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1.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 81(4): 588-596, ago. 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1346511

ABSTRACT

Abstract Up to 15% of all strokes affect young patients and the incidence of ischemic stroke in this population is rising. Nevertheless, there is limited information of cerebrovascular events in this population both in our country and in Latin America. The aim of our study was to evaluate the clinical characteristics and risk factors of young adults with stroke in Argentina. This is a prospective, multicenter study of stroke in young adults (18 - 55 years) in Argentina. Patients presenting with a cerebrovascular event within 180 days were included. Stroke subtypes were classified according to TOAST criteria. A total number of 311 patients were enrolled (men 53.9%, mean age: 43.3 years). Ischemic strokes occurred in 91.8% (brain infarcts 82.6%, transient ischemic attack 9.2%) and hemorrhagic strokes in 8.2%. The most frequent vascular risk factors (including ischemic and hemorrhagic strokes) were: hypertension 120 (41%), smoking 92 (31.4%), dyslipidemia 81 (27.6%) and, over weight/obesity: 74 (25.3%). Stroke subtypes were: large artery disease 12.3%, cardioembolism 7.5, small artery occlusion 11.5%, other defined etiology 27.1%, and undetermined etiology 41.6%. Our study demonstrates that vascular risk factors are very frequent in young adults with stroke. Our findings underline that urgent strategies are required for primary and secondary stroke prevention in this group of patients.


Resumen Aproximadamente un 15% de todos los ataques cerebrovasculares afectan a pacientes jóvenes y su incidencia estaría en aumento. Existe escasa información sobre el ataque cerebral en esta población tanto en nuestro país como en Latinoamérica. El objetivo de nuestro estudio fue evaluar las características clínicas y los factores de riesgo de los adultos jóvenes con ictus en Argentina. Realizamos un estudio prospectivo y multicéntrico en adultos jóvenes (18-55 años) en Argentina, que presentaron un evento cerebrovascular dentro de los 180 días previos. Los subtipos de ictus se clasificaron según los criterios de TOAST. Se incluyeron un total de 311 pacientes (hombres 53.9%, edad media: 43,3 años). Los ataques cerebrovasculares isquémicos ocurrieron en el 91.8% (infartos cerebrales 82.6%, ataque isquémico transitorio 9.2%) y los eventos hemorrágicos correspondieron al 8.2%. Los factores de riesgo vascular más frecuentes (incluyendo los eventos isquémicos y hemorrágicos) fueron: hipertensión 120 (41%), tabaquismo 92 (31.4%), dislipidemia 81 (27.6%) y sobrepeso/obesidad: 74 (25.3%). Los subtipos de ictus isquémicos fueron: arteriopatía de gran vaso 12.3%, cardioembolismo 7.5%, oclusión de pequeña arteria 11.5%, otra etiología definida 27.1% y etiología indeterminada 41.6%. Los factores de riesgo vascular son muy frecuentes en los adultos jóvenes con ictus. Nuestros hallazgos subrayan que se requieren estrategias urgentes para la prevención primaria y secundaria del ictus en este grupo particular de pacientes en nuestro país.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Young Adult , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Brain Ischemia/epidemiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Stroke/epidemiology , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/epidemiology , Argentina/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke/etiology
2.
Repert. med. cir ; 30(1): 68-71, 2021. ilus.
Article in English, Spanish | LILACS, COLNAL | ID: biblio-1349138

ABSTRACT

Introducción: El síndrome de limb-shaking o sacudida de extremidades como presentación de un ataque isquémico transitorio es raro y suele asociarse con estenosis de las arterias carótidas internas. El principal diagnóstico diferencial es con crisis convulsivas. Presentación del caso: presentamos el caso de un paciente con estenosis carotídea intracraneal bilateral que cursó con sacudidas en extremidades y tuvo mejoría clínica satisfactoria tras un procedimiento con stent.


Limb-shaking syndrome or involuntary shaking movements of the affected limbs as a manifestation of a transient ischemic attack is rare and often is associated with internal carotid artery stenosis. The main differential diagnosis is a convulsive seizure. We present the case of a patient with bilateral intracranial carotid artery stenosis presenting as limb shaking syndrome, showing satisfactory clinical improvement after undergoing stent revascularization.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Carotid Stenosis , Stroke , Ischemic Stroke , Stents , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Dyskinesias
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-826361

ABSTRACT

To investigate cerebral autoregulation(CA)in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis by near infrared spectroscopy. Thirty patients who underwent general anesthesia in our hospital from January 2015 to February 2017 were enrolled in this study.The stenosis group included 15 patients with severe unilateral internal carotid artery stenosis,and the control group included 15 patients without carotid artery stenosis.Both groups were matched in sex and age.Cerebral tissue oxygenation index(TOI)and mean arterial pressure were recorded continuously under stable general anesthesia.The Pearson correlation coefficient()was calculated to judge the CA status. TOI was not significantly different between the stenosis side and the non-stenosis side in the stenosis group(66.52±6.50 65.23±4.50;=0.93, =0.368)or between the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side in the control group(66.52±6.50 64.22±3.87;=1.18, =0.248).The values of stenosis side and non-stenosis side in the stenosis group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.17±0.11,respectively,and the values of the stenosis side in the stenosis group and the stenosis side of the control group were 0.36±0.12 and 0.13±0.08,respectively.In the stenosis group,5 patients had transient ischemic attack and 2 patients had a history of stroke within 3 months before operation.When an value of 0.342 was used as the judgment point of CA abnormality,the sensitivity and specificity were 0.625 and 0.909,respectively. Within the range of normal blood pressure fluctuation,cerebral blood flow is linked to blood pressure at the stenosis side in patients with severe unilateral carotid artery stenosis.


Subject(s)
Blood Pressure , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebrovascular Circulation , Homeostasis , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient
5.
Medicina (B.Aires) ; 79(4): 315-321, ago. 2019. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1040529

ABSTRACT

El inicio precoz del tratamiento con antiagregantes plaquetarios es considerado el estándar de cuidado para pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico agudo. Distintos esquemas de antiagregación se han comparado con resultados que sugieren que la combinación de múltiples antiagregantes se asocian a menor riesgo de recurrencia de accidente cerebrovascular (ACV) pero a expensas de un aumento en el riesgo de sangrado, lo que a largo plazo termina opacando dichos beneficos. Sin embargo, considerando que el riesgo de recurrencia de ACV es mayor en el periodo inmediato al evento, la indicación de doble tratamiento antiagregante por tiempos limitados podría asociarse a beneficios relevantes. Con este concepto, se realizó una revisión sistemática rápida con el objetivo de evaluar el efecto del tratamiento con doble antiagregación por un periodo corto intentando maximizar el beneficio y reducir al mínimo el riesgo de sangrado. Se incluyeron todos los estudios primarios identificados en los que se comparó un esquema de doble antiagregación, iniciado en el periodo agudo del evento índice (ACV o accidente isquémico transitorio - AIT), contra un esquema de simple antiagregación. El cuerpo de la evidencia mostró que la intervención (doble antiagregación) reduce el riesgo de recurrencia de ACV y probablemente se asocie a un aumento marginal en el riesgo de sangrado mayor. Sugerimos indicar doble esquema antiplaquetario para el tratamiento inicial de pacientes con ACV isquémico menor (Score NIH < o igual a 3 o AIT).


One of the main pillars of acute ischemic stroke management is antiplatelet therapy. Different treatment schemes have been compared, suggesting that the combination of multiple antiplatelet drugs is associated with a reduced risk of stroke recurrence. However, it has also been associated with an increased risk of bleeding complications which, in the long term, surpass the mentioned benefits. However, considering that most stroke recurrences occur i n the short term, a time limited double antiplatelet scheme could result in significant benefits to patients with acute ischemic stroke. On this basis, we conducted a rapid systematic review of the literature in order to evaluate the effects of a short-term double antiplatelet therapy both on stroke recurrence and complications. All trials comparing double versus single antiplatelet therapy in patients with acute ischemic stroke were included. Results showed that double therapy reduces recurrence risk but probably marginally increases major bleeding complications. We suggest double antiplatelet therapy for the initial management of patients with minor (Score NIH < or equal to 3 or transient isquemic attack -TIA) acute ischemic stroke.


Subject(s)
Humans , Benzodiazepines/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/prevention & control , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage , Polyamines/administration & dosage , Recurrence , Drug Therapy, Combination , Secondary Prevention
6.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 456-459, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Patients on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy are often required to discontinue these medications before and during surgical or invasive procedures. In some cases, the patient stops the treatment without medical supervision. These situations may increase stroke risk. Objective To identify the ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) prevalence related to length of time of discontinuation of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist therapy, in a group of inpatients from a specialized neurological hospital in Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study of stroke inpatients for three years. Medical reports were reviewed to find study participants, stroke characteristics, risk factors, reasons and time of drug interruption. Results In three years, there were 360 stroke and TIA inpatients, of whom 27 (7.5%) had a history of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist interruption correlated with the time of the event (81% ischemic stroke, 19% TIA). The median time between antiplatelet interruption and an ischemic event was five days, and 62% of events occurred within seven days after drug suspension. For vitamin K antagonists, the average time to the ischemic event was 10.4 days (SD = 5.7), and in 67% of patients, the time between drug discontinuation and the event was 7-14 days. The most frequent reason for drug suspension was patient negligence (37%), followed by planned surgery or invasive examination (26%) and side effects, including hemorrhage (18.5%). Conclusion Antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist suspension has a temporal relationship with the occurrence of stroke and TIA. Since these events are preventable, it is crucial that healthcare professionals convince their patients that drug withdrawal can cause serious consequences.


RESUMO Pacientes em terapia anticoagulante ou antiagregante plaquetária frequentemente são solicitados a descontinuar essas medicações antes e durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou invasivos. Se o paciente interromper tratamento sem supervisão médica, poderá aumentar de risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo Identificar prevalência de AVC isquêmico e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) associados à descontinuação de terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos em pacientes internados em hospital especializado em atendimento neurológico no Brasil. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo de três anos, descritivo dos pacientes hospitalizados por AVC. A revisão de relatórios médicos determinou características do AVC, fatores de risco, motivos e tempo de interrupção medicamentosa. Resultados Em três anos, foram internados 360 pacientes por AVC ou AIT; destes, 27 interromperam temporariamente terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos relacionando ao evento (81% acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico, 19% AIT). A prevalência foi de 7,5%. O tempo médio entre interrupção antiplaquetária e evento foi cinco dias, com 62% deles ocorrendo até sete dias após suspensão medicamentosa. Para coumarínicos, o tempo médio foi 10,4 dias (d.p.= 5,7), em 67% dos casos o tempo entre a descontinuação medicamentosa e o evento foi 7-14 dias. O motivo mais frequente para suspensão do medicamento foi negligência do paciente (37%), seguido por cirurgia planejada ou exame invasivo (26%) e efeitos colaterais, incluindo hemorragia (18,5%). Conclusão Suspensão de terapia de antiplaquetários ou coumarínicos tem relação temporal com ocorrência de AVC e de AIT. Esses eventos são passíveis de serem evitados, sendo imprescindível que profissionais de saúde convençam seus pacientes das consequências graves da retirada do medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage
7.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 404-411, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011360

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Low- and middle-income countries face tight health care budgets, not only new resources, but also costly therapeutic resources for treatment of ischemic stroke (IS). However, few prospective data about stroke costs including cerebral reperfusion from low- and middle-income countries are available. Objective To measure the costs of stroke care in a public hospital in Joinville, Brazil. Methods We prospectively assessed all medical and nonmedical costs of inpatients admitted with a diagnosis of any stroke or transient ischemic attack over one year, analyzed costs per type of stroke and treatment, length of stay (LOS) and compared hospital costs with government reimbursement. Results We evaluated 274 patients. The total cost for the year was US$1,307,114; the government reimbursed the hospital US$1,095,118. We found a significant linear correlation between LOS and costs (r = 0.71). The median cost of 134 IS inpatients who did not undergo cerebral reperfusion (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] median = 3 ) was US$2,803; for IS patients who underwent intravenous (IV) alteplase (NIHSS 10), the median was US$5,099, and for IS patients who underwent IV plus an intra-arterial (IA) thrombectomy (NIHSS > 10), the median cost was US$10,997. The median costs of a primary intracerebral hemorrhage, subarachnoid hemorrhage, and transient ischemic attack were US$2,436, US$8,031 and US$2,677, respectively. Conclusions Reperfusion treatments were two-to-four times more expensive than conservative treatment. A cost-effectiveness study of the IS treatment option is necessary.


RESUMO Os países de baixa e media renda enfrentam orçamentos apertados na saúde, não somente devido aos novos recursos terapêuticos, mas relacionado ao custo oneroso do tratamento do acidente vascular cerebral. No entanto, poucos dados prospectivos sobre os custos do AVC, incluindo reperfusão cerebral de países de baixa e média renda estão disponíveis. Objetivo Mensurar os custos do atendimento ao AVC em um hospital público. Métodos Avaliamos prospectivamente todos os custos médicos e não médicos de pacientes internados com diagnóstico de acidente vascular cerebral ou AIT durante 1 ano, analisamos os custos por tipo de AVC e tratamento, tempo de permanência e comparamos os custos hospitalares com o reembolso governamental. Resultados Foram avaliados 274 pacientes. O custo total em um ano foi de US$ 1.307,114; o governo reembolsou o hospital no valor de US$ 1.095.118. Encontramos uma correlação linear significativa entre LOS e custos (r = 0,71). A mediana do custo do AVCI em 134 pacientes que não sofreram reperfusão cerebral (National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] mediana = 3) foi de US$ 2.803; para pacientes submetidos a alteplase intravenosa (IV) (NIHSS 10), a mediana foi de US$ 5.099 e para os pacientes submetidos a trombectomia intra-arterial (IA) (NIHSS > 10), o custo mediano foi de US$ 10.997. A mediana do custo de uma hemorragia intracerebral primária, hemorragia subaracnóidea e AIT foram de US$ 2.436, US$ 8.031 e US$ 2.677, respectivamente. Conclusões Os tratamentos de reperfusão foram duas a quatro vezes mais caros do que o tratamento conservador. Estudo de custo-efetividade para o tratamento do AVC são necessários.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/economics , Hospitals, Public/economics , Length of Stay/economics , Reference Values , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/economics , Time Factors , Brazil , Cerebral Hemorrhage/economics , Ischemic Attack, Transient/economics , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(6): 393-403, June 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011354

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Few studies from low- and middle-income countries have assessed stroke and cerebral reperfusion costs from the private sector. Objective To measure the in-hospital costs of ischemic stroke (IS), with and without cerebral reperfusion, primary intracerebral hemorrhage (PIH), subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) and transient ischemic attacks (TIA) in two private hospitals in Joinville, Brazil. Methods Prospective disease-cost study. All medical and nonmedical costs for patients admitted with any stroke type or TIA were consecutively determined in 2016-17. All costs were adjusted to the gross domestic product deflator index and purchasing power parity. Results We included 173 patients. The median cost per patient was US$3,827 (IQR: 2,800-8,664) for the 131 IS patients; US$2,315 (IQR: 1,692-2,959) for the 27 TIA patients; US$16,442 (IQR: 5,108-33,355) for the 11 PIH patients and US$28,928 (IQR: 12,424-48,037) for the four SAH patients (p < 0.00001). For the six IS patients who underwent intravenous thrombolysis, the median cost per patient was US$11,463 (IQR: 8,931-14,291), and for the four IS patients who underwent intra-arterial thrombectomy, the median cost per patient was US$35,092 (IQR: 31,833-37,626; p < 0.0001). A direct correlation was found between cost and length of stay (r = 0.67, p < 0.001). Conclusions Stroke is a costly disease. In the private sector, the costs of cerebral reperfusion for IS treatment were three-to-ten times higher than for usual treatments. Therefore, cost-effectiveness studies are urgently needed in low- and middle-income countries.


RESUMO Poucos estudos determinam o custo do AVC em países de baixa e média renda nos setores privados. Objetivos Mensurar o custo hospitalar do tratamento do(a): AVC isquêmico com e sem reperfusão cerebral, hemorragia intracerebral primária (HIP), hemorragia subaracnóidea e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) em hospitais privados de Joinville, Brasil. Métodos Estudo prospectivo de custo de doença. Os custos médicos e não médicos dos pacientes admitidos com qualquer tipo de AVC ou AIT foram consecutivamente verificados em 2016-17. Os valores foram ajustados ao índice do deflator do produto interno bruto e à paridade do poder de compra. Resultados Nós incluímos 173 pacientes. A mediana de custo por paciente foi de US$ 3.827 (IQR: 2.800-8.664) para os 131 pacientes com AVC isquêmico; US$ 2.315 (1.692-2.959) para os 27 pacientes com AIT; US$ 16.442 (5.108-33.355) para os 11 pacientes com HIP e US$ 28.928 (12.424-48.037) para os quatro pacientes com HSA (p < 0,00001). Para seis pacientes submetidos à trombólise intravenosa, a mediana do custo por paciente foi de US$ 11.463 (8.931-14.291) e, para quatro pacientes submetidos à trombectomia intra-arterial, a mediana de custo por paciente foi de US$ 35.092 (31.833-37.626; p < 0,0001). Uma correlação direta foi encontrada entre custo e tempo de permanência (r = 0,67, p < 0,001). Conclusão O AVC é uma doença cara. Em ambiente privado, os custos da reperfusão cerebral foram de três a dez vezes superiores aos tratamentos habituais do AVC isquêmico. Portanto, estudos de custo-efetividade são urgentemente necessários em países de baixa e média rendas.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Hospitals, Private/economics , Health Care Costs/statistics & numerical data , Stroke/economics , Length of Stay/economics , Reference Values , Subarachnoid Hemorrhage/economics , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Brazil , Cerebral Hemorrhage/economics , Ischemic Attack, Transient/economics , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/therapy
9.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 34(1): 41-47, Jan.-Feb. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-985234

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the predictive value of epicardial fat thickness (EFT) in CHA2DS2-VASc (congestive heart failure, hypertension, age ≥75 years, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke or transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65-74 years, sex category) score risk groups. Methods: A total of 158 consecutive patients (75 females, 83 males, mean age 70.8±6.3 years) admitted routinely for cardiologic control were divided into two groups according to their CHA2DS2-VASc scores (scores 0 and 1 were regarded as low risk, and score ≥2 as high risk). One hundred twenty-five of 158 patients had a high-risk score. Results: Mean EFT was significantly higher in the high-risk group than in the low-risk group (4.34±0.62 vs. 5.37±1.0; P<0.001). EFT was positively correlated with CHA2DS2-VASc score (r=0.577, P<0.001). According to receiver operating characteristics (ROC) analysis, EFT value of 4.4 mm was found to be predictive of high risk in CHA2DS2-VASc score with 80% of sensitivity and 79% of specificity (C-statistic = 0.875, P<0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.76-0.90). And according to multivariate logistic regression analysis, EFT was an independent predictor of high thromboembolic risk in terms of CHA2DS2-VASc score. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that echocardiographic EFT measurement could provide additional information on assessing cardiovascular risks, such as thromboembolic events, and individuals with increased EFT should receive more attention to reduce unfavorable cardiovascular risk factors and the development of future cardiovascular events.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Pericardium/pathology , Pericardium/diagnostic imaging , Echocardiography/methods , Cardiovascular Diseases/etiology , Adipose Tissue/pathology , Adipose Tissue/diagnostic imaging , Cardiovascular Diseases/pathology , Cardiovascular Diseases/diagnostic imaging , Logistic Models , Ischemic Attack, Transient/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Multivariate Analysis , Prospective Studies , Risk Factors , Age Factors , Statistics, Nonparametric , Stroke/complications , Diabetes Complications/diagnosis , Heart Failure/complications , Heart Failure/diagnosis , Hypertension/complications , Hypertension/diagnosis
10.
Rev. latinoam. enferm. (Online) ; 27: e3197, 2019. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS, BDENF | ID: biblio-1043080

ABSTRACT

Objetivo analisar as complicações intra-hospitalares de internação prolongada em pacientes com AVC isquêmico ou ataque isquêmico transitório, internados na unidade de AVC de um hospital terciário. Método trata-se de um estudo correlacional avaliativo. Todos os pacientes com primeira incidência de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico ou ataque isquêmico transitório admitidos foram analisados retrospectivamente. Durante a internação hospitalar, os fatores preditores de internação prolongada foram: 1) complicações clínicas (pneumonia, infecção do trato urinário, lesão por pressão e trombose venosa profunda), e 2) complicações neurológicas (acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico maligno e transformação hemorrágica sintomática). Resultados 353 pacientes receberam alta no período do estudo. A média de idade foi de 64,1±13,7 anos e 186 (52,6%) eram homens. O tempo médio de internação hospitalar foi de 13,7±14,3 dias. Pneumonia (25,3±28,8 dias, p<0,001), infecção do trato urinário (32,9±45,2 dias, p<0,001) e acidente vascular cerebral maligno (29,1±21,4 dias, p<0,001) aumentaram significativamente o tempo de permanência hospitalar em relação aos pacientes sem quaisquer complicações (11,2±7,1 dias). Conclusão este estudo mostrou que três complicações atrasaram a alta hospitalar em pacientes internados em uma unidade de AVC, duas delas evitáveis: pneumonia e infecção do trato urinário. Medidas mais intensas para evitá-las devem ser incluídas nos indicadores de desempenho para reduzir o tempo de permanência hospitalar nas unidades de AVC.


Objective to analyze the in-hospital complications of prolonged hospital stay in patients with ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack, admitted to the stroke unit of a tertiary hospital. Method this is an evaluative correlational study. All first-ever ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack patients admitted were retrospectively analyzed. During hospital stay, the predictors of long-term hospitalization considered were: 1) clinical complications (pneumonia, urinary tract infection, pressure damage and deep vein thrombosis), and 2) neurological complications (malignant ischemic stroke and symptomatic hemorrhagic transformation). Results 353 patients were discharged in the study period. Mean age was 64.1±13.7 years old and 186 (52.6%) were men. The mean time of hospital stay was 13.7±14.3 days. Pneumonia (25.3±28.8 days, p<0.001), urinary tract infection (32.9±45.2 days, p<0.001) and malignant stroke (29.1±21.4 days, p<0.001) increased significantly the length of hospital stay compared to patients without any complications (11.2±7.1 days). Conclusion this study showed that three complications delayed hospital discharge in patients admitted in a stroke unit, two preventable ones: pneumonia and urinary tract infection. More intense measures to avoid them should be included in the performance indicators to reduce the length of hospital stay in stroke units.


Objetivo Analizar las complicaciones intrahospitalarias de estancia hopitalaria prolongada en pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico o accidente isquémico transitorio, ingresados en la unidad de accidente cerebrovascular de un hospital terciario. Método Se trata de un estudio evaluativo correlacional. Todos los primeros pacientes con accidente cerebrovascular isquémico o ataque isquémico transitorio ingresados fueron analizados retrospectivamente. Durante la estancia hospitalaria, los factores predictivos de hospitalización prolongada considerados fueron: 1) complicaciones clínicas (neumonía, infección del tracto urinario, daño por presión y trombosis venosa profunda), y 2) complicaciones neurológicas (accidente cerebrovascular isquémico maligno y transformación hemorrágica sintomática). Resultados 353 pacientes fueron dados de alta en el período de estudio. La edad media fue de 64,1±13,7 años y 186 (52,6%) eran hombres. El tiempo medio de estancia hospitalaria fue de 13,7±14,3 días. La neumonía (25,3±28,8 días, p<0,001), la infección del tracto urinario (32,9±45,2 días, p<0,001) y el accidente cerebrovascular maligno (29,1±21,4 días, p<0,001) aumentado significativamente la duración de la estancia hospitalaria en comparación con los pacientes sin ninguna complicación (11.2±7.1 días). Conclusión Este estudio mostró que de las tres complicaciones retrasaron el alta hospitalaria en pacientes ingresados en una unidad de accidente cerebrovascular, dos eran prevenibles: la neumonía y la infección del tracto urinario. Las medidas más intensas para evitarlas deben incluirse en los indicadores de rendimiento para reducir la duración de la estancia hospitalaria en unidades de accidente cerebrovascular.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Aged , Pneumonia/complications , Urinary Tract Infections/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Age Factors , Stroke , Diabetes Complications , Stroke Rehabilitation , Hospitalization , Length of Stay
11.
Clinics ; 74: e1222, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1039547

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Ischemic stroke (IS) or transient ischemic attack (TIA) history is present in 4-17% of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). This subgroup of patients is at high risk for both ischemic and bleeding events. The aim of this study was to determine the role of platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis in patients with CAD and previous IS or TIA. METHODS: A prospective case-control study that included 140 stable CAD patients divided into two groups: the CASE group (those with a previous IS/TIA, n=70) and the CONTROL group (those without a previous IS/TIA, n=70). Platelet aggregability (VerifyNow Aspirin® and VerifyNow P2Y12®), coagulation (fibrinogen and thromboelastography by Reorox®) and endogenous fibrinolysis (D dimer and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1) were evaluated. RESULTS: Patients in the CASE group presented significantly higher systolic blood pressure levels (135.84±16.09 vs 123.68±16.11, p<0.01), significantly more previous CABG (25.71% vs 10%, p=0.015) and significantly higher calcium channel blocker usage (42.86% vs 24.29%, p=0.02) than those in the control group. In the adjusted models, low triglyceride values, low hemoglobin values and higher systolic blood pressure were significantly associated with previous IS/TIA (CASE group). Most importantly, platelet aggregability, coagulation and fibrinolysis tests were not independently associated with previous cerebrovascular ischemic events (CASE group). CONCLUSION: Platelet aggregability, coagulation and endogenous fibrinolysis showed similar results among CAD patients with and without previous IS/TIA. Therefore, it remains necessary to identify other targets to explain the higher bleeding risk presented by these patients.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Coronary Artery Disease/blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient/blood , Platelet Aggregation/physiology , Stroke/blood , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Platelet Function Tests , Blood Coagulation Tests , Coronary Artery Disease/physiopathology , Case-Control Studies , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Prospective Studies , Stroke/physiopathology
12.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-762027

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Traditional longitudinal incision for carotid endarterectomy (CEA) can be painful, aesthetically displeasing, and associated with a high incidence of cranial nerve injury (CNI). This study describes the outcomes of CEA performed through small (<5 cm long), transversely oriented incisions located directly over the carotid bifurcation, as identified by color-enhanced duplex ultrasound. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patient demographics and operative data were collected retrospectively from an in-house database of consecutive vascular patients undergoing CEA with a small transversely oriented incision for both symptomatic and asymptomatic carotid artery stenoses. RESULTS: A total of 52 consecutive patients underwent CEA between 2012 and 2016 (median age, 73.5 years; interquartile range, 67-80.3; male/female ratio, 40:12). CEA was performed under regional/local anesthesia (LA) in 48 (92.3%) patients, with 4 (7.7%) being performed under general anesthesia. One patient under LA experienced intraoperative neurological dysfunction intraoperatively (manifesting as an inability to count out loud) that resolved with insertion of shunt. One patient experienced a transient neurological event (expressive dysphasia) within the immediate postoperative period, which resolved within 6 hours. No in-hospital death or perioperative major adverse cardiovascular events were noted. Follow-up data were available for a median period of 3.1 years and for all patients. Three patients experienced strokes following discharge (2 strokes contralateral to the operated side and 1 transient ischemic attack ipsilateral to the operated side). No persistent CNIs nor bleeding complications necessitating re-exploration were reported. CONCLUSION: Small, transversely orientated incisions, hidden within a neck skin crease can be safely performed in the majority of patients undergoing CEA.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Carotid Stenosis , Cranial Nerve Injuries , Demography , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Follow-Up Studies , Hemorrhage , Humans , Incidence , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Neck , Postoperative Period , Retrospective Studies , Skin , Stroke , Ultrasonography
13.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-765662

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to analyze uptake patterns and intensity of ¹⁸F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and ¹⁸F-sodium fluoride (NaF) radioligands in carotid atheroma among stroke patients according to carotid atheroma characteristics. METHODS: Between September 2015 and January 2017, consecutive acute stroke or transient ischemic attack patients with 50% or more proximal internal carotid artery stenosis on brain computed tomography angiography were prospectively enrolled. All patients received FDG and NaF positron emission tomography (PET) evaluation when their neurological status was stabilized. Uptake values of FDG and NaF were compared by target to blood ratio (TBR) according to the calcification burden, atheroma volume and the presence of a necrotic core of carotid atheroma. RESULTS: A total of 18 patients with 36 carotid arteries were finally enrolled, with 10 patients diagnosed as acute cerebral infarction due to symptomatic carotid stenosis. FDG uptake at symptomatic carotid arteries was significantly more increased than that at asymptomatic arteries (TBR: 1.17±0.23 vs. 1.01±0.15, Mann-Whitney U-test, p=0.02), but NaF uptake was not different (TBR: 1.38±0.49 vs. 1.51±0.40, p=0.40). In terms of calcification degree, NaF uptake increased as calcification burden increased (none, 1.28±0.36; spotty, 1.29±0.29; linear, 1.74±0.44; analysis of variance, p=0.02). CONCLUSION: Carotid evaluation by FDG is superior to NaF PET in the detection of symptomatic carotid atherosclerosis among stroke patients. NaF PET uptake reflects the overall calcification burden.


Subject(s)
Angiography , Arteries , Atherosclerosis , Brain , Carotid Arteries , Carotid Artery Diseases , Carotid Stenosis , Cerebral Infarction , Electrons , Fluorides , Glucose , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Plaque, Atherosclerotic , Positron-Emission Tomography , Prospective Studies , Stroke
14.
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 1079-1086, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-774756

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND@#Endothelial dysfunction, the initial pathogenic factor in atherosclerosis, can be alleviated via transient limb ischemia. We observed the effects of regular transient limb ischemia (RTLI) on atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.@*METHODS@#Twenty-eight rabbits were randomized to control, cholesterol, sham, ischemia groups (n = 7 each) between October 2010 and March 2011. They were fed a normal diet in the control group and hypercholesterolemic diet in other groups for 12 weeks. Six cycles of RTLI were performed once per day on the ischemia group. Serum samples were prepared to measure the total cholesterol (TC), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) before the experiment (W0), at the end of weeks 4, 8, 12 (W4, W8, W12). The whole aorta was harvested at W12 and stained using Sudan IV to identify the plaque. The plaque area was measured using Image J. Results were analyzed by analysis of variance or rank sum test.@*RESULTS@#Concentrations of TC in the cholesterol group were higher than those in the control group at W4 (29.60 [23.75, 39.30] vs. 1.00 [0.80, 1.55], Z = -2.745, P = 0.006), W8 (41.78 [28.08, 47.37] vs. 0.35 [0.10, 0.68], Z = -2.739, P = 0.006), W12 (48.32 [40.04, 48.95] vs. 0.61 [0.50, 0.86], Z = -2.739, P = 0.006). Similar results were obtained for HDL-C and LDL-C. Serum concentrations of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C in the hypercholesterolemic groups had no differences (all P > 0.05). The percentage of plaque area in the cholesterol group was higher than that in the control group (47.22 ± 23.89% vs. 0, Z = -2.986, P = 0.003). Square root of the percentage of plaque area was smaller in the ischemia group than that in the cholesterol (0.44 ± 0.13 vs. 0.67 ± 0.18, P = 0.014) or sham groups (0.44 ± 0.13 vs. 0.61 ± 0.12, P = 0.049).@*CONCLUSION@#In hypercholesterolemic rabbits, RTLI might prevent atherosclerosis progression by reducing the percentage of plaque area.


Subject(s)
Animals , Atherosclerosis , Blood , Cholesterol , Blood , Cholesterol, HDL , Blood , Cholesterol, LDL , Blood , Extremities , Pathology , Hypercholesterolemia , Blood , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Blood , Ischemic Postconditioning , Methods , Male , Rabbits , Triglycerides , Blood
15.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-776010

ABSTRACT

To systematically evaluate the risks of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with primary biliary cholangitis(PBC). Methods We carried out a Meta analysis by RevMan 5.3 software to investigate literatureon the risk of cardiocerebral vascular events in patients with PBC and controls. Results Compared with non-PBC controls,PBC patients had significantly higher risk of coronary events(=1.56,=0.0002);however,the risk of cerebrovascular events showed no significant difference between these two groups(=1.01,=0.94).Subgroup analysis demonstrated a significantly lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis in PBC patients(=0.63,=0.03);however,there was no significant difference in the risk of stroke(=1.11,=0.40). Conclusion Patients with PBC have an increased risk of coronary events but may have a lower risk of transient ischemic attack or carotid stenosis.


Subject(s)
Carotid Stenosis , Cholangitis , Coronary Disease , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Liver Cirrhosis, Biliary , Risk Factors , Stroke
16.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766824

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The patients with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) suffer from early onset atherosclerotic vascular disease due to high level of cholesterol and subsequent vascular inflammation, especially in the form of coronary artery disease. We investigated the clinical characteristics of FH associated cerebral infarction and its possible mechanism. METHODS: Between January 2014 and May 2017, acute cerebral infarction patients who admitted to Chung-Ang University Hospital were reviewed from stroke registry and the diagnosis of FH was made based on the Dutch Lipid Clinic Network Diagnostic Criteria for FH. We reviewed their initial laboratory and brain imaging information, prescribed medication and followed lipid profile after discharge. Stroke mechanism was determined based on Trial of ORG 10172 in Acute Stroke Treatment classification. RESULTS: Among 1,401 acute cerebral infarction or transient ischemic attack patients, one probable and three possible FH stroke patients were detected. All the patients denied of previous coronary artery disease history and initial lipid panel revealed high levels of total cholesterol (378±75 mg/dL) and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (238±56 mg/dL). Stroke mechanisms were heterogeneous, including one atherosclerotic, two vertebral artery dissection cases and one coagulation disorder. All the patients were combined with noticeable degree of intracranial atherosclerosis and were maintained with statin treatment. CONCLUSIONS: This study illustrates diverse stroke mechanism among stroke patients with FH. Further research is required to disclose exact incidence of FH among stroke population and effective treatment strategy.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Cerebral Infarction , Cholesterol , Classification , Coronary Artery Disease , Diagnosis , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors , Hyperlipoproteinemia Type II , Incidence , Inflammation , Intracranial Arteriosclerosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Neuroimaging , Stroke , Vascular Diseases , Vertebral Artery Dissection
17.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766816

ABSTRACT

Diagnosis of transient ischemic attack has been entirely dependent on the clinical history due to the absence of brain magnetic resonance imaging lesion. It is challenging to distinguish between transient ischemic attack and transient ischemic attack-mimics. Cerebral microbleeds would be found in 11.1–23.5% of incidental findings in elderly population. However, cerebral microbleeds have been known to lead to cognitive decline, dementia, seizure and even status epilepticus. We report a case of cerebral microbleeds induced epileptic seizure, visiting the emergency room with sudden onset unilateral motor weakness.


Subject(s)
Aged , Brain , Dementia , Diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Epilepsy , Humans , Incidental Findings , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Seizures , Status Epilepticus
18.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766775

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Selecting the appropriate patients and reducing stroke onset to endovascular recanalization therapy (ERT) time are essential elements of a successful ERT. Since ERT is available only in large hospitals, proper patients transfer is important. The purpose of study is to examine the suitability of the transfer of acute stroke patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of patients who diagnosed as acute ischemic stroke from January to December in 2017. Patients were divided into two groups based on transfer (direct visit vs. transfer) and Alberta Stroke Program Early computed tomography (ASPECT) score (≥8 vs. <8) respectively. Each group was assessed by demographics, type and rate of reperfusion therapy, onset to reperfusion therapy time, stroke risk factors and neurological deficit severity. Interhospital distance and transfer time was calculated in transferred patients. RESULTS: Among the 455 patients, the 228 (50.2%) patients underwent interhospital transfer. The ratio of reperfusion therapy was not significant different between direct visit and transferred group (34.8% vs. 37.3%, p=0.397). The transferred patients tended to be older (p=0.003), female (p=0.001), more hypertension (p=0.019), less transient ischemic attack (p=0.001), longer onset to ERT time (178.55±85.92 vs. 131.48±82.89; p=0.001) lower ASPECT score (6.72±2.04 vs. 8.01±1.65; p<0.001) and higher National Institute of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) (p<0.001) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) (p<0.001). High ASPECT score (≥8) patients were more direct visited (63.9%), shorter onset to ERT time (p=0.047), lower initial NIHSS and mRS (p<0.001), and greater in differences between mRS at admission and 3 months later (p=0.016). CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests emergency and interhospital transfer of acute stroke patients is inefficient, and systematization of transfer is necessary.


Subject(s)
Alberta , Demography , Emergencies , Endovascular Procedures , Female , Humans , Hypertension , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Medical Records , Neuroimaging , Patient Transfer , Reperfusion , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Stroke
19.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766745

ABSTRACT

Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome (RCVS) is a disease characterized by reversible and multiple stenoses of cerebral blood vessels that improve within 3 months, accompanied by thunderclap headache. Here, we report an interesting case of RCVS initially misdiagnosed as Moyamoya disease with transient ischemic attack. A 45-year-old woman visited the Neurology Department of Eulji University Hospital. The patient was initially diagnosed with Moyamoya disease with transient ischemic attack. However, follow-up magnetic resonance angiography performed 12 months after the patient was appropriately diagnosed as having RCVS.


Subject(s)
Blood Vessels , Constriction, Pathologic , Female , Follow-Up Studies , Headache Disorders, Primary , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Middle Aged , Moyamoya Disease , Neurology , Vasoconstriction
20.
Journal of Stroke ; : 184-189, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-766248

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: To analyze long-term stroke recurrence (SR) characteristics after transient ischemic attack (TIA) according to initial etiological classification. METHODS: A prospective cohort of 706 TIA patients was followed up in a single tertiary stroke center. Endpoint was SR. Etiologic subgroup was determined according to the evidence-based causative classification system. Location of TIA and SR was recorded as right, left, or posterior territory. Disability stroke recurrence (DSR) was defined as modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score >1 or a one-point increase in those with previous mRS >1 at 3-month follow-up. RESULTS: During a follow-up of 3,493 patient-years (mean follow-up of 58.9±35.9 months), total SR was 125 (17.7%), corresponding to 3.6 recurrences per 100 patient-years. The etiology subgroups with a higher risk of SR were the unclassified (more than one cause) and large-artery atherosclerosis (LAA) categories. Of the SR cases, 88 (70.4%) had the same etiology as the index TIA; again, LAA etiology was the most frequent (83.9%). Notably, cardioaortic embolism was the most frequent cause (62.5%) of SR in the subgroup of 24 patients with undetermined TIA. Overall, SR occurred in the same territory in 74 of 125 patients (59.2%), with significant differences between etiological TIA subgroups (P=0.015). Eighty-two of 125 (65.6%) with SR had DSR, without differences between etiologies (P=0.453). CONCLUSIONS: SR occurred mainly with the same etiology and location as initial TIA, although undetermined TIA was associated with a high proportion of cardioaortic embolism SR. More than half of the recurrences caused some disability, regardless of etiology.


Subject(s)
Atherosclerosis , Classification , Cohort Studies , Embolism , Follow-Up Studies , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Prospective Studies , Recurrence , Stroke
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