Your browser doesn't support javascript.
loading
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 128
Filter
1.
Rev. argent. dermatol ; 101(1): 1-10, mar. 2020. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1092404

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN El embolismo por cristales de colesterol (ECC) es una complicación de la enfermedad arterioesclerótica en la que el desprendimiento de fragmentos de placa de ateroma, principalmente de grandes arterias, provoca oclusión de pequeños vasos. Esta entidad, también llamada ateroembolia o síndrome de los dedos del pie azules, es más frecuente en pacientes de edad avanzada y después de procedimientos invasivos intravasculares. Se manifiesta con cianosis, livedo reticularis, necrosis y úlceras asociado a manifestaciones renales y gastrointestinales. Se presenta un paciente trasplantado renal y portador de fístula arteriovenosa trombosada izquierda con ateroembolia localizada en mano homolateral.


ABSTRACT The cholesterol crystal embolism (ECC) is a complication of arteriosclerotic disease in which the detachment of fragments of atheromatous plaque mainly from large arteries, causes occlusion of small vessels. This entity, also called atheroembolism or blue toe syndrome, is more common in elderly patients and after intravascular invasive procedures. It manifests with cyanosis, livedo reticularis, necrosis and ulcers associated with renal and gastrointestinal manifestations. We present a renal transplant patient with a left thrombosed arteriovenous fistula with atheroembolism located in homolateral hand.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Cholesterol/adverse effects , Arteriovenous Fistula/complications , Embolism, Cholesterol/physiopathology , Upper Extremity/blood supply , Skin Manifestations , Embolism, Cholesterol/diagnosis , Renal Insufficiency/complications , Ischemia/complications , Necrosis/complications
2.
Gac. méd. Méx ; 155(5): 475-482, Sep.-Oct. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1286546

ABSTRACT

The superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1) gene is the first responsible gene mapped in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis type 1 (ALS1), and it codes for the enzyme SOD1, the function of which is to protect against damage mediated by free radicals deriving from oxygen. Its pathophysiological mechanism in ALS1 is related to ischemia. Several molecular studies of the SOD1 gene show that point mutations are the most frequent. The most common mutations in familial cases are p.A4V, p.I113Y, p.G37R, p.D90A and p.E100G, which account for more than 80% of cases, although intronic mutations have also been described as responsible for ALS1. Sporadic cases are explained by mutations in other genes such as SETX and C9orf72. ALS1 is a complex disease with genetic heterogeneity. On the other hand, familial and sporadic cases have a different etiology, which is explained by molecular heterogeneity and multiple pathogenic mechanisms that lead to ALS1; oxidative stress and ischemia are not the only cause. In Mexico, ALS molecular genetics studies are scarce. Clinical studies show an increase in cytokines such as adipsin in cerebrospinal fluid.


Subject(s)
Humans , Superoxide Dismutase-1/genetics , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/genetics , Point Mutation , Age of Onset , Oxidative Stress , Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis/enzymology , Ischemia/complications , Mexico
3.
Autops. Case Rep ; 9(2): e2018082, Abr.-Jun. 2019. ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-994676

ABSTRACT

Cholesterol crystal embolism is a rare and easily overlooked cause of colonic ischemia. The gastrointestinal tract is the third most common organ system affected by cholesterol emboli, second only to kidney and skin. Here we present a catastrophic case of gastrointestinal cholesterol crystal embolism leading to extensive post-operative bowel infarction and ultimately death. For a practicing pathologist, careful attention to the vessels of any ischemic bowel and recognition of the subtle but distinct angular imprint of cholesterol crystals facilitates prompt identification of the atheroemboli. In some cases, early identification may help mitigate further tissue damage. In more acute and severe cases, identification of the cholesterol crystal emboli may be important primarily for documentation of procedural complications.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Embolism, Cholesterol/etiology , Gastrointestinal Tract/pathology , Ischemia/complications , Autopsy , Fatal Outcome , Embolism, Cholesterol/pathology
4.
Rev. Col. Bras. Cir ; 46(5): e20192260, 2019. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1057172

ABSTRACT

RESUMO Objetivo: avaliar o uso do curativo de filme e gel de biopolímero de celulose bacteriana no tratamento de pacientes com feridas isquêmicas submetidos à revascularização dos membros inferiores. Métodos: ensaio clínico randomizado realizado no ambulatório de Angiologia e Cirurgia Vascular do Hospital das Clínicas da Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, entre janeiro de 2017 e dezembro de 2018. Foram acompanhados 24 pacientes após revascularização de membros inferiores, divididos em dois grupos: Experimental, tratado com filme e gel de biopolímero de celulose bacteriana, e Controle, tratado com ácidos graxos essenciais. Os pacientes foram acompanhados em consultas semanais para troca dos curativos e o processo de cicatrização das feridas foi avaliado em um período de 90 dias. Resultados: a redução da área das feridas isquêmicas no período de 30 dias foi de 4,3cm2 (55%), em média, para o grupo experimental, e de 5,5cm2 (48,5%) para o grupo controle (p>0,05). A taxa de cicatrização completa, em 90 dias, foi de 34,8%, sendo 50% no grupo experimental e 18,2% no grupo controle (p=0,053). Conclusão: o filme de biopolímero de celulose bacteriana associada a gel pode ser utilizado como curativo no tratamento de feridas isquêmicas de pacientes submetidos à revascularização de membros inferiores


ABSTRACT Objective: to evaluate the use of a bacterial cellulose biopolymer film and gel dressing in the treatment of patients with ischemic wounds submitted to lower limb revascularization. Methods: we conducted a randomized clinical trial in the Angiology and Vascular Surgery outpatient clinic of the Clinics Hospital of the Federal University of Pernambuco, between January 2017 and December 2018. We followed 24 patients after lower limb revascularization, divided into two groups: Experimental, treated with bacterial cellulose biopolymer film and gel, and Control, treated with essential fatty acids. Patients attended weekly appointments to change dressings and had their wound healing processes evaluated over a period of 90 days. Results: the reduction of the ischemic wounds' areas after 30 days was 4.3cm2 (55%) on average for the experimental group, and the 5.5cm2 (48.5%) for the control group (p>0.05). The complete healing rate at 90 days was 34.8%, 50% in the experimental group and 18.2% in the control group (p=0.053). Conclusion: the bacterial cellulose biopolymer film associated with gel can be used as a dressing in the treatment of ischemic wounds of patients undergoing revascularization of the lower limbs.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bandages , Wound Healing/drug effects , Biopolymers/therapeutic use , Cellulose/therapeutic use , Lower Extremity/pathology , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/therapy , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Angioplasty , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Gels/therapeutic use , Ischemia/pathology , Middle Aged
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(3): e201900303, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-989066

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether there is a relationship between renal artery vasospasm related low glomerular density or degeneration and neurogenic lung edema (NLE) following subarachnoid hemorrhage. Methods: This study was conducted on 26 rabbits. A control group was formed of five animals, a SHAM group of 5 to which saline and a study group (n=16) injected with homologous blood into the sylvian cisterna. Numbers of degenerated axons of renal branches of vagal nerves, atrophic glomerulus numbers and NLE scores were recorded. Results: Important vagal degeneration, severe renal artery vasospasm, intrarenal hemorrhage and glomerular atrophy observed in high score NLE detected animals. The mean degenerated axon density of vagal nerves (n/mm2), atrophic glomerulus density (n/mm3) and NLE scores of control, SHAM and study groups were estimated as 2.40±1.82, 2.20±1.30, 1.80±1.10, 8.00±2.24, 8.80±2.39, 4.40±1.14 and 154.38±13.61, 34.69±2.68 and 12.19±1.97 consecutively. Degenerated vagal axon, atrophic glomerulus and NLE scores are higher in study group than other groups and the differences are statistically meaningful (p<0.001). Conclusion: Vagal complex degeneration based glomerular atrophy have important roles on NLE following SAH which has not been extensively mentioned in the literature.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rabbits , Pulmonary Edema/etiology , Renal Artery , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/complications , Ischemia/complications , Kidney/blood supply , Nerve Degeneration/complications , Vagus Nerve/pathology , Vascular Diseases/complications , Disease Models, Animal
6.
Rev. chil. neuropsicol. (En línea) ; 13(2): 52-57, dic. 2018. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100630

ABSTRACT

El tema de la rehabilitación de las afasias es explorado con frecuencia en la literatura de las últimas décadas, debido a que es una de las secuelas más comunes del daño cerebral y de las que más presenta variaciones dependiendo del caso, por lo cual los profesionales a cargo de los pacientes que sufren de esta condición se ven en la necesidad de buscar métodos eficaces para tratarlos. El objetivo de esta investigación es mostrar el diseño de un único caso con sintomatología de afasia de conducción y anomia pura. Se trata de un paciente masculino de 62 años de edad, con nivel académico de doctorado, diagnóstico de afasia de conducción y anomia a causa de un evento isquémico con 18 meses de evolución. Recibió tratamiento neuropsicológico en base a modelos histórico-culturales y neurocognitivos en dos periodos diferentes, una hora por semana. Se llevó a cabo una evaluación neuropsicológica antes y después del programa de rehabilitación, además se hizo uso de líneas bases en ambos periodos y se tomó en cuenta la perspectiva del paciente y su esposa. El rendimiento en la primera y segunda evaluación muestra un mejor desempeño en algunas áreas del lenguaje, mientras que en las líneas bases y en la apreciación del paciente y su esposa se observaron cambios importantes, concluyendo que el programa tuvo efectos favorables en la comunicación del paciente en el hogar.


The subject of aphasia rehabilitation is frequently explored in recent literature since it is one of the most common forms of brain damage and presents an assortment of variations depending on the specific case, making it so that professionals who are in charge of patients with this condition find themselves in need of effective treatment methods. This article aims to present the design for the single case study rehabilitation of a patient with conduction aphasia and pure anomia. The patient in question is a 62-year-old male with a P.h.D. level education, diagnosed with conduction aphasia and anomia caused by an ischemic event with an 18-month evolution, he received neuropsychological treatment following the historic-cultural and neurocognitive models, spanning two different treatment periods, one hour a week. A neuropsychological evaluation was made before and after the rehabilitation program, as well as using a baseline for both periods and taking into account the perspective of both the patient and his wife. Patient performance in the first and second evaluations shows improvement in some language areas, while the baselines, as well as the patient and his wife's assessment speak of important changes, concluding that the program had favorable effects on the patient's communication at home


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Communication , Aphasia, Conduction/rehabilitation , Neurological Rehabilitation/methods , Anomia/rehabilitation , Treatment Outcome , Ischemia/complications
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(11): 964-974, Nov. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973473

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the hepatic changes associated with gastric ischemia. Methods: Thirty male rabbits were studied, distributed in 3 groups (n=10). Group 1: ligature and section of the gastric vasculature and removal of the liver after three hours; Group 2: ligature and section of the gastric vasculature and removal of the liver after 6 hours; Group 3: ligature and section of the gastric vasculature and removal of the liver after 12 hours. Blood samples were collected immediately before surgery and after the determined time of ischemia in each group to evaluate the hepatic function. After the death of the rabbits, the liver was removed for macro and microscopic study. Results: An increase in aminotransferases and bilirubin occurred in groups 2 and 3. Total protein and albumin diminished in all of the animals. All of the rabbits from groups 2 and 3 presented hepatocellular necrosis. Conclusion: The devascularization of the stomach for a period of above three hours is associated with hepatic morphological and functional disorders.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rabbits , Stomach/blood supply , Stomach/pathology , Ischemia/complications , Liver/pathology , Aspartate Aminotransferases , Reference Values , Time Factors , Bilirubin/blood , Serum Albumin/analysis , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Random Allocation , Alanine Transaminase , Alkaline Phosphatase , gamma-Glutamyltransferase , Ischemia/pathology , Liver/blood supply , Liver Diseases/etiology , Liver Diseases/pathology , Necrosis
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 889-895, Oct. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973469

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the role of the exogenous supply of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) in the expression of Bax and Bcl2L1 genes in intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (IR) in rats. Methods: The study was designed as a randomized controlled trial with a blinded assessment of the outcome. Eighteen adult male Wistar-EPM1 rats were housed under controlled temperature and light conditions (22-23°C, 12 h light/dark cycle). The animals were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1. Sham group (SG): no clamping of the superior mesenteric artery; 2. Ischemia and reperfusion group (IRG): 3. Ischemia and reperfusion plus ATP (IRG + ATP). ATP was injected in the femoral vein before and after ischemia. Afterwards, intestinal segments were appropriately removed and processed for Endothelial Cell Biology Rat RT2 Profiler PCR Array. Results: ATP promoted the upregulation of Bcl2L1 gene expression, whereas it did not have significant effects on Bax gene expression. In addition, the relation of Bax/Bcl2L1 gene expression in the IRG group was 1.39, whereas it was 0.43 in the IRG + ATP group. Bcl2L1 plays a crucial role in protecting against intestinal apoptosis after ischemia and reperfusion. Increased Bcl2L1 expression can inhibit apoptosis while decreased Bcl2L1 expression can trigger apoptosis. Conclusion: Adenosine triphosphate was associated with antiapoptotic effects on the rat intestine ischemia and reperfusion by upregulating of Bcl2L1 gene expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Adenosine Triphosphate/pharmacology , Apoptosis/drug effects , Genes, bcl-2 , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/genetics , Ischemia/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Random Allocation , Gene Expression , Up-Regulation , Rats, Wistar , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-bcl-2/metabolism , Disease Models, Animal , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/drug effects , bcl-2-Associated X Protein/metabolism , bcl-X Protein , Intestines , Ischemia/complications
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(9): 775-784, Sept. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973506

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether pre-treatment with rivastigmine is able to attenuate the I/R induced lesions in rat liver. Methods: SHAM animals or those submitted to I/R, non-treated or pre-treated with rivastigminine (2mg/kg) either 50 or 15 minutes before ischemia, were used. After I/R protocol, these animals were killed and their livers were harvested to measurement of the mitochondrial swelling as well as the malondialdehyde (MDA), nitrite and nitrate tissue concentration. Blood was also harvested for serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) determinations. Results: I/R promoted a significant increase of mitochondrial swelling in the studied animals. This increase of mitochondrial swelling was partially prevented by rivastigmine, but only if administered 50 minutes before ischemia. No significant modification of MDA, nitrite or nitrate tissue concentrations was observed in consequence of I/R, followed or not by rivastigmine treatments. In addition, I/R elevated both AST and ALT. These elevations of serum enzymes were not reversed by the different rivastigmine treatments. Conclusions: Rivastigmine administered 50 minutes before ischemia attenuates I/R-induced mitochondrial swelling, that indicates liver injury. This protective effect may be related to a greater stimulation of α7nAChR present in the Kupffer cells by the non-methabolized ACh, leading to an attenuation of I/R-induced inflammation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Rivastigmine/administration & dosage , Ischemia/complications , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Mitochondria, Liver , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Rats, Wistar , Mitochondrial Myopathies/prevention & control , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemia/blood , Liver/drug effects
10.
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 68(1): 100-103, Jan.-Feb. 2018.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897796

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background and objectives Sympathectomy is one of the therapies used in the treatment of chronic obstructive arterial disease (COAD). Although not considered as first-line strategy, it should be considered in the management of pain difficult to control. This clinical case describes the evolution of a patient with inoperable COAD who responded properly to the lumbar sympathetic block. Case report A female patient, afro-descendant, 69 years old, ASA II, admitted to the algology service due to refractory ischemic pain in the lower limbs. The patient had undergone several surgical procedures and conservative treatments without success. Vascular surgery considered the case as out of therapeutic possibility, unless limb amputation. At that time, sympathectomy was indicated. After admission to the operating room, the patient was monitored, positioned and sedated. The blockade was performed with the aid of radioscopy, bilaterally, at L2-L3-L4 right and L3 left levels. On the right side, at each level cited, 3 mL of absolute alcohol with 0.25% bupivacaine were injected without vasoconstrictor, and on the left side only local anesthetic. The procedure was performed uneventfully. The patient was discharged with complete remission of the pain. Conclusion Neurolitic block of the lumbar sympathetic chain is an effective and safe treatment option for pain control in patients with critical limb ischemia patients in whom the only possible intervention would be limb amputation.


Resumo Justificativa/objetivos A simpatectomia é uma das terapêuticas usadas no tratamento dadoença arterial obstrutiva crônica (DAOP). Embora não seja considerada como estratégia de primeira linha, deve ser lembrada no manejo dos quadros de dor de difícil controle. Este caso clínico descreve a evolução de uma paciente portadora de DAOP inoperável que respondeu adequadamente ao bloqueio simpático lombar. Relato de caso Paciente do sexo feminino, parda, 69 anos, estado físico II, acompanhada no serviço de algologia devido a dor isquêmica refratária em membros inferiores. A paciente já havia sido submetida a diversas abordagens cirúrgicas e tratamentos conservadores, sem sucesso. A cirurgia vascular considerou o caso como fora de possibilidade terapêutica, a não ser amputação do membro. Nesse momento, foi indicada simpatectomia. Após admissão no centro cirúrgico, a paciente foi monitorada, posicionada e sedada. O bloqueio foi feito com auxílio da radioscopia, bilateralmente, nos níveis L2-L3-L4 à direita e L3 à esquerda. Do lado direito, em cada nível citado, foram injetados 3 mL de álcool absoluto com bupivacaína 0,25% sem vasoconstritor e do lado esquerdo somente o anestésico local. O procedimento foi feito sem intercorrências. A paciente recebeu alta com completa remissão da dor. Conclusão O bloqueio neurolítico da cadeia simpática lombar é uma opção de tratamento eficaz e segura para controle da dor em pacientes portadores de isquemia crítica, nos quais a única intervenção possível seria a amputação do membro.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Aged , Autonomic Nerve Block/methods , Chronic Pain/surgery , Pain Management/methods , Critical Illness , Lower Extremity/blood supply , Chronic Pain/etiology , Ischemia/complications , Lumbosacral Plexus
11.
Rev. cuba. angiol. cir. vasc ; 18(2): 208-217, jul.-dic. 2017. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-844820

ABSTRACT

La isquemia aguda es la interrupción brusca del aporte sanguíneo a un determinado territorio del organismo. Su causa más frecuente, la embolia arterial, consiste en la oclusión también brusca de una arteria sana por material trombótico formado en un territorio proximal al del accidente y que desencadena un cuadro que, de no diagnosticarse y tratarse adecuadamente, puede comprometer la vida del paciente. Existe una estrecha relación entre la gravedad del cuadro isquémico y el tiempo transcurrido de manera que si no se toman medidas agresivas a tiempo raramente se resuelve de manera satisfactoria. La revascularización es considerada menos efectiva después de 8 a 10 h de isquemia, tiempo después del cual muchos se abstienen de operar debido al temido síndrome de reperfusión; sin embargo, algunos refieren éxitos con embolectomías tardías. Se presenta un caso de embolismo arterial a miembro inferior derecho por arritmia cardiaca, que llegó al servicio de Cirugía Vascular del Hospital Provincial "Dr. Antonio Luaces Iraola", con 72 h de evolución. Se le realizó embolectomía femoral con catéter de Fogarty con resultados satisfactorios, lo que apoya la hipótesis de que se debe intentar reperfundir la extremidad siempre que se demuestre viabilidad de los tejidos y no exista gangrena, independientemente del tiempo transcurrido(AU)


