Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 241
Filter
1.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 68-72, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970975

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To prepare for future possible communicable disease epidemics/pandemics, health care providers should know how the COVID-19 pandemic influenced injured patients. This study aimed to compare epidemiologic features, outcomes, and diagnostic and therapeutic procedures of trauma patients admitted to a university-affiliated hospital before and during the pandemic.@*METHODS@#This retrospective study was performed on data from the National Trauma Registry of Iran. All injured patients admitted to the hospital from July 25, 2016 to March 10, 2021 were included in the study. The patients were excluded if they had hospital length of stay less than 24 h. The injury outcomes, trauma mechanisms, and therapeutic and diagnostic procedures of the 2 periods: before (from July 25, 2016 to February 18, 2020) and during (from February 19, 2020 to March 10, 2021) COVID-19 pandemic were compared. All analyses were performed using STATA version 14.0 software (Stata Corporation, College Station, TX).@*RESULTS@#Totally, 5014 patients were included in the registry. Of them, 773 (15.4%) were registered after the beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic on February 19, 2020, while 4241 were registered before that. Gender, education level, and cause of injury were significantly different among the patients before and after the beginning of the pandemic (p < 0.001). In the ≤ 15 years and ≥ 65 years age groups, injuries decreased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic (p < 0.001). The frequency of intensive care unit (ICU) admission decreased from 694 (16.4%) to 88 (11.4%) (p < 0.001). The mean length of stay at the hospital (days) and at the ICU (days) declined as follow: 8.3 (SD = 17.2) vs. 5.5 (SD = 6.1), p < 0.001 and 7.5 (SD = 11.5) vs. 4.5 (SD = 6.3), p < 0.022. The frequency of diagnostic and therapeutic procedures before and during the pandemic was as follows, respectively: ultrasonography 905 (21.3%) vs. 417 (53.9%) (p < 0.001), echocardiography 313 (7.4%) vs. 107 (13.8%) (p < 0.001), angiography 1597 (37.7%) vs. 534 (69.1%) (p < 0.001), MRI 166 (3.9%) vs. 51 (6.6%) (p < 0.001), surgery 3407 (80.3%) vs. 654 (84.6%) (p < 0.001), and internal/external fixation 1215 (28.6%) vs. 336 (43.5%) (p < 0.001).@*CONCLUSION@#The pandemic affected the epidemiology of traumatic patients in terms of gender, age, educational level, and trauma mechanism. It changed the outcomes of injured patients: ICU admission, length of stay at the hospital and ICU decreased. The patients received more diagnostic and therapeutic procedures during the pandemic. To be more precise, more research is needed on the details.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , Iran/epidemiology , Intensive Care Units , Registries , Trauma Centers , COVID-19 Testing
2.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 193-198, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981932

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#To identify risk factors for developing pressure ulcers (PUs) in the acute care period of traumatic spinal fracture patients with or without spinal cord injuries (SCIs).@*METHODS@#Data were collected prospectively in participating the National Spinal column/Cord Injury Registry of Iran (NSCIR-IR) from individuals with traumatic spinal fractures with or without SCIs, inclusive of the hospital stay from admission to discharge. Trained nursing staff examined the patients for the presence of PUs every 8 h during their hospital stay. The presence and grade of PUs were assessed according to the European Pressure Ulcer Advisory Panel classification. In addition to PU, following data were also extracted from the NSCIR-IR datasets during the period of 2015 - 2021: age, sex, Glasgow coma scale score at admission, having SCIs, marital status, surgery for a spinal fracture, American Spinal Injury Association impairment scale (AIS), urinary incontinence, level of education, admitted center, length of stay in the intensive care unit (ICU), hypertension, respiratory diseases, consumption of cigarettes, diabetes mellitus and length of stay in the hospital. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the unadjusted and adjusted odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI).@*RESULTS@#Altogether 2785 participants with traumatic spinal fractures were included. Among them, 87 (3.1%) developed PU during their hospital stay and 392 (14.1%) had SCIs. In the SCI population, 63 (16.1%) developed PU during hospital stay. Univariate logistic regression for the whole sample showed that marital status, having SCIs, urinary incontinence, level of education, treating center, number of days in the ICU, age, and Glasgow coma scale score were significant predictors for PUs. However, further analysis by multiple logistic regression only revealed the significant risk factors to be the treating center, marital status, having SCIs, and the number of days in the ICU. For the subgroup of individuals with SCIs, marital status, AIS, urinary incontinence, level of education, the treating center, the number of days in the ICU and the number of days in the hospital were significant predictors for PUs by univariate analysis. After adjustment in the multivariate model, the treating center, marital status (singles vs. marrieds, OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.55 - 6.03, p = 0.001), and number of days in the ICU (OR = 1.06, 95% CI: 1.04 - 1.09, p < 0.001) maintained significance.@*CONCLUSIONS@#These data confirm that individuals with traumatic spinal fractures and SCIs, especially single young patients who suffer from urinary incontinence, grades A-D by AIS, prolonged ICU stay, and more extended hospitalization are at increased risk for PUs; as a result strategies to minimize PU development need further refinement.


