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Journal of Integrative Medicine ; (12): 77-88, 2023.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-971639


OBJECTIVE@#AP2/ERF (APETALA2/ethylene-responsive factor) superfamily is one of the largest gene families in plants and has been reported to participate in various biological processes, such as the regulation of biosynthesis of active lignan. However, few studies have investigated the genome-wide role of the AP2/ERF superfamily in Isatis indigotica. This study establishes a complete picture of the AP2/ERF superfamily in I. indigotica and contributes valuable information for further functional characterization of IiAP2/ERF genes and supports further metabolic engineering.@*METHODS@#To identify the IiAP2/ERF superfamily genes, the AP2/ERF sequences from Arabidopsis thaliana and Brassica rapa were used as query sequences in the basic local alignment search tool. Bioinformatic analyses were conducted to investigate the protein structure, motif composition, chromosome location, phylogenetic relationship, and interaction network of the IiAP2/ERF superfamily genes. The accuracy of omics data was verified by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and heatmap analyses.@*RESULTS@#One hundred and twenty-six putative IiAP2/ERF genes in total were identified from the I. indigotica genome database in this study. By sequence alignment and phylogenetic analysis, the IiAP2/ERF genes were classified into 5 groups including AP2, ERF, DREB (dehydration-responsive element-binding factor), Soloist and RAV (related to abscisic acid insensitive 3/viviparous 1) subfamilies. Among which, 122 members were unevenly distributed across seven chromosomes. Sequence alignment showed that I. indigotica and A. thaliana had 30 pairs of orthologous genes, and we constructed their interaction network. The comprehensive analysis of gene expression pattern in different tissues suggested that these genes may play a significant role in organ growth and development of I. indigotica. Members that may regulate lignan biosynthesis in roots were also preliminarily identified. Ribonucleic acid sequencing analysis revealed that the expression of 76 IiAP2/ERF genes were up- or down-regulated under salt or drought treatment, among which, 33 IiAP2/ERF genes were regulated by both stresses.@*CONCLUSION@#This study undertook a genome-wide characterization of the AP2/ERF superfamily in I. indigotica, providing valuable information for further functional characterization of IiAP2/ERF genes and discovery of genetic targets for metabolic engineering.

Abscisic Acid , Isatis/genetics , Multigene Family , Phylogeny , Homeodomain Proteins/genetics , Genome, Plant
China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica ; (24): 1510-1517, 2023.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-970622


Chalcone isomerase is a key rate-limiting enzyme in the biosynthesis of flavonoids in higher plants, which determines the production of flavonoids in plants. In this study, RNA was extracted from different parts of Isatis indigotica and reverse-transcribed into cDNA. Specific primers with enzyme restriction sites were designed, and a chalcone isomerase gene was cloned from I. indigotica, named IiCHI. IiCHI was 756 bp in length, containing a complete open reading frame and encoding 251 amino acids. Homology analysis showed that IiCHI was closely related to CHI protein of Arabidopsis thaliana and had typical active sites of chalcone isomerase. Phylogenetic tree analysis showed that IiCHI was classified into type Ⅰ CHI clade. Recombinant prokaryotic expression vector pET28a-IiCHI was constructed and purified to obtain IiCHI recombinant protein. In vitro enzymatic analysis showed that the IiCHI protein could convert naringenin chalcone into naringenin, but could not catalyze the production of liquiritigenin by isoliquiritigenin. The results of real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction(qPCR) showed that the expression level of IiCHI in the aboveground parts was higher than that in the underground parts and the expression level was the highest in the flowers of the aboveground parts, followed by leaves and stems, and no expression was observed in the roots and rhizomes of the underground parts. This study has confirmed the function of chalcone isomerase in I. indigotica and provided references for the biosynthesis of flavonoid components.

Isatis/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Phylogeny , Arabidopsis/genetics , Flavonoids , Cloning, Molecular