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1.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 77(7): 456-459, July 2019. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1011365

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Patients on anticoagulant or antiplatelet therapy are often required to discontinue these medications before and during surgical or invasive procedures. In some cases, the patient stops the treatment without medical supervision. These situations may increase stroke risk. Objective To identify the ischemic stroke and transient ischemic attack (TIA) prevalence related to length of time of discontinuation of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist therapy, in a group of inpatients from a specialized neurological hospital in Brazil. Methods Cross-sectional, retrospective and descriptive study of stroke inpatients for three years. Medical reports were reviewed to find study participants, stroke characteristics, risk factors, reasons and time of drug interruption. Results In three years, there were 360 stroke and TIA inpatients, of whom 27 (7.5%) had a history of antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist interruption correlated with the time of the event (81% ischemic stroke, 19% TIA). The median time between antiplatelet interruption and an ischemic event was five days, and 62% of events occurred within seven days after drug suspension. For vitamin K antagonists, the average time to the ischemic event was 10.4 days (SD = 5.7), and in 67% of patients, the time between drug discontinuation and the event was 7-14 days. The most frequent reason for drug suspension was patient negligence (37%), followed by planned surgery or invasive examination (26%) and side effects, including hemorrhage (18.5%). Conclusion Antiplatelet or vitamin K antagonist suspension has a temporal relationship with the occurrence of stroke and TIA. Since these events are preventable, it is crucial that healthcare professionals convince their patients that drug withdrawal can cause serious consequences.


RESUMO Pacientes em terapia anticoagulante ou antiagregante plaquetária frequentemente são solicitados a descontinuar essas medicações antes e durante procedimentos cirúrgicos ou invasivos. Se o paciente interromper tratamento sem supervisão médica, poderá aumentar de risco de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC). Objetivo Identificar prevalência de AVC isquêmico e ataque isquêmico transitório (AIT) associados à descontinuação de terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos em pacientes internados em hospital especializado em atendimento neurológico no Brasil. Métodos Estudo transversal, retrospectivo de três anos, descritivo dos pacientes hospitalizados por AVC. A revisão de relatórios médicos determinou características do AVC, fatores de risco, motivos e tempo de interrupção medicamentosa. Resultados Em três anos, foram internados 360 pacientes por AVC ou AIT; destes, 27 interromperam temporariamente terapia antiplaquetária ou coumarínicos relacionando ao evento (81% acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico, 19% AIT). A prevalência foi de 7,5%. O tempo médio entre interrupção antiplaquetária e evento foi cinco dias, com 62% deles ocorrendo até sete dias após suspensão medicamentosa. Para coumarínicos, o tempo médio foi 10,4 dias (d.p.= 5,7), em 67% dos casos o tempo entre a descontinuação medicamentosa e o evento foi 7-14 dias. O motivo mais frequente para suspensão do medicamento foi negligência do paciente (37%), seguido por cirurgia planejada ou exame invasivo (26%) e efeitos colaterais, incluindo hemorragia (18,5%). Conclusão Suspensão de terapia de antiplaquetários ou coumarínicos tem relação temporal com ocorrência de AVC e de AIT. Esses eventos são passíveis de serem evitados, sendo imprescindível que profissionais de saúde convençam seus pacientes das consequências graves da retirada do medicamento.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/etiology , Warfarin/administration & dosage , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Stroke/etiology , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Brazil , Aspirin/administration & dosage , Cross-Sectional Studies , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Clopidogrel/administration & dosage
3.
Arq. bras. cardiol ; 110(2): 151-156, Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-888014

ABSTRACT

Abstract Background: The uninterrupted use of oral anticoagulation (OAC) with vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) for electrophysiology procedures has been more and more recommended. The clinical practice in our service recommends the continuous use of these drugs for atrial flutter ablation. There is little evidence as to the uninterrupted use of non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in this scenario. Objective: To compare the rates of complications related with the uninterrupted use of different types of oral anticoagulants in patients referred to atrial flutter (AFL) ablation. Methods: Historical, single-center cohort of ablation procedures by AFL conducted from November 2012 to April 2016. The primary outcome was the occurrence of hemorrhagic or embolic complication during the procedure. The secondary outcome was the occurrence of stroke or transient ischemic attack (TIA) in follow-up. The statistical significance level was 5%. Results: There were 288 ablations per AFL; 154 were carried out with the uninterrupted use of OAC (57.8% with VKA and 42.2% with NOAC). Mean age was 57 ± 13 years. The rate of hemorrhagic complication during the procedure was 3% in each group (p = NS). The rate of stroke/TIA was, respectively, of 56/1,000 people-year in the VKA group against zero/1,000 people-year in the NOAC group (p = 0.02). Conclusion: In our population there were no hemorrhagic complications regarding the procedure of OAC use uninterruptedly, including NOACs. There was higher occurrence of stroke/TIA in the follow-up of the group of patients undergoing VKAs; however, this difference may not only be a result of the type of OAC used.


Resumo Fundamento: O uso ininterrupto de anticoagulação oral (ACO) com antagonistas da vitamina K (AVKs) para procedimentos de eletrofisiologia está sendo cada vez mais recomendado. A prática clínica em nosso serviço é de uso continuado dessas drogas para ablação de flutter atrial. Existem poucas evidências quanto ao uso ininterrupto dos anticoagulantes orais não antagonistas da vitamina K (NOACs) nesse cenário. Objetivos: Comparar as taxas de complicações relacionadas ao uso ininterrupto de diferentes tipos de anticoagulantes orais em pacientes referidos para ablação por flutter atrial (FLA). Métodos: Coorte histórica e unicêntrica dos procedimentos de ablação por FLA realizados no período de novembro de 2012 a abril de 2016. O desfecho primário foi o de ocorrência de complicação hemorrágica ou embólica durante o procedimento. O desfecho secundário foi o de ocorrência de acidente vascular cerebral (AVC) ou acidente isquêmico transitório (AIT) no acompanhamento. O nível de significância estatística adotado foi de 5%. Resultados: Foram incluídas 288 ablações por FLA; 154 foram feitas com uso ininterrupto de ACO (57,8% com AVK e 42,2% com NOAC). A idade média foi de 57 ± 13 anos. A taxa de complicação hemorrágica durante o procedimento foi de 3% em cada grupo (p = NS). A taxa de AVC/AIT foi, respectivamente, de 56/1.000-pessoas-ano no grupo AVK contra zero/1.000-pessoas-ano no grupo NOAC (p = 0,02). Conclusão: Em nossa população não ocorreram complicações hemorrágicas relacionadas ao procedimento com uso de ACO de forma ininterrupta, incluindo NOACs. Houve maior ocorrência de AVC/AIT no seguimento no grupo de pacientes em uso de AVK, contudo essa diferença pode não ser decorrente apenas do tipo de ACO em uso.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Middle Aged , Aged , Atrial Flutter/complications , Vitamin K/antagonists & inhibitors , Catheter Ablation , Venous Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Anticoagulants/administration & dosage , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Administration, Oral , Risk Factors , Cohort Studies , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/prevention & control , Hemorrhage/chemically induced , Anticoagulants/adverse effects
4.
Oncol. clín ; 21(2): 47-50, 2016. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-882187

ABSTRACT

Los eventos tromboembólicos cerebrales están asociados con secuelas permanentes y con deterioro de la calidad de vida. Sangrados, trastornos venosos y arteriales han sido descriptos con el uso de agentes antiangiogénicos. Presentamos un caso con sarcoma mixoide que desarrolló un accidente cerebrovascular isquémico mientras estaba siendo tratado con sorafenib. Repasamos también las drogas usadas en oncología que podrían estar asociadas con eventos tromboembólicos arteriales o venosos. Los médicos tratantes deberían monitorear a los pacientes que reciben agentes antiangiogénicos en relación a síntomas neurológicos y, en ausencia de otras etiologías, la pronta suspensión de la droga debería ser considerada (AU)


The cerebral thromboembolic events are linked with permanent sequelae and deterioration in quality of life. Bleeding, venous and arterial thromboembolic events have been described with antiangiogenics agents. We report a case with myxoid sarcoma that developed a cerebrovascular accident while on sorafenib treatment. We also reviewed drugs used in oncology that could be associated with arterial and venous thromboembolic events. Physicians should monitor patients receiving antiangiogenics agents for neurologic symptoms and in the absences of other etiology, prompt discontinuation of these drugs should be considered (AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Aged , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Cerebrovascular Disorders , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Angiogenesis Inhibitors/adverse effects , Stroke , Vascular Endothelial Growth Factors
7.
Clinics ; 69(4): 241-246, 4/2014. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-705783

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Atrial fibrillation is a common arrhythmia that increases the risk of stroke by four- to five-fold. We aimed to establish a profile of patients with atrial fibrillation from a population of patients admitted with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack using clinical and echocardiographic findings. METHODS: We evaluