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1.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Promoción de la Salud; 1 ed; Abr. 2022. 63 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1366178

ABSTRACT

El manual contiene el desarrollo breve de las sesiones de aprendizaje, que deberás leer y aprender cada una de ellas, logrando motivar y persuadir a la madre, padre o cuidador de las niñas y niños menores de 1 año al cuidado de su salud


Subject(s)
Nutritional Anemias , Iron Deficiency , National Development Plan , Iron Metabolism Disorders , Healthy City , Malnutrition , Disease Prevention , Health Promotion , House Calls , Anemia
2.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Dirección de Promoción de la Salud; 1 ed; Abr. 2022. 32 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1366180

ABSTRACT

Operativizar las visitas domiciliarias como estrategia, requiere de coordinadores debidamente capacitados para una adecuada planificación, organización y su ejecución; que incluye brindar el acompañamiento técnico y monitoreo a los Actores Sociales, quienes finalmente ejecutan las visitas domiciliarias/seguimientos telefónicos a nivel de los hogares. El presente manual autoformativo permite comprender la importancia del trabajo que realiza los coordinadores de visita domiciliaria, la problemática de la anemia, el rol de gestor y articulador para los procesos que involucra el cumplimiento de la Meta 4, a fin de contribuir de manera efectiva en la reducción sostenida de la anemia en el país


Subject(s)
Nutritional Anemias , Iron Deficiency , National Development Plan , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Iron Metabolism Disorders , Healthy City , Malnutrition , Disease Prevention , Health Promotion , House Calls , Anemia
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 118(3): 646-654, mar. 2022. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1364346

ABSTRACT

Resumo A deficiência de ferro (DF) ou ferropenia é uma importante comorbidade na insuficiência cardíaca com fração de ejeção reduzida (ICFER) estável, e muito prevalente tanto nos anêmicos como não anêmicos. A ferropenia na ICFER deve ser pesquisada por meio da coleta de saturação de transferrina e ferritina. Há dois tipos de ferropenia na IC: absoluta, em que as reservas de ferro estão depletadas; e funcional, onde o suprimento de ferro é inadequado apesar das reservas normais. A ferropenia está associada com pior classe funcional e maior risco de morte em pacientes com ICFER, e evidências científicas apontam melhora de sintomas e de qualidade de vida desses pacientes com tratamento com ferro parenteral na forma de carboximaltose férrica. O ferro exerce funções imprescindíveis como o transporte (hemoglobina) e armazenamento (mioglobina) de oxigênio, além de ser fundamental para o funcionamento das mitocôndrias, constituídas de proteínas à base de ferro, e local de geração de energia na cadeia respiratória pelo metabolismo oxidativo. A geração insuficiente e utilização anormal de ferro nas células musculares esquelética e cardíaca contribuem para a fisiopatologia da IC. A presente revisão tem o objetivo de aprofundar o conhecimento a respeito da fisiopatologia da ferropenia na ICFER, abordar as ferramentas disponíveis para o diagnóstico e discutir sobre a evidência científica existente de reposição de ferro.


Abstract Iron deficiency (ID) is an important comorbidity in heart failure with reduced ejection (HFrEF) and is highly prevalent in both anemic and non-anemic patients. In HFrEF, iron deficiency should be investigated by measurements of transferrin saturation and ferritin. There are two types of ID: absolute deficiency, with depletion of iron stores; and functional ID, where iron supply is not sufficient despite normal stores. ID is associated with worse functional class and higher risk of death in patients with HFrEF, and scientific evidence has indicated improvement of symptoms and quality of life of these patients with treatment with parenteral iron in the form of ferric carboxymaltose. Iron plays vital roles such as oxygen transportation (hemoglobin) and storage (myoblogin), and is crucial for adequate functioning of mitochondria, which are composed of iron-based proteins and the place of energy generation by oxidative metabolism at the electron transport chain. An insufficient generation and abnormal uptake of iron by skeletal and cardiac muscle cells contribute to the pathophysiology of HF. The present review aims to increase the knowledge of the pathophysiology of ID in HFrEF, and to address available tools for its diagnosis and current scientific evidence on iron replacement therapy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Iron Deficiency , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/complications , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/therapy , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Heart Failure/therapy , Quality of Life , Stroke Volume , Ferritins
4.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección de Promoción de la Salud. Instituto Nacional de Salud. Centro Nacional de Alimentación y Nutrición; 3 ed; Feb. 2022. 45 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU, INS-PERU | ID: biblio-1357740

ABSTRACT

Las recetas han sido elaboradas para niños menores de un año considerando la cantidad de alimento de origen animal que necesitan de acuerdo a la edad. Cabe indicar que dichas recetas fueron elaboradas tomando en cuenta un diagnóstico previo recogido en hogares y en mercados locales, a fin de conocer la disponibilidad, el acceso así como los atributos positivos y negativos que las madres asignan a los alimentos que incorporan en la alimentación infantil. Cada una de las recetas ha pasado por un proceso de validación a nivel en los hogares donde las madres han elaborado sus preparaciones, según los alimentos disponibles localmente y con gran valor nutricional, bajo la asesoría de los profesionales nutricionistas proponiendo mejorar o crear receta nuevas


Subject(s)
Iron Deficiency , Food, Formulated , Child , Iron Metabolism Disorders , Cooking , Cooking and Eating Utensils , Diet, Healthy , Health Promotion , Anemia , Menu Planning , Nutritive Value
5.
Arch. pediatr. Urug ; 92(2): e210, dic. 2021. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1278303

ABSTRACT

Antecedentes: la nutrición durante el embarazo impacta en la salud del recién nacido, con efectos a nivel epigenético determinando consecuencias neurológicas a largo plazo. Las necesidades de hierro durante el embarazo se estiman en 27 mg/día. El hierro hemo que se absorbe mejor se encuentra en la carne. La determinación de ferritina en sangre de cordón umbilical permite evaluar los depósitos de hierro alcanzados durante la etapa fetal. Sus niveles se asociaron con efectos a largo plazo sobre el desarrollo infantil. Objetivos: el objetivo de este estudio de carácter exploratorio es determinar la relación entre el consumo de carnes rojas durante el tercer trimestre de gestación y el nivel de ferritina en el cordón umbilical. Métodos: se realizó un estudio observacional descriptivo con datos recolectados prospectivamente durante un año en el Departamento de Neonatología del Centro Hospitalario Pereira Rossell (CHPR) en Montevideo, Uruguay. Un total de 188 pacientes cumplieron los criterios de inclusión. Se extrajo sangre del cordón umbilical después de un pinzamiento estricto del cordón pasado un minuto de vida. La ferritina se midió utilizando el método de quimioinmunofluorescencia. Se aplicó una encuesta nutricional materna (cualitativo-cuantitativa) que midió la frecuencia de consumo de alimentos con fuente de hierro y las cantidades aproximadas consumidas durante el último trimestre del embarazo. Esta encuesta se centró en el consumo materno de carne vacuna como principal fuente de hierro hemínico en Uruguay. Se analizó la relación entre estas variables. Resultados: el déficit latente de hierro (ferritina en el cordón umbilical <100 ng/ml) se asoció con un menor consumo de carne vacuna durante el embarazo. Valor p de Fisher: 0,0133, OR: 3,71, IC del 95% (1,25-11,05). Conclusiones: este estudio considera adecuada la evidencia que relaciona que los niveles bajos de consumo total de hierro y de carne vacuna durante el tercer trimestre de gestación determinarán un mayor riesgo de déficit latente de hierro y de ferritina medido en el cordón umbilical. Los niveles descendidos de ferritina en cordón umbilical se asocian con un mayor riesgo de efectos adversos a largo plazo sobre la mielinización y el desarrollo neurocognitivo.


Background: nutrition during pregnancy impacts the foetus and the newborn health, it has consequences at the epigenetic level and determines long-term neurological consequences. Iron requirements during pregnancy are estimated at 27 mg/day. Iron is blood absorption from is most efficient from beef. Umbilical cord blood ferritin levels can be used to assess iron deposits reached during the foetal stage. Ferritin levels are linked to the child's long-term development. Objective: this exploratory study's objective is to determine the relationship between beef consumption during the first quarter of pregnancy and ferritin levels in the umbilical cord. Methods: we carried out a descriptive, observational study with prospectively collected data for one-year at the Neonatology Department of the Pereira Rossell Hospital Center (CHPR) in Montevideo, Uruguay. A total of 188 patients met the inclusion criteria. We extracted umbilical cord blood after a strict cord clamping after one minute of life. Ferritin was measured using the chemoimmunofluorescence method. We carried out a maternal nutritional survey using a qualitative-quantitative method and measured the frequency and approximate quantity of iron source food consumption during the last quarter of pregnancy. This survey was focused on maternal beef consumption as the major heme iron source in Uruguay. We analyzed the relationship between these variables. Results: latent iron deficiency (ferritin in the umbilical cord <100 ng / ml) was associated with lower beef consumption during pregnancy. Fisher p-value: 0.0133, OR: 3.71, 95% CI (1.25 - 11.05). Conclusions: this study agrees with the evidence that shows that low levels of total iron and beef consumption during pregnancy determine an increased risk of latent iron deficiency and lower levels of ferritin in newborns, and therefore, greater risk of long-term adverse effects on myelination and neurocognitive development.


Contexto: a nutrição durante a gravidez tem impacto sobre a saúde do recém-nascido, com efeitos no nível epigenético, determinando consequências neurológicas a longo prazo. As necessidades de ferro durante a gravidez são estimadas em 27 mg / dia. O ferro heme de melhor absorção e aquele encontrado na carne vacuna. A determinação da ferritina no sangue do cordão umbilical permite avaliar os depósitos de ferro atingidos na fase fetal. Seus níveis foram associados a efeitos de longo prazo no desenvolvimento das crianças. Objetivos: o objetivo deste estudo exploratório é determinar a relação entre o consumo de carne vermelha durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação e o nível de ferritina no cordão umbilical. Métodos: foi realizado um estudo observacional descritivo com dados coletados prospectivamente durante um ano no Departamento de Neonatologia do Centro Hospitalar Pereira Rossell (CHPR) em Montevidéu, Uruguai. Um total de 188 pacientes cumpriram os critérios de inclusão. O sangue do cordão umbilical foi coletado após clampeamento estrito do cordão após um minuto de vida da criança. A ferritina foi medida pelo método de quimioimunofluorescência. Aplicamos um inquérito nutricional materno (qualitativo-quantitativo) que mediu a frequência de consumo de alimentos com fonte de ferro e as quantidades aproximadas consumidas durante o último trimestre da gravidez. Esta pesquisa enfocou o consumo materno de carne bovina como principal fonte de ferro heme no Uruguai. A relação entre essas variáveis foi analisada. Resultados: a deficiência latente de ferro (ferritina no cordão umbilical <100 mg / ml) foi associada ao menor consumo de carne bovina durante a gestação. Valor de p de Fisher: 0,0133, OR: 3,71, IC 95% (1,25-11,05). Conclusões: este estudo concorda com as evidências que relacionam que os baixos níveis de ferro total e consumo de carne bovina durante o terceiro trimestre de gestação determinam um maior risco de déficit de ferro latente e ferritina mensurado no cordão umbilical. A redução dos níveis de ferritina no cordão umbilical está associada a um risco aumentado de efeitos adversos de longo prazo na mielinização e no desenvolvimento neurocognitivo.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Hemoglobins/analysis , Parenteral Nutrition , Ferritins/blood , Fetal Blood , Red Meat , Pregnancy Trimester, Third , Uruguay , Iron Deficiency/complications , Child Development/physiology , Epidemiology, Descriptive
6.
Cuad. Hosp. Clín ; 62(1): 111-118, jun. 2021. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1284364

ABSTRACT

La importancia de la investigación científica referida a la definición de la anemia por deficiencia de hierro en altitud, se relaciona con los hallazgos de los estudios realizados y que permiten avanzar al conocimiento científico, en poblaciones vulnerables, siendo que están dirigidos a mejorar la salud pública e influir en políticas de salud. Se presenta el análisis y reflexión de una innovadora modalidad para nuestro medio de altitud, basada en la suplementación con hierro y folatos para definir anemia en la población estudiada, situación que difiere de investigaciones previas sobre el tema en nuestro contexto de altitud. Estos estudios han tenido un escrutinio intenso de parte de los revisores que han valorado las publicaciones sobre anemia ferropénica a gran altitud. La claridad de los diseños de ensayos clínicos formales y controlados aleatorizados, pertinentes en tiempo y necesarios por su importancia fueron realizados, en regiones de altitud de Bolivia. La falta de reconocimiento por terceros de este nivel de evidencia logrado, equivaldría a sustituirlos por estudios de ensayos no formales y no controlados, es decir seguir aplicando diseños de tipo observacional, con contrastación teórica y lógica que solo incrementan el estado de incertidumbre sobre el tema en Bolivia. El sumario presentado de la historia sobre la anemia ferropénica en regiones de altitud en Bolivia nos permite reflexiones importantes, a saber: 1. Es importante resaltar, como claro ejemplo, que la observación simple puede llevar a la incertidumbre y lo costoso de sus consecuencias futuras por la persistencia de la anemia ferropénica en poblaciones de altitud, más aún si se mantiene el posible manejo de prueba y error en resultados difundidos. 2. Se demuestra la necesidad de los controles en la investigación científica, y finalmente 3. Los ensayos clínicos controlados aleatorizados son la mejor fuente de evidencia confiable.


The importance of scientific research related to the definition of iron deficiency anemia at altitude is related to the findings of the studies carried out and that allow advancing scientific knowledge, in vulnerable populations, being that they are aimed at improving public health and influence health policies. The analysis and reflection of an innovative modality for our altitude environment is presented, based on supplementation with iron and folates to define anemia in the studied population, a situation that differs from previous research on the subject in our altitude context. These studies have received intense scrutiny from reviewers who have evaluated the publications on high altitude iron deficiency anemia. The clarity of the designs of formal and randomized controlled clinical trials, pertinent in time and necessary due to their importance, were carried out in highland regions of Bolivia. The lack of recognition by third parties of this level of evidence achieved, would be equivalent to replacing them with studies of non-formal and uncontrolled trials, that is, to continue applying observational designs, with theoretical and logical contrast that only increase the state of uncertainty on the subject in Bolivia. The summary presented of the history of iron deficiency anemia in high-altitude regions of Bolivia allows us important reflections, namely: 1. It is important to highlight, as a clear example, that simple observation can lead to uncertainty and the cost of its future consequences due to the persistence of iron deficiency anemia in high altitude populations, even more so if the possible trial and error management is maintained in disseminated results. 2. The need for controls in scientific research is demonstrated, and finally 3. Randomized controlled clinical trials are the best source of reliable evidence.


Subject(s)
Iron Deficiency , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Altitude , Anemia
7.
Prensa méd. argent ; 107(2): 61-65, 20210000. tab
Article in English | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1361274

ABSTRACT

Fundamento: los estudios sugieren la presencia de deficiencia de hierro en niños obesos, lo que conduciría a una mayor incidencia de anemia en este grupo. Objetivo: evaluar la prevalencia de anemia entre niños con sobrepeso y obesidad de dos niveles socioeconómicos y dos regiones diferentes en Brasil. Métodos: se obtuvieron datos de hemoglobina y antropometría de 598 niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad de dos servicios especializados en la atención de estos niños. Resultados: la prevalencia global de anemia fue del 5,8% y el nivel medio de hemoglobina fue de 13,2 mg / dL, sin diferencia estadística para los dos indicadores según sobrepeso u obesidad y grupo de edad. Sin embargo, la hemoglobina media fue mayor entre los varones y, en el servicio con atención prestada a una población de menor nivel socioeconómico, la prevalencia de anemia fue mayor. Conclusión: la prevalencia de anemia encontrada en niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso y obesidad fue bastante baja, siendo mayor en la población más pobre. Para los niños y adolescentes con sobrepeso, la anemia parece estar más relacionada con el nivel socioeconómico que con la presencia de exceso de peso.


Background: studies suggest the presence of iron deficiency among obese children, which would lead to a higher incidence of anemia in this group. Aim: to assess the prevalence of anemia among overweight and obese children from two socioeconomic levels and two different regions in Brazil. Methods: hemoglobin and anthropometric data on 598 overweight and obese children and adolescents were obtained from two services specialized in the care of these children. Results: the overall prevalence of anemia was 5.8% and mean hemoglobin level was 13.2 mg/dL, with no statistical difference for the two indicators according to overweight or obesity and age group. However, the mean hemoglobin was higher among boys and, in the service with care provided to a population of lower socioeconomic status, the prevalence of anemia was higher. Conclusion: the prevalence of anemia found among overweight and obese children and adolescents was quite low, being higher in the poorest population. For overweight children and adolescents, anemia seems to be more related to socioeconomic status than to the presence of excess weight.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Adolescent , Socioeconomic Factors , Iron Deficiency , Poverty Areas , Prevalence , Overweight/pathology , Pediatric Obesity/pathology , Anemia/pathology
8.
Lima; Perú. Ministerio de Salud. Dirección General de Intervenciones Estratégicas en Salud Pública. Unidad Funcional de Alimentación y Nutrición Saludable; 1 ed; Feb. 2021. 49 p. ilus.
Monography in Spanish | MINSAPERU, LILACS, LIPECS, MINSAPERU | ID: biblio-1370205

ABSTRACT

La presente publicación describe las instrucciones para el registro y codificación de las actividades de la estrategia sanitaria nacional de atención a personas afectadas por la anemia por deficiencia de hierro y por trastornos de la conducta alimentaria. El registro de los datos generales se sigue las indicaciones pertinentes y no presenta características especiales. Asimismo, incluye los ítems diagnóstico motivo de consulta, tipo de diagnóstico y Lab que presentan algunas particularidades


Subject(s)
Primary Health Care , Iron Deficiency , Information Systems , Feeding and Eating Disorders , International Classification of Diseases , Comprehensive Health Care , Clinical Coding , Anemia
9.
Rev. Nutr. (Online) ; 34: e200297, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1351560

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective Iron deficiency and vitamin A deficiency are two of the main micronutrient deficiencies. Both micronutrients are essential for human life and children's development. This study aimed to investigate the effects of vitamin A deficiency on ferritin and transferrin receptors' expression and its relationship with iron deficiency. Methods Five diets with different vitamin A-to-iron ratios were given to thirty five 21-day-old male Wistar rats (separated in groups of seven animals each). The animals received the diet for six weeks before being euthanized. Serum iron and retinol levels were measured as biochemical parameters. Their duodenums, spleens, and livers were analyzed for the expression of ferritin and transferrin receptors by Western Blotting. Results Regarding biochemical parameters, the results show that when both vitamin A and iron are insufficient, the serum iron content (74.74µg/dL) is significantly lower than the control group (255.86µg/dL). The results also show that vitamin A deficiency does not influence the expression of the transferrin receptor, but only of the ferritin one. Conclusion Vitamin A deficiency regulates the expression of ferritin in young male Wistar rats.


RESUMO Objetivo A deficiência de ferro e de vitamina A são duas das principais deficiências de micronutrientes, sendo que ambos são essenciais para a vida humana e o desenvolvimento das crianças. O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da deficiência de vitamina A na expressão de ferritina e o receptor de transferrina e sua relação com a deficiência de ferro. Métodos Cinco dietas com diferentes proporções de vitamina A para ferro foram administradas a 35 ratos Wistar machos de 21 dias de vida (sete animais por grupo). Os animais receberam a dieta por seis semanas antes de serem eutanasiados. Os níveis séricos de ferro e retinol foram medidos como parâmetros bioquímicos. Duodeno, baço e fígado foram analisados quanto à expressão de ferritina e o receptor de transferrina por Western Blotting. Resultados Em relação aos parâmetros bioquímicos, os resultados mostram que quando a vitamina A e o ferro são insuficientes, o teor de ferro sérico (74.74µg/dL) é significativamente menor do que no grupo controle (255.86µg/dL). Os resultados também mostram que a deficiência de vitamina A não influencia a expressão do receptor da transferrina, mas da ferritina. Conclusão A deficiência de vitamina A regula a expressão de ferritina em ratos Wistar machos jovens.


Subject(s)
Animals , Guinea Pigs , Rats , Vitamin A Deficiency , Iron Deficiency , Receptors, Transferrin , Ferritins , Rats, Wistar , Diet
10.
Braz. dent. sci ; 24(2): 1-6, 2021. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1178382

ABSTRACT

Objective: Early childhood caries is the presence of dental caries in a child upto seventy one months of age. Saliva plays a major role in maintaining good oral health. The composition of saliva acts as a marker for oral health and the salivary proteins help in modulating the oral microflora in the oral cavity. Some salivary biomarkers help in detecting caries risk and can also predict their prognosis. Ferritin is one of the major biomarkers present in the saliva which acts as an iron binding protein and also as a monitoring tool in children suffering from iron deficiency. The ferritin levels are in increased in serum as well as in saliva to balance the deficiency of iron in the body. Material and methods: Sixty children were selected for the study aged between three to six years. The saliva sample was collected using standard spit method in a sterile container and Ferritin was tested in the samples by Chemiluminescence microparticle immunoassay(CMIA). Results: Salivary ferritin was found to be higher in the saliva of children with early childhood caries(mean value= 5.867) than in children without early childhood caries(mean value= 3.412). Conclusion: A direct association is present between salivary ferritin levels and dental caries. Increased level of ferritin is observed in children with Early childhood caries. Clinical relevance: The level of salivary ferritin is found to be raised in the present study in children with Early childhood caries. The exact mechanism is although not known it can be assumed that the children with early childhood caries might have deficiency of iron which has led to the increased amount of salivary ferritin in the saliva. (AU)


Objetivo: A cárie precoce é definida como a presença de cárie dentária em uma criança de até setenta e um meses de idade. A saliva desempenha um papel importante na manutenção de uma boa saúde bucal. A composição da saliva atua como um marcador para a saúde bucal e as proteínas salivares auxiliam na modulação da microflora oral na cavidade oral. Alguns biomarcadores salivares ajudam a detectar o risco de cárie e também podem prever seu prognóstico. A ferritina é um dos principais biomarcadores presentes na saliva, que atua como uma proteína ligadora de ferro e também como uma ferramenta de monitoramento em crianças com deficiência de ferro. Os níveis de ferritina aumentam tanto no soro quanto na saliva para equilibrar a deficiência de ferro no corpo. Material e Métodos: foram selecionadas para o estudo 60 crianças com idades entre três e seis anos. A amostra de saliva foi coletada pelo método padrão de cuspir em um recipiente estéril e a ferritina foi testada nas amostras através de um imunoensaio de micropartículas por quimioluminescência (CMIA). Resultados: A ferritina salivar foi maior na saliva de crianças com cárie na primeira infância (valor médio = 5,867) do que em crianças sem cárie na primeira infância (valor médio = 3,412). Conclusão: Existe uma associação direta entre os níveis de ferritina salivar e a cárie dentária. Nível elevado de ferritina é observado em crianças com cárie na primeira infância. Relevância clínica: O nível de ferritina salivar está elevado no presente estudo em crianças com cárie na primeira infância. Embora o mecanismo exato seja desconhecido, pode-se presumir que crianças com cárie na primeira infância podem ter deficiência de ferro, o que levou a um aumento na quantidade de ferritina salivar na saliva. (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Child, Preschool , Child , Saliva , Salivary Proteins and Peptides , Iron Deficiency , Dental Caries , Ferritins
11.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(6): 411-417, dic 2020. tab, ilus
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1146074

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La anemia por deficiencia de hierro en hemodiálisis es frecuente. Para su detección se utiliza la ferritina sérica y la saturación de transferrina (ST). El equivalente de hemoglobina reticulocitaria (RET-He) es un análisis que no se modifica en estados inflamatorios y refleja directamente el hierro disponible en médula ósea.Objetivo. Explorar la capacidad diagnóstica de deficiencia absoluta de hierro del RET-He y evaluar su correlación con marcadores tradicionales de ferropenia.Población y métodos. Estudio retrospectivo que comparó RET-He con ferritina y ST en niños en hemodiálisis atendidos en el Hospital Garrahan entre julio de 2016 y julio de 2019. Resultados. En 164 observaciones realizadas en 40 niños, se encontró correlación positiva débil entre hemoglobina y RET-He (r 0,35, p < 0,001), positiva significativa entre ST y RET-He (r 0,52, p < 0,001), negativa baja entre hemoglobina y ferritina (r -0,19, p 0,02) y ausencia de correlación entre hemoglobina y ST (r 0,05, p 0,5). El 50 % presentaba anemia; la ferropénica fue por marcadores tradicionales en el 13 % y por RET-He en el 44 %. El RET-He mostró sensibilidad del 90,9 % (IC 95: 57,1-99,5 %), especificidad del 74,5 % (IC 95: 66,7-81 %), valor predictivo negativo del 99,1 % (IC 95: 94,5-99,9 %) y positivo del 20,4 % (IC 95: 10,7-34,7 %) para detectar anemia ferropénica con valor de corte de 29 picogramos.Conclusiones. Pese a su capacidad limitada, el RET-He como biomarcador de deficiencia de hierro aumenta la detección de anemia ferropénica en niños en hemodiálisis


Introduction. Iron-deficiency anemia is common in hemodialysis patients. Serum ferritin and transferrin saturation (TS) are used for its detection. The reticulocyte hemoglobin equivalent (RET-He) is a marker that is not altered by inflammatory conditions and directly reflects iron availability in the bone marrow.Objective. To explore the diagnostic capability of RET-He to detect absolute iron deficiency and assess its correlation with traditional markers of iron deficiency.Population and methods. Retrospective study comparing RET-He with ferritin and TS in children on hemodialysis seen at Hospital Garrahan between July 2016 and July 2019.Results. In 164 observations carried out in 40 children, a weak positive correlation was found between hemoglobin and RET-He (r = 0.35, p < 0.001), a significant positive correlation between TS and RET-He (r = 0.52, p < 0.001), a low negative correlation between hemoglobin and ferritin (r = -0.19, p = 0.02), and a lack of correlation between hemoglobin and TS (r = 0.05, p = 0.5). Anemia was observed in 50 %; iron-deficiency anemia was detected by traditional markers in 13 % and by RET-He in 44 %. RET-He showed a sensitivity of 90.9 % (95 % CI: 57.1-99.5 %), a specificity of 74.5 % (95 % CI: 66.7-81 %), a negative predictive value of 99.1 % (95 % CI: 94.5-99.9 %), and a positive predictive value of 20.4 % (95 % CI: 10.7-34.7 %) to detect iron-deficiency anemia with a cut-off value of 29 pg.Conclusions. Despite its limited capability, the use of RET-He as a biomarker of iron deficiency increases the detection of iron-deficiency anemia in children on hemodialysis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Adolescent , Iron Deficiency , Renal Dialysis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Reticulocytes/chemistry , Hemoglobins/analysis , Retrospective Studies , Ferritins/blood
13.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 156-158, jun. 2020.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1102712

Subject(s)
Humans , Iron Deficiency , Anemia
14.
Arch. argent. pediatr ; 118(3): 187-: I-192, I, jun. 2020. tab
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, BINACIS | ID: biblio-1104195

ABSTRACT

Introducción. La anemia en los primeros años de vida produce graves consecuencias psicomotoras, sociales y económicas. El objetivo fue determinar su prevalencia, causas y factores de riesgo y preventivos en lactantes de la ciudad de Necochea.Población y métodos. Estudio observacional, descriptivo y transversal. Se evaluaron lactantes sanos de 6 a 12 meses, que concurrieron espontáneamente por control de salud al sistema público y/o privado del distrito de Necochea durante el año 2017. Se solicitó consentimiento informado; se realizó una encuesta social y nutricional, evaluación del aporte de hierro de la dieta y medicamentoso, examen físico y pruebas de laboratorio.Resultados. Se incluyeron 239 participantes; el 50,6 % presentaban anemia y el 47,3 %, ferropenia. La media y mediana de hemoglobina coincidieron en 10,9 g/dl, (media de referencia 12,5 mg/dl). De los anémicos, el 54,4 % presentaba ferropenia; el 61,7 % no recibía aporte adecuado de hierro; el 44,3 % no había recibido hierro suplementario el día previo. De este porcentaje, el 24,5 % no había recibido indicación médica y, en el 9,1 %, no había suplemento en el centro de atención primaria de salud u hospital. El aporte adecuado de hierro resultó un factor protector para ferropenia (riesgo relativo ­RR­ 0,78 [intervalo de confianza ­IC­ del 95 %: 0,6-0,9]), y no fue así para la aparición de anemia (RR 1,08; [IC95%: 0,8-1,3]).Conclusiones. En la ciudad de Necochea, anemia y ferropenia son entidades con elevada prevalencia; el aporte de hierro dietario es pobre y el suplemento está subindicado.


Introduction. Anemia in the first years of life leads to severe psychomotor, social, and financial effects. The objective of this study was to determine its prevalence, causes, and risk and preventive factors among infants in the city of Necochea.Population and methods. Observational, descriptive, and cross-sectional study. Healthy infants aged 6-12 months who attended a spontaneous health checkup in a public and/or private facility in the district of Necochea during 2017 were assessed. An informed consent was obtained; a social and nutrition survey was administered; dietary and medicinal iron intake was assessed; and a physical examination and lab tests were done.Results. A total of 239 participants were included; 50.6 % had anemia and 47.3 %, iron deficiency. Mean and median hemoglobin levels were both 10.9 g/dL, (reference mean: 12.5 mg/dL). Among anemia patients, 54.4 % had iron deficiency; iron intake was inadequate in 61.7 %; and 44.3 % had not received iron supplementation the previous day. Among these, 24.5 % had not received a medical indication for it, and 9.1 % did not find iron supplementation available at their primary health care center or hospital. An adequate iron intake was a protective factor against iron deficiency (relative risk [RR]: 0.78 [95 % confidence interval {CI}: 0.6-0.9]), but not against the development of anemia (RR: 1.08; [95 % CI: 0.8-1.3]).Conclusions. In the city of Necochea, anemia and iron deficiency are highly prevalent conditions; dietary iron intake is insufficient and supplementation is under-prescribed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Iron Deficiency , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Cross-Sectional Studies , Iron, Dietary , Anemia/diagnosis , Iron/therapeutic use
15.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(4): 259-273, dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1103673

ABSTRACT

La crisis por COVID-19 (SARS-CoV-2) puede convertirse en una catástrofe alimentaria para Latinoamérica, aumentando las personas que padecen hambre de 135 a 265 millones, especialmente en Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Haití y El Salvador, que ya enfrentaban crisis económicas y sanitarias. Este manuscrito presenta la posición de un grupo de expertos latinoamericanos sobre las recomendaciones de consumo y/o suplementación con vitamina A, C, D, zinc, hierro, folatos y micronutrientes múltiples, en contextos de desnutrición, para grupos vulnerables: mujeres embarazadas y lactantes, niñas y niños menores de 5 años y adultos mayores. Las recomendaciones buscan disminuir el impacto potencial que tendrá COVID-19 en el estado nutricional, durante la pandemia. La posición surge de la discusión de dichos expertos con base a la revisión de evidencia científica actual para estos grupos vulnerables. Está dirigida a tomadores de decisiones, encargados de políticas públicas, personal de salud y organismos de la sociedad civil. Después de la lactancia materna y una dieta suficiente en cantidad y calidad, la suplementación con los micronutrientes presentados, puede contribuir a prevenir y tratar enfermedades virales, reforzar el sistema inmune y reducir complicaciones. La lactancia materna con medidas de higiene respiratoria, el suministro de múltiples micronutrientes en polvo para niños desde los 6 meses hasta los 5 años y el aporte de hierro y folatos o micronutrientes múltiples para la embarazada, son estrategias comprobadas y eficaces que deben seguirse implementando en tiempos de COVID-19. Para los adultos mayores la suplementación con vitamina C, D y zinc puede estar indicada(AU)


The COVID-19 crisis (SARS-CoV-2) might transform into a food catastrophe in Latin America and would increase the number of people suffering from hunger from 135 to 265 million, particularly in Venezuela, Guatemala, Honduras, Haiti and El Salvador, already facing economic and health crises. This manuscript presents the position of a group of Latin American experts in nutrition for establishing the recommendations for consumption and / or supplementation with vitamin A, C, D, zinc, iron, folates and multiple micronutrients, in undernutrition contexts, for vulnerable population of pregnant and lactating women, children under 5 years and the elderly. The recommendations seek to decrease the potential impact that COVID-19 will have on nutritional status during the pandemic. The position arises from the discussion of the experts based on the review of current scientific evidence for these vulnerable groups. It aims to reach stakeholders, public policy makers, health personnel and civil society organizations. Only after breastfeeding and a sufficient diet in terms of quantity and quality, a supplementation with the micronutrients mentioned above can help prevent and treat viral diseases, strengthen the immune system and even reduce complications. Breastfeeding with respiratory hygiene measures, the provision of multiple micronutrients powders for children from 6 moths to 5 years of age and the supply of iron and folates or multiple micronutrients tablets for pregnant women are proven and effective strategies that must continue to be implemented during COVID-19 pandemic. For older adults, supplementation with vitamin C, D and zinc might be indicated(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Pregnancy , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Child , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Respiratory Tract Infections , Nutrition for Vulnerable Groups , Hunger , Micronutrients , COVID-19/epidemiology , Immune System , Avitaminosis , Iron Deficiency , Dietary Supplements , Deficiency Diseases , Malnutrition , Pandemics , Latin America
16.
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BNUY, UY-BNMED | ID: biblio-1088700

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de hierro es la causa más frecuente de anemia en pediatría. Su detección precoz, tratamiento correcto y profilaxis adecuada, constituyen una prioridad sanitaria en nuestro país. Objetivo: Describir el screening de hemoglobina realizado en lactantes con edades comprendidas entre 8 y 12 meses, usuarios de un centro de atención pediátrico de Montevideo, en el período comprendido entre 2 de mayo y 31 de octubre de 2015 y evaluar factores de riesgo de anemia ferropénica presentes. Se revisaron sus historias clínicas, consignando datos epidemiológicos, antecedentes perinatales, alimentación recibida y si recibieron suplementación con hierro adecuada. Se registró si se había realizado la medición de hemoglobina por punción digital y el valor medido. Se comparó la prevalencia de factores de riesgo entre niños con y sin anemia. En el período evaluado fueron asistidos 62 niños: 3 pretérminos de 34 semanas o menos; 15 con peso al nacer menor a 3000 gramos; 42 con lactancia materna exclusiva durante 6 meses; 54 con alimentación complementaria adecuada; 45 con suplementación de hierro. Se realizó la medición de hemoglobina por punción digital a 55 niños. Tenían anemia 28 niños (82 % leve). No se encontró asociación de padecer anemia con los factores de riesgo estudiados excepto el cumplimiento de la profilaxis con suplemento de hierro. Concluimos que la prevalencia de anemia en este grupo fue elevada y que la suplementación con hierro es importante para su prevención.


Iron deficiency is the most frequent cause of anemia in pediatrics. Its early detection, correct treatment and adequate prophylaxis, constitute a health priority in our country. Objective: Describe the hemoglobin screening performed in infants aged between 8 and 12 months, users of a pediatric care center from Montevideo, in the period covered between May 2 and October 31, 2015 and evaluate factors of Risk of iron deficiency anemia present. Their clinical histories were reviewed, including epidemiological data, perinatal records, and diet received and if they received adequate iron supplementation. It was recorded if the hemoglobin measurement had been performed by digital puncture and the measured value. The prevalence of risk factors among children with and without anemia was compared. In the evaluated period, 62 children were assisted: 3 preterm subjects of 34 weeks or less; 15 birth weight less than 3,000 grams; 42 exclusive breastfeeding for 6 months; 54 adequate complementary feeding; 45 iron supplementation. The hemoglobin was measured by digital puncture to 55 children. 28 of them had anemia (82 % mild). No association of anemia was found with the risk factors studied except compliance with prophylaxis with iron supplementation. We conclude that the prevalence of anemia in this group was high and that iron supplementation is important for its prevention.


A deficiência de ferro é a causa mais frequente de anemia em pediatria. Sua detecção precoce, tratamento correto e profilaxia adequada constituem uma prioridade de saúde em nosso país. O objetivo do presente trabalho é descrever a prevalência de anemia em um centro de atendimento de primeiro nível e os fatores de risco associados. Foi realizado um estudo observacional, descritivo, retrospectivo, incluindo crianças entre 8 e 12 meses de idade, que receberam controle sanitário entre maio e outubro de 2015. Suas histórias clínicas foram revisadas, incluindo dados epidemiológicos, registros perinatais e dieta recebida. e se receberam suplementação adequada de ferro. Foi registrado se a medição de hemoglobina foi realizada por punção digital e o valor medido. A prevalência de fatores de risco entre crianças com e sem anemia foi comparada. No período avaliado, 62 crianças foram atendidas: 3 prematuros de 34 semanas ou menos; 15 peso ao nascer inferior a 3000 g; 42 amamentação exclusiva por 6 meses; 54 alimentação complementar adequada; 45 suplementação de ferro. A hemoglobina foi medida por punção digital para 55 crianças. Eles tiveram 28 crianças anemia (82 % leve). Não foi encontrada associação de anemia com os fatores de risco estudados, exceto a adesão à profilaxia com suplementação de ferro. Conclui-se que a prevalência de anemia nesse grupo foi alta e que a suplementação de ferro é importante para sua prevenção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Hemoglobins/analysis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diagnosis , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Dietary Supplements , Iron/therapeutic use , Iron Deficiency/diagnosis , Epidemiology, Descriptive , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/epidemiology
17.
Odovtos (En línea) ; 21(3): 33-43, Sep.-Dec. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1091490

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: La estomatitis aftosa recurrente (EAR) es la enfermedad ulcerativa más común que afecta la mucosa oral no queratinizada. La etiología aún se desconoce, pero se han propuesto varios factores locales y sistémicos como agentes causales. Descripción del caso: se informa tres pacientes con presencia de EAR asociada a deficiencias nutricionales, debidas a dietas de restricción alimentaria. El primer caso, una mujer de 19 años con deficiencia de hierro, refirió tomar té verde a diario y consumir poca cantidad de carbohidratos, grasas y carne. El segundo caso, un hombre de 32 años con deficiencia de hierro y vitamina B12 asociada a dieta tipo vegana, aunque a veces si consumía carne. El tercer caso, hombre de 50 años, vegano y exfumador desde hace un año, presentó deficiencia de hierro, vitamina B12 y ácido fólico. En los tres casos un detallado interrogatorio, examen clínico y análisis sanguíneo completo, permitió establecer un adecuado diagnóstico, manejo odontológico y derivación con un nutricionista, con el fin de tratar la patología de base y no sólo brindarles un tratamiento sintomático de las lesiones. Discusión: Ante un cuadro de EAR es recomendable realizar un análisis que incluya hemograma, ácido fólico, hierro y vitamina B12, para descartar posibles causas sistémicas y eventualmente tratarlas. El manejo clínico tiene como objetivo mejorar la función del paciente y la calidad de vida mediante terapias tópicas y sistémicas; sin embargo, es fundamental identificar y controlar los factores causales que contribuyen; así como, la exclusión o tratamiento de la enfermedad sistémica subyacente.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Recurrent aphthous stomatitis (RAS) is the most common ulcerative disease that affects the non-keratinized oral mucosa. The etiology is still unknown, but several local and systemic factors have been proposed as causal agents. Case description: three patients are reported with RAS associated with nutritional deficiencies, due to dietary restriction diets. The first case, a 19-year- old woman with iron deficiency, reported taking green tea daily and consuming a small amount of carbohydrates, fats and meat. The second case, a 32-year-old man with iron deficiency and vitamin B12 associated with vegan diet, although sometimes if he consumed meat. The third case, man of 50 years, vegan and ex-smoker for a year, presented deficiency of iron, vitamin B12 and folic acid. In all three cases a detailed questioning, clinical examination and complete blood analysis allowed to establish an adequate diagnosis, dental management and referral with a nutritionist, in order to treat the underlying pathology and not only provide a symptomatic treatment of the injuries. Discussion: In the setting of RAS, it is advisable to perform an analysis that includes a blood count, folic acid, iron and vitamin B12, to rule out possible systemic causes and eventually treat them. Clinical management aims to improve patient function and quality of life through topical and systemic therapies; however, it is essential to identify and control the causal factors that contribute; as well as, the exclusion or treatment of the underlying systemic disease.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Middle Aged , Stomatitis, Aphthous/complications , Vitamin B 12 Deficiency/drug therapy , Iron Deficiency/drug therapy , Deficiency Diseases , Folic Acid Deficiency/drug therapy
19.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 69(4): 221-232, dic. 2019. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, LIVECS | ID: biblio-1103628

ABSTRACT

La inadecuación de micronutrientes es frecuente en los países en vías de desarrollo. En Costa Rica existe poca información acerca de la ingesta de micronutrientes y del impacto de los programas de fortificación obligatoria de alimentos. El objetivo de este estudio fue evaluar la ingesta de vitaminas y minerales y el aporte de la fortificación de alimentos a la ingesta total de micronutrientes en la población urbana costarricense. Se analizó el consumo de alimentos en una muestra de la población urbana costarricense, participantes del Estudio Latinoamericano de Nutrición y Salud (ELANS). El riesgo de ingesta inadecuada se estimó según sexo y grupo de edad, utilizando el método de punto de corte del Requerimiento Medio Estimado (EAR). Para el hierro, se utilizó el método de aproximación probabilística. Más del 85% de la muestra presentó riesgo de ingesta inadecuada para vitamina E, calcio y vitamina D. Una menor prevalencia de riesgo de ingesta inadecuada se presentó para la niacina, tiamina, folatos, hierro y selenio. La fortificación de alimentos tiene un efecto notorio en la ingesta de micronutrientes, especialmente de hierro, niacina, tiamina y folatos. La ingesta de calcio, vitamina D y vitamina E es preocupantemente inadecuada, siendo las mujeres y las personas mayores de 50 años los grupos más afectados. Resulta fundamental el establecimiento de programas y políticas públicas para asegurar el cumplimiento del requerimiento establecido para los diferentes micronutrientes(AU)


Micronutrient deficiencies are still very common in developing countries. In Costa Rica there is little information on micronutrients intake and the impact of food fortification.This study aimed to determine the contribution of food fortification to the total intake, and to estimate the risk of inadequate intake of vitamins and minerals in an urban Costa Rican population. As a part of the Latin American Nutrition and Health Study, we analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of 798 urban residents from Costa Rica (15-65 years old) whom provided two 24-h dietary recalls. The prevalence of inadequate micronutrient intake was estimated according to the EAR cut-point method. Iron was analyze using the probability approach. We observed a 100% of the sample are at risk of inadequate intake of vitamin D, and similar percentages were obtained for calcium and vitamin E, ranging from 92.9 to 100% and 85.5 to 99.2% respectively. A lower risk of inadequate intake was observed for niacin, thiamin, folate, iron and selenium. Food fortificationmakes an important contribution to folate, thiamin, iron and niacin intake. Despite the efforts that have been made to ensure adequate micronutrient intake in Costa Rica, the intake of calcium, vitamin D and vitamin E is still very low, especially among women and people over 50 are the most affected. Based on the above, it is recommended to promote a healthy diet through nutritional education as part of public health policies, in order to facilitates compliance to nutritional requirement(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Food, Fortified , Eating , Micronutrients , Deficiency Diseases , Avitaminosis , Iron Deficiency , Zinc Deficiency , Diet, Healthy , Magnesium Deficiency
20.
Rev. colomb. nefrol. (En línea) ; 6(2): 95-102, jul.-dic. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1093033

ABSTRACT

Resumen Introducción: la anemia y ferropenia son condiciones muy prevalentes en hemodiálisis asociadas al incremento en la morbimortalidad. Objetivo: describir las características de la ferropenia y anemia de pacientes con enfermedad renal terminal en hemodiálisis, y analizar los parámetros del hemograma para predecir la deficiencia de hierro en ellos. Materiales y métodos: estudio descriptivo transversal realizado en la unidad de hemodiálisis del Hospital de Especialidades de las Fuerzas Armadas N°1 y CLINEF Norte, Quito, Ecuador, durante diciembre de 2018 y enero de 2019. El análisis se basó en la comparación de dos grupos, pacientes ferropénicos y no ferropénicos. Resultados: se incluyeron 268 pacientes con edad promedio de 16 y 59 años; 89 pacientes (33,21 %) fueron ferropénicos, sin embargo presentaron parámetros hematimétricos normales en la mayoría de ellos. Encontramos además que el 80,22 % de los pacientes incluidos eran anémicos, con poca frecuencia de microcitosis e hipocromía. Entre ellos, el 33,21 % fueron ferropénicos, siendo la hemoglobina un pobre marcador de ferropenia. Adicionalmente, para predecir ferropenia, y de no contar con ferritina o saturación de transferrina, encontramos útil la hemoglobina corpuscular media, el volumen corpuscular medio, el ancho de distribución eritrocitaria y el índice de Srivastava, sin embargo el valor predictivo se incrementó al incluir la sideremia como en nuestro modelo propuesto. Conclusiones: dada la alta frecuencia de anemia sin hipocromía o microcitosis en los pacientes con enfermedad renal terminal en hemodiálisis, incluso en ferropenia, es fundamental la evaluación regular del metabolismo férrico, así como el análisis del hemograma con enfoque en el paciente dialítico.


Abstract Introduction: Anemia and iron deficiency are very prevalent conditions in hemodialysis and have been associated with an increase in morbidity and mortality. Objective: Describe the characteristics of iron deficiency and anemia in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, and analyze the parameters of the blood count to predict iron deficiency in them. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study carried out in the hemodialysis unit of the Specialties Hospital of the Armed Forces No. 1 and CLINEF Norte, Quito, Ecuador, during December 2018 and January 2019. The analysis was based on the comparison of two groups, ferropenic and non-ferropenic patients. Results: We included 268 patients with an average age of 59.16 years; 89 patients (33.21%) were ferropenic. However, they presented normal hematimetric parameters in most of them. We also found that 80.22% of the patients included were anemic, with little frequency of microcytosis and hypochromia. Among them, 33.21% were ferropenic, being hemoglobin a poor marker of iron deficiency. Additionally, to predict ferropenia, and not to have ferritin or transferrin saturation, we find especially useful the mean corpuscular hemoglobin, mean corpuscular volume, erythrocyte distribution width, and Srivastava index, however the predictive value increases when including the syderemia as in our proposed model. Conclusions: Given the high frequency of anemia without hypochromia or microcytosis in patients with end-stage renal disease on hemodialysis, even in iron deficiency, regular evaluation of ferric metabolism is essential, as well as the analysis of the blood count with a focus on the dialysis patient.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Iron Deficiency , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency, Chronic , Ecuador , Anemia
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