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1.
Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 77-88, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971639

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) superfamily is one of the largest gene families in plants and has been reported to participate in various biological processes, such as the regulation of biosynthesis of active lignan. However, few studies have investigated the genome-wide role of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Isatis indigotica. This study establishes a complete picture of the AP2/ERF superfamily in I. indigotica and contributes valuable information for further functional characterization of IiAP2/ERF genes and supports further metabolic engineering.@*METHODS@#To identify the IiAP2/ERF superfamily genes, the AP2/ERF sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa were used as query sequences in the basic local alignment search tool. Bioinformatic analyses were conducted to investigate the protein structure, motif composition, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and interaction network of the IiAP2/ERF superfamily genes. The accuracy of omics data was verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and heatmap analyses.@*RESULTS@#One hundred and twenty-six putative IiAP2/ERF genes in total were identified from the I. indigotica genome database in this study. By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, the IiAP2/ERF genes were classified into 5 groups including AP2, ERF, DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding factor), Soloist and RAV (related to abscisic acid insensitive 3/viviparous 1) subfamilies. Among which, 122 members were unevenly distributed across seven chromosomes. Sequence alignment showed that I. indigotica and A. thaliana had 30 pairs of orthologous genes, and we constructed their interaction network. The comprehensive analysis of gene expression pattern in different tissues suggested that these genes may play a significant role in organ growth and development of I. indigotica. Members that may regulate lignan biosynthesis in roots were also preliminarily identified. Ribonucleic acid sequencing analysis revealed that the expression of 76 IiAP2/ERF genes were up- or down-regulated under salt or drought treatment, among which, 33 IiAP2/ERF genes were regulated by both stresses.@*CONCLUSION@#This study undertook a genome-wide characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily in I. indigotica, providing valuable information for further functional characterization of IiAP2/ERF genes and discovery of genetic targets for metabolic engineering.


Subject(s)
Abscisic Acid , Isatis/genetics , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Genome, Plant
2.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1510-1517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970622

ABSTRACT

Chalcone isomerase is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in higher plants, which determines the production of flavonoids in plants. In this study, RNA was extracted from different parts of Isatis indigotica and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Specific primers with enzyme restriction sites were designed, and a chalcone isomerase gene was cloned from I. indigotica, named IiCHI. IiCHI was 756 bp in length, containing a complete open reading frame and encoding 251 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that IiCHI was closely related to CHI protein of Arabidopsis thaliana and had typical active sites of chalcone isomerase. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that IiCHI was classified into type Ⅰ CHI clade. Recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-IiCHI was constructed and purified to obtain IiCHI recombinant protein. In vitro enzymatic analysis showed that the IiCHI protein could convert naringenin chalcone into naringenin, but could not catalyze the production of liquiritigenin by isoliquiritigenin. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) showed that the expression level of IiCHI in the aboveground parts was higher than that in the underground parts and the expression level was the highest in the flowers of the aboveground parts, followed by leaves and stems, and no expression was observed in the roots and rhizomes of the underground parts. This study has confirmed the function of chalcone isomerase in I. indigotica and provided references for the biosynthesis of flavonoid components.


Subject(s)
Isatis/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Arabidopsis/genetics , Flavonoids , Cloning, Molecular
3.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2029-2036, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-879126

ABSTRACT

Isatidis Radix is the dried root of the Isatis indigotica, with pharmacological effects such as heat-clearing and detoxification, cooling blood and pharyngeal relief, antibacterial and anti-inflammatory effects. It is often used clinically to prevent and treat influenza and other diseases. In this paper, relevant domestic and foreign literatures in recent years were summarized, and it was found that Isatidis Radix lignans, indole alkaloids, polysaccharides, etc. were the main active components against influenza virus. Then its pharmacological effects and the mechanism of action were reviewed, providing a basis for in-depth research on the antiviral effect of Isatidis Radix.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isatis , Orthomyxoviridae , Plant Roots , Polysaccharides
4.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 5819-5828, 2020.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-878845

ABSTRACT

In this paper, through the collection and collation of ancient herbs, medical books and prescriptions, combined with modern literature, the historical changes of the name, origin, position, medicinal parts, collection, processing and processing of bluegrass were systematically combed and verified.It can be seen from the research that bluegrass was first used as medicine by the fruit, namely blueberry, which was originally Polygonum tinctorium. Since the Ming and Qing Dynasties, blueberry was rarely used, and it has been no longer used medicinally. In the Wei and Jin Dynasties, the medicinal parts extended to the stems and leaves, and most of them used juice as medicine.Since the Tang Dynasty, origin has been extended to Isatis indigotica, Baphicacanthus cusia, Indigofera tinctoria, Compositae plant Wulan, etc. In the Song Dynasty, the medicinal parts extended to the roots, and the "Banlangen" began to appear, and gradually became the main medicinal parts of blue medicinal materials, the main base of which was B. cusia. Since the Qing Dynasty, I. indigotica, a Cruciferae, has gradually become a genuine indigo root, while B. cusia has become a southern indigo root. It was the first mineral dye imported from abroad for thrush, and then used as medicine, also known as clam powder. Because it was found that it had the same effect with the extract of bluegrass, it was also named indigo naturalis in China, which has lasted till now. The main stream of Isatidis Folium in the past dynasties is the dry stem and leaf of Clerodendrum cyrtophylum. Since the Qing Dynasty, the stem and leaf of Isatis indigotica, P. tinctorium and other blue grasses have been gradually mixed as substitutes and gradually become the mainstream.


Subject(s)
China , Clerodendrum , Isatis , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Plants, Medicinal
5.
Braz. arch. biol. technol ; 62: e19180330, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039121

ABSTRACT

Abstract This study was undertaken to evaluate the health-promoting potentials of Isatis aucherii, Isatis buschiana, Isatis candolleana, Isatis tinctoria subsp. corymbosa and Isatis tinctoria. I. aucherii and I. candolleana are endemic, I. buschiana, I. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa are native in Turkey. While I. tinctoria is a well studied species, there is insufficient information about other endemic and native species. Therefore, this study is focused to reveal the bioactive compounds of poorly studied endemic and native species. In this context, protein, ash, glucosinolates, fatty acids, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and antioxidant activities were determined in leaf extracts. The highest protein and fatty oil contents were observed in I. tinctoria and I. buschiana. Arachidic acid was predominant inI. tinctoria subsp. corymbosa, I. buschiana and I. aucherii, while predominant fatty acids were arachidonic and oleic acids inI. candolleana and I. tinctoria. Glucobrassicin was the main glucosinolate in I. tinctoria, while the others contained gluconapin as the main glucosinolate. Antioxidant activities were correlated with phenolic and flavonoid content, the highest and lowest antioxidant activities were observed in I. buschiana and I. aucherii, respectively. According to results, I. buschiana leaves were high in contents of bioactive compounds; it could be a promising plant with its health- promoting effects.


Subject(s)
Flavonoids , Isatis/chemistry , Fatty Acids , Glucosinolates , Antioxidants/analysis , Phenolic Compounds
6.
Chinese Journal of Applied Physiology ; (6): 57-60, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To investigate anti-inflammatory and immunomodulation effects of different ecotype from Isatidis Radix growing in Gansu province.@*METHODS@#Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (=11)and used the auricular swelling and paw edema to observe the anti-inflammatory effects of Isatidis Radix; Mice were randomly divided into 7 groups (=11) and through the gasbag synovitis model to observe the anti-inflammatory effects of Isatidis Radix; Mice were randomly divided into 6 groups (=11), the immunosuppressed model were established by injection of cyclophosphamide (CTX) to study the effects of Isatidis Radix on index of thymus, blood routine and cytokines.@*RESULTS@#Gansu different ecotype from Isatidis Radix could reduce the swelling of the mice auricle, paw edema and total protein, leukotriene B(LTB)and malonaldehyde(MDA) in airbag synovitis exudates, and upgrade serum levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD); Degrade the tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and upgrade the index of thymus, the number of red and white corpuscles, the level of interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-4 (IL-4) (<0.05, 0.01) of mice immunosuppressed model; Above the research of anti-inflammatory and immunomodulation, there were no significant differences between Isatidis Radix of Gansu different ecotype and tetraploid.@*CONCLUSIONS@#Different ecotype of Isatidis Radix has obvious functions in anti-inflammatory and immunomodulation, but there are no significant differences between Gansu different ecotype and tetraploid.


Subject(s)
Animals , Mice , Anti-Inflammatory Agents , Pharmacology , China , Cytokines , Allergy and Immunology , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Ecotype , Immunomodulation , Isatis , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Random Allocation
7.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 801-812, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812572

ABSTRACT

Phenolic compounds, metabolites of the phenylpropanoid pathway, play an important role in the growth and environmental adaptation of many plants. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the first key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway. The present study was designed to investigate whether there is a multi-gene family in I. Indigotic and, if so, to characterize their properties. We conducted a comprehensive survey on the transcription profiling database by using tBLASTn analysis. Several bioinformatics methods were employed to perform the prediction of composition and physicochemical characters. The expression levels of IiPAL genes in various tissues of I. indigotica with stress treatment were examined by quantitative real-time PCR. Protoplast transient transformation was used to observe the locations of IiPALs. IiPALs were functionally characterized by expression with pET-32a vector in Escherichia colis strain BL21 (DE3). Integration of transcripts and metabolite accumulations was used to reveal the relation between IiPALs and target compounds. An new gene (IiPAL2) was identified and both IiPALs had the conserved enzymatic active site Ala-Ser-Gly and were classified as members of dicotyledon. IiPAL1 and IiPAL2 were expressed in roots, stems, leaves, and flowers, with the highest expression levels of IiPAL1 and IiPAL2 being observed in stems and roots, respectively. The two genes responded to the exogenous elicitor in different manners. Subcellular localization experiment showed that both IiPALs were localized in the cytosol. The recombinant proteins were shown to catalyze the conversion of L-Phe to trans-cinnamic acid. Correlation analysis indicated that IiPAL1 was more close to the biosynthesis of secondary metabolites than IiPAL2. In conclusion, the present study provides a basis for the elucidation of the role of IiPALs genes in the biosynthesis of phenolic compounds, which will help further metabolic engineering to improve the accumulation of bioactive components in I. indigotica.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Isatis , Genetics , Molecular Sequence Data , Multigene Family , Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Sequence Alignment
8.
Chinese Journal of Natural Medicines (English Ed.) ; (6): 161-176, 2016.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-812439

ABSTRACT

Isatis indigotica Fort., belonging to Cruciferae, is one of the most commonly used plants in traditional Chinese medicine. The accumulation of the effective components of I. indigotica is related with its growth conditions. The GRAS genes are members of a multigene family of transcriptional regulators that play a crucial role in plant growth. Although the activities of many GRAS genes have long been recognized, only in recent years were some of them identified and functionally characterized in detail. In the present study, 41 GRAS genes were identified from I. indigotica through bioinformatics methods for the first time. They were classified into ten groups according to the classification of Arabidopsis and rice. The characterization, gene structure, conserved motifs, disordered N-terminal domains, and phylogenetic reconstruction of these GRASs were analyzed. Forty-three orthologous gene pairs were shared by I. indigotica and Arabidopsis, and interaction networks of these orthologous genes were constructed. Furthermore, gene expression patterns were investigated by analysis in methyl jasmonate (MeJA)-treated I. indigotica hairy roots based on RNA-seq data. In conclusion, this comprehensive analysis would provide rich resources for further studies of GRAS protein functions in this plant.


Subject(s)
Computational Biology , Gene Expression Profiling , Genes, Plant , Isatis , Genetics , Medicine, Chinese Traditional , Transcription Factors , Genetics
9.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 4149-4154, 2015.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-279271

ABSTRACT

Based on the transcriptome data, we cloned the open reading frame of IiHCT gene from Isatis indigotica, and then performed bioinformatic analysis of the sequence. Further, we detected expression pattern in specific organs and hairy roots treated methyl jasmonate( MeJA) by RT-PCR. The IiHCT gene contains a 1 290 bp open reading frame( ORF) encoding a polypeptide of 430 amino acids. The predicted isoelectric point( pI) was 5.7, a calculated molecular weight was about 47.68 kDa. IiHCT was mainly expressed in stem and undetectable in young root, leaf and flower bud. After the treatment of MeJA, the relative expression level of IiHCT increased rapidly. The expression level of IiHCT was the highest at 4 h and maintained two fold to control during 24 h. In this study, cloning of IiHCT laid the foundation for illustrating the biosynthesis mechanism of phenylpropanoids in I. indigotica.


Subject(s)
Acyltransferases , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Isatis , Chemistry , Classification , Genetics , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Phylogeny , Plant Proteins , Chemistry , Genetics , Metabolism , Quinic Acid , Metabolism , Sequence Alignment , Shikimic Acid , Metabolism
10.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1772-1776, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-327922

ABSTRACT

The experiment included three potassium levels (K0 0 g x kg(-1), K1 0.33 g x kg(-1), K2 0.67 g x kg(-1)) and two water gradients (well watered and drought stress), then measured growth indicators, SOD, POD, CAT activities and concents of osmotic regulation substances. To explore the effects of K fertilizer and water on growth and physiological characteristics of Isatis indigotica, providing reference for improving drought resistance of I. indigotica. The result showed drought stress inhibited the growth and decreased the biomass of I. indigotica but K fertilizer can alleviate the drought stress. Compared with K0 treatment, K1, K2 treatment increased the biomass of overground part of by 89. 13% ,60. 87% under drought stress. The corresponding increase in soluble sugar content was 16.67%, 5.00%, and in proline content was 42.41%, 65.62%, respectively. SOD,POD and CAT activities was significantly improved in K1, K2 treatment in comparison with K0 treatment under drought stress, but soluble protein content significantly reduced. The conclusion is that appropriate amount of K fertilizer can increase the activities of antioxidase and the content of osmoregulation substance under drought stress, and improve drought resistance of I. indigotica.


Subject(s)
Fertilizers , Isatis , Chemistry , Metabolism , Peroxidase , Metabolism , Plant Proteins , Metabolism , Potassium , Metabolism , Seedlings , Chemistry , Metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase , Metabolism , Water , Metabolism
11.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 812-816, 2014.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-330356

ABSTRACT

In vitro neuraminidase inhibition assays and ultrafiltration liquid chromatography with diodearray detector coupled to time of flight mass spectrometer (UPLC-DAD-TOF-MS) were combined to screen bioactive compounds inhibiting neuraminidase from Isatidis Radix. By comparing the compounds from Isatidis Radix before and after ultrafiltration, we found that arginine, goitrin and adenosinea can bind with neuraminidase, and the binding degree of the three compounds were (36.23 +/- 1.12)%, (32.54 +/- 1.02)% and (9.38 +/- 0.47)%, respectively. The IC50 of arginine and goitrin were (1.16 +/- 0.02), (1.20 +/- 0.02) g x L(-1), respectively. While the IC50 of adenosinea was higher than 500 g x L(-1). The results showed that arginine and goitrin might be the main compounds with antiviral activity of Isatidis Radix. This study may provide a useful method for the screening of bioactive compounds and quality control of Isatidis Radix.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , Pharmacology , Arginine , Pharmacology , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Pharmacology , Isatis , Chemistry , Mass Spectrometry , Neuraminidase , Metabolism , Orthomyxoviridae , Oxazolidinones , Pharmacology , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Ultrafiltration , Viral Proteins , Metabolism
12.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1172-1182, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-350638

ABSTRACT

Thirty-three compounds were isolated from the root decoction of Isatis indigotica by using a combination of various chromatographic techniques including silica gel, macroporous adsorbent resin, Sephadex LH-20, and reversed-phase HPLC. Their structures were elucidated by spectroscopic data as (+)-dehydrovomifoliol (1), (S)-(+)-abscisic acid (2), vomifoliol (3), cyclo (L-Phe-L-Leu) (4), cyclo(L-Phe-L-Tyr) (5), cyclo(L-Tyr-L-Leu) (6), cyclo(L-Pro-L-Tyr) (7), evofolin B (8), (+)-syringaresinol (9), (-)-(7R,7'R,8S,8'S)-4,4'-dihydroxy-3-methoxy-7,9';7',9-diepoxy-lignan (10), (-)-medioresinol (11), (+) -(7R,7'R,8S,8'S) -neo-olivil (12), (-) -5-methoxyisolariciresinol (13), 1,3-dihydro-2H-indol-2-one (14), isalexin (15), dihydroneoascorbigen (16), indican (17), (-) -(S) -cyanomethyl-3-hydroxyoxindole (18), isoformononetein (19), calycosin (20), stigamast-5-ene-3beta-ol-7-one (21), acetovanillone (22), 3, 5-dimethoxy-4-hydroxyacetophenone (23), dihydroconiferyl alcohol (24), dihyroferulic acid (25), 3-hydroxy-1-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propan-1-one (26), beta-hydroxypropiovanillone (27), 4-aminobenzoic acid (28), 3-(4-hydroxyphenyl) propan-1-ol (29), 4-(2-hydroxyethyl) phenol (30), 2-methoxy-4-vinylphenol (31), pyrocatechol (32), and 4-pentenamide (33). These compounds were isolated from the root of I. indigotica for the first time. In preliminary in vitro assays, compound 19 showed activity against the influenza virus A/Hanfang/359/95 (H3N2), the herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1), and Coxsackie virus B3 (Cox-B3), with IC50 values of 2.06, 6.84, and 8.70 micromol x L(-1), respectively, but other compounds were in-active at a concentration of 1.0 x 10 x (-5) mol x L(-1).


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Cell Line , Isatis , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Chemistry , Pharmacology , Toxicity , Plant Roots , Chemistry
13.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2755-2760, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-238650

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>In order to provide theoretical basis of improving nitrogen utilization efficiency in Isatis indigotica, the biomass and active components in Isatidis Folium under different nitrogen forms and concentrations were analyzed.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>I. indigotica was cultivated by sand culture in greenhouse, and the experiment was designed with orthogonal test L25 (5(6)). As an index to the biomass and indigo, indirubin, the effects on the I. indigotica by three factors [NO3(-) -N, NH4(+) -N, CO(NH2)2] at five different levels were studied.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There were significant difference of the biomass and active components by different nitrogen forms and concentrations. The effect of amide nitrogen [CO(NH2)2] on biomass of Isatidis Folium was the most apparent, and the effect of ammonium nitrogen on indirubin was more obvious. Considering the biomass and active ingredient, one combination was optimized, which was (NH4)2SO(4)-7.5 mmol x L(-1), KNO(3)-2.5 mmol x L(-1), CO(NH2)(2)- 5 mmol x L(-1).</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>It is important to promote the growth in pre-stage of I. indigotica, and cost-effective combination of balanced nitrogen fertilizer could reasonably promote the growth, and improve the contents of active components and individual biomass.</p>


Subject(s)
Alkaloids , Metabolism , Biomass , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Isatis , Chemistry , Metabolism , Nitrogen , Metabolism , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Metabolism
14.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1850-1855, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-298000

ABSTRACT

This paper aimed to investigate the botanical origins of Isatidis Radix and Isatidis Folium, and clarify the confusion of its classification. The second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA, the chloroplast matK gene of 22 samples from some major production areas were amplified and sequenced. Sequence assembly and consensus sequence generation were performed using the CodonCode Aligner. Phylogenetic study was performed using MEGA 4.0 software in accordance with the Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) model, and the phylogenetic tree was constructed using the neighbor-joining methods. The results showed that the length of ITS2 sequence of the botanical origins of Isatidis Radix and Isatidis Folium was 191 bp. The sequence showed that some samples had several SNP sites, and some samples had heterozygosis sites. In the NJ tree, based on ITS2 sequence, the studied samples were separated into two groups, and one of them was gathered with Isatis tinctoria L. The studied samples also were divided into two groups obviously based on the chloroplast matK gene. In conclusion, our results support that the botanical origins of Isatidis Radix and Isatidis Folium are Isatis indigotica Fortune, and Isatis indigotica and Isatis tinctoria are two distinct species. This study doesn't support the opinion about the combination of these two species in Flora of China.


Subject(s)
Chloroplasts , Genetics , DNA Barcoding, Taxonomic , Methods , DNA, Plant , Genetics , DNA, Ribosomal Spacer , Genetics , Genes, Plant , Genetics , Isatis , Classification , Genetics , Phylogeny , Plant Leaves , Genetics , Plants, Medicinal , Classification , Genetics , Species Specificity
15.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1484-1488, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-294085

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>The aim of the present study is to investigate the effect of low temperature vernalization on metabolism change of carbon and nitrogen of Isatis indigotica.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The Yunnan and Beijing I. indigotica seedlings with six leaves were vernalized at 4 degrees C for 25 days, and the metabolism indicators of carbon and nitrogen were measured.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>There appeared a dramatic increase in the soluble sugar content, reducing sugar content and soluble protein content in response to the low temperature, after termination of vernalization it reached the maximum, however, starch and total nitrogen concentration decreased significantly, after termination of vernalization it reached the minimum.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The high C/N value can promote the low temperature vernalization of I. indigotica.</p>


Subject(s)
Carbon , Metabolism , Cold Temperature , Isatis , Metabolism , Nitrogen , Metabolism
16.
Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica ; (12): 1148-1155, 2013.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-259500

ABSTRACT

The hydrophilicity of the normal decoction pieces (NDP) of Indigo Naturalis is not good, therefore, it is not suit for decoctions. In this paper, powder modification technology is used and some NDP and alcohol are ground together in the vibromill to prepare the hydrophilic decoction pieces (HDP) of Indigo Naturalis. Initially, the properties of NDP, ultrafine decoction pieces (UDP) and HDP are compared, the hydrophilicity of UDP was promoted slightly, that of HDP is promoted dramatically. Then, three batches of Indigo Naturalis are prepared to HDP separately, but there is no obvious difference in the contact angle. Furthermore, the size distribution, surface area and micro-shape of HDP are bigger than that of UDP and smaller than NDP. The contents of indigo and indirubin in three decoction pieces are the same, as well as the species of inorganic substance, although there is a little difference in the proportion of five inorganic substances. The fact suggests the change of physical state and the qualitative and quantitative change of organism and inorganic substances are not the main factors to influence the hydrophilicity. In addition, hydroxyl, methylene and methyl can be identified at the wavenumber of 3 356 cm(-1) and 1 461 cm(-1) in infrared spectrum; the content of alcohol in HDP is 0.67% measured by gas chromatogram. The stability of HDP in the heating condition is studied, the fact suggests the hydrophilic effect of HDP at 40 degrees C is relatively stable. All above research suggests that the alcohol is the main factor to influence the hydrophilicity and maybe the intermolecular force which fixed alcohol molecule on the surface of Indigo Naturalis is the basic principle to produce the hydrophilicity.


Subject(s)
Acanthaceae , Chemistry , Alcohols , Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Interactions , Indigo Carmine , Chemistry , Indoles , Isatis , Chemistry , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Particle Size , Plants, Medicinal , Chemistry , Polygonum , Chemistry , Powders , Surface Properties , Technology, Pharmaceutical , Methods , X-Ray Diffraction
17.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1541-1545, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-266980

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To study the dynamic accumulations of bioactive components in different germplasm Isatis indigotica and compare its quality of medical material, in order to provide a basis for breeding and high yield cultivation of I. indigotica.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>The planting samples were collected during growth period, bioactive components in different germplasm Isatis indigotica were measured.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>The dynamic accumulations of bioactive components in different germplasm I. indigotica were consistently changed in a field experiment. The differences of bioactive components contents in medical material of I. indigotica were significant.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>The germplasm from Gansu Longxi showed a high yield and good quality characters in Fuyang area, and may be applied to production.</p>


Subject(s)
Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Metabolism , Reference Standards , Isatis , Metabolism , Quality Control
18.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 2373-2377, 2012.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-263923

ABSTRACT

<p><b>OBJECTIVE</b>To lay a foundation for the study on good variety selection of Isatis indigotica, comparison of plant traits and quality evaluation of Isatis germplasm resources from different production area was conducted.</p><p><b>METHOD</b>Field cultivation and randomized block experiment were adopted to compare those plant traits of leaf, root, silique and seed of Isatis from different production area and the content of R,S-goitrin and polysaccharide in the root was determined.</p><p><b>RESULT</b>Different cultivation forms of Isatis had significant difference from each other in leaf, root, silique and seed, content of R,S-goitrin and polysaccharide in the root were also different. R,S-goitrin content in Isatis of Chinese cabbage leaf type ( production area: Yunnan ) was comparative higher, 0.59% , while polysaccharide content in autotetraploid Isatis was comparative higher, 8.68%.</p><p><b>CONCLUSION</b>According to the plant traits, Isatis were classified into three types: Chinese cabbage leaf type, cabbage leaf type and mustard leaf type, of which R,S-goitrin content in Chinese cabbage leaf type (production area: Yunnan) was comparative higher, while polysaccharide content in autotetraploid Isatis was comparative higher.</p>


Subject(s)
China , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Isatis , Chemistry , Phenotype , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Seeds , Chemistry
19.
Chinese Journal of Virology ; (6): 218-223, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-286051

ABSTRACT

This study was to investigate the antiviral effects of a hot water soluble extract S-03 isolated from Isatis indigotica root on different subtypes of influenza A and B viruses in MDCK cell cultures, using plaque reduction, immunofluorescence and hemo-agglutination inhibition (HAD) assays. Chemical analysis of the extract S-03 showed that it contained high proportion of polysaccharides. The antiviral effects in vitro showed that the S-03 had no effect on different influenza viruses if the drug was used before virus adsorption, but S-03 showed obvious activities against influenza viruses if treatment after virus adsorption or direct reaction of drug and virus before virus adsorption. Hemagglutination inhibition assay showed that S-03 inhibited HA activities of different human influenza viruses (inhibition concentration ranged from 3.12 to 25 mg/mL), avain influenza viruses (inhibition concentration ranged from 25 to 50 mg/mL). The antiviral effects of S-03 on different influenza A and B viruses in vitro might be through the inhibition of the HA to prevent infection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Dogs , Cells, Cultured , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Hemagglutination Inhibition Tests , Influenza A virus , Influenza B virus , Isatis , Chemistry , Plant Extracts , Pharmacology , Plant Roots
20.
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 955-958, 2011.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-252966

ABSTRACT

Different harvest times of Isatidis Folium had a significant effect on the yield and the quality of Isatidis Radix and Isatidis Folium. The harvest could increase the yield of Isatidis Folium, but reduce the yield of Isatidis Radix, the quality of Isatidis Radix and Isatidis Folium. One, two and three harvests of the Isatidis Folium reduced the yield of Isatidis Radix as 18.3%, 58.6%, 67.4% and increased the yield of the Folium as 107.3%, 86.3% and 116.6%. Ethanol-soluble extract of Isatidis Radix was 42.50%, 42.24%, 31.77%, which were 1.19%, 1.79%, 26.13% lower than those of the control, respectively. The water-soluble extract, indirubin, indigo content reduced with increase of the harvest times. Indirubin contents with two or three times harvests were higher than that of the control, but the content of water-soluble extract, ethanol-soluble extract, indigo were lower than those of the control.


Subject(s)
Agriculture , Methods , Desert Climate , Drugs, Chinese Herbal , Chemistry , Metabolism , Indigo Carmine , Indoles , Metabolism , Isatis , Metabolism , Plant Leaves , Chemistry , Metabolism , Plant Roots , Chemistry , Metabolism , Quality Control , Time Factors
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