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1.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 114: e190350, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1101270

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND Iron homeostasis contribute for the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. OBJECTIVES We assessed the iron intake pattern in antiretroviral naïve Brazilian men living with HIV correlating with clinical and nutritional parameters. METHODS The iron consumption mean was estimated according to a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ), and a 3-day food record (3dFR) submitted to the patients. HIV viral load, CD4+ T cell counts, serum iron, haematological and anthropometrics parameters were recorded. FINDINGS Fifty-one HIV-infected adult men naïve for antiretroviral therapy (ART) were enrolled. The mean age of participants was 35 (SEM ± 1.28) years old, with mean time of HIV-1 infection of 1.78 (0-16.36, min-max) years. Majority (41.18%) had complete secondary, and 21.57% had tertiary educational level. The income was around 1x (54.90%) to 2x (41.18%) minimum wage. Fifty-four percent showed normal weight, while 40% were overweight. The patients showed normal mean values of haematological parameters, and mean serum iron was 14.40 µM (SEM ± 0.83). The FFQ showed moderate correlation with the 3dFR (ρ = 0.5436, p = 0.0009), and the mean values of iron intake were 10.55(± 0.92) mg/day, recorded by FFQ, and 15.75(± 1.51) mg/day, recorded by 3dFR. The iron intake, recorded by FFQ, negatively correlated with serum iron (ρ = -0.3448, p = 0.0132), and did not have influence in the CD4+ T cell counts [e.B 0.99 (0.97-1.01, 95% confidence interval (CI), p = 0.2]. However, the iron intake showed a positive effect in HIV viral load [e.B 1.12 (1.02-1.25, 95%CI), p < 0.01]. MAIN CONCLUSIONS This study draws attention for the importance of iron intake nutritional counseling in people living with HIV. However, more studies are required to clarify the association between high iron intake and HIV infection and outcome.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , HIV Infections/virology , Iron, Dietary/adverse effects , Viral Load/drug effects , Anti-Retroviral Agents/administration & dosage , Socioeconomic Factors , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/blood , Nutritional Status , Cross-Sectional Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , CD4 Lymphocyte Count , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Homeostasis
2.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(8): 1543-1548, Aug. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-976492

ABSTRACT

To evaluate the effect of supplementation of iron dextran on blood variables and iron metabolism in lambs experimentally infected by Haemonchus contortus, four experimental groups were used: uninfected and non-supplemented animals (GI); infected animals supplemented with iron (GII); uninfected animals supplemented with iron (GIII); and infected non-supplemented animals (GIV). Groups II and IV received 10,000 larvae (L3) of Haemonchus contortus, and groups II and III received three doses of iron dextran (20mg/kg) intramuscularly with seven days of interval. Blood and faeces samples were collected on days 10 (D10), 17 (D17), 24 (D24), and 31 (D31), in order to determine red blood cell counts, iron metabolism, and EPG. Infected animals developed anemia from D24 and anemia was more severe on D31. Animals from GII had higher hematocrit and hemoglobin concentration compared to animals of GIV on D31. Iron stores in the bone marrow were higher in GII and GIII compared to GI and GIV. The GIV showed lower seric levels of iron on D24 compared to the other groups. The iron supplementation reduces the severity of the anemia caused by infection with Haemonchus contortus in lambs, improving erythropoietic response after blood loss.(AU)


Para avaliar o efeito da suplementação de ferro dextrano sobre variáveis sanguíneas e metabolismo do ferro em cordeiros experimentalmente infectados por Haemonchus contortus, foram utilizados quatro grupos experimentais: animais não infectados e não suplementados (GI); animais infectados e suplementados com ferro (GII); animais não infectados e suplementados com ferro (GIII); e animais não suplementados infectados (GIV). Os grupos II e IV receberam 10.000 larvas (L3) de Haemonchus contortus, e os grupos II e III receberam três doses de ferro dextrano (20mg/kg) por via intramuscular com sete dias de intervalo. As amostras de sangue e fezes foram coletadas nos dias 10 (D10), 17 (D17), 24 (D24) e 31 (D31), para determinar o eritrograma, o metabolismo do ferro e a quantidade de ovos por gramas de fezes (OPG). Os cordeiros infectados desenvolveram anemia no D24, sendo esta mais severa no dia 31. Os cordeiros do GII apresentaram maior hematócrito e concentração de hemoglobina em comparação com animais dd GIV no D31. Os estoques de ferro na medula óssea foram maiores no GII e GIII em comparação com o GI e GIV. O GIV mostrou menores níveis séricos de ferro no D24 em comparação com os outros grupos. A suplementação de ferro reduz a gravidade da anemia causada por infecção por Haemonchus contortus em cordeiros, melhorando a resposta eritropoietica após a perda de sangue.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Sheep/physiology , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Haemonchus/enzymology
3.
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(2): 234-243, fev. 2018. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-895576

ABSTRACT

A deficiência de ferro em bezerros neonatos está associada ao desenvolvimento de anemia, que favorece o aparecimento de outras enfermidades como pneumonia e diarreia. Avaliou-se o efeito da suplementação de ferro sobre o eritrograma, teores séricos de ferro, ceruloplasmina e transferrina, bem como o potencial para toxicidade do protocolo utilizado por meio da avaliação dos teores de ureia, creatinina e enzimas hepáticas. Para tal avaliação foram utilizados 40 bezerros neonatos da raça Holandesa, alocados em cinco grupos experimentais com oito animais em cada grupo, que foram submetidos aos seguintes protocolos: administração intramuscular de 5mL de solução fisiológica estéril no 5º dia de idade (grupo controle G1), e administração intramuscular de 5mL de ferro dextrano 10% nos seguintes momentos: no 5º dia de idade (G2); no 5o e no 20º dias de idade (G3); no 5o e no 30º dias de idade (G4) e no 5o, 20o e 45º dias de idade (G5). Foram coletadas amostras de sangue até 8 horas após o nascimento e aos 5, 10, 20, 30, 60 e 90 dias de idade para realização do eritrograma, avaliação dos teores séricos de ferro, ceruloplasmina, transferrina, ureia, creatinina, bilirrubina total e direta, e das atividades das enzimas aspartato aminotransferase (AST), fosfatase alcalina (ALP) e gamaglutamiltransferase (GGT). Os animais que receberam ferro suplementar apresentaram menor oscilação nos parâmetros eritrocitários, embora os animais do grupo controle não tenham desenvolvido anemia. Notou-se também aumento, embora não significativo, nos teores séricos de ferro e das proteínas de fase aguda ceruloplasmina e transferrina, cuja atividade está relacionada ao metabolismo desse mineral. Os teores séricos de ureia, creatinina, bilirrubina total e direta e as atividades das enzimas GGT, AST e ALP não foram influenciados pelos protocolos de administração de ferro suplementar. Os protocolos de tratamento empregados não ocasionaram hepatoxidade ou nefrotoxidade aos animais. Concluiu-se que a suplementação com ferro dextrano por via parenteral em bezerros que recebem outras dietas que não apenas leite não traz benefícios que justifiquem sua indicação, embora sejam necessários mais estudos que avaliem a influência da suplementação com ferro sobre o tempo necessário para a recuperação, custos com o tratamento e impacto sobre a vida produtiva dos animais na idade adulta.(AU)


Iron deficiency in newborn calves is associated with the development of anemia, which favors the development of other infirmities such as pneumonia and diarrhea. The present study evaluated the effect of iron supplementation on erythrogram, serum levels of iron, ceruloplasmin and tranferrin, as well as potential toxicity of the protocol used by means of evaluation of urea, creatinine and hepatic enzyme activities. 40 newborn Holstein calves were allocated into 5 experimental groups comprising 8 calves each, which were subjected to the following treatment protocols: intramuscular administration of 5mL of sterile saline on the 5th day of age (control group G1), intramuscular administration of 5mL of 10% dextran iron in the following moments: on the 5th day of age (G2); on the 5th and in the 20th day of age (G3); on the 5th and 30th day of age (G4); on the 5th, 20th and 45th days of age (G5). Blood samples were taken until 8 hours after birth and with 5, 10, 20, 30, 60, and 90 days of age, and subjected to hemogram, evaluation of serum levels of iron, ceruloplasmin, transferrin, urea, creatinine, total and direct bilirrubin, and serum activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alcaline phosphatase (ALP), and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT). Calves that received iron supplementation at any time presented less variation in the erythrocyte parameters, although calves in the control group did not develop anemia. Serum concentration of iron and acute phase protein ceruloplasmin and transferrin, which activities are related to iron metabolism, also increased, although not significantly. Serum levels of urea, creatinine, bilirubins and activities of AST, ALP, and GGT were not influenced by the administration protocols used in this experiment. The results of the experiment led to the conclusion that the supplementation with parenteral dextran iron in calves that receive diets other than exclusive milk does not bring sufficient advantages to be indicated, although more studies are necessary to evaluate the influence of iron supplementation on the outcome of infections in newborn calves, especially its influence on cost of treatment, time necessary for discharge and impact on its productive life.(AU)


Subject(s)
Animals , Infant, Newborn , Cattle , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/veterinary , Animals, Newborn/blood , Dietary Supplements , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Ceruloplasmin/analysis , Creatinine/analysis , Erythrocyte Count/veterinary , Transferrin/analysis , Urea/blood
4.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz ; 110(1): 95-100, 03/02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741615

ABSTRACT

Toxoplasma gondii causes toxoplasmosis, a worldwide disease. Experimentation with pigs is necessary for the development of new therapeutic approaches to human diseases. BR-1 mini pigs were intramuscularly infected with T. gondii with tachyzoites (RH strain) or orally infected with cysts (ME-49 strain). Haematology and serum biochemistry were analysed and buffy coat cells were inoculated in mice to determine tachyzoite circulation. No alterations were observed in erythrocyte and platelet values; however, band neutrophils increased seven days after infection with ME-49. Serology of the mice inoculated with pig blood leucocytes revealed circulating ME-49 or RH strain tachyzoites in the pigs' peripheral blood at two and seven or nine days post-infection. The tachyzoites were also directly observed in blood smears from the infected pigs outside and inside leucocytes for longer periods. Alanine-aminotransferase was high at days 21 and 32 in the RH infected pigs. After 90 days, the pigs were euthanised and their tissue samples were processed and inoculated into mice. The mice serology revealed the presence of parasites in the hearts, ileums and mesenteric lymph nodes of the pigs. Additionally, cysts in the mice were only observed after pig heart tissue inoculation. The infected pigs presented similar human outcomes with relatively low pathogenicity and the BR-1 mini pig model infected with ME-49 is suitable to monitor experimental toxoplasmosis.


Subject(s)
Humans , Calcium, Dietary/analysis , Chenopodium quinoa/chemistry , Food Quality , Food Inspection/methods , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Phosphorus, Dietary/analysis , Seeds/chemistry , Calibration , Chemical Phenomena , Chile , Dietary Fats/analysis , Dietary Fiber/analysis , Dietary Proteins/analysis , Fiber Optic Technology , Least-Squares Analysis , Nutritive Value , Plant Proteins/analysis , Species Specificity , Spectroscopy, Near-Infrared
5.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(2): 108-115, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752681

ABSTRACT

The aim of the present work was to evaluate molar ratio iron:zinc and the levels of folic acid in biscuit and snacks commercialized in Brazil, prepared with folic acid and iron fortified flours. These nutrients are important for human nutrition; however, iron can have a negative effect on zinc absorption. Molar ratio iron:zinc can indicate if there will be any problems for absorption of these nutrients. The folic acid content varied from 58 to 433 μg/100g and iron and zinc levels varied from 2.9 to 9.4 mg/100g and from 0.2 to 1.3 mg/100g, respectively, for 75 analyzed samples. The average iron contents observed in the products and molar ratio iron:zinc (in average 8:1 for biscuits and 12.8:1 for snacks) could result in problems with the zinc absorption. Moreover, principal component analyses (PCA) indicated low uniformity in the distribution of minerals and vitamin in the majority of the samples, mainly among brands. The results indicated that for the majority of the samples tested folic acid and iron content was higher than expected for flours and could be useful to governmental authorities in their evaluation program of flour fortification.


O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar razão molar ferro: zinco e os níveis de ácido fólico em biscoitos e snacks, comercializados no Brasil, preparados com farinhas fortificadas com ácido fólico e ferro. Esses nutrientes são importantes para nutrição humana, porém, o ferro pode ter efeito negativo na absorção do zinco. A razão molar ferro:zinco pode indicar se haverá problemas para absorção desses nutrientes. O teor de ácido fólico variou de 58 a 433 μg/100g e os níveis de ferro e zinco oscilaram de 2.9 a 9.4 mg/100g e de 0.2 a 1.3 mg/100g, respectivamente, para 75 amostras analisadas. O valor médio observado para o teor de ferro nos produtos e a razão molar ferro:zinco (em média 8:1 para biscoitos e 12,8:1 para snacks) podem resultar em problemas na absorção do zinco. Além disso, a análise por componentes principais (PCA) indicou baixa uniformidade na distribuição dos minerais e da vitamina na maioria das amostras, principalmente entre marcas. Os resultados mostraram que para muitas amostras o teor de ácido fólico e de ferro estava acima do esperado para as farinhas e podem ser utilizados pelas autoridades governamentais para a avaliação do programa de fortificação de farinhas.


Subject(s)
Folic Acid/analysis , Food Analysis/methods , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Zinc/analysis , Brazil , Flour/analysis , Nutritive Value , Principal Component Analysis , Reference Values
6.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 64(2): 116-122, jun. 2014. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-752682

ABSTRACT

The present study was conducted to analyze the chemical composition, total phenolics content and antioxidant capacity of two whole corn (Zea mays) based meals traditional from Mexico: “traditional pinole” and “seven grain pinole”; and compare it with information available from ready to eat cereal products based on refined corn and whole grain cereals. Proximate analyses (moisture, ash, fat, protein and fiber) were carried out according to the procedures of AOAC, sugars content was determined by HPLC method; calcium and iron were quantified using atomic absorption spectroscopy. Total phenolic compounds were determined by Folin-Ciocalteu spectrophotometric method; the antiradical capacity was determined by DPPH colorimetric method and total antioxidant capacity was determined by FRAP method. Traditional and seven grain pinole presented higher energy content and nutrient density (protein and fat) than processed cereals. Calcium content was higher in processed cereals than pinole; seven grain pinole presented the highest conentration of iron. Polyphenolic concentration was higher in both kinds of pinole compared to processed cereals; traditional pinole presented the highest antioxidant activity measured by DPPH and FRAP methods. The results provide evidence about the important nutrient and antioxidant content of traditional and seven grain pinole compared to processed cereals based on corn and other grains. It is recommended their incorporation in to regular diet as a healthy food, with a good protein level, low sugar content and good antioxidant capacity.


En el presente estudio se analizó la composición química, el contenido de compuestos fenólicos totales y la capacidad antioxidante de dos alimentos elaborados a base de granos enteros de maíz (Zea mays) típicos de México: "pinole tradicional" y "pinole de los siete granos"; y se comparó con la información nutricional ya disponible de dos cereales procesados. El análisis proximal se realizó de acuerdo a los procedimientos de la AOAC, el contenido de azúcares se determinó por HPLC; el calcio y hierro se cuantificaron utilizando espectroscopía de absorción atómica. Los compuestos fenólicos totales se determinaron espectrofotométricamente por el método de Folin-Ciocalteu; la capacidad antirradical se determinó por el método colorimétrico del DPPH, y la capacidad antioxidante total se determinó por el método FRAP. El pinole tradicional y el pinole de los siete granos presentaron una mayor densidad de nutrientes (proteína y grasa) y mayor contenido calórico en comparación con los cereales procesados. El contenido de calcio fue mayor en los cereales procesados; el pinole de los siete granos presentó la mayor concentración de hierro. La concentración de compuestos fenólicos fue mayor en ambos tipos de pinole comparado con los productos procesados; el pinole tradicional presentó la mas alta actividad antioxidante medida por los métodos de DPPH y FRAP. Los resultados muestran evidencia sobre el importante contenido de nutrientes y compuestos antioxidantes del pinole tradicional y pinole de los siete granos; se recomienda su consumo regular, por ser alimentos con un buen nivel de proteína, bajo contenido de azúcar y con una buena capacidad antioxidante.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/analysis , Nutritive Value , Zea mays/chemistry , Analysis of Variance , Carbohydrates/analysis , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Mexico , Phenols/analysis , Reference Values
8.
Arch. latinoam. nutr ; 62(2): 103-111, jun. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-710610

ABSTRACT

The objective of this study was to evaluate iron bioavailability of maize genotypes, and analyze the correlation between in vitro and in vivo methods. Dialysable iron was analyzed in 13 genotypes from which 5 were selected for the biological assay. Mean iron content of the genotypes (n=13) was 17.93±2.93 mg kg-1. Phytate varied from 0.77% to 1.03%; phytate: iron molar ratio from 30.64 to 55.41; and soluble iron from 13.17 to 39.63%. The highest value for dialysable iron was 19.14%. In the biological assay, the control group, that received ferrous sulphate, did not present significant difference between the genotypes for Hb gain, Hb gain per gram of iron consumed and HRE. Hb gain did not present a significant correlation with in vitro assay. However, there were positive correlations varying from 0.653 to 0.809. The maize genotypes evaluated presented a good bioavailability since the genotypes showed the same result in hemoglobin gain than control group.


Biodisponibilidade de ferro de diferentes genótipos de milho desenvolvidos em programa de melhoramento genético: estudos in vitro e in vivo. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar a biodisponibilidade do ferro de genótipos de milho e analisar a correlação entre métodos in vitro e in vivo. Ferro dialisável foi analisado em13 genótipos, a partir do qual 5 foram selecionados para o ensaio biológico. A média de teor de ferro dos genótipos (n= 13) foi 17,93 ± 2,93 mg kg-1. O teor de fitato variou de 0,77% a 1,03%; razão molar fitato:ferro de 30,64 a 55,41; e ferro solúvel de 13,17 a 39,63%.O valor mais alto para o ferro dialisável foi 19,14%. No ensaio biológico, o grupo controle, que recebeu sulfato ferrso, não apresentou diferença significativa entre os genótipos no ganho Hb, ganho de Hb por grama de ferro consumido e HRE. Ganho de Hb não apresentou correlação significativa com o ensaio in vitro. No entanto, houve correlações positivas variando de 0,653 a 0,809. Os genótipos de milho avaliados apresentaram uma boa biodisponibilidade uma vez que os genótipos apresentaram o mesmo resultado quanto ao ganho de hemoglobina em relação ao grupo controle.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/prevention & control , Food, Fortified/analysis , Iron, Dietary/pharmacokinetics , Phytic Acid/analysis , Plants, Genetically Modified/chemistry , Zea mays/genetics , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency/diet therapy , Biological Availability , Breeding , Biological Assay/methods , Dialysis , Genotype , Hemoglobins/metabolism , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Rats, Wistar , Spectrophotometry, Atomic , Zea mays/chemistry
9.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-604939

ABSTRACT

The study aimed to evaluate the bioavailability of iron ingested by children under six years old. The data were obtained from a population-based crosssectionalstudy aimed to evaluate the effect of flour fortification with ironon anemia in preschool children. The feeding data were obtained from 24-hour recalls. The bioavailability of iron intake was calculated by us ingthe algorithm proposed by Monsen et al. which takes into account the iron stock body, total iron intake, heme iron, nonheme iron, vitamin C and the amount of meat per meal. Among the 4032 of meals studied, 72% had alow iron bioavailability. None of the 774 children studied showed a daily diet with intermediate or high iron bioavailability, which may be partially explained by the deficient consumption of iron and/or by the consumption of food items which facilitate its absorption.


El foco del trabajo fue la evaluación de labio disponibilidad del hierro ingerido por niños menores de seis años de edad. Los datos fueron obtenidos de un estudio transversal de base poblacional que enfocaba valorar el efecto que la fortificación de harinas con hierro ejercía sobrela anemia de niños en edad preescolar. Los datos de la alimentación fueron obtenidos por mediode recordatorios registrados a cada 24 horas con las madres o responsables por los niños. La biodisponibilidad del hierro ingerido fue calculada por medio del algoritmo propuesto por Monsen et al., que considera el estoque corporal de hierro, la ingestión de hierro total; el hierro hemínico (Fe-hem); el hierro no hemínico (Feno-hem), la vitamina C y la cantidad de carne por comida. De las 4032 comidas estudiadas, un 72% presentaron baja disponibilidad de hierro. Ninguno de los 774 niños que fueron estudiados presentó una alimentación diaria con biodisponibilidad de hierro media o alta, lo que puede ser parcialmente explicado por deficiencia en el consumo de hierro y/o de alimentos que son facilitadores de la absorción del mineral.


O trabalho objetivou avaliar a biodisponibilidade do ferro ingerido por crianças menores de seis anos de idade. Os dados foram obtidos de estudo transversal de base populacional que avaliou o efeito da fortificação das farinhas com ferro sobre a anemia em pré-escolares. Foram aplicados recordatórios de 24 horas às mães ou responsáveis pelas crianças. A biodisponibilidade do ferro ingerido foi calculada através do algoritmo proposto por Monsen et al. que leva em consideração o estoque corporal de ferro, a ingestão de ferro total; ferro heme; ferro não heme; vitamina C e a quantidade de carne, por refeição. Das 4032 refeições estudadas, 72% apresentaram baixa biodisponibilidade de ferro. Nenhuma das 774 crianças estudadas apresentou alimentação diária com média ou alta biodisponibilidade de ferro, o que pode ser parcialmente explicado pelo consumo deficitáriode ferro e/ou de alimentos facilitadores de sua absorção.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Child, Preschool , Biological Availability , Eating , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Child, Preschool/statistics & numerical data , Food, Fortified/statistics & numerical data , Anemia/diet therapy
10.
J. pediatr. (Rio J.) ; 86(4): 303-310, jul.-ago. 2010. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-558821

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVOS: Determinar, por análise química, a composição nutricional de macronutrientes, energia, sódio e ferro de alimentos preparados no domicílio para lactentes de dois estratos socioeconômicos em Belém (PA). MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal com 78 lactentes (6 a 18 meses) distribuídos em dois grupos com condição socioeconômica alta ou baixa. Foi realizada análise química de amostras de alimentos de transição preparados no domicílio para o almoço. Foi estimada a ingestão alimentar diária, com base em dois inquéritos alimentares de 24 horas. RESULTADOS: As análises químicas revelaram que parcela das amostras dos alimentos apresentava baixo teor de energia em relação ao recomendado, tanto no estrato socioeconômico baixo (29,8 por cento) como no alto (43,0 por cento; p = 0,199). Todas as amostras analisadas, em ambos os grupos, apresentaram quantidade de ferro abaixo do mínimo recomendado (6,0 mg/100 g). Por outro lado, excesso de sódio (200 mg/100 g) foi constatado em 89,2 e 31,7 por cento, respectivamente, das amostras dos grupos de baixo e alto nível socioeconômico (p = 0,027). De acordo com os inquéritos alimentares, a estimativa da ingestão energética foi maior que 120 por cento da necessidade média estimada em 86,5 por cento dos lactentes do grupo de nível socioeconômico baixo e em 92,7 por cento do alto (p = 0,483). O almoço e o jantar forneceram 35,2±14,6 e 36,4±12,0 por cento da energia, respectivamente, nos grupos de baixo e alto nível socioeconômico (p = 0,692). CONCLUSÃO: Alimentos de transição preparados no domicílio para lactentes apresentaram baixo teor de ferro. Parcela expressiva das amostras apresentou quantidade excessiva de sódio, mais frequentemente nos alimentos preparados para os lactentes de baixo nível socioeconômico.


OBJECTIVES: To determine, by chemical analysis, the macronutrient, energy, sodium, and iron contents of homemade foods prepared for infants in two socioeconomic classes in Belém, state of Pará, Brazil. METHODS: Cross-sectional study of 78 infants (aged 6 to 18 months) distributed into two groups according to socioeconomic status (high or low). Chemical analyses were performed on samples of homemade complementary foods prepared for each infant's lunch. Daily food intake was estimated on the basis of two 24-hour dietary intake recall. RESULTS: Chemical analyses showed that the energy content of some food samples was lower than recommended, both in the low socioeconomic status (SES) group (29.8 percent of samples) and in the high-SES group (43.0 percent; p = 0.199). The iron content of all samples, regardless of group, was lower than minimum recommended levels (6.0 mg/100 g). On the other hand, excessive sodium levels (200 mg/100 g) were found in 89.2 and 31.7 percent of samples in the low- and high-SES groups, respectively (p = 0.027). Dietary recalls showed that energy intake exceeded 120 percent of the Estimated Energy Requirement in 86.5 percent of infants in the low-SES group and 92.7 percent of those in the high-SES group (p = 0.483). Lunch and dinner provided 35.2±14.6 and 36.4±12.0 percent of daily energy intake in the low- and high-SES groups, respectively (p = 0.692). CONCLUSION: Homemade complementary foods for infants were found to be low in iron. A significant portion of samples had excessive sodium content, most frequently those prepared for infants in low-SES status families.


Subject(s)
Female , Humans , Infant , Male , Cooking/standards , Energy Intake/physiology , Infant Food/analysis , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Poverty/statistics & numerical data , Sodium, Dietary/analysis , Brazil , Cross-Sectional Studies , Food Analysis/methods , Infant Food/standards , Socioeconomic Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric
11.
ACM arq. catarin. med ; 38(1): 20-25, jan.-mar. 2009. graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-519105

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever o padrão de alimentação de lactentes em comunidade no sul de Santa Catarina eanalisar fatores associados, tais como, realização da puericultura, tempo de amamentação e suplementação de ferro e vitaminas A e D. Métodos: Estudo transversal, realizado com 160 mães de crianças com até dois anos de idade do bairro São Martinho, cidade de Tubarão, Santa Catarina. Foi realizada entrevista dirigida, contendo dados referentesà alimentação, realização de puericultura e suplementação vitamínica. Os dados foram analisados pelo programa SPSS12.0, através do teste chi- quadrado e t-studentcom significância de 95%. Resultados: Foi encontrada uma prevalência de aleitamento materno exclusivo de 90% no primeiro mês, 30% do segundo ao sexto mês e 30 % de aleitamento materno complementado até os dois anos. Com relação à puericultura,78,1% das mães realizaram ou a estavam realizando em seus filhos. O leite de vaca foi o preferido em 80% dos casos de desmame. A utilização do mesmo, assim como a suplementação de vitaminas A e D e de ferro, não foram influenciados pela realização de puericultura (p=0,38). Conclusão: O estudo encontrou boa prevalência dealeitamento materno, porém uma baixa taxa de suplementação de ferro e vitamina A e D e com grande utilizaçãode leite de vaca in natura no desmame.


Objective: To describe the standard feeding of suckles in a community in the south of Santa Catarina and to study factors associated as the well-child care, duration of breast-feeding and A and D vitamin and iron feedingsupplements. Methods: A cross-sectional study was realized with 160 mothers of children up to two years old of age inSão Martinho, suburb of the city of Tubarão, Santa Catarina. A directed interview was applied containing questions regarding the child’s diet, well-child care and vitamin supplementation. Data was analyzed trough statisticalprogram SPSS 12.0, using chi-square and t-student tests, with significance level of 95%. Results: A prevalence of 90% of exclusive maternal breast-feeding in the first month, 30% in the second month and 30% of complemented maternal breast-feedinguntil de second year of age was found. In regards to well-child care, 78.1% the mothers had carried it out or were carrying though during the time of the interview. Cow milk was the preferred substitute in 80% of the weaning cases. The use of the same, as well as theuse of A and D vitamins and iron supplements, were not influenced by the realization of well-child care (p=0,38).Conclusion: The study found an important prevalence of maternal breast-feeding, however a low rate of A and D vitamin and iron feeding supplements, with great use of whole cow milk in the weans.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant , Breast Feeding , Child Care , Iron, Dietary , Vitamin A , Vitamin D , Breast Feeding/statistics & numerical data , Iron, Dietary/administration & dosage , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Vitamin A/administration & dosage , Vitamin A/biosynthesis , Vitamin D/metabolism , Vitamin D
12.
Rev. nutr ; 21(2): 149-160, mar.-abr. 2008. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-485428

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar o consumo de alimentos sujeitos à fortificação compulsória com ferro por gestantes atendidas em consultas de pré-natal do Hospital Universitário de Brasília. MÉTODOS: Trata-se de série temporal que comparou dados de 228 pares de gestantes a partir de duas avaliações transversais: em 2004, pré-fortificação e em 2005, um ano após intervenção. Dados gestacionais, socioeconômicos, demográficos, índice de massa corporal e consumo alimentar foram coletados. Este último foi aferido por Questionário Semiquantitativo de Freqüência Alimentar incluindo alimentos à base de farinhas de trigo e de milho. RESULTADOS: O consumo per capita diário médio de farinhas foi estimado em 121,7g (98,7-115,8), no 1º momento, e 119,5g (93,6-109,5), no 2º momento (p>0,05), com maior contribuição da farinha de trigo. Os alimentos mais consumidos, em ambos os momentos, foram: pão francês, biscoitos, bolo, macarrão e cuscuz de milho. As gestantes do estudo receberiam uma média de 5,1mg de ferro adicional, se a fortificação estivesse ocorrendo como o preconizado pela legislação, que corresponde a 19 por cento da Ingestão Dietética de Referência. CONCLUSÃO: Os alimentos sujeitos à fortificação são veículos apropriados em relação ao largo consumo, porém são necessários estudos que avaliem a quantidade adicionada e a biodisponibilidade dos compostos de ferro.


OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to assess the consumption of foods subject to mandatory fortification with iron by pregnant women visiting the Hospital Universitário de Brasília for prenatal care. METHODS: A time-series study that compared 228 paired pregnant women through two cross-sectional assessments: in 2004, before flour fortification, and a year later. Pregnancy, socioeconomic and demographic data, body mass index and food consumption patterns were collected. The latter was determined by applying the Semiquantitative Food Frequency Questionnaire and included foods containing wheat and corn flours. RESULTS: The daily per capita consumption of flours was estimated to be 121.7g (98.7-115.8) in the first interview before fortification and 119.5g (93.6-109.5) in the second interview after fortification (p>0.05), with a greater consumption of wheat flour. The most consumed foods before and after fortification were French bread, cookies, cakes, pasta and corn couscous. The studied pregnant women would have received an extra 5.1mg of iron if fortification had been done according to the legislation, which corresponds to 19 percent of the Dietary Reference Intake. CONCLUSION: The foods subject to fortification are appropriate vehicles because of their high consumption yet studies that assess the amount of iron added and the bioavailability of the iron compounds used are needed.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adult , Food, Fortified/analysis , Eating , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Pregnant Women
13.
Rev. cient. (Maracaibo) ; 17(6): 588-596, nov.-dic. 2007. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-548563

ABSTRACT

Para estudiar el efecto de altos niveles de hierro (Fe) y molibdeno (Mo) sobre la nutrición del cobre (Cu), 20 vacas vacías, mestizas Bos taurus x Bos indicus, de 394 kg PV y de más de dos partos, fueron distribuidas según un diseño completamente aleatorizado en los siguientes tratamientos: (1) Testigo (T): 10 ppm Cu; (2) Mo: 10 ppm Cu y 20 ppm Mo; (3) Fe: 10 ppm Cu y 1000 ppm Fe; (4) MoFe: 10 ppm Cu y 1000 ppm Fe y 20 ppm Mo. Las vacas fueron alimentadas ad libitum con pasto de corte (Panicum maximun y Andropogun gayanus), 1,5 kg de alimento por animal día -1 (harina de maíz: 95 por ciento; urea: 5 por ciento) que contenía los minerales en las proporciones indicadas. Se tomaron muestras de suero sanguíneo para determinar Cu, Fe y la actividad de la ceruloplasmina. A través de biopsias, se tomaron muestras del tejido hepático cada 28 días, durante 192 días, para determinar la concentración de Cu, Fe y Mo. El consumo de pasto estuvo alrededor de 10 kg MS/animal día -1. El peso vivo no presentó diferencias entre tratamientos con valores de 385; 353; 396 y 382, kg para T, Mo, Fe, MoFe, respectivamente. La concentración de Cu sérico (µg ml-1) fue de 0,81; 0,67; 0,50 y 0,71, respectivamente para el mismo orden de los tratamientos, siendo Fe el más bajo (P<0,05). Para el Fe sérico, se observaron diferencias significativas entre los tratamientos (P<0,05), con valores de 1,49; 1,67; 2,08 y 1,93 µg ml -1, para el testigo, Mo, Fe y MoFe, respectivamente. Los valoresde Cp (absorbancia) fueron 0,093; 0,085; 0,084 y 0,087, para el testigo, Mo, Fe y MoFe, respectivamente, sin diferencias significativas entre tratamientos. Los niveles de Cu hepático fueron diferentes (P<0,01) entre tratamientos, con valores más altos (mg kgMS-1) para T (71,9) y más bajos para Mo (26,6), Fe (30,8) y MoFe (31,4). La concentración de Fe en el hígado registró valores (mg kgMS-1) de 559,0; 513,3; 559,8 y 797,3para T, Mo, Fe y MoFe, respectivamente, sin diferencias significativas...


To evaluate the effect of high levels of iron (Fe) and molybdenum (Mo) on copper (Cu) nutrition, 20 dry cross bred cows, Bos Taurus x Bos indicus, of 394 kg BW, with no less than two calving, were assigned to the following treatments: (1) Control (C); 10 ppm Cu(2); Mo 10 ppm + 20ppm Cu (Mo); (3) 10ppm Cu+ 1000 ppm Fe (Fe); and (4) 10 ppmCu+ 1000 ppm Fe+ 20 ppm Mo ( MoFe). Cows were fed chopped forage ad libitum (Panicum maximum and Andropogun gayanus) and 1.5 kg concentrate feed (corn meal, 95% and urea, 5%) containing minerals in the proportions as previously indicated. Serum samples were taken every 28 days for Cu, Fe and cerulopasmine (Cp) activity. Liver sample, via biopsy, at the same time intervals, were also taken to measure Cu, Fe and Mo concentrations. The experiment lasted 192 days. Body weights were not affected by treatments: 385; 353; 396 and 382 kg, respectively for T, Cu, Fe,and MoFe. Copper serum concentration values (µg ml-1) were 0.81, 0.67, 0.50 and 0.71, respectively for the same order, being Fe the lowest (P<0.05). Ceruloplasmine absorbancy values were not different among treatments. Liver copper concentration values were significantly different (P<0.05) among treatments, with higher value (mg KgMS-1) for T (71.9) and lower for Mo (26.6), Fe (30.8) and MoFe (31.4). Liver iron concentration (mg kgMS-1) values were not different among treatments, with values of 559.0, 513.3, 559.8, and 797.3 respectively for C, Mo, Fe and MoFe. Liver Mo take up (mg kgMS-1) was greater (P<0.01) for Mo treatment (19.9) and MoFe (15.8) in relation to T (1.7) and Fe (1.9). Results indicate that high levels of Mo and Fe decreased liver copper, below critical levels. However, the reduction of liver copper was no associated with clinical sign of copper efficiency. Probably lower levels of liver copper are required to show changes in ceruloplasmine and blood serum concentrations as well as other biochemical changes at tissue level...


Subject(s)
Cattle , Animals , Animal Feed/radiation effects , Ceruloplasmin/adverse effects , Copper/adverse effects , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Iron, Dietary/adverse effects , Iron/adverse effects , Molybdenum/adverse effects , Agronomy , Animal Nutrition Sciences , Veterinary Medicine
14.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-40873

ABSTRACT

Dietary low iron bioavailability intake is an important causation factor of iron deficiency anemia in Asian countries including Thailand. The aim of this study was to estimate the iron bioavailability in the Thai diet by a calculation method that is based on dependent factors, dietary components and physiological iron store. Based on the the latest national nutrition survey of the Thai diet, 1995, the data of nutrient intake per capita per day by region were used for calculating the iron bioavailability at physiological iron store levels; 0, 250, 500 and 1,000 mg of iron. The results showed that the diets consumed by the populations in the Central, North, Northeast and South of Thailand were classified under the calculation method as being of moderate nonheme iron availability. The per cent iron bioavailability values of the Thai diets were within the range 3.7-12.4 per cent of total iron, depending on physiological iron store. The values of all region Thai diets at each iron store level were similar. By the same method, the dietary iron bioavailability of the total Thai diet at any iron store level was markedly lower than the general US diet, which was classified as high nonheme iron availability. When comparison of the iron bioavailability among other different diets was carried out, the values of the total Thai diet were slightly lower than Utah, but higher than US vegetarian and Regional Latin American diets.


Subject(s)
Biological Availability , Diet , Heme/chemistry , Humans , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Thailand
15.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-42852

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to investigate the total iron and heme iron in animal foods, and calculate the heme iron content in urban and rural Thai diets. The samples included land animals and their products (meat, visceral tissue, blood curd and others), fish as well as other aquatic and marine animals. All samples were collected from 3 randomly selected markets located in Bangkok and its vicinity. Analysis of heme iron from foods was done by Han's method. The results showed the mean heme iron in the animal foods was in the range of 17.43-80.83 per cent of total iron. The highest mean heme iron was in the blood curd group and the lowest mean heme iron content was in the fish group. Based on the average amounts of animal food groups consumed per capita/day in the Thai diet which appeared in the Fourth National Nutrition Survey in Thailand (1995), the heme iron content in urban and rural diet was calculated. It was found that the animal iron in the urban and rural diets was 15 per cent and 13 per cent of total dietary iron. Only 7 per cent and 5 per cent of total dietary iron were present as heme iron. The proportion of heme content to total iron derived from animals in the urban diet was 44 per cent. This finding was higher than the estimated value of 40 per cent originally suggested by the Monsen Model. However, in the rural diet, this proportion was 41 per cent which was slightly higher than the suggested estimation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Cattle , Chickens , Diet/statistics & numerical data , Diet Surveys , Energy Intake , Heme/analysis , Humans , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Meat/analysis , Nutritive Value , Poultry , Rural Health/statistics & numerical data , Seafood/analysis , Swine , Thailand , Urban Health/statistics & numerical data
16.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 58(2): 194-6, 1998. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-212794

ABSTRACT

Se estudió la relación entre ingesta de Fe (IFe) e indicadores bioquímicos (IB) en 113 gestantes clinicamente sanas (edad: 24,8 + 6,1 años), assistidas en el Htal. Paroissien (La Matanza, Buenos Aires). Al comienzo del segundo trimestre del embarazo (edad gestacional: 16,9 + 3,8 semanas) se realizó una encuesta dietética, por recordatorio de 24 hs, calculando la ingesta de hierro (IFe) en base a Tablas de Composición de Alimentos latinoamericanas y alemanas; el mismo día se determinó: en sangre entera, Hematocrito, Hemoglobina (Hb) y Protoporfirina Eritrocitaria (PE); en suero: ferritina (FERR). La IFe (X + DE) mg/día) fue: 10,8 + 4,6. El porcentaje de mujeres con IB inadecuados fue: Hb (g/dl) < 10.5: 2 por ciento; PE > 70 mug/dl de glóbulos rojos: 6,5 por ciento; FERR (ng/ml) < 12: 6 por ciento; 12 - 20: 16 por ciento. Según el Instituto Americano de Medicina, sólo en las gestantes con FERR < 20 ng/ml (22 por ciento) seria aconsejable la suplementación con Fe, haciéndose necesario en las restantes realizar el seguimiento bioquímico del estado de los depósitos, antes de la administración de suplementos de Fe.


Subject(s)
Adult , Humans , Female , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Eating , Ferritins/blood , Hemoglobins/analysis , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Pregnancy/blood , Argentina , Hematocrit
17.
Rev. chil. cienc. méd. biol ; 7(2): 61-6, 1997. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-211907

ABSTRACT

La deficiencia de hierro es la causa más común de anemia en la población mundial. Entre los grupos de mayor riesgo de presentar anemia por deficiencia de hierro están los lactantes, especilamente aquellos que no recibieron tratamiento profiláctico. El propósito del presente trabajo fue determinar la prevalencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro en lactantes de ambos sexos entre 6 y 24 meses de edad, que acuden a los Consultorios de Temuco. Se estudiaron 162 lactantes de bajo nivel socioeconómico, a cada uno se le realizó un hemograma completo y una encuesta para determinar un lugar de residencia, edad gestacional, peso de nacimiento y clasificación social. Los resultados mostraron una prevalencia de anemia por deficiencia de hierro de un 35.8 porciento (58/162). El grupo rural presentó un mayor porcentaje de anemia al compararlo con el grpo urbano (p<0.05). La prevalencia de anemia en la población estudiada es similar a la reportada en otros estudio nacionales


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Infant, Newborn , Infant , Anemia, Iron-Deficiency , Iron Deficiency/complications , Iron, Dietary/analysis , Socioeconomic Factors
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