 papers met the criteria defined for inclusion in this systematic review. The mean difference of upper airway total volume changes between before and after surgery was (MD = 1.86 cm3 95% CI 0.61 cm3-3.11 cm3; p= 0.00) among 14 studies. This result showed that after Mandibular Setback Surgery, there was a statistically significant decrease in the upper airway volume. Conclusion: Class III Patients who undergo bimaxillary surgery show no other significant difference in airways volume after surgery than patients in Class III who undergo mandibular setback alone.


Subject(s)
Sleep Apnea Syndromes/etiology , Orthognathic Surgery , Malocclusion/surgery , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/surgery , Iran/epidemiology
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of clinical contamination in the clinic and laboratory of the prosthodontics department of Kerman Dental School. Material and Methods: Clinical surfaces of the dental units, the laboratory, and the professors' lounge of the prosthodontics department were randomly sampled. The sampled surfaces included the dental units' console, light switch, light handle, headrest, and air-water spray syringe in the clinic, plastering tables, buttons of the vibrator, polishing, and trimmer machines, acryl tables, handles of pressure pot and press machine, handpiece holders, work desks, and drawer handles in the laboratory, and desks, computer mouse and keyboard, telephone sets, and doorknob in the professor's lounge. The samples were examined for the type and growth of microorganisms. The data were entered into SPSS, where they were analyzed using the chi-square test at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Of all the samples taken, 89.9% showed microbial contamination. The most common type of contamination was fungus (34.8%) and the least common types were Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.1%). The second and third most common types of bacteria in the samples were Staphylococcus aureus (18%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.4%), respectively. There was no significant difference between the frequencies of microbial contamination in the clinic, the laboratory, and the professors' lounge. Conclusion: Given the strong chance of cross-infection in the examined department and laboratory, it is necessary to enforce protocols for proper disinfection of surfaces before, between and after treatments.


Subject(s)
Schools, Dental , Disinfection/instrumentation , Enterococcus faecalis , Environmental Pollution , Microbiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Epidemiology, Experimental , Analysis of Variance , Protocols/methods , Iran/epidemiology
17.
Arch. endocrinol. metab. (Online) ; 64(5): 548-558, Sept.-Oct. 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131129

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the determinants of socio-economic inequality in the prevalence of short stature and underweight in Iranian children and adolescents. Subjects and methods: This cross-sectional nationwide study was conducted on 36,486 participants, aged 6-18 years. This school-based surveillance (CASPIAN- IV) program and its complementary part on weight disorders evaluation was conducted in urban and rural areas of 30 provinces in Iran. In addition to physical examination, a validated questionnaire was completed from students and their parents. Socio-economic status (SES) was determined using principal component analysis, and was classified in quintile scale. Inequality in the prevalence of underweight and short stature was assessed using concentration (C) index and slop index of inequality (SII) by the Oaxaca-Blinder decomposition method. Results: The prevalence (95% CI) of underweight and short stature at national level was 10.89 (10.55, 11.23) and 4.15 (3.94, 4.38), respectively; it had a downtrend from the lowest to highest SES quintile. Furthermore, the value of C for underweight and short stature was negative, i.e. inequality was in favor of high SES groups. Moreover, the prevalence gap of underweight and short stature in the first and fifth quintiles of SES was 6.58% and 5.80%, respectively. The highest proportion of this gap was explained by living area. In the multiple logistic model, odds of underweight and short stature were significantly lower in individuals with higher SES. Compared to boys, odds of underweight were decreased in girls, whereas odds of short stature were increased in them. Odds of underweight and short stature were increased in participants from rural areas than in urban areas. With increasing age, the odds of underweight and short stature decreased significantly. Conclusions: The results of this study showed that inequality in the prevalence of short stature and underweight was in favor of high SES groups. Moreover, living area was one of the most important determinants that explained this inequality. Therefore, this issue needs to be considered in health promotion policies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Thinness/epidemiology , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Iran/epidemiology
18.
An. bras. dermatol ; 95(3): 289-297, May-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | ColecionaSUS, LILACS, ColecionaSUS | ID: biblio-1130878

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Tattooing is among identified risk factor for blood-borne diseases. Objective: This study aims to determine the prevalence of tattooing during lifetime and in prisons and its related factors among Iranian prisoners. Methods: This is a cross-sectional study. The required data was obtained from hepatitis B and C surveillance surveys in prisons in 2015-2016 that was collected through face-to-face interview. 12,800 prisoners were selected by multi-stage random sampling from 55 prisons of 19 provinces in Iran. Weighted prevalence and associated factors (using Chi-Square test and multivariate logistic regression) were determined by Stata/SE 14.0 survey package. Results: Out of 12,800 prisioners, 11,988 participated in the study (93.6% participation rate). The prevalence of tattooing in lifetime and in prisons was 44.7% and 31.1% respectively. The prevalence of tattooing during lifetime was significantly associated with age < 35 years, being single, illiteracy, history of imprisonment, drug use, piercing during lifetime, extramarital sex and history of STI; the prevalence of tattooing in prison had a significant association with history of imprisonment, drug use, piercing in prison, and history of extramarital sex (p < 0.05). Study limitations: Information and selection bias was one of the study limitations. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the prevalence of tattooing during lifetime and in prison among prisoners was significantly high especially in high-risk groups such as drug users and sexually active subjects. Given the role of tattooing, drug injection and sex in the transmission of blood-borne diseases, harm reduction programs are recommended to reduce these high-risk behaviors in prisons.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Prisoners/statistics & numerical data , Tattooing/statistics & numerical data , Risk-Taking , Socioeconomic Factors , Tattooing/adverse effects , Time Factors , Logistic Models , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Risk Factors , Sex Distribution , Age Distribution , Substance-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Body Piercing/statistics & numerical data , Iran/epidemiology , Middle Aged
19.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 57(2): 137-143, Apr.-June 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1131651

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: Intestinal cancer often occurs in type 2 diabetic patients. The concept of increasing insulin levels and insulin-like growth factor in the blood with type 2 diabetes are stimulated with the growth and depletion of cloned cell walls, and the continuation of this process leads to the cellular deformation. This is the evidence for intestinal cancer in type 2 diabetes in population. OBJECTIVE: In this study, we aimed to find out the relationship between diabetics and intestinal cancer based on CD38 gene mutation. METHODS: Samples were collected from 200 population including normal and case ones. PCR products related to rs 6449181 of CD38 gene was amplified with ARMS-PCR technique, and a 420-bp sharp banding was observed as well. According three ARMS-PCR techniques, three primers were designed by oligo7 software. Primers include F1, F2 and R (amplifying for normal, mutant and reverse primer respectively). RESULTS: This band was observed using a primer F1 that carries the wild type nucleotide using a primer, and when it is used with the F2 primer, it brings the mutant primer to populations of patients with diabetes and diabetes-cancer. In addition, the clinical results including body mass index, blood glucose and insulin level were analyzed. The means ±SD and Tuckey's post hoc test were significant between the clinical characterization parameters between cases and healthy populations. The allelic gene frequencies and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium between nucleotides were evaluated, and the significant level between the alleles and gene frequencies was observed. CONCLUSION: In general, the current study found that there is a relationship between diabetes and intestinal cancer among the studied populations.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: O câncer intestinal ocorre frequentemente em pacientes diabéticos tipo 2. O conceito que aumento dos níveis de insulina e fator de crescimento semelhante à insulina no sangue com diabetes tipo 2 sejam estimulados com o crescimento e esgotamento das paredes celulares clonadas, e a continuação desse processo levaria à deformação celular. Esta é a evidência para câncer intestinal em diabetes tipo 2 na população. OBJETIVO: Neste estudo, buscou-se descobrir a relação entre diabéticos e câncer intestinal com base na mutação genética CD38. MÉTODOS: Foram coletadas amostras de duzentos habitantes, incluindo os normais e os casos. Produtos PCR relacionados ao rs 6449181do gene CD38 foi amplificado com a técnica ARMS-PCR, e uma banda afiada de 420 bp também foi observada. De acordo com três técnicas ARMS-PCR, três primers foram projetados pelo software Oligo7. Os primers incluem F1, F2 e R (amplificando para primer normal, mutante e reverso, respectivamente). RESULTADOS: Esta banda foi observada usando um primer F1 que carrega o nucleotídeo do tipo selvagem usando um primer e quando é usado com o primer F2, ele traz o primer mutante para populações de pacientes com diabetes e diabetes-câncer. Além disso, foram analisados os resultados clínicos, incluindo índice de massa corporal, glicemia e nível de insulina. As médias ±SD e Tuckey's post hoc test foram significativas entre os parâmetros de caracterização clínica entre os casos e populações saudáveis. Foram avaliadas as frequências genéticas alélicas e o equilíbrio de Hardy-Weinberg entre nucleotídeos e observou-se o nível significativo entre os alelos e as frequências genéticas. CONCLUSÃO: Em geral, o presente estudo constatou que há relação entre diabetes e câncer intestinal entre as populações estudadas.