Acute ischemia is the sudden interruption of the blood flow in a specific area of the body. Its most common cause is arterial embolism consisting of abrupt occlusion of a healthy artery by thrombotic residues formed in an area near the stroke and unleashing a clinical picture that should be adequately diagnosed and treated to avoid death. There is close relationship between the severity of ischemia and the time elapsed because if no aggressive actions are taken in due time, the results are rarely satisfactory. Revascularization is considered less effective 8 to 10 hours after ischemia. After this time many surgeons refrain from performing surgery due to the frightening reperfusion syndrome. However some had documented successful results with late embolectomy. Here is a case of arterial embolism in right lower limb owing to cardiac arrhythmia. The patient arrived to the Vascular Surgery service after 72 hours of the event; he was performed femoral embolectomy with Fogarty catheter and the achieved results were satisfactory, which supports the hypothesis of trying to reperfusing the affected limb whenever tissue viability exists and gangrene is not present, regardless of time elapsed(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Embolectomy/methods , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/diagnosis
12.
J. vasc. bras ; 16(3): f:187-l:194, jul.-set. 2017. tab, ilus
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-876801

ABSTRACT

Contexto: Isquemia crítica de membro inferior sem leito distal tem opções restritas para tratamento. Desviar o fluxo de maneira retrógrada através da circulação venosa é alternativa amparada em evidências de inúmeros trabalhos publicados. Objetivos: Comparar o comportamento de variáveis clínicas e laboratoriais em extremidades de suínos submetidas a isquemia e a isquemia com reperfusão por circulação retrógrada entre si e em relação e a um grupo controle. Métodos: Dez suínos foram separados em dois grupos. No grupo 1 (n=5), controle, avaliaram-se padrões fisiológicos de variáveis como fluxo ao Doppler, temperatura, gasometria, lactato, creatinoquinase (CK) e pressão arterial. No grupo 2 (n=5), após um período médio de isquemia de 27 minutos e 30 segundos, consequente à interrupção do fluxo nas artérias femorais, os animais foram submetidos a arterialização venosa no membro posterior esquerdo e a manutenção da isquemia no direito. As variáveis foram analisadas separadamente durante momentos 0, 2, 3, 4 e 6 horas após a reperfusão para efeito de comparação entre si e com o grupo controle. Resultados: A análise das variáveis mostrou, em ambos os procedimentos, queda de BE e pO2 , com elevação significativa de lactato e CK em relação ao grupo controle. Nos membros isquêmicos arterializados, encontramos fluxo ao Doppler e maiores pressões arteriais e temperaturas quando comparadas ao membro em isquemia. Conclusões: A análise comparativa das extremidades em isquemia e isquemia arterializada mostrou, em relação ao grupo controle, um quadro de acidose metabólica, com significativo aumento de lactato e CK, que sugerem dano celular e sinais de reperfusão retrógrada nas extremidades arterializadas


Background: There are few options for treating critical ischemia in limbs with no distal patency. Diverting flow through the venous circulation is an option supported by evidence from numerous published studies. Objectives: To compare the behavior of clinical and laboratory variables between the hind limbs of pigs subjected to ischemia and to ischemia with reperfusion by retrograde circulation and between these intervention groups and a control group. Methods: Ten pigs were divided into 2 groups. In group 1 (n=5), controls, patterns of physiological variables such as flow according to Doppler ultrasound, temperature, blood gas analysis results, lactate, creatine kinase, and blood pressure were evaluated. In group 2 (n=5), after an initial ischemia period with mean duration of 27 minutes and 30 seconds, provoked by interrupting flow through the femoral arteries, the animals were subjected to venous arterialization of the left hind limb while the right hind limb was maintained in ischemia. Variables were analyzed separately for each hind leg at 0, 2, 3, 4, and 6 hours after reperfusion and compared against each other and the control group. Results: Analysis of variables from both procedures showed decreases in BE and PO2 and significant increases in lactate and creatine kinase, in relation to the control group. In arterialized ischemic limbs, we observed flow on Doppler ultrasound, and arterial pressures and temperatures were higher than in the ischemic limbs. Conclusions: Comparative analysis of the extremities in ischemia and arterialized ischemia showed, in relation to the control group, metabolic acidosis with significant increases in lactate and creatine kinase, suggesting cellular damage, and there were signs of retrograde reperfusion in arterialized extremities.


Subject(s)
Animals , Comparative Study , Control Groups , Ischemia/complications , Models, Animal , Reperfusion/methods , Arterial Pressure/physiology , Creatine Kinase , Femoral Artery/physiology , Ketosis/diagnosis , Lactic Acid , Lower Extremity , Statistical Analysis , Swine
13.
In. Kalil Filho, Roberto; Fuster, Valetim; Albuquerque, Cícero Piva de. Medicina cardiovascular reduzindo o impacto das doenças / Cardiovascular medicine reducing the impact of diseases. São Paulo, Atheneu, 2016. p.225-237.
Monography in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-971538
14.
J. vasc. bras ; 14(4): 360-363, out.-dez. 2015. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-767703

ABSTRACT

A Síndrome de Ehlers-Danlos (EDS) é uma rara doença hereditária do tecido conjuntivo proveniente de uma alteração da síntese do colágeno. A principal característica da EDS é a extrema fragilidade do tecido conjuntivo, que pode resultar em rotura uterina, perfuração intestinal espontânea e várias doenças vasculares como aneurismas, pseudoaneurismas, dissecções arteriais e roturas espontâneas. Os autores relatam o caso de um paciente de 11 anos de idade que apresentava tumor pulsátil na fossa poplítea esquerda após trauma leve com bola de futebol. Diagnosticado pseudoaneurisma de artéria poplítea pelo doppler arterial, confirmado através da angiografia, optou-se pela exploração arterial e devido à fragilidade da parede não foi possível a sua reconstrução. Realizada a ligadura simples da artéria proximal. Evoluiu com isquemia grave do membro e após autorização da família foi realizada a sua amputação. No segundo dia do pós-operatório o paciente apresentou uma dissecção aguda da aorta torácica, evoluindo a óbito.


Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome (EDS) is a rare inherited connective tissue disease arising from an abnormality of collagen synthesis. The main feature of EDS is the extreme fragility of connective tissues, which can result in uterine rupture, spontaneous intestinal drilling and vascular diseases such as aneurysms, pseudoaneurysms, arterial dissections and spontaneous ruptures. This paper describes the case of an 11-year-old patient who presented a pulsatile mass in the left popliteal fossa after a minor trauma caused by a soccer ball. A pseudoaneurysm of the popliteal artery was diagnosed with arterial Doppler ultrasound and confirmed using angiography. An exploratory investigation revealed that the artery wall was too weak to allow reconstruction and the proximal artery was ligated. The patient developed severe limb ischemia and after authorization by the family the limb was amputated. Two days after surgery, the patient died as a result of acute thoracic aortic dissection.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Child , Popliteal Artery/surgery , Popliteal Artery , Aneurysm, False/surgery , Aneurysm, False , Ehlers-Danlos Syndrome/diagnosis , Amputation , Angiography , Dissection , Fatal Outcome , Postoperative Hemorrhage/complications , Ischemia/complications , Ultrasonography, Doppler
15.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 105(2): 151-159, Aug. 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-757998

ABSTRACT

AbstractBackground:Organ injury occurs not only during periods of ischemia but also during reperfusion. It is known that ischemia reperfusion (IR) causes both remote organ and local injuries.Objective:This study evaluated the effects of tramadol on the heart as a remote organ after acute hindlimb IR.Methods:Thirty healthy mature male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into three groups: Group I (sham), Group II (IR), and Group III (IR + tramadol). Ischemia was induced in anesthetized rats by left femoral artery clamping for 3 h, followed by 3 h of reperfusion. Tramadol (20 mg/kg, intravenous) was administered immediately prior to reperfusion. At the end of the reperfusion, animals were euthanized, and hearts were harvested for histological and biochemical examination.Results:The levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were higher in Groups I and III than those in Group II (p < 0.05). In comparison with other groups, tissue malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in Group II were significantly increased (p < 0.05), and this increase was prevented by tramadol. Histopathological changes, including microscopic bleeding, edema, neutrophil infiltration, and necrosis, were scored. The total injuryscore in Group III was significantly decreased (p < 0.05) compared with Group II.Conclusion:From the histological and biochemical perspectives, treatment with tramadol alleviated the myocardial injuries induced by skeletal muscle IR in this experimental model.


ResumoFundamento:Lesões a órgãos ocorrem não apenas durante períodos de isquemia, mas paradoxalmente, também durante a reperfusão. Sabe-se que a reperfusão pós-isquêmica (RPI) causa lesões tanto remotas quanto locais no órgão afetado.Objetivo:Este estudo avaliou os efeitos do tramadol no coração como órgão remoto, após RPI aguda dos membros posteriores.Métodos:Trinta ratos Wistar, machos, adultos e saudáveis, foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em três grupos: Grupo I (controle), Grupo II (RPI) e Grupo III (RPI + tramadol). Isquemia foi induzida em ratos anestesiados através do pinçamento da artéria femoral esquerda por 3 horas, seguidas de 3 horas de reperfusão. Tramadol foi administrado (20 mg/kg, IV) imediatamente antes da reperfusão. Ao final da reperfusão, os animais foram sacrificados e seus corações coletados para exames histológicos e bioquímicos.Resultados:Os níveis de superóxido-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) e glutationa-peroxidase (GPx) foram maiores nos grupos I e III que no grupo II (p < 0.05). Em comparação aos outros grupos, os níveis tissulares de malondialdeído (MDA) estavam significativamente mais elevados no grupo II (p < 0.05), o que foi evitado pelo uso de tramadol. Foram pontuadas as alterações histopatológicas, incluindo micro-hemorragia, edema, infiltração por neutrófilos e necrose. A pontuação total das lesões do grupo III foi significativamente menor (p < 0.05) em comparação ao grupo II.Conclusão:Do ponto de vista histológico e bioquímico, o tratamento com tramadol diminuiu as lesões miocárdicas induzidas pela RPI da musculatura esquelética neste modelo experimental.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Ischemia/prevention & control , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Narcotics/pharmacology , Tramadol/pharmacology , Femoral Artery , Heart/drug effects , Hindlimb/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/drug therapy , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Myocardial Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Oxidoreductases/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Tramadol/therapeutic use
16.
Int. braz. j. urol ; 41(3): 576-583, May-June 2015. tab, ilus
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-755872

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTObjective

The objective of the present study was to investigate the role of pentoxifylline (PTX) on remote testicular injury caused by unilateral hind limb ischemia/reperfusion of rats.

Materials and Methods

Twenty healthy male Wistar rats were allocated randomly into two groups: ischemia/reperfusion (IR group) and ischemia/reperfusion + pentoxifylline (IR+PTX group). Ischemia was induced by placement of a rubber tourniquet at the greater trochanter for 2h. Rats in IR+PTX group received PTX (40 mg/kg IP) before the reperfusion period. At 24h after reperfusion, testes were removed and levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), catalase (CAT) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were determined in testicular tissues. Three rats of each group were used for wet/ dry weight ratio measurement. Testicular tissues were also examined histopathologically under light microscopy.

Results

Activities of SOD and CAT in testicular tissues were decreased by ischemia/ reperfusion (P<0.05). Significantly increased MDA levels in testicular tissues were decreased by PTX treatment (P<0.05). MPO activity in testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). The wet/dry weight ratio of testicular tissues in the IR group was significantly higher than in the IR+PTX group (P<0.05). Histopathologically, there was a statistically significant difference between two groups (P<0.05).

Conclusions

According to histological and biochemical findings, we conclude that PTX has preventive effects in the testicular injury induced by hind limb ischemia/reperfusion.

.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Hindlimb/blood supply , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Testis/drug effects , Catalase/analysis , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemia/complications , Ischemia/prevention & control , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Peroxidase/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Superoxide Dismutase/analysis , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome , Testis/chemistry , Testis/metabolism , Testis/pathology
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 30(2): 127-133, 02/2015. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-741031

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate renal histological changes and renal function in single kidney rats submitted to renal ischemia-reperfusion and to immunosuppression with tacrolimus and mycophenolate-mofetil. METHODS: Experimental study with 80 Wistar rats distributed into control, Sham and six other groups treated with immunosuppressive drugs. Animals undergoing surgery, right nephrectomy and left renal clamping, killed on the 14th day and analyzed for renal histology, urea and creatinine. RESULTS: The group receiving tacrolimus at higher doses (T3) showed renal histological lesions indicative of early nephrotoxicity, and significant increase in urea and creatinine. The group M (mycophenolate-mofetil alone) and the group M2 (mycophenolate-mofetil combined with half the usual dose of tacrolimus) presented a slight rise in serum urea. The groups using mycophenolate-mofetil alone or combined with tacrolimus showed creatinine levels similar to that of the group T3. CONCLUSIONS: Histologically, the association of injury by ischemia-reperfusion with the use of tacrolimus or mycophenolate-mofetil alone demonstrated a higher rate of renal changes typical of early nephrotoxicity. In laboratory, the combination of injury by ischemia-reperfusion with tacrolimus at higher doses proved to be nephrotoxic. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Immunosuppressive Agents/adverse effects , Ischemia/complications , Kidney Diseases/etiology , Kidney/blood supply , Mycophenolic Acid/analogs & derivatives , Reperfusion Injury/complications , Tacrolimus/adverse effects , Calcineurin Inhibitors/adverse effects , Creatinine/blood , Immunosuppression/adverse effects , Immunosuppressive Agents/blood , Kidney Diseases/pathology , Kidney Diseases/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Mycophenolic Acid/adverse effects , Nephrons/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Time Factors , Tacrolimus/blood , Urea/blood
18.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-100419

ABSTRACT

The purpose of this report was to provide information for patients receiving inpatient rehabilitation after stroke and to identify the possible factors influencing functional outcome after inpatient rehabilitation. Stroke patients (n = 5,212) who were discharged from the Departments of Rehabilitation Medicine (RM) of university hospitals and rehabilitation hospitals from 2007 through 2011 were participants. Prevalence, age, transfer time after onset, length of stay (LOS), functional status at admission and discharge were analyzed. In all stroke subjects, cerebral infarctions (67%) were more common than hemorrhages. Cerebral infarctions in the middle cerebral artery territory were most common, while the basal ganglia and cerebral cortex were the most common areas for hemorrhagic stroke. The LOS decreased from 45 to 28 days. Transfer time after onset decreased from 44 to 30 days. Shorter transfer time after onset was correlated with better discharge functional status and shorter LOS. Initial functional status was correlated with discharge functional status. In ischemic stroke subtypes, cerebellar and brainstem strokes predicted better outcomes, while strokes with more than one territory predicted poorer outcomes with more disabilities. In hemorrhagic stroke subtypes, initial and discharge functional status was the lowest for cortical hemorrhages and highest for brainstem hemorrhages. This report shows that LOS and transfer time after onset has been decreased over time and initial functional status and shorter transfer after onset are predictors of better functional outcome at discharge.


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Databases, Factual , Demography , Female , Hemorrhage/complications , Hospitals, University , Humans , Inpatients , Ischemia/complications , Length of Stay , Male , Middle Aged , Rehabilitation Centers , Stroke/etiology , Treatment Outcome
19.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 187-196, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-60935

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Clinical studies have reported a correlation between pelvic ischemia and voiding dysfunction in elderly men. The aim of this study was to identify and compare prostate structural modifications in cultured cells and in a rabbit model after exposure to hypoxia, oxidative stress, and chronic ischemia. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cultured human prostate smooth muscle cells (SMCs), epithelial cells (ECs), and stromal cells (SCs) were incubated under normoxia, hypoxia, and oxidative stress conditions by use of a computerized oxycycler system. We developed a rabbit model of chronic prostate ischemia by creating aorto-iliac arterial atherosclerosis. Markers of oxidative stress were examined by using fluorometric analysis and enzyme immunoassay. Prostate structure was examined by using Masson's trichrome staining and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). RESULTS: Lipid peroxidation was found in SMCs exposed to hypoxia and in all cell types exposed to oxidative stress. We identified protein oxidation in ECs exposed to hypoxia and in all cell types exposed to oxidative stress. Markers indicating oxidative damage were present in chronically ischemic rabbit prostate tissue. These reactions were associated with DNA damage. Prostate ischemia resulted in epithelial atrophy, loss of smooth muscle, and diffuse fibrosis. TEM showed swollen mitochondria with degraded cristae, loss of membrane, loss of Golgi bodies, degenerated nerves, and disrupted cell-to-cell junctions. CONCLUSIONS: Human prostate cells exhibited differential reactions to hypoxia and oxidative stress with widespread DNA damage. Structural modifications in ischemic prostate tissue were similar to those in cells exposed to oxidative stress. Structural changes due to ischemia and oxidative stress may contribute to prostatic noncompliance in aging men.


Subject(s)
Animals , Hypoxia/complications , Atherosclerosis/complications , Biomarkers , Cells, Cultured , DNA Damage , Disease Models, Animal , Epithelial Cells/ultrastructure , Fibrosis , Humans , Ischemia/complications , Lipid Peroxidation , Male , Myocytes, Smooth Muscle/ultrastructure , Nerve Degeneration , Oxidative Stress , Prostate/anatomy & histology , Rabbits , Stromal Cells/ultrastructure , Urinary Bladder Neck Obstruction/complications
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 29(11): 735-741, 11/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-728650

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: To evaluate intestinal inflammatory and apoptotic processes after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion injury, modulated by pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline. METHODS: It was allocated into four groups (n=6), 24 male Wistar rats (200 to 250g) and submitted to intestinal ischemia for 40 min and reperfusion for 80 min: IR (did not receive any treatment); HS group (Hypertonic Saline, 4ml/kg-IV); PTX group (Pentoxifylline, 30mg/kg-IV); HS+PTX group (Hypertonic Saline and Pentoxifylline). All animals were heparinized (100U/kg). At the end of reperfusion, ileal fragments were removed and stained on hematoxylin-eosin and histochemical studies for COX-2, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3. RESULTS: The values of sO2 were higher on treated groups at 40 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0081) and 80 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0072). Serum lactate values were lower on treated groups after 40 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0003) and 80 minutes of reperfusion (p=0.0098). Morphologic tissue injuries showed higher grades on IR group versus other groups: HS (p=0.0006), PTX (p=0.0433) and HS+PTX (p=0.0040). The histochemical study showed lesser expression of COX-2 (p=0.0015) and Bcl-2 (p=0.0012) on HS+PTX group. A lower expression of cleaved caspase-3 was demonstrated in PTX (p=0.0090; PTXvsIR). CONCLUSION: The combined use of pentoxifylline and hypertonic saline offers best results on inflammatory and apoptotic inhibitory aspects after intestinal ischemia/reperfusion. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Apoptosis/drug effects , Intestines/blood supply , Ischemia/complications , Pentoxifylline/pharmacology , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , /analysis , /analysis , Immunohistochemistry , Intestines/drug effects , Ischemia/prevention & control , Lactic Acid/blood , Oxygen/metabolism , Pentoxifylline/therapeutic use , Phosphodiesterase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Reference Values , Reproducibility of Results , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/therapeutic use , Time Factors
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL