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1.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888175

ABSTRACT

As the main chemical constituents, iridoids are widely distributed within Gentiana, Gentianaceae, with promising bioactivities. Based on the previous work, the transcriptome of G. lhassica, an original plant of Tibetan herb "Jieji Nabao", was sequenced and analyzed in this study, and the transcriptome databases of roots, stems, leaves, and flowers were constructed so as to explore unigenes that may encode the key enzymes in the biosynthetic pathway of iridoids. Then, qRT-PCR was used to validate the relative expression levels of 11 genes named AACT, DXS, MCS, HDS, IDI, GPPS, GES, G10H, 7-DLNGT, 7-DLGT, and SLS in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers. Also, the total contents of gentiopicroside and loganic acid were determined by HPLC, respectively. The results are as follows:(1)a total of 76 486 unigenes with an average length of 852 bp were obtained;(2)335 unigenes were involved in 19 stan-dard secondary metabolism pathways in KEGG database, with phenylpropanoid biosynthesis having the maximum number(75 unigenes), and no isoflavone biosynthetic pathway was annotated;(3)171 unigenes participatedin 27 key enzymes encoding in the biosynthetic pathway of iridoids, and 1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate reductoisomerase(DXR) gene was highly expressed;(4)qRT-PCR results were approximately consistent with RNA-Seq data and the relative expression levels of the 11 genes were higher in the aboveground parts(stem, leaf, and flower) than in the underground part(root);(5)the total contents of gentiopicroside and loganic acid were higher in the aboveground parts(stem, leaf, and flower) than in the underground part(root), and the difference was significant. This study provides basic scientific data for accurate species identification, evaluation of germplasm resources, research on secondary pro-duct accumulation of medicinal plants within Gentianaceae, and protection of endangered alpine species.


Subject(s)
Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Gentiana/genetics , Iridoids , Transcriptome
2.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-888017

ABSTRACT

Type 2 diabetes mellitus( T2 DM) is a common chronic metabolic disease characterized by persistent hyperglycemia and insulin resistance. In pancreatic β-cells,glucose-stimulated insulin secretion( GSIS) plays a pivotal role in maintaining the balance of blood glucose level. Previous studies have shown that geniposide,one of the active components of Gardenia jasminoides,could quickly regulate the absorption and metabolism of glucose,and affect glucose-stimulated insulin secretion in pancreatic β cells,but the specific mechanism needs to be further explored. Emerging evidence indicated that glycosylation of glucose transporter( GLUT) has played a key role in sensing cell microenvironmental changes and regulating glucose homeostasis in eucaryotic cells. In this study,we studied the effects of geniposide on the key molecules of GLUT2 glycosylation in pancreatic β cells. The results showed that geniposide could significantly up-regulate the mRNA and protein levels of Glc NAc T-Ⅳa glycosyltransferase( Gn T-Ⅳa) and galectin-9 but had no signi-ficant effect on the expression of clathrin,and geniposide could distinctively regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa in a short time( 1 h) under the conditions of low and medium glucose concentrations,but had no significant effect on the protein level of galectin-9. In addition,geniposide could also remarkably affect the protein level of glycosylated GLUT2 in a short-time treatment. The above results suggested that geniposide could quickly regulate the protein level of Gn T-Ⅳa,a key molecule of protein glycosylation in INS-1 rat pancreatic βcells and affect the glycosylation of GLUT2. These findings suggested that the regulation of geniposide on glucose absorption,metabolism and glucose-stimulated insulin secretion might be associated with its efficacy in regulating GLUT2 glycosylation and affecting its distribution on the cell membrane and cytoplasm in pancreatic β cells.


Subject(s)
Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Type 2/metabolism , Glucose/metabolism , Glycosylation , Insulin/metabolism , Insulin-Secreting Cells/metabolism , Iridoids , Rats
3.
Bol. latinoam. Caribe plantas med. aromát ; 18(5): 518-526, sept. 2019. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1008290

ABSTRACT

Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. widely distributed in the northeast region of China and some region in Russia and Korea, and its underground parts (roots and rhizomes) being used to cure nervous system diseases such as insomnia. The active components including the essential oil and iridoids of underground parts were investigated in different harvest periods in order to evaluate the quality for the roots and rhizomes of V. amurensis. The content of the essential oil was obtained by hydrodistillation and bornyl acetate in the oil was quantitated by GC-EI. The iridoids, valepotriates were determined by potentiometric titration and the main component, valtrate was quantitated by HPLC-UV. The factors of biomass were considered in the determination of collection period. Statistical analysis of results showed that, the highest content of the essential oil per plant was 22.69 µl in withering period and then 21.58 µl in fruit ripening period, while the highest contents of bornyl acetate, valepotriates and valtrate per plant were 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg and 0.98 mg in fruit ripening period separately. Fruit ripening period was decided as the best harvest period for the content of active constituents and output of drug, and it would provide scientific basis for the artificial cultivation of V. amurensis.


Valeriana amurensis Smir. ex Kom. Se distribuye ampliamente en la región noreste de China y en algunas regiones de Rusia y Corea, y sus partes subterráneas (raíces y rizomas) se utilizan para curar enfermedades del sistema nervioso como el insomnio. Se investigaron los componentes activos, incluidos el aceite esencial y los iridoides de las partes subterráneas de V. amurensis en diferentes períodos de cosecha para evaluar la calidad de las raíces y rizomas. El contenido del aceite esencial se obtuvo mediante hidrodestilación y el acetato de bornilo en el aceite se cuantificó por GC-EI. Los iridoides, valepotriatos se determinaron mediante valoración potenciométrica y el componente principal, el valtrato se cuantificó por HPLC-UV. Los factores de biomasa fueron considerados en la determinación del período de recolección. El análisis estadístico de los resultados mostró que el mayor contenido de aceite esencial por planta fue de 22,69 µl en el período de marchitación y luego de 21,58 µl en el período de maduración de la fruta, mientras que el mayor contenido de acetato de bornilo, valepotriatos y valtrato por planta fue de 2.82 mg, 31.90 mg y 0,98 mg, respectivamente, en el período de maduración de la fruta por separado. Se definió el período de maduración de la fruta como el mejor período de cosecha para el contenido de constituyentes activos y la producción de droga, lo cual proporcionaría una base científica para el cultivo artificial de V. amurensis.


Subject(s)
Valerian/chemistry , Oils, Volatile/chemistry , Plant Roots/chemistry , Seasons , Camphanes/analysis , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Spectrometry, Mass, Electrospray Ionization , Rhizome/chemistry , Iridoids/analysis
4.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773237

ABSTRACT

Iridoid synthase( IS),the key enzyme in the natural biosynthesis of vegetal iridoids,catalyzes the irreversible cyclization of 10-oxogeranial to epi-iridodial. In this study,we screened the Rehmannia glutinosa transcriptome data by BLASTn with Catharanthus roseus CrIS cDNA,and found four c DNA fragments with length of 1 527,1 743,1 425,1 718 bp,named RgIS1,RgIS2,RgIS3 and RgIS4,respectively. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that the four iridoid synthase genes encoding proteins with 389-392 amino acid residues,protein molecular weights were between 44. 30-44. 74 k Da,and theoretical isoelectric points were between 5. 30 and 5. 87. Subcellular localization predictions showed that the four iridoid synthase were distributed in the cytoplasm. Structure analysis revealed that R. glutinosa iridoid synthases contain six conserved short-chain dehydrogenase/reductase( SDR) motifs,and their 3 D models were composed typical dinucleotide-binding " Rossmann" folds covered by helical C-terminal extensions. Using the amino acid sequences of four R. glutinosa iridoid synthases,phylogenetic analysis was performed,the result indicated that RgIS3,CrIS and Olea europaea OeIS were grouped together,the other R. glutinosa iridoid synthases and fifteen proteins in other plants had close relationship. Real-time fluorescent quantitative PCR revealed that RgIS1 and RgIS3 highly expressed in unfold leaves,however,RgIS2 and RgIS4 highly expressed in stems and tuberous roots,respectively. RgIS3 showed higher expression levels in non-radial striations( nRS) of the two cultivars,and RgIS1 and RgIS2 had higher expression levels in nRS of QH,while RgIS4 had less expression levels in nRS of QH1. RgIS1,RgIS2 and RgIS3 were up-regulated by Me JA treatment,although the time and degree of response differed. Our findings are helpful to reveal molecular function of R. glutinosa iridoid synthases and provide a clue for studing the molecular mechanism of iridoid biosynthesis.


Subject(s)
Cloning, Molecular , Genes, Plant , Iridoids , Metabolism , Ligases , Genetics , Phylogeny , Rehmannia , Genetics
5.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774595

ABSTRACT

To investigate the " drug-guide" effect of Achyranthes bidentata saponins( ABS) and geniposide( GE) in the treatment on adjuvant arthritis( AA) rats. A UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitative determination of GE,zingibroside R1,ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsu saponin Ⅳa in rat blood and joint dialysate was established. After single or combined administration with ABS and GE was given to AA rat model,a microdialysis sampling method for rat joint cavity and jugular vein blood vessels was established to collect microdialysis samples. Waters Acquity HSS C_(18) column was used to separate the above four components,with mobile phase as acetonitrile-0. 1% formic acid water as mobile phase for gradient elution. ESI source was adopted for mass spectra in a negative ion scanning mode. Multiple reaction monitoring( MRM) mode was applied to detect the above four components. The methodological results showed that GE,zingibroside R1,ginsenoside Ro and chikusetsu saponin Ⅳa demonstrated a good linear relationship within the concentration ranges of 2-4 000,16-4 096,14-3 584,23-5 888 μg·L-1 respectively. The precision,accuracy,stability and matrix effect of these four ingredients reached the requirements of quantitative analysis of biological samples. The pharmacokinetic results demonstrated that the combined administration of ABS and GE( 60 mg·kg~(-1)+60 mg·kg~(-1)) can increase the degree of GE in joint cavity distribution,and the AUCjoint/AUCplasmwere twice of that of single administration of GE( 60 mg·kg~(-1)),which indicated that ABS might played a vital role in GE's distribution to joint cavity. Moreover,there was no significant difference between the distribution trend of total three ABS and GE in rats. The pharmacodynamics results showed that the combined administration of ABS and GE has stronger effects on paw swelling,arthritis index and synovial pathomorphology of AA rats than single administration of GE,which suggested that ABS might improve GE's anti-inflammatory effect in AA rats. Based on the above results,ABS has a targeting effect in increasing GE's concentration in joint cavity,with a synergy in efficacy.


Subject(s)
Achyranthes , Chemistry , Animals , Arthritis, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacokinetics , Iridoids , Pharmacokinetics , Microdialysis , Rats , Reproducibility of Results , Saponins , Pharmacokinetics , Tandem Mass Spectrometry
6.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776556

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effects of genipin on promoting brown adipose tissue activation and white adipose tissue browning.@*METHODS@#The male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups: normal control group, genipin group and cold-stimulus group.Genipin group were treated consecutively with genipin at a dose of 15 mg/kg once a day for 9 days, normal control group were treated with the saline.The mice with cold-stimulus were exposed to 4℃ environment for 5 days.Daily food amount and body weight were measured.Morphological changes were observed in the subscapular region, inguinal region and epididymis around the adipose tissue.The expression of uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) was determined by real-time PCR and Western blot respectively.@*RESULTS@#The wet weight of white fat in genipin-treated mice was decreased by 16% , and 28% in that of cold-stimulus mice, compared with the normal control group (P<0.05).After treatments of genipin and cold-stimulus, the color of white adipose tissues was darker, and the size of lipid droplets in adipocytes was smaller, whereas the number was increased.Compared with the normal control group, UCP1 expression was increased obviously in fat tissues, including the subcutaneous and visceral white adipose tissues, and brown adipose tissue after treated with genipin and cold-stimulus (P<0.05).@*CONCLUSION@#Genipin promoted activation of brown adipose tissue and browning of white adipose tissue by upregulating UCP1 expression, which could contribute to the loss of body weight against obesity.


Subject(s)
Adipose Tissue, Brown , Adipose Tissue, White , Animals , Cholagogues and Choleretics , Pharmacology , Iridoids , Pharmacology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Obesity , Drug Therapy , Uncoupling Protein 1 , Up-Regulation
7.
Natural Product Sciences ; : 122-129, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-760554

ABSTRACT

The roots of Phlomis umbrosa (Turcz.) (Phlomidis Radix) have been traditionally used to treat cold, reduce swelling and staunch bleeding. Four iridoids (1 – 3 and 5) and six phenylethanoid derivatives (4, and 6 – 10) were isolated from the roots of P. umbrosa. A simple, sensitive, and reliable analytical HPLC/PDA method was developed, validated, and applied to determine 10 marker compounds in Phlomidis Radix. Furthermore, the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxic and anti-oxidant activities as well as DPPH-HPLC method. Among them, compounds 4 and 6 – 9 displayed potent anti-oxidant capacities using DPPH assay with IC50 values of 27.7 ± 2.4, 10.2 ± 1.1, 18.0 ± 0.8, 19.1 ± 0.3, and 19.9 ± 0.6 µM, and compounds 6, 8, and 9 displayed significant cytotoxic activity against HL-60 with IC50 values of 35.4 ± 3.1, 18.6 ± 2.0, and 42.9 ± 3.0 µM, respectively.


Subject(s)
Hemorrhage , Inhibitory Concentration 50 , Iridoids , Methods , Phlomis
8.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777535

ABSTRACT

1-deoxy-D-xylulose-5-phosphate synthase2(DXS2) is the first key enzyme of the MEP pathway,which plays an important role in terpene biosynthesis of plants. According to the data of Swertia mussotii transcriptome, DXS2 gene(Gen Bank number MH535905) was cloned and named as Sm DXS2. The bioinformatics results showed that Sm DXS2 has no intron,with a 2 145 bp open reading frame encoding a polypeptide of 714 amino acids. They are belonging to 20 kinds of amino acids,and the most abundant amino acids include Ala,Gly and Trp. The predicted protein molecular weight was 76. 91 k Da and its theoretical isoelectric point(p I) was6. 5,which belonging to a hydrophilic protein. α-Helix and loop were the major motifs of predicted secondary structure of DXS2. The three function domains are TPP_superfamily,Transket_pyr_ superfamily and Transketolase_C superfamily,respectively. The Sm DXS2 protein shared high identity with other DXS2 proteins of plants. Phylogenetic analysis showed that Sm DXS2 protein is grouped with the gentian DXS2 protein. The recombinant protein of Sm DXS2 gene in Escherichia coli was approximately 92. 00 k Da(containing sumo-His tag protein 13 k Da),which was consistent with the anticipated size.This work will provide a foundation for further functional research of Sm DXS2 protein and increasing the product of iridoid compound by genetic engineering in S. mussotii.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary , Genetics , Genes, Plant , Iridoids , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Genetics , Swertia , Genetics , Transcriptome , Transferases , Genetics
9.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-777493

ABSTRACT

Catalpol is an iridoid glycoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa. It has been reported to have antioxidant stress effects. Adenosine 5' monophosphate-activated protein kinase( AMPK) plays an important role in inhibiting oxidative stress. This study was designed to investigate the protective effects of catalpol on TNF-α-exposed human aorta epithelial cells( HAECs) via inhibit oxidative stress,and the relationship between catalpol and AMPK was detected by RNA interference technique. Levels of superoxide dismutase( SOD),malonaldehyde( MDA),glutathione( GSH) and lactate dehydrogenase( LDH) were measured with a colorimetric assay kit. The level of ROS was measured with FACS calibur. Western blot was employed to detect the protein expression of AMPK,phosphorylated-AMPK and NOX4. Finally,RNA interference technique was used to investigate the role of AMPK in catalpol-induced protective effects. TNF-α treatment decreased the expression of phosphorylated-AMPK protein level,however,catalpol could reverse the decreased phosphorylated-AMPK level. Catalpol could inhibit NOX4 protein expression and decrease ROS overproduction. After using AMPK siRNA that effects of catalpol on ROS overproduction and NOX4 protein expression inhibition were attenuated. The above results suggest that catalpol inhibits oxidative stress in TNF-α-exposed HAECs by activating AMPK.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iridoid Glucosides , Pharmacology , Iridoids , Oxidative Stress , Reactive Oxygen Species , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 954-963, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973477

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: The effect of a prophylactic oleuropein-rich diet before anesthesia accompanied by the widely-used steroid-based neuromuscular drug rocuronium on mast cell activation was investigated in the study. Methods: 14 rabbits used in the study. The rabbits in the oleuropein group were given oleuropein-rich extract added to the animals' water at doses of 20 mg/kg oleuropein for 15 days orally. After 15 days, all rabbits in the two groups were given general anesthesia with rocuronium of 1 mg/kg. After 1 day, animals were sacrificed and the liver tissue sections stained with H&E, toluidine blue and tryptase for immunohistochemical study. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between ALT, AST and albumin averages of the oleuropein and control groups (p> 0.05). The tryptase average of the control group was higher than the tryptase average of the oleuropein group and this difference was statistically significant (p=0.003). The T. blue average in the oleuropein group was higher than the control group. However, there was no statistically significant difference between groups (p=0.482). Conclusions: Rocuronium adverse effects, like hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis, may limit routine use of this substance. The use of oleuropein reduced the number of inflammatory cells and prevented degranulation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Neuromuscular Nondepolarizing Agents/adverse effects , Iridoids/administration & dosage , Rocuronium/adverse effects , Anesthesia, General/adverse effects , Mast Cells/drug effects , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/administration & dosage , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Random Allocation , Cell Degranulation/drug effects , Cell Aggregation/drug effects , Reproducibility of Results , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Diet Therapy/methods , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/prevention & control , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis/methods , Liver/drug effects , Liver/enzymology , Mast Cells/pathology
11.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-691402

ABSTRACT

Amarogentin is an efficacious Chinese herbal medicine and a component of the bitter apricot kernel. It is commonly used as an expectorant and supplementary anti-cancer drug. β-Glucosidase is an enzyme that hydrolyzes the glycosidic bond between aryl and saccharide groups to release glucose. Upon their interaction, β-glucosidase catalyzes amarogentin to produce considerable amounts of hydrocyanic acid, which inhibits cytochrome C oxidase, the terminal enzyme in the mitochondrial respiration chain, and suspends adenosine triphosphate synthesis, resulting in cell death. Hydrocyanic acid is a cell-cycle-stage-nonspecific agent that kills cancer cells. Thus, β-glucosidase can be coupled with a tumor-specific monoclonal antibody. β-Glucosidase can combine with cancer-cell-surface antigens and specifically convert amarogentin to an active drug that acts on cancer cells and the surrounding antibodies to achieve a killing effect. β-Glucosidase is injected intravenously and recognizes cancer-cell-surface antigens with the help of an antibody. The prodrug amarogentin is infused after β-glucosidase has reached the target position. Coupling of cell membrane peptides with β-glucosidase allows the enzyme to penetrate capillary endothelial cells and clear extracellular deep solid tumors to kill the cells therein. The Chinese medicine amarogentin and β-glucosidase will become an important treatment for various tumors when an appropriate monoclonal antibody is developed.


Subject(s)
Amygdalin , Therapeutic Uses , Antibodies, Monoclonal , Therapeutic Uses , Antineoplastic Agents , Therapeutic Uses , Cell-Penetrating Peptides , Therapeutic Uses , Humans , Iridoids , Therapeutic Uses , Prodrugs , Therapeutic Uses , beta-Glucosidase , Therapeutic Uses
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812405

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the various complications of diabetes mellitus, affecting patients for lifetime. Earlier studies have revealed that genipin can not only improve diabetes, but also induce cytotoxicity. Therefore, it is not clear which effect of genipin on kidneys occurs, when it is used in the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics analysis of urine and kidney tissue samples obtained from diabetic rats to explore the change of endogenous metabolites associated with diabetes and concomitant kidney disease. Nine significant differential metabolites that were closely related to renal function were screened. They were mainly related to three metabolic pathways: synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and butanoate metabolism, which are involved in methylamine metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. In addition, after the intervention of genipin, the metabolic levels of all the metabolites tended to be normal, indicating a protective effect of genipin on kidneys. Our results may be helpful for understanding the antidiabetic effect of genipin.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Metabolism , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Urine , Energy Metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents , Pharmacology , Iridoids , Pharmacology , Kidney , Metabolism , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methylamines , Metabolism , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
13.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-775391

ABSTRACT

To establish the high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint for Digeda-4 decoction (DGD-4D), determine the contents of aesculetin, geniposide, picroside Ⅰ, picroside Ⅱ and ellagicacid in DGD-4D, and provide the scientific foundation for quality control of DGD-4D. The analysis was performed on Diamonsil(2) C₁₈ (4.6 mm×250 mm,5 μm) column, with methanol-0.1% phosphoric acid aqueous solution as mobile phase for gradient elution. The flow rate was 1.0 mL·min⁻¹; injection size was 10 μL; temperature was maintained at 30 °C, and the detection wavelength was set at 254 nm. The common mode of DGD-4D HPLC fingerprint was established, and the hidden information was analyzed by Chemometrics. Chromatographic peaks for DGD-4D were identified by HPLC and quantitative analysis was conducted for characteristic peaks. There were 17 common peaks in the fingerprints and the similarity of the fingerprints was over 0.9 in all 15 batches. The samples were broadly divided into four kinds by principal component analysis and clustering analysis. Four marker compounds were verified by partial least squares discriminant analysis, and No. 9, 12 and 14 peaks were identified as geniposide, picroside Ⅱ, and picroside Ⅰ respectively. The average recoveries were in the range of 95.91%-97.31%. The HPLC fingerprint method for content determination is reliable, accurate, rapid, simple, and reproducible, and can be used as one of the effective methods to control the quality of DGD-4D.


Subject(s)
Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Cinnamates , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Reference Standards , Iridoid Glucosides , Iridoids , Methanol , Principal Component Analysis , Quality Control
14.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773615

ABSTRACT

Diabetic nephropathy is one of the various complications of diabetes mellitus, affecting patients for lifetime. Earlier studies have revealed that genipin can not only improve diabetes, but also induce cytotoxicity. Therefore, it is not clear which effect of genipin on kidneys occurs, when it is used in the treatment of diabetes. In the present study, we performed nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics analysis of urine and kidney tissue samples obtained from diabetic rats to explore the change of endogenous metabolites associated with diabetes and concomitant kidney disease. Nine significant differential metabolites that were closely related to renal function were screened. They were mainly related to three metabolic pathways: synthesis and degradation of ketone bodies, glycine, serine and threonine metabolism, and butanoate metabolism, which are involved in methylamine metabolism, energy metabolism and amino acid metabolism. In addition, after the intervention of genipin, the metabolic levels of all the metabolites tended to be normal, indicating a protective effect of genipin on kidneys. Our results may be helpful for understanding the antidiabetic effect of genipin.


Subject(s)
Amino Acids , Metabolism , Animals , Diabetes Mellitus, Experimental , Drug Therapy , Metabolism , Urine , Energy Metabolism , Hypoglycemic Agents , Pharmacology , Iridoids , Pharmacology , Kidney , Metabolism , Male , Metabolic Networks and Pathways , Metabolome , Metabolomics , Methylamines , Metabolism , Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776417

ABSTRACT

Application of a combination of various chromatographic techniques including column chromatography over silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, macroporous adsorbent resin, and reversed-phase HPLC, led to the isolation of 173 compounds including irdidoids, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, triterpenes, lignans, flavonoids, and simple aromatic derivatives from the ethyl acetate-soluble fraction of the whole plants of Valeriana jatamansi(Valerianaceae), and their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic methods including 1D, 2D NMR UV, IR, and MS techniques. Among them, 77 compounds were new. In previous reports, we have described the isolation, structure elucidation, and bioactivities of 68 new and 25 known compounds. As a consequence, we herein reported the isolation and structure elucidation of the remaining 9 new and 71 known compounds, the structure revision of valeriotriate A(8a), as well as cytotoxicity of some compounds.


Subject(s)
Acetates , Chromatography, High Pressure Liquid , Flavonoids , Iridoids , Lignans , Molecular Structure , Monoterpenes , Phytochemicals , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Sesquiterpenes , Triterpenes , Valerian , Chemistry
16.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 50(12): e5916, 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888970

ABSTRACT

Lider-7-tang, a medicine used for the treatment of respiratory diseases especially pneumonia and fever in Mongolian Traditional Medicine, was selected for this phytochemical and pharmacological study. The objectives of the study were to determine total biological active substances and analyze the effects of Lider-7-tang treatment in rats with acute lung injury (ALI). Quantitative determination of the total active constituents (phenolic, flavonoid, iridoid and alkaloid) of the methanol extract of Lider-7-tang was performed using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent, aluminum chloride reagent, Trim-Hill reagent, and Bromocresol green reagent, respectively. A total of fifty 8-10-week-old male Wistar rats (200-240 g) were randomized into three groups: control group, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (7.5 mg/kg) and LPS+Lider-7 group (90 mg/kg Lider-7-tang before LPS administration). The total content of alkaloids was 0.2±0.043%, total phenols 7.8±0.67%, flavonoids 3.12±0.206%, and iridoids 0.308±0.0095%. This study also evaluated the effects of Lider-7 on levels of inflammatory mediators by observing histopathological features associated with LPS-induced ALI. The rats pretreated with Lider-7 had significantly lower levels of IL-6 (at 3 and 6 h), and TNF-α (at 3, 6, 9, and 12 h). The current study showed that Lider-7 exerted a preventive effect against LPS-induced ALI, which appeared to be mediated by inhibiting the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Acute Lung Injury/prevention & control , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Flavonoids/pharmacology , Iridoids/pharmacology , Phenols/pharmacology , Plants, Medicinal/chemistry , Acute Lung Injury/pathology , Alkaloids/analysis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Flavonoids/analysis , Indicators and Reagents , Interleukin-6/blood , Iridoids/analysis , Lipopolysaccharides , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Molybdenum , Mongolia , Phenols/analysis , Phytotherapy/methods , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Spectrophotometry , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Tungsten Compounds
17.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-226873

ABSTRACT

Acute bronchitis and chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPD) are essentially lung inflammatory disorders. Various plant extracts and their constituents showed therapeutic effects on several animal models of lung inflammation. These include coumarins, flavonoids, phenolics, iridoids, monoterpenes, diterpenes and triterpenoids. Some of them exerted inhibitory action mainly by inhibiting the mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway and nuclear transcription factor-κB activation. Especially, many flavonoid derivatives distinctly showed effectiveness on lung inflammation. In this review, the experimental data for plant extracts and their constituents showing therapeutic effectiveness on animal models of lung inflammation are summarized.


Subject(s)
Bronchitis , Coumarins , Diterpenes , Flavonoids , Iridoids , Lung Diseases, Obstructive , Lung , Models, Animal , Monoterpenes , Phenol , Plant Extracts , Plants, Medicinal , Pneumonia , Protein Kinases , Pulmonary Disease, Chronic Obstructive , Therapeutic Uses
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812043

ABSTRACT

Herbal extracts have been extensively used worldwide for their application on memory improvement, especially among aged and memory-deficit populations. In the present study, the memory loss induced by human Abeta protein over-expression in fruitfly Alzheimer's disease (AD) model was rescued by multiple extracts from Gardenia jasminoides. Three extracts that rich with gardenia yellow, geniposide, and gardenoside components showed distinct rescue effect on memory loss. Further investigation on adding gardenoside into a formula of Ganoderma lucidum, Panax notoginseng and Panax ginseng (GPP) also support its therapeutic effects on memory improvement. Interestingly, the application of GPP and gardenoside did not alter the accumulation of Abeta proteins but suppressed the expression of immune-related genes in the brain. These results revealed the importance and relevancy of anti-inflammation process and the underlying mechanisms on rescuing memory deficits, suggesting the potential therapeutic use of the improved GPP formulation in improving cognition in defined population in the future.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , Drug Therapy , Animals , Antimicrobial Cationic Peptides , Genetics , Brain , Allergy and Immunology , Cognition , Disease Models, Animal , Drosophila , Drosophila Proteins , Genetics , Gardenia , Chemistry , Gene Expression Regulation , Immunity, Innate , Iridoids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Polymerase Chain Reaction
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812449

ABSTRACT

In order to determine the chemical constituents of Cistanche deserticola cultured in Tarim desert, a systematically phytochemical investigation was carried out. The constituents were isolated by silica gel, Sephadex LH-20, MCI gel, ODS column chromatography, and semi-preparative HPLC. Their structures were determined on the basis of MS and NMR spectroscopic analyses, by chemical methods, and/or comparison with literature data. The anti-inflammatory activities of the isolates were evaluated for their inhibitory effects on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitric oxide (NO) production in BV-2 mouse microglial cells. Nine iridoids were isolated and identified as cistadesertoside A (1), cistanin (2), cistachlorin (3), 6-deoxycatalpol (4), gluroside (5), kankanoside A (6), ajugol (7), bartsioside (8), and 8-epi-loganic acid (9). Compound 9 exhibited potent inhibition on the NO production with an IC50 value being 5.2 μmol·L(-1), comparable to the positive control quercetin (4.3 μmol·L(-1)). Compound 1 was a new iridoid, and compounds 5, 6, and 8 were isolated from this species for the first time.


Subject(s)
Animals , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , Cistanche , Chemistry , Iridoids , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Mice , Plant Stems , Chemistry
20.
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 973-976, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-304788

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To explore whether the inhibitory effect of Genipin on uncoupling protein-2 (UCP-2) in mitochondria is involved in energy metabolism of androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells.</p><p><b>METHODS</b>PC3 prostate cancer cells were cultured and treated with Genipin at the concentrations of 40, 80, and 160 μmol/L for 48 hours. Then the proliferation of the cells was detected by MTT assay, the expression of UCP-2 mRNA determined by RT-PCR, and the content of intracellular pyruvic acid (PA) and the activity of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) in the mitochondria measured by visible spectrophotometry.</p><p><b>RESULTS</b>With the increased concentration of Genipin, the proliferative activity of the PC-3 cells, the expression level of UCP-2 mRNA, the content of intracellular PA and the activity of SDH in the cells were all decreased, namely, with the enhanced inhibitory effect of Genipin on UCP-2, a trend of reduction was observed in the proliferation of the cells, intracellular PA content, and SDH activity in the mitochondria.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>Genipin is involved in the energy metabolism of androgen-independent PC3 prostate cancer cells by reducing the content of intracellular PA and the activity of SDH in the mitochondria, which may be associated with its inhibitory effect on UCP-2.</p>


Subject(s)
Cell Line, Tumor , Energy Metabolism , Humans , Ion Channels , Metabolism , Iridoids , Pharmacology , Male , Mitochondria , Metabolism , Mitochondrial Proteins , Metabolism , Prostatic Neoplasms , Metabolism , Pyruvic Acid , Metabolism , RNA, Messenger , Succinate Dehydrogenase , Metabolism , Uncoupling Protein 2
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