Subject(s)
Humans , Spinal Fractures/etiology , Pressure Ulcer/complications , Iran/epidemiology , Spinal Cord Injuries/epidemiology , Risk Factors , Spine , Registries , Urinary Incontinence/complications , Suppuration/complications
3.
Chinese Journal of Traumatology ; (6): 199-203, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-981923

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE@#Spine injury is one of the leading causes of death and mortality worldwide. The objective of this study was to determine the incidence, pattern and outcome of trauma patients with spine injury referred to the largest trauma center in southern Iran during the last 3 years.@*METHODS@#This is a cross-sectional study conducted between March 2018 and June 2021 in the largest trauma center in the southern Iran. The data collection form included the age, sex, injury location (cervical, thoracic, and lumbar), cause of injury (traffic accidents, falls, and assaults), length of hospital stay, injured segment of spine injury, severity of injury, and outcome. Statistical analyzes were performed using SPSS software version 24.@*RESULTS@#Totally 776 cases of spine injury were identified. The spine injury rate was 17.0%, and the mortality rate was 15.5%. Cervical spine injury (20.4%) more often occulted in motorcycle accident, and thoracic spine injury (20.1%) occulted in falls. The highest and lowest rates of spine injurys were related to lumbar spine injury (30.2%) and cervical spine injury (21.5%), respectively. There was a statistically significant relationship between the mechanism of injury and the location of spine injury (p < 0.001). And patients with lumbar spine injury had the highest mortality rate (16.7%). Injury severity score (OR= 1.041, p < 0.001) and length of stay (OR = 1.018, p < 0.001) were strong predictors of mortality in trauma patients with spine injury.@*CONCLUSION@#The results of the study showed that the incidence of traumatic spine injury rate was approximately 17.0% in southern of Iran. Road traffic injury and falls are the common mechanism of injury to spine. It is important to improve the safety of roads, and passengers, as well as work environment, and improve the quality of cars. Also, paying attention to the pattern of spine injury may assist to prevent the missing diagnosis of spine injury in multiple trauma patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Incidence , Trauma Centers , Iran/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Spinal Injuries/etiology , Neck Injuries , Accidents, Traffic
4.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 23: e220103, 2023. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1529114

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To measure the Oral Health-Related Quality of Life (OHRQoL) and compare children with and without parental care. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 160 schoolchildren with parental care and 100 orphans in Kerman, Iran. After fulfilling the questionnaire voluntarily, a clinical examination was performed, and indices such as decayed, missing, and filled teeth (DMFT), molar-incisor hypoplasia (MIH), modified gingival index (MGI), traumatic dental injury (TDI), and malocclusion were recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 25 via the ANOVA, Pearson's correlation coefficient test, Chi-Square test, and descriptive statistics. Results: Children without parents scored poorly for OHQRoL items compared to those with parents (p<0.001). DMFT was not significantly related to OHRQoL; however, missing teeth were correlated with the CPQ11-14 overall. Also, the TDI index had a significant relationship with CPQ mean score (p=0.02). Moreover, the difference in the mean CPQ11-14 score in children with TDI in the two groups was significant regarding the quality of life (0.031). Conclusion: OHRQoL differed significantly between children in the two groups, which can be influenced by gender and habits. Due to the vulnerability of welfare-supported children without parental care, these findings emphasize the value of preventive and health-promoting measures for this group of children.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Adolescent , Quality of Life/psychology , Oral Health/education , Child Health , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Analysis of Variance , Iran/epidemiology
5.
Acta sci., Health sci ; 44: e59224, Jan. 14, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1367792

ABSTRACT

Depression, anxiety and stress are common psychological disorders (PDs).This study aimed to assess the odds of co-occurrence of mentioned PDs in total sample and different levels of socio-demographic characteristics, specifically among a large sample of general adults.Ina cross-sectional, community-based study conducted among 4763 Iranian adults, depression and anxiety were assessed with Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS) and stress with General Health Questionnaire (GHQ). The loglinear analysis was applied to investigate their comorbidities. Based on selected models with pair-comorbidity of anxiety with stress, depression with stress, and anxiety with depression, the results showed the odds of comorbidity between anxiety and depression (odds ratio (OR) =12.29, 95%CI: 9.58-15.80), depression and stress (OR = 7.80, 95%CI:6.55-10.18), and stress and anxiety (OR = 4.62, 95%CI:3.71-5.75). Also, ORs of pair-comorbidities were the same, except between stress and anxiety for men compared to women (adjusted-OR = 6.47, 95%CI: 4.44-9.49 versus 3.85, 95%CI:2.95-5.00) and comorbidity between stress and depression for the participants withlower than 40 years compared to others (adjusted-OR = 9.03, 95%CI: 7.17-11.36 versus 6.41, 95%CI: 4.90-8.41), p< 0.05. Stress comorbidity with depression was higher level than other pair-comorbidities. Obvious discrepancies were also observed in terms of ORs of pair-comorbidities between three mentioned disorders in different levels of SDCs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Anxiety/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Depression/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Prevalence , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iran/epidemiology
6.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1422266

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To assess the level of moral skills in dental students and residents. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional and descriptive-analytical study was conducted on dental students and residents of Kerman University of Medical Sciences, selected by census sampling. Data collection tools included a demographic information checklist (age, gender, marital status, educational level (before basic sciences, after basic sciences, residency), and moral skills inventory questionnaire. The data were analyzed using a T-test and multiple regression analysis at a confidence level of 95%. Results: The total score of the moral skills questionnaire was about 44 out of 80, and there was no difference between males and females in moral skills (p=0.79). However, there was a significant difference in moral sensitivity between married and single students (p=0.036). Residents gained significantly higher moral integrity scores than students (p=0.046). Conclusion: The study highlights that the level of professional moral skills in Kerman dental students and residents was acceptable. Single students got higher scores in the moral sensitivity domain, although residents got the highest scores in the moral integrity domain. There was no significant correlation between gender and the level of moral skills (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Students, Dental/psychology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Ethics, Dental/education , Ethics, Professional/education , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Regression Analysis , Internship and Residency/ethics , Iran/epidemiology
7.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210076, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the frequency of occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among Iranian dentists. Material and Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted on 187 general dentists in Kerman. The data collection tool was a questionnaire including personal information (gender, age, marital status, condition and place and years of employment, and the average of weekly working hours) and a valid and reliable questionnaire of occupational hazards, including 24 questions about occupational hazards (6 domain) and nine questions about criteria for the prevention of the risks of dentistry. The t-test, chi-square, and linear regression were used. Results 92 (49.2%) were men. The mean and standard deviation of the score of occupational hazards was 27.04±16.21 out of 96, and the criteria of prevention were 22.00±7.28 out of 36. Regression analysis showed significant correlations between single statuses, years of occupational and type of employment, weekly work hours and occupational hazards, participation in occupational injury identification courses, and hepatitis vaccination. In addition, there were significant correlations between gender, age, weekly work hours, and preventive measures. Moreover, 3.2% of dentists were in a high-risk group and 26.2% were weak in preventive measures. Conclusion A total of 32.6% of dentists are at moderate risk of occupational hazards, and 10.7% meet the prevention criteria properly. It is recommended to hold training classes to identify occupational hazards and the criteria for their prevention among dentists.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Occupational Risks , Risk Factors , Dentists , Iran/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/etiology , Occupational Dentistry/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Occupational Health , Disease Prevention , Occupational Injuries
8.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 22: e210044, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1365224

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To assess the effects of coloring beverages on the color stability of two types of hybrid ceramics with different surface treatments. Material and Methods 180 specimens of two hybrid ceramics (Vita Enamic and Mazic Duro) and a feldspathic ceramic (Vita Mark II) were prepared (n=60 in each group). Half of the discs in each group were glazed while the other was polished. The specimens were then divided into three subgroups and immersed in distilled water, carrot juice, and coffee. The overall color difference (∆E) was calculated based on CIE L*a*b* color space. Data were analyzed using three-way and one-way ANOVA; Tukey's honest significant difference was also done for pairwise comparisons (α=0.05). Results Vita Mark II specimens revealed less overall color changes compared to other groups. The ∆E of the glazed Vita Enamic specimens was greater than polished specimens following immersion in distilled water (p=0.03) and coffee (p=0.001), but it was not significant for carrot juice. The same results were obtained for polished Mazic Duro specimens. Relatively similar amounts of ∆E were recorded in polished and glazed subgroups of Vita Mark II. Conclusion The ∆E of hybrid ceramics was higher than Vita Mark II. Polishing could be recommended for surface treatment of hybrid ceramics instead of glazing, saving time and facilitating the process.


Subject(s)
Spectrophotometry/instrumentation , Surface Properties , Beverages , Color , Dental Cements , Distilled Water , Ceramics , Analysis of Variance , Dental Prosthesis , Computer-Aided Design/instrumentation , Coffee , Dental Porcelain , Coloring Agents , Fruit and Vegetable Juices , Iran/epidemiology
9.
An. bras. dermatol ; 96(6): 688-692, Nov.-Dec. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1355634

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: Although COVID-19 pandemic significantly induces mortality, many of the patients who recovered present other medical problems such as alopecias. Telogen effluvium is a common alopecia that is usually related to previous events such as acute febrile diseases, including COVID-19. Objective: To evaluate the characteristics of telogen effluvium in COVID-19. Method: This cross-sectional study was carried out on 526 patients with documented telogen effluvium that recovered from COVID-19. Demographic data, concurrent alopecia, associated diseases, and COVID-19 severity were recorded. Data were analyzed by appropriate statistical methods. Results: The mean age of the 526 patients (410 females, 116 males) was 30.97±9.592 years, with 7.65 ± 1.739 weeks of mean time of alopecia onset. Vitamin D deficiency (24.3%), androgenetic alopecia (78.2%), and grade III COVID-19 severity were the most common findings. Alopecia onset was significantly earlier in the younger age group, females, in hypothyroidism, and more severe coronavirus infection. Higher grade coronavirus infection was significantly seen in males, higher ages, earlier onset, and androgenic alopecia. Study limitations: Performing a single-center study and considering limited variables. Conclusion: Although Coronavirus 2 infection can be an important factor in telogen effluvium induction, other factors such as associated diseases, drug intake and emotional stress may also be involved. In the cases of early onset of alopecia, concomitant diseases such as hypothyroidism and severe coronavirus infection can occur, thus, the presence of various factors in telogen effluvium induction should be considered.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Alopecia Areata , COVID-19 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Alopecia/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Iran/epidemiology
10.
Arq. gastroenterol ; 58(3): 329-336, July-Sept. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1345281

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT BACKGROUND: There is limited research examining reasons causing refractory chronic constipation (RCC) in children. The effects of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) exposures on this condition have been even less clear. However, some related factors may contribute to evaluation of blood lead levels (BLLs) and blood cadmium levels (BCLs). OBJECTIVE: The present study aimed to examine the relationship between Pb and Cd exposures and RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz, Khuzestan Province, in Southwestern Iran. METHODS: This study was performed on a total number of 48 children aged 2-13 years, including 36 medically-diagnosed RCC cases and 12 controls referring to a pediatric clinic in the city of Ahvaz. Their BLLs and BCLs were then determined using a graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The data from the researcher-designed questionnaire were also recoded and the related risk factors were analyzed through Spearman's correlation and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: The findings revealed that the geometric means of Pb and Cd in blood samples in the control group were 58.95 µg/dL and 0.45 µg/dL; respectively. These values in the case group were equally 45.26 µg/dL and 0.26 µg/dL; respectively. A significant difference was additionally observed between BCLs in the case and control groups (P<0.01). All children in both groups also had BLLs greater than the permissible limit endorsed by the World Health Organization (WHO) (≤10 µg/dL). On the other hand, 8.3% of the individuals in the case group and 33.3% of those in the control group had BCLs higher than the acceptable range mentioned by WHO (≤0.5 µg/dL). CONCLUSION: Pb and Cd exposures due to environmental pollution and susceptibility to heavy metals may not be associated with RCC in children living in the city of Ahvaz. Although this research was the first one providing data on BLLs and BCLs in children with RCC, the findings could be useful for designing future epidemiologic studies.


RESUMO CONTEXTO: Há limitadas pesquisas que procuram razões que causem constipação crônica refratária (CCR) em crianças. Os efeitos das exposições de chumbo (Pb) e cádmio (Cd) nesta condição têm sido ainda menos claros. No entanto, alguns fatores relacionados podem contribuir para a avaliação dos níveis de Pb no sangue (NPbSs) e dos níveis de Cd no sangue (NCdSs). OBJETIVO: O presente estudo teve como objetivo examinar a relação entre as exposições de Pb e Cd e a CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz, província de Khuzestan, no Sudoeste do Irã. MÉTODOS: Este estudo foi realizado em um número total de 48 crianças de 2 a 13 anos, incluindo 36 casos de CCR diagnosticados clinicamente, e 12 controles encaminhados a uma clínica pediátrica na cidade de Ahvaz. Seus NPbSs e NCdSs foram então determinados usando um espectrógrafo de absorção atômica do forno de grafite. Os dados do questionário projetado pelo pesquisador também foram recodificados, e os fatores de risco relacionados foram analisados por meio da análise de correlação e regressão logística de Spearman. RESULTADOS: Os achados revelaram que as médias geométricas de Pb e Cd em amostras de sangue no grupo controle foram de 58,95 μg/dL e 0,45 μg/dL; respectivamente. Esses valores no grupo constipação foram igualmente 45,26 μg/dL e 0,26 μg/dL; respectivamente. Observou-se diferença significativa entre os NCdSs nos grupos de caso e controle (P<0,01). Todas as crianças de ambos os grupos também apresentaram NPbSs maiores do que o limite permitido endossado pela Organização Mundial da Saúde (OMS) (≤10 μg/dL). Por outro lado, 8,3% dos indivíduos no grupo de casos e 33,3% dos do grupo controle apresentaram NCdSs superiores à faixa aceitável mencionada pela OMS (≤0,5 μg/dL). CONCLUSÃO: As exposições de Pb e Cd por poluição ambiental e suscetibilidade a metais pesados podem não estar associadas à CCR em crianças residentes na cidade de Ahvaz. Embora esta pesquisa tenha sido a primeira a fornecer dados sobre NPbSs e NCdSs em crianças com CCR, os achados poderiam ser úteis para a concepção de futuros estudos epidemiológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Cadmium/analysis , Lead/analysis , Risk Factors , Constipation/chemically induced , Iran/epidemiology
11.
Trends psychiatry psychother. (Impr.) ; 43(1): 30-36, Jan.-Mar. 2021. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1156986

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction Sex addiction is a major psychiatric disorder in which a person is compelled to participate in sexual activities despite negative consequences. This study was conducted to localize a brief sex addiction screening instrument (PATHOS) for use in the Iranian population and to determine variables predictive of sex addiction in the general Iranian population. Methods In this study, we evaluated the psychometric properties of PATHOS in a sample of 443 Iranians in 2018. Data were analyzed using exploratory factor analysis (Factor 10.8.04 software). Simple and multiple linear regression analyses were used to investigate construct validity and variables predictive of addiction. Results Exploratory factor analysis identified two factors in this dichotomous questionnaire and reported the questionnaire's test-retest reliability in the target population. Prognostic variables for sexual addiction in the Iranian population were determined to be female gender, higher education, viewing pornographic videos, having multiple sex partners, having difficulty interacting in sex, and history of masturbation. Conclusion The Persian version of the brief sex addiction screening instrument (PATHOS) has sufficient reliability and validity in the Iranian population. The predictive variables of sex addiction are indicative of the presence of risk of this disorder in Iranian samples and more studies are needed in order to enable prevention and treatment.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Psychometrics , Surveys and Questionnaires , Factor Analysis, Statistical , Iran/epidemiology
12.
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(1): 169-178, Jan.-Feb. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1153044

ABSTRACT

Foodborne viruses including hepatitis A virus (HAV), norovirus (NoV), rotavirus (RoV) and hepatitis E virus (HEV) are easily transmitted through contaminated seafoods. The current research was done to assess the incidence of RoV, NoV GI and GII,hAV and hEV in fish and shrimp samples caught from the Persian Gulf, Iran. Three-hundred and twenty fish and shrimp samples were collected. The presence of foodborne viruses were assessed by the real-time PCR. Forty-nine out of 320 (15.31%) fish and shrimp samples were positive for foodborne viruses. Distribution of hAV, NoV GI and NoV GII amongst all studied samples were 0.93%, 5.93% and 8.43%, respectively. hEV and RoV viruses were not found in studied samples. Parastromateus niger and Scomberomorus commerson fish and Penaeus monodon shrimp were the most frequently contaminated samples. Simultaneous incidence of hAV and NoV GI and hAV and NoV GII were 0.31% and 0.93%, respectively. Distribution of foodborne viruses in samples collected through spring, summer, autumn and winter seasons were 14.28%, 9.33%, 11.76% and 24.44%, respectively. Findings revealed that the incidence of foodborne viruses was significantly associated with seafood species and also season of sampling.(AU)


Vírus transmitidos por alimentos, incluindo hepatite A (HAV), norovírus (NoV), rotavírus (RoV) e hepatite E (HEV) são facilmente transmitidos através de frutos do mar contaminados. Esta pesquisa foi realizada para avaliar a incidência de RoV, NoV GI e GII, hAV e hEV em amostras de peixes e camarões capturadas no Golfo Pérsico, Irã. Foram coletadas 300 amostras de peixes e camarões. A presença de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi avaliada por PCR em tempo real. Quarenta e nove das 320 amostras de peixes e camarões (15,31%) foram positivas para vírus transmitidos por alimentos. A distribuição de hAV, NoV GI e NoV GII entre as amostras estudadas foi 0,93%, 5,93% e 8,43%, respectivamente. Os vírus hEV e RoV não foram encontrados nas amostras estudadas. Os peixes Parastromateus niger e Scomberomorus commerson e o camarão Penaeus monodon foram as amostras mais frequentemente contaminadas. A incidência simultânea de hAV e NoV GI, e hAV e NoV GII foi de 0,31% e 0,93%, respectivamente. A distribuição dos vírus transmitidos por alimentos nas amostras coletadas na primavera, verão, outono e inverno foi de 14,28%, 9,33%, 11,76% e 24,44%, respectivamente. Os resultados demonstram que a incidência de vírus transmitidos por alimentos foi significativamente associada às espécies de frutos do mar e também à época da amostragem.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Rotavirus Infections/epidemiology , Decapoda/virology , Hepatitis E/epidemiology , Caliciviridae Infections/epidemiology , Fishes/virology , Hepatitis A/epidemiology , Shellfish/virology , Hepatitis E virus/isolation & purification , Rotavirus/isolation & purification , Indian Ocean/epidemiology , Hepatitis A virus/isolation & purification , Norovirus/isolation & purification , Iran/epidemiology
13.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 43-43, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880361

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Occupational contact with blood and body fluids poses a significant risk to healthcare workers. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the epidemiology and risk factors affecting needlestick injuries (NSI) in healthcare personnel in Iran.@*METHODS@#In March 2020, researchers studied six international databases such as Medline/PubMed, ProQuest, ISI/WOS, Scopus, Embase, and Google Scholar for English papers and two Iranian databases (MagIran and SID) for Persian papers. Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Critical Appraisal Checklist was used to assess quality of studies. The method of reporting was based on the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analysis (PRISMA) statement.@*RESULTS@#A total of 43 articles were included in the analysis. Results showed that females (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.06-1.58, P value = 0.009), younger age (OR = 2.75, 95 % CI 2.27-3.33, P value < 0.001, rotated shift workers (OR = 2.16, 95 % CI 1.47-3.15, P value < 0.001), not attending training courses (OR = 1.30, 95 % CI 1.07-1.56, P value = 0.006), working in the surgery ward (OR = 1.83, 95 % CI 1.33-2.50, P value < 0.001), less work experience (OR = 1.43, 95 % CI 1.04-1.95, P value = 0.025) apposed a greater risk factors for NSI among healthcare workers.@*CONCLUSION@#Based on the results of this review, factors such as young age, less work experience, work shift, and female gender are considered as strong risk factors for NSI injury in Iran. Preventive measures including education programs can reduce the burden of NSI among healthcare personnel.


Subject(s)
Humans , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Incidence , Iran/epidemiology , Needlestick Injuries/epidemiology , Prevalence , Risk Factors
14.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 33-33, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-880351

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#School closure is one of the main policies of global health care strategies performed worldwide. Despite all benefits, there might be some threats for younger groups spending their time in quarantine. This study aims to determine the impacts of lockdown and school closure on children's major lifestyle aspects, especially their leisure and sleep pattern during the COVID-19 pandemic.@*METHODS@#For the purpose of this study, an online questionnaire was distributed from 14th to 31st of March 2020 among the schools and students from the first grade to the 12th grade (before university) in Fars province, southern Iran. The questionnaire consisted of five sections which included data regarding the students' general information, activity priorities, adherence to quarantine, attitude toward school closure, and sleep patterns.@*RESULTS@#In our study, 20,697 filled questionnaires were received from the participants with an average age of 13.76 years; 29.7% of them were male, 80.6% were from urban areas, and 83.3% were from public schools. The overall first preference of students during school closure was mobile and computer games (30.1%), followed by studying (26.6%) and watching television (13.8%). Our results demonstrated that the majority of students adhered to social distancing and there was also a significant correlation among education levels and desire for schools to be closed till the end of the semester (P = 0.015). Also, regarding sleep patterns, the majority (53.5%) had above 12 h of sleep throughout the day.@*CONCLUSION@#It seems that lockdown following COVID-19 pandemic has changed various aspects of the students' lifestyle remarkably, especially by increasing screen time and even sleep duration and pattern. We believe that certain strategies should be implemented by the Health and Educational Ministry to control not only the visible side effects of the quarantine period, but also the collateral consequences on their psychological and mental health.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Child , Female , Humans , Male , COVID-19/psychology , Iran/epidemiology , Life Style , Quarantine/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools , Sleep Hygiene , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 112-112, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922206

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#The dietary habits and lifestyle changes during the COVID-19 pandemic could affect the urinary risk factors in kidney stone formers. In this study, we investigated the effects of the COVID-19 pandemic on 24-h urine metabolites, as a surrogate for dietary intake, in patients with kidney stones, in Tehran, Iran.@*METHODS@#We evaluated the medical records of all patients with urolithiasis who visited in our stone prevention clinic from the beginning of COVID-19 in Iran to 1 year later (Feb 2020-Feb 2021) and compared it with the patients' medical records in the same period a year before COVID-19 (Feb 2019-Feb 2020).@*RESULTS@#The results of our stone prevention clinic showed a decrease in the number of visits during COVID-19. Twenty-four-hour urine urea, sodium, and potassium were significantly lower, and 24-h urine magnesium was significantly higher during COVID-19. Higher 24-h urine oxalate was only shown in patients with the first-time visit, whereas lower 24-h urine uric acid and citrate were only shown in patients with the follow-up visits.@*CONCLUSIONS@#COVID-19 pandemics may change some of the dietary habits of the patients, including lower salt, protein, and fruit and vegetable intake. Although economic issues, restricted access, or sanitation issues may be the reason for the undesirable dietary changes, the importance of a quality diet should be discussed with all patients, as possible. Since the number of patients visited in the stone clinic was lower during COVID-19, virtual visits could be an excellent alternative to motivate patients with kidney stones.


Subject(s)
Humans , COVID-19 , Iran/epidemiology , Kidney , Kidney Calculi/prevention & control , Pandemics , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143391

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To assess sociodemographic factors and cancer information on patients' quality of life with head and neck cancer. Material and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on 69 patients with head and neck cancer who attended in one of the oncology centers in Mashhad, Iran, from September 2019 to December 2019. Data was collected through a questionnaire consisted of demographic information (gender, age, educational level, and job) and cancer information (type, location, treatment, clinical stage) and standard quality of life questionnaire (QLQ-H&N35). Data analyzed in SPSS22 software using T, ANOVA, Linear regression tests at 0.05 significant levels. Results: 49 participants (72.1%) were men. The mean age was 60.48 ± 13.74 years. Forty-nine participants (72.1%) had squamous cell carcinoma and 26 participants (38.2%) had a larynx tumor. Forty-six participants (67.6%) were in clinical stage 3, mainly with a problem and complain about hard food swallowing, xerostomia and speech. The mean score of QLQ-H&N35 was 42.06 ± 20.12 from 90. Quality of life in 47.1% of cases was moderate. There was no significant relationship between gender, job, educational level, type and location of cancer (p>0.05). There was a significant relationship between the patient's age, clinical stage, type of treatment, and quality of life (p<0.05). Conclusion: Quality of life in 47.1% was moderate. Clinical stage, age of patients and type of treatment statically and significantly affected the quality of life. Assessing quality of life in HNC patients can identify important side effects of treatment that affected quality of life and look for ways to improve QoL.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Quality of Life/psychology , Radiotherapy , Drug Therapy , Head and Neck Neoplasms , Iran/epidemiology , Linear Models , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Multivariate Analysis , Surveys and Questionnaires , Regression Analysis , Analysis of Variance
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1143388

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the postoperative pain and clinical and radiographic success of pulpotomized primary molars using two materials, Ferric Sulfate (FS) and Calcium-Enriched Mixture (CEM) cement, over a period of 3 and 6 months. Material and Methods: This randomized clinical trial was conducted on a total of 38 teeth selected from 19 patients aged 3-9 years. FS 15.5% and CEM cement were used as pulpotomy agents. Permanent restorations were Stainless Steel Crowns (SSCs) in both groups. Patients were recalled for follow-up at 3 and 6 months intervals for clinical and radiographic assessment. Postoperative pain was recorded by using Visual Analogue Scale up to ten days following the treatment. The data were statistically analyzed using chi-square test and repeated measures ANOVA. Results: At 6 months, a 100% clinical success rate was observed in the FS and CEM cement groups. The radiographic success rate in the FS group was 94.7%, whereas 100% in the CEM cement group at 6 months. No statistically significant difference was found between the two groups (p>0.05). There was no significant difference in postoperative pain between the teeth that received either FS or CEM cement as pulpotomy agents following the procedure (p>0.05). Conclusion: There were favorable outcomes of FS and CEM cement in pulpotomy of primary molar teeth.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Child , Pain, Postoperative/pathology , Pulpotomy/instrumentation , Tooth, Deciduous , Ferric Sulfate , Visual Analog Scale , Radiography, Dental/instrumentation , Chi-Square Distribution , Analysis of Variance , Randomized Controlled Trial , Iran/epidemiology
18.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1154996

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To determine the level of clinical contamination in the clinic and laboratory of the prosthodontics department of Kerman Dental School. Material and Methods: Clinical surfaces of the dental units, the laboratory, and the professors' lounge of the prosthodontics department were randomly sampled. The sampled surfaces included the dental units' console, light switch, light handle, headrest, and air-water spray syringe in the clinic, plastering tables, buttons of the vibrator, polishing, and trimmer machines, acryl tables, handles of pressure pot and press machine, handpiece holders, work desks, and drawer handles in the laboratory, and desks, computer mouse and keyboard, telephone sets, and doorknob in the professor's lounge. The samples were examined for the type and growth of microorganisms. The data were entered into SPSS, where they were analyzed using the chi-square test at the 0.05 significance level. Results: Of all the samples taken, 89.9% showed microbial contamination. The most common type of contamination was fungus (34.8%) and the least common types were Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus epidermidis (1.1%). The second and third most common types of bacteria in the samples were Staphylococcus aureus (18%) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (12.4%), respectively. There was no significant difference between the frequencies of microbial contamination in the clinic, the laboratory, and the professors' lounge. Conclusion: Given the strong chance of cross-infection in the examined department and laboratory, it is necessary to enforce protocols for proper disinfection of surfaces before, between and after treatments.


Subject(s)
Schools, Dental , Disinfection/instrumentation , Enterococcus faecalis , Environmental Pollution , Microbiology , Chi-Square Distribution , Intervention Studies , Analysis of Variance , /methods , Iran/epidemiology
19.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155000

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the level of inflammatory factors of erythrocyte sedimentation rate and reactive protein C in benign and malignant thyroid nodules. Material and Methods: In this case-control study, patients who were referred because of an enlarged thyroid gland were selected, patients who had undergone surgery for the thyroid nodule were included in the study. Erythrocyte sedimentation rate and reactive protein C were measured before surgery in patients who were candidates for thyroid surgery. The histopathological records of patients were retrospectively reviewed. Relevant cases had a cytological evaluation of thyroid nodules by fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC). The mean of ESR / CRP in both groups was compared using an independent t-test (p>0.05). Results: In malignant tumor type, in all patients, with Pill (PTC), analyzes in the malignant group showed a significant difference between the mean ESR / CRP in both groups with and without thyroid history. Sub-analyzes in the malignant group were significantly different between the mean ESR / CRP in both groups with and without thyroid histories (p=0.009) (40.16 ± 28.81). The association between ESR and CRP, ESR / CRP and tumor size, ESR / CRP and age in each group as well as in the whole patients were evaluated using Pearson correlation test, which showed a positive association between ESR age and ESR (p=0.024, r=0.375). In the malignant group, a negative correlation was found between the age and the CRP rate (p=0.027, r=-0.441), and in the total patients between the age and the rate (ES=0.043, r=-0.256). Conclusion: Factors such as ESR and CRP, which are considered acute phase reactors and their levels increase in acute inflammatory conditions, may not have a significant increase in chronic inflammatory conditions and malignancies.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Blood Sedimentation/drug effects , Protein C , Thyroid Neoplasms/pathology , Thyroid Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Case-Control Studies , Chi-Square Distribution , Cross-Sectional Studies/methods , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Thyroid Nodule/diagnostic imaging , Iran/epidemiology
20.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155007

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To use qualitative research methods to evaluate the experiences of patients with chronic oral diseases. Material and Methods: Purposive sampling was used to recruit patients from the Oral Medicine Unit of Kerman University Dental School. An experienced independent facilitator convened the focus groups and conducted individual interviews in a non-clinical setting. Focus groups were mixed regarding their gender, age, chronic oral mucosal condition, time since diagnosis, and severity. A total of 39 patients participated in the study, including patients with oral lichen planus, pemphigus, recurrent aphthous stomatitis and leukoplakia. Results: Analysis of the interviews revealed that patient views could be divided into the following themes: biopsychosocial issues, treatment limitations and side effects, unpredictability of the conditions and the potential for malignant transformation. Chronic oral mucosal conditions affected patients' daily lives in various areas, from physical health and functioning to concerns about their future. Conclusion: The oral medicine practitioner's role in treating patients with chronic oral mucosal diseases extended beyond active management and symptomatic relief to the management of all aspects of these conditions that affected their daily lives.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Quality of Life , Stomatitis, Aphthous/diagnosis , Chronic Disease , Oral Medicine , Qualitative Research , Interviews as Topic/methods , Surveys and Questionnaires , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Focus Groups/methods , Lichen Planus, Oral/diagnosis , Iran/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL