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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878988

ABSTRACT

The aim of this paper was to discuss the effect of swertiamarin, gentiopicrin and sweroside on rheumatoid arthritis fibroblast-like synoviocytes(RA-FLSs) and B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2) and their mechanisms. ZINC database and RCSB PDB database were retrieved for 3 D chemical structures of swertiamarin, gentiopicrin and sweroside and 3 D target protein structures. AutoDock Mgltools 1.5.6, AutoDockVina 1.1.2 and pyMOL 2.2.0 were applied for molecular docking to analyze the relationship between Bcl-2(1 GJH) target protein and important ingredients. The cell apoptosis of RA-FLSs was tested by Annexin V-FITC. The Bcl-2 protein expression of RA-FLSs treated with different ingredients was tested by Western blot. The Bcl-2 mRNA expression of RA-FLSs treated with different ingredients was tested by RT-PCR. Swertiamarin, gentiopicrin and sweroside were docked well with Bcl-2(1 GJH). The binding energy of swertiamarin was-6.9 kcal·mol~(-1), the binding energy of gentiopicrin was-6.7 kcal·mol~(-1) and the binding energy of sweroside was-6.4 kcal·mol~(-1). Compared with the blank group, the Bcl-2 protein expression of each group were reduced, while that of the gentiopicrin group was the highest(P<0.01). Compared with the blank group, the Bcl-2 mRNA expression of each groups were reduced. Gentiopicrin can reduce the Bcl-2 protein expression and the Bcl-2 mRNA expression, so as to promote the RA-FLSs apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Apoptosis , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/genetics , Cell Proliferation , Cells, Cultured , Fibroblasts , Humans , Iridoid Glucosides , Molecular Docking Simulation , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/genetics , Pyrones , Synoviocytes
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(11): e201901102, Nov. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054682

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of Picroside II on testicular ischemia and reperfusion (l/R) injury and the underlying mechanism. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: sham operated group (Sham), Sham with Picroside II treatment group (Sham+ Pic II), l/R group (l/R) and l/R with Picroside II treatment group (I/R+ Pic II). l/R model was established by rotating the left testis 720° in a clock-wise direction for 4 hours. The histopathologic and spermatogenetic evaluation was performed. The apoptosis changes and the levels of HO-1 (heme oxygenase-1), MPO (myeloperoxidase), NOX (NADPH oxidase), SOD (superoxide dismutase), XO (xanthine oxidase) and NOS (nitric oxide synthase) were measured. Results: The seminiferous tubules were damaged in l/R rats, but Picroside II alleviated the changes induced by l/R. The increased level of apoptosis was decreased by Picroside II (P=0.01, 9.05±0.35 vs. 4.85±0.25). The activities of HO-1, MPO, NOX, XO and MDA content were increased and the SOD activity was decreased in l/R (P<0.05) and could be reversed by Picroside II (P=0.03, 405.5±7.5 vs. 304±17U/mgprot; P=0.02, 0.99±0.05 vs. 0.52±0.04 mgprot; P=0.01, 260+7 vs. 189±2 mgprot; P=0.04, 10.95+0.55 vs. 8.75+0.35 U/mgprot; P=0.045, 6.8+0.7 vs. 3.75+0.35 mgprot; P=0.04, 44.5+3.5 vs. 57.5+3.5 mgprot). Western blot showed that the expression of iNOS, nNOS and eNOS were increased in l/R (P<0.05); however, they were decreased after Picroside II treatment (P<0.05). Conclusion: Picroside II attenuated testicular I/R injury in rats mainly through suppressing apoptosis and oxidative stress through reduction of nitric oxide synthesis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cinnamates/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Iridoid Glucosides/pharmacology , Nitric Oxide/biosynthesis , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Blotting, Western , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Peroxidase/analysis , In Situ Nick-End Labeling , Heme Oxygenase-1/analysis , Malondialdehyde/analysis , NADP/analysis
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777494

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effects of geniposidic acid( GPA) on hepato-enteric circulation in cholestasis rats,and to explore the mechanism based on the sirtuin 1( Sirt1)-farnesol X receptor( FXR) pathway,sixty SD rats were randomly divided into 6 groups:blank control group,ANIT model group,ursodeoxycholic acid group( 100 mg·kg~(-1)·d-1 UDCA),and GPA high,medium and low( 100,50 and 25 mg·kg~(-1)·d-1) dosage groups,10 rats in each group. Corresponding drugs were intragastrically( ig) administered for10 days. After administration on day 8,all rats except blank rats were administered with 65 mg·kg~(-1)α-naphthalene isothiocyanate( ANIT) once. After the last administration,the serum levels of alanine aminotransferase( ALT),glutamine oxalacetate aminotransferase( AST),gamma-glutamyltransferase( γ-GGT),alkaline phosphatase( ALP),total bilirubin( TB) and total bile acid( TBA)were measured,and the mRNA transcription levels of Sirt1,FXR,multidrug resistant associated protein 2( MRP2),bile salt export pump( BSEP),sodium taurocholate contractible polypeptide( NTCP) in liver and apical sodium bile acid transporter( ASBT),ileum bile acid binding protein( IBABP) in ileum were detected by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction( RT-PCR). The protein expression levels of Sirt1,FXR and NTCP were detected by Western blot; the expression of MRP2,BSEP in liver and ASBT,IBABP in ileum were determined by immunofluorescence three staining. Primary rat hepatocytes were cultured in vitro to investigate the inhibitory effect of GPA on a potent and selective Sirt1 inhibitor( EX 527),and the mRNA and protein expression levels of Sirt1 and FXR were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. GPA significantly decreased the levels of ALT,AST,γ-GGT,ALP,TB,TBA in serum( P<0.01) and improved the pathological damage of liver tissues in ANIT-induced cholestasis rats; significantly increased the mRNA and protein expression levels of Sirt1,FXR,MRP2,BSEP,NTCP in liver and ASBT,IBABP in ileum( P< 0.01). In vitro primary hepatocytes experiment indicated that the gene and protein expression levels of FXR and Sirt1 were noticeably improved by GPA in primary hepatocytes inhibited by EX-527( P<0.01). It was found that the improvement of GPA was in a dose-dependent manner. GPA could improve bile acid hepatointestinal circulation and play a liver protection and cholagogu role in cholestasis rats induced by ANIT.The mechanism may be that GPA activated FXR by regulating Sirt1,a key regulator of oxidative stress injury,and then the activated FXR could regulate protein of bile acid hepato-enteric circulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholestasis , Iridoid Glucosides , Liver , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Signal Transduction , Sirtuin 1
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777493

ABSTRACT

Catalpol is an iridoid glycoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa. It has been reported to have antioxidant stress effects. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase( AMPK) plays an important role in inhibiting oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of catalpol on TNF-α-exposed human aorta epithelial cells( HAECs) via inhibit oxidative stress,and the relationship between catalpol and AMPK was detected by RNA interference technique. Levels of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malonaldehyde( MDA),glutathione( GSH) and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) were measured with a colorimetric assay kit. The level of ROS was measured with FACS calibur. Western blot was employed to detect the protein expression of AMPK,phosphorylated-AMPK and NOX4. Finally,RNA interference technique was used to investigate the role of AMPK in catalpol-induced protective effects. TNF-α treatment decreased the expression of phosphorylated-AMPK protein level,however,catalpol could reverse the decreased phosphorylated-AMPK level. Catalpol could inhibit NOX4 protein expression and decrease ROS overproduction. After using AMPK siRNA that effects of catalpol on ROS overproduction and NOX4 protein expression inhibition were attenuated. The above results suggest that catalpol inhibits oxidative stress in TNF-α-exposed HAECs by activating AMPK.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iridoid Glucosides , Pharmacology , Iridoids , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-781665

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of catalpol on high-fat diet(HFD)-induced nonalcoholic fatty liver disease(NAFLD)and its underlying molecular mechanisms. Sixty C57BL/6J male mice were randomly divided into six groups:control group;HFD group;HFD+catalpol(100 mg/kg)group;HFD+catalpol(200 mg/kg)group;HFD+catalpol(400 mg/kg)group;and HFD+atorvastatin calcium(ATC)(30 mg/kg)group.The control group was fed a normal diet containing 4.4 kJ/g fat,whereas the other five groups were fed a high-fat diet containing 19.8 kJ/g fat.Mice in the catalpol or ATC treatment groups were administered by gavage for different doses of catalpol or ATC,whereas other mice were treated with saline.Body weight was measured once a week.Experiments were terminated after 18 weeks,and blood and liver samples were collected after an overnight fast(12 hours)for analysis.The body weight and liver weight were measured and the levels of serum total cholesterol(TC),triglyceride(TG),high-density lipoprotein cholesterol(HDL-C),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol(LDL-C),alanine aminotransferase(ALT),and aspartate transaminase(AST)as well as inflammatory factors tumor necrosis factor-α(TNF-α),interleukin(IL)-1β,and IL-6 were determined by commercially available kits.Liver sections were stained with Oil Red O and HE to investigate the lipid accumulation and histopathological changes.The protein expressions of nuclear factor kappa-B(NF-κB)p65,inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B α(IκBα),B-cell lymphoma-2(Bcl-2),Bcl-2 associated x protein(Bax),and Caspase-3 were determined by Western blot. Compared to the model group,the body weight gains(all =0.001),liver index(=0.008,=0.001,=0.001),ALT(=0.004,=0.001,=0.001),and AST(=0.008,=0.001,=0.001)were significantly decreased in catalpol treatment groups,and the serum levels of TC(=0.005,=0.001),TG (all =0.001),and LDL-C(all =0.001)were also significantly decreased in middle and high dose groups,and the serum level of HDL-C was significantly increased in high group(=0.009).Moreover,compared to the model group,the degree of liver injury and lipid accumulation were obviously decreased in the catalpol treatment groups according to the pathology.Similarly,the release of inflammatory factors was significantly inhibited by the treatment with catalpol.The results of Western blot showed that the protein levels of NF-κB p65(=0.014,=0.001,=0.001)and Caspase-3(all =0.001)in the livers of HFD-fed mice were significantly reduced by catalpol treatment.In addition,the protein level of IκBα(=0.028,=0.001,=0.001)and the ratio of Bcl-2/Bax in high dose group(=0.003)was increased by treatment with catalpol. Catalpol can effectively improve the body weight gains,liver index,dyslipidemia,and lipid accumulation in HFD-fed mice and inhibit the release of inflammatory factors and hepatocyte apoptosis,thereby preventing the development of NAFLD induced by HFD.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diet, High-Fat , Iridoid Glucosides , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813260

ABSTRACT

To explore the effect of geniposidic acid (GPA) on the signal pathway of small heterodimer dimer receptor (SHP) and liver receptor homologue 1 (LRH-1) in cholestasis rats induced by alpha-naphthalene isothiocyanate (ANIT).
 Methods: Fifty SD rats were randomly divided into five groups: a blank group, an ANIT group, an ANIT+GPA (100 mg/kg) group, an ANIT+GPA (50 mg/kg) group, and an ANIT+GPA (25 mg/kg) group (n=10 in each group). The GPA were intragastrically given to rats for 10 days, and the control group and the ANIT group were given normal saline. At the eighth day of administration, all rats except the blank group were given 65 mg/kg ANIT once until the tenth day. After the last administration, serum total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG) and total bile acids (TBA) were measured. The primary hepatocytes (RPH) were isolated from normal rats and cultured. The cells were divided into a blank group, an ANIT (40 μmol/L) group, an ANIT (40 μmol/L)+GPA (4.00 mmol/L) group (A4.00G group), an ANIT (40 μmol/L)+GPA (1.00 mmol/L) group (A1.00G group), and an ANIT (40 μmol/L)+GPA (0.25 mmol/L) group (A0.25G group). The mRNA transcription levels of SHP and cholesterol 7 alpha hydroxylase (CYP7A1) in RPH were detected by real-time-PCR, and the protein levels of SHP and CYP7a1 were detected by Western blotting. In the LRH-1 silence experiment, the RPH were divided into a blank group, a negative transfection group, a siRNA-LRH group (ZR group), a siRNA-LRH+GPA (4.00 mmol/L) group (ZR4.00G group), a siRNA-LRH+GPA (1.00 mmol/L) group (ZR1.00G group) and a siRNA-LRH+GPA (0.25 mmol/L) group (ZR0.25G group). The protein and mRNA levels of SHP, CYP7a1, LRH-1 were detected. In the over-expression experiment, the RPH were also divided into a blank group, a negative transfection group, a LRH-1 over-expression plasmid group (OE group), a LRH-1 over-expression plasmid+GPA (4.00 mmol/L) group (OE4.00G group), a LRH-1 over-expression plasmid+GPA (1.00 mmol/L) group (OE1.00G group), and a LRH-1 over-expression plasmid+GPA (0.25 mmol/L) group (OE0.25G group). The protein and mRNA levels of SHP, CYP7a1 and LRH-1 were detected.
 Results: Compared with the blank control group, TC and TBA were significantly increased (both P<0.01) in the ANIT group, but there was no difference in TG; compared with the ANIT group, the contents of TC and TBA in the AG100 and AG50 groups were significantly reduced (all P<0.01). Compared with the blank control group, the proteins and mRNA levels of SHP were significantly decreased (P<0.01), while CYP7a1 were dramatically increased (P<0.01) in the ANIT group; compared with the ANIT group, the proteins and mRNA levels of SHP in the A4.00G group and the A1.00G group were significantly increased (both P<0.01), while the levels of CYP7a1 proteins and mRNA levels were evidently decreased in the A4.00G and A1.00G groups (both P<0.01). Compared with the negative transfection group, the proteins and mRNA levels of CYP7a1 and LRH-1 were dramatically restrained (all P<0.01), while there was no change in SHP in the ZR group; compared with the ZR group, the proteins and mRNA levels of SHP were significantly increased (all P<0.01), while LRH-1 and CYP7a1 were not changed in the ZR4.00G, ZR1.00G and ZR0.25G groups. Compared with the negative transfection group, the protein and mRNA levels of CYP7a1 and LRH-1 were significantly suppressed in the OE group (all P<0.01). Compared with the OE group, the protein and mRNA levels of SHP were evidently increased in the OE4G and OE1G groups (all P<0.01), while LRH-1 and CYP7a1 were not changed in the OE4G, OE1G and OE0.25G groups.
 Conclusion: The over-expression of LRH-1 in RPH can up-regulate the mRNA and protein levels of CYP7a1. GPA can improve the biochemical and liver pathology of ANIT-induced cholestasis rats, which may be related to the decrease of CYP7a1 by activating SHP through LRH-1 in RPH.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cholestasis , Iridoid Glucosides , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear , Signal Transduction
7.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-813100

ABSTRACT

To investigate the effect of prophylactic aucubin (AU) on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) in mice. 
 Methods: Male BABL/c mice were randomly divided into a control group, an ALI group, and an AU treatment group, 16 mice in each group. ALI mice were injected with LPS (5 mg/kg, intratracheal injection), and AU (10 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally 30 min ahead. After LPS injection for 6 hours mice were sacrificed, the morphological changes of lung tissues were detected by HE staining and the lung injury score was obtained. The mRNA expression of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and interleukin 10 (IL-10) in lung tissue was detected by real-time PCR. The total protein and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the cell count, and the protein content of TNF-α and IL-10 in the mouse bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were detected.
 Results: Compared with ALI mice, the pathological damage score of lung tissue was significantly reduced in the AU group, the total number of BALF cells, neutrophils, and macrophages were significantly decreased, LDH activity and the total protein content were also significantly decreased (all P<0.01). In addition, AU can reduce the mRNA and protein expression of TNF-α in lung of ALI mice, and increase the mRNA and protein expression of IL-10 (all P<0.01).
 Conclusion: AU can reduce LPS-induced ALI in mice.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , Animals , Bronchoalveolar Lavage Fluid , Iridoid Glucosides , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung , Male , Mice , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775391

ABSTRACT

To establish the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint for Digeda-4 decoction (DGD-4D), determine the contents of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ, picroside Ⅱ and ellagicacid in DGD-4D, and provide the scientific foundation for quality control of DGD-4D. The analysis was performed on Diamonsil(2) C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) column, with methanol-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min⁻¹; injection size was 10 μL; temperature was maintained at 30 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The common mode of DGD-4D HPLC fingerprint was established, and the hidden information was analyzed by Chemometrics. Chromatographic peaks for DGD-4D were identified by HPLC and quantitative analysis was conducted for characteristic peaks. There were 17 common peaks in the fingerprints and the similarity of the fingerprints was over 0.9 in all 15 batches. The samples were broadly divided into four kinds by principal component analysis and clustering analysis. Four marker compounds were verified by partial least squares discriminant analysis, and No. 9, 12 and 14 peaks were identified as geniposide, picroside Ⅱ, and picroside Ⅰ respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 95.91%-97.31%. The HPLC fingerprint method for content determination is reliable, accurate, rapid, simple, and reproducible, and can be used as one of the effective methods to control the quality of DGD-4D.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cinnamates , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Iridoid Glucosides , Iridoids , Methanol , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775369

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to observe the protective effect of catalpol on the high glucose induced destruction of tight junctions of rat primary brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs). Catalpol co-administrated with high glucose increased BMECs survival, decreased its ET-1 secretion, and improved transmembrane electrical resistance in a time-dependent manner. Furthermore, transmission electron microscopy was used to observe catalpol's protective effect on tight junction. Fluorescence staining displayed that catalpol reversed the rearrangement of the cytoskeleton protein F-actin and up-regulated the tight junction proteins claudin-5 and ZO-1, which were further demonstrated by the mRNA expression levels of claudin-5, occludin, ZO-1, ZO-2, ZO-3, -actintin, vinculin and cateinins. This study indicated that catalpol reverses the disaggregation of cytoskeleton actin in BMECs and up-regulates the expression of tight junction proteins, such as claudin-5, occludin, and ZO-1, and finally alleviates the increase in high glucose-induced BMECs injury.


Subject(s)
Actin Cytoskeleton , Actins , Metabolism , Animals , Brain , Cell Biology , Cells, Cultured , Claudin-5 , Metabolism , Endothelial Cells , Glucose , Iridoid Glucosides , Pharmacology , Phosphoproteins , Rats , Tight Junctions , Zonula Occludens-1 Protein , Metabolism
10.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773582

ABSTRACT

Catalpol, a major bioactive component from Rehmannia glutinosa, which has been used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to elucidate the anti-diabetic effect and mechanism of action for catalpol in db/db mice. The db/db mice were randomly divided into six groups (10/group) according to their blood glucose levels: db/db control, metformin (positive control), and four dose levels of catalpol treatment (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg), and 10 db/m mice were used as the normal control. All the groups were administered orally for 8 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG), glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and glycated serum protein (GSP) and the globe gene expression in liver tissues were analyzed. Our results showed that catalpol treatment obviously reduced water intake and food intake in a dose-dependent manner. Catalpol treatment also remarkably reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG) and random blood glucose (RBG) in a dose-dependent manner. The RBG-lowering effect of catalpol was better than that of metformin. Furthermore, catalpol significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance via increasing insulin sensitivity. Catalpol treatment significantly decreased GSP level. The comparisons of gene expression in liver tissues among normal control mice, db/db mice and catalpol treated mice (200 and 100 mg·kg) indicated that there were significant increases in the expressions of 287 genes, whichwere mainly involved in lipid metabolism, response to stress, energy metabolism, and cellular processes, and significant decreases in the expressions of 520 genes, which were mainly involved in cell growth, death, immune system, and response to stress. Four genes expressed differentially were linked to glucose metabolism or insulin signaling pathways, including Irs1 (insulin receptor substrate 1), Idh2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP), mitochondrial), G6pd2 (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 2), and SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3). In conclusion, catalpol ecerted significant hypoglycemic effect and remarkable therapeutic effect in db/db mice via modulating various gene expressions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gene Expression , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Metabolism , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Rehmannia , Chemistry , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812371

ABSTRACT

Catalpol, a major bioactive component from Rehmannia glutinosa, which has been used to treat diabetes. The present study was designed to elucidate the anti-diabetic effect and mechanism of action for catalpol in db/db mice. The db/db mice were randomly divided into six groups (10/group) according to their blood glucose levels: db/db control, metformin (positive control), and four dose levels of catalpol treatment (25, 50, 100, and 200 mg·kg), and 10 db/m mice were used as the normal control. All the groups were administered orally for 8 weeks. The levels of fasting blood glucose (FBG), random blood glucose (RBG), glucose tolerance, insulin tolerance, and glycated serum protein (GSP) and the globe gene expression in liver tissues were analyzed. Our results showed that catalpol treatment obviously reduced water intake and food intake in a dose-dependent manner. Catalpol treatment also remarkably reduce fasting blood glucose (FBG) and random blood glucose (RBG) in a dose-dependent manner. The RBG-lowering effect of catalpol was better than that of metformin. Furthermore, catalpol significantly improved glucose tolerance and insulin tolerance via increasing insulin sensitivity. Catalpol treatment significantly decreased GSP level. The comparisons of gene expression in liver tissues among normal control mice, db/db mice and catalpol treated mice (200 and 100 mg·kg) indicated that there were significant increases in the expressions of 287 genes, whichwere mainly involved in lipid metabolism, response to stress, energy metabolism, and cellular processes, and significant decreases in the expressions of 520 genes, which were mainly involved in cell growth, death, immune system, and response to stress. Four genes expressed differentially were linked to glucose metabolism or insulin signaling pathways, including Irs1 (insulin receptor substrate 1), Idh2 (isocitrate dehydrogenase 2 (NADP), mitochondrial), G6pd2 (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase 2), and SOCS3 (suppressor of cytokine signaling 3). In conclusion, catalpol ecerted significant hypoglycemic effect and remarkable therapeutic effect in db/db mice via modulating various gene expressions.


Subject(s)
Animals , Blood Glucose , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Genetics , Metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Gene Expression , Glucosephosphate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Humans , Hypoglycemic Agents , Insulin , Metabolism , Insulin Receptor Substrate Proteins , Genetics , Metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Isocitrate Dehydrogenase , Genetics , Metabolism , Liver , Metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Rehmannia , Chemistry , Suppressor of Cytokine Signaling 3 Protein , Genetics , Metabolism
12.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-328284

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore the neuroprotective effect and mechanism of picroside II on extracellular regulated protein kinases1/2 (ERK1/2) signal transduction pathway in cerebral ischemia injuryrats. METHODS The middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) model was established by inserting a monofilament into middle cerebral artery. Totally 96 successfully modeled Wistar rats were divided into the modelgroup, the treatment (picroside II) group, the Lipopolysachcaride (LPS) group, and the U0126 group according to random digit table. Each group was further divided into 3 subgroups, i.e. 6, 12, and 24 h sub-groups. Picroside II (20 mg/kg) was peritoneally injected to rats in the treatment group 2 h after ischemia.LPS (20 mg/kg) and Picroside II (20 mg/kg) were peritoneally injected to rats in the LPS group 2 h after ischemia. U0126-EtOH (20 mg/kg)and Picroside II (20 mg/kg) were peritoneally injected to rats in the U0126group 2 h after ischemia. Equal volume of normal saline was peritoneally injected to rats in the control groupand the model group. The neurobehavioral function was evaluated by modified neurological severity score(mNSS) test. The structure of neurons was observed using hematoxylin-eosinstaining (HE) staining. Theapoptotic cells were detected using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) assay. The expression of phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase1,2 (pERK1,2) in cortex was detected using immunohistochemistry (IHC) and Western blot.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>After cerebral ischemia injury neurological impairment score increased, the damage of neuron in the cortical area was aggravated, apoptotic cells increased in the model group as time went by. The expression of pERK1/2 increased more significantly in the model group than in the control group (P <0.05). The damage of neuron in the cortical area was milder, while apoptotic cells decreased, the expression of pERK1f2 obviously decreased more in the treatment group and the U0126 group (P < 0.05). The early damage of neuron in the cortical area was more severe, apoptotic cells and the expression of pERK12 were comparatively higher in early stage of the LPS group, but the expression of pERK1/2 was somewhat decreased in late stage.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Activating ERK12 pathway could mediate apoptosis and inflammatory reactions of neurons after cerebral ischemia injury. Picroside II could protect the nerve system possibly through reducing activation of ERKI2 pathway, inhibiting apoptosis of neurons and inflammation reaction.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Apoptosis , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Cinnamates , Pharmacology , Infarction, Middle Cerebral Artery , Drug Therapy , Iridoid Glucosides , Pharmacology , MAP Kinase Signaling System , Neurons , Pathology , Neuroprotective Agents , Pharmacology , Random Allocation , Rats , Rats, Wistar
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330229

ABSTRACT

Lomatogonium rotatum (L.) Fries, Gentianopsis barbata (Froel) Ma, and Gentianella acuta (Michx.) Hulten, the three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials belonging to the family Gentianaceae, bad been widely used for the treatment of liver diseases. To analyze comparatively the content of swertiamarin and swertisin among these three kinds of Digeda-species Mongolian medicinal materials. HPLC method was applied for qualitative and quantitative analysis of swertiamarin and swertisin. The Phenomenex C18 (4.6 mm x 250 mm, 5 μm) was used, chromatographic methanol and water as mobile phase, the flow rate was 1.5 mL x min(-1) with UV detected at 237 nm, column oven temperature was 25 degrees C. Results showed that the contents of swertiamarin and swertisin were closely related the different species and producing areas. The content range of swertiamarin in L. rotatum from different habitats was 1.73% - 2.72%, 0.43% - 0.96% for the swertisin content; the content of swertiamarin in G. barbata from Alxa Left Banner was 0.38%, and the content of swertiamarin and swertisin in G. barbata from the others habitats and G. Acuta from different habitats were all detected qualitatively. The contents of swertiamarin and swertisin among these medicinal plants showed a significant difference due to the different species and producing areas. As a consequence, these medicinal plants should not be put together for clinical applications.


Subject(s)
Apigenin , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Gentianaceae , Chemistry , Classification , Gentianella , Chemistry , Classification , Iridoid Glucosides , Medicine, Mongolian Traditional , Mongolia , Plant Extracts , Pyrones
14.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-246109

ABSTRACT

The method of monoclonal antibody-based immunoassay has a great importance in the study of quality control of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) and detection of trace components in vivo animals. Synthesis of small molecule artificial antigen is the prerequisite for the establishment of this method. In present study, catalpol-BSA was synthesized by sodium periodate oxidation method. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time-of-flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF-MS) and molecular exclusion chromatography showed that catalpol was successfully conjugated with BSA. The mice could specifically produce anti-catalpol antibodies with titer up to 1:8000. The artificial antigen of catalpol was successfully synthesized.


Subject(s)
Animals , Antibodies , Allergy and Immunology , Antigens , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Immunoassay , Iridoid Glucosides , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology , Male , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Serum Albumin, Bovine , Chemistry , Allergy and Immunology
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-351267

ABSTRACT

The method was established for determination of geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid, pinoresinoldiglucoside, which are three kinds of constituents of Eucommia ulmoides absorbed into the blood components. LC-MS/MS technique was applied to determine the blood components of the bloodstream after administration of E. ulmoides extract. At the same time, HPLC was used for detection of the ingredients content of the blood sample from 23 batches of E. ulmoides. The results showed that geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid and pinoresinoldiglucoside are prototype into the blood in rats after oral administration of E. ulmoides extract, The linear range of geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid and pinoresinoldiglucoside was good, and the average recoveries geniposidic acid, chlorogenic acid and pinoresinoldiglucoside were 98.69%, 100.8% and 98.39%, respectively. The method is simple and feasible with good reproducibility.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chlorogenic Acid , Blood , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Glycosides , Blood , Iridoid Glucosides , Blood , Lignans , Blood , Male , Plasma , Chemistry , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812246

ABSTRACT

AIM@#To establish and apply a new LC/MS/MS method for the simultaneous, quantitative determination of six ingredients, aucubin (AU), geniposide (GP), geniposidic acid (GPA), pinoresinol diglucoside (PDG), secologanin (SLG), and loganin (LG) in single and combined extracts of Eucommia ulmoides and Dipsacus asperoides.@*METHOD@#Using the LC/MS/MS-ESI(-)-MRM mode to detect the six compounds, chromatographic separation was achieved on an Agilent Eclipse plus C18 column, and the mobile phase consisted of solvent A (CH3CN) and solvent B (H2O containing 0.01% CH3COOH V/V).@*RESULTS@#This method was successfully applied to quantify the six compounds in rat plasma after oral administration, and showed good precision, accuracy, reproducibility, and linear regression (r(2)>0.99).@*CONCLUSION@#The results showed that following the use of the two medicinal plants, for AU and GP, the values of Cmax markedly increased, and the values of cmax markedly decreased. It was found that the compatibility of the medicinal plants might affect their pharmacokinetic properties of their constituents.


Subject(s)
Animals , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Methods , Dipsacaceae , Chemistry , Drug Combinations , Eucommiaceae , Chemistry , Female , Iridoid Glucosides , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Iridoids , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Lignans , Blood , Pharmacokinetics , Plant Extracts , Blood , Chemistry , Pharmacokinetics , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Tandem Mass Spectrometry , Methods
17.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-287564

ABSTRACT

Iridoid glycosides were the main active ingredient of Rehmannia glutinosa, of which catalpol has the highest content. This work will provide theoretical basis for metabolic study and cultivation of iridoids on the basis of the dynamic accumulation of catalpol and total iridoids in the growth of R. glutinosa. The samples of rehmannia 85-5 were gathered in the same filed from July to October. The contents of catalpol and total iridoid glycosides were measured by HPLC and specteophotometric, respectively. The results showed that youngest leaves had the higher content of catalpol and total iridoid glyosides than that of the other two leaf ages in the same growth stage from July to September, while their content of catalpol and total iridoid glycosides were all decreased as the growth of leaves of R. glutinosa. The content of catalpol didn't differ significantly from July to September, whereas it has significantly increased in October in the three leaf stage. In the same stage, the wider the root diameter is, the higher content of the effective components are. In August and September, the total iridoid glycosides have the fastest accumulation. The content of catalpol was increased as the accumulation of total iridoid glycosides.


Subject(s)
Iridoid Glucosides , Metabolism , Iridoids , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Metabolism , Rehmannia , Metabolism , Seasons , Water , Metabolism
18.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 916-923, 2014.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-253233

ABSTRACT

<p><b>BACKGROUND</b>The mechanisms underlying diabetic encephalopathy are largely unknown, and no effective treatments are available. Catalpol has received much attention due to its numerous biological effects, especially in neuroprotective studies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of catalpol on cognitive functions in diabetic rats and the underlying mechanisms.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>A rat model of diabetes was established by streptozotocin injection, followed by intraperitoneal infusion of catalpol after 10 weeks. Two weeks later, the Morris water maze was used to test the spatial learning performance. Nissl staining was performed to evaluate the morphological changes in the hippocampus. Expression of protein kinase Cγ (PKCγ) and caveolin-1 (Cav-1) in the hippocampus were assessed by reverse transcription PCR and Western blotting. Activities of anti-oxidative enzymes such as glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) and levels of malonaldehyde (MDA) were measured using commercial kits.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>Significant hippocampal neuronal injury was observed in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Moreover, cognitive dysfunction was associated with markedly increased oxidative stress in the brain. Catalpol treatment significantly attenuated cognitive deficits, neuronal damage, and oxidative stress in the brain of diabetic rats. Biochemical analyses showed that catalpol reversed the down-regulation of PKCγ and Cav-1 expression in the diabetic rats.</p><p><b>CONCLUSIONS</b>Spatial memory in diabetic rats is associated with the expression of PKCγ and Cav-1. Catalpol treatment markedly attenuated oxidative stress, reversed the alteration of PKCγ, Cav-1 and spatial memory deficits.</p>


Subject(s)
Animals , Caveolin 1 , Metabolism , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Hippocampus , Metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Therapeutic Uses , Male , Neuroprotective Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Oxidative Stress , Protein Kinase C , Metabolism , Rats , Spatial Memory , Physiology
19.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330279

ABSTRACT

The paper is aimed to study the difference in yield and quality at different harvest time and determine the optimum harvest of planting Gentiana in Ludian traditional harvest period. The authors analyzed the variation in fresh weight, dry weight, dry discount rate, length, diameter, volume and the content of gentiopicroside, loganin acid, alcohol-soluble extract and total ash and made a comprehensive appraisal of yield, appearance quality and intrinsic quality by gray relational distance ideal Comprehensive Evaluation method. The results showed that there is a big difference in yield and quality both 2-year-old and 3-year-old Gentiana harvested in traditional harvest period and the comprehensive evaluation more better when harvested more later. It can be seen, Gentiana harvested the later had a better yield and quality in Ludian traditional harvest period. The harvest of Gentiana can be appropriate delayed depending on the particular circumstances of production.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , China , Gentiana , Metabolism , Iridoid Glucosides , Metabolism , Organ Size , Quality Control , Time Factors
20.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327872

ABSTRACT

To study the interaction of drugs of different properties, namely puerarin, borneol and catalpol in the process of in- clusion, in order to explore the inclusion regularity of multi-component and multi-property traditional Chinese medicine compound in- clusions. With HP-β-CD as the inclusion material, the freeze-drying method was used to prepare the inclusion. The inclusion between puerarin, borneol and catalpol was tested by measuring the inclusion concentration, DSC and X-ray diffraction. According to the find- ings, when insoluble drugs puerarin and borneol were included simultaneously, and puerarin was overdosed, puerarin included was almost equal to puerarin included, and borneol was not included. When puerarin was under-dosed, and HP-β-CD was overdosed, borne- ol was included, and the simultaneous inclusion was lower than the separate inclusion of borneol. When water-soluble drug catalpol was jointly included with puerarin or borneol, the simultaneous inclusion was almost the same with their separate inclusion, without charac- teristic peak of catalpol in DSC and X-ray diffraction patterns. There is a competition in the simultaneous inclusion between water-solu- ble drugs puerarin and borneol and a stronger competition in puerarin. The water-soluble drug catalpol could be included with HP-β-CD with no impact on the inclusion of puerarin or borneol.


Subject(s)
2-Hydroxypropyl-beta-cyclodextrin , Camphanes , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Brain Ischemia , Drug Therapy , Drug Compounding , Methods , Freeze Drying , Iridoid Glucosides , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Isoflavones , Chemistry , Therapeutic Uses , Solubility , beta-Cyclodextrins , Chemistry
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