Subject(s)
Humans , ADP-ribosyl Cyclase/genetics , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2 , Intestinal Neoplasms/epidemiology , Polymorphism, Single Nucleotide , Alleles , Iran/epidemiology , Mutation
20.
J. oral res. (Impresa) ; 9(3): 171-179, jun. 30, 2020. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1293168

ABSTRACT

This study sought to assess the internal anatomy of the maxillary sinuses and their septa using cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT) in an Iranian population. Materials and Methods: Resorption of alveolar bone decreases the height of the maxillary alveolar ridge. This height reduction may be so severe that it warrants ridge augmentation by a sinus lift. Manipulation of the maxillary sinuses, as in sinus lift surgery, requires adequate knowledge about the sinus anatomy.Results: Maxillary sinus septum, as an anatomical variation, may complicate the surgical procedures and increase the risk of complications such as sinus membrane perforation. In this retrospective study, 366 sinuses, 190 from females and 176 from males, aged between 10 and 65 years old presenting to the Oral and Maxillofacial Radiology Department of School of Dentistry at Hamadan University of Medical Sciences were evaluated by two oral radiologists. The extension of the maxillary sinuses, presence of septa, number of septa and their location were determined. Data were analyzed using the chi square test (level of significance p≤0.001). The coefficient of agreement between the two oral radiologists was calculated based on Cohen kappa. Septa were present in 40.5% of the maxillary sinuses, out of which, 31.6% had one, 7.9% had two and 1% had three or more septa; 38% of the septa were horizontal while 62% had an oblique orientation. In total, 184 septa were found in 183 patients; out of which, 91 septa were 2mm to 5mm long while 93 septa were longer than 5mm. Conclusions: Comprehensive knowledge about the three-dimensional internal anatomy of the maxillary sinuses acquired by CBCT priorto surgical procedures can greatly help to prevent postoperative complications.


Este estudio buscó evaluar la anatomía interna de los senos maxilares y sus septos mediante tomografía computarizada de haz cónico (CBCT) en una población Iraní. Materiales y Métodos: . La resorción del hueso alveolar disminuye la altura de la cresta alveolar maxilar. Esta reducción de altura puede ser tan severa que justifique el aumento de la cresta mediante una elevación de seno. La manipulación de los senos maxilares, como en la cirugía de elevación del seno, requiere un conocimiento adecuado sobre la anatomía del seno. Resultado: El tabique del seno maxilar, como una variación anatómica, puede complicar los procedimientos quirúrgicos y aumentar el riesgo de complicaciones como la perforación de la membrana sinusal. En este estudio retrospectivo, dos radiólogos orales evaluaron 366 senos, 190 de mujeres y 176 de hombres, con edades comprendidas entre 10 y 65 años que se presentaron en el Departamento de Radiología Oral y Maxilofacial de la Facultad de Odontología de Hamadan University of Medical Sciences. Se determinó la extensión de los senos maxilares, la presencia de septos, el número de septos y su ubicación. Los datos se analizaron mediante la prueba de chi cuadrado (nivel de significación p?0.001). El coeficiente de concordancia entre los dos radiólogos orales se calculó en base a Cohen kappa. Los septos estaban presentes en el 40.5% de los senos maxilares, de los cuales, el 31.6% tenía uno, el 7.9% tenía dos y el 1% tenía tres o más septos; El 38% de los septos eran horizontales, mientras que el 62% tenía una orientación oblicua. En total, se encontraron 184 septos en 183 pacientes; de los cuales, 91 septos tenían de 2mm a 5mm de largo, mientras que 93 septos tenían más de 5mm. Conclusion: El conocimiento exhaustivo sobre la anatomía interna tridimensional de los senos maxilares adquiridos por CBCT antes de los procedimientos quirúrgicos puede ayudar en gran medida a prevenir complicaciones postoperatorias.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Young Adult , Paranasal Sinus Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Maxillary Sinus/anatomy & histology , Maxillary Sinus/diagnostic imaging , Nasal Septum/anatomy & histology , Retrospective Studies , Cone-Beam Computed Tomography , Alveolar Ridge Augmentation , Anatomic Variation , Iran/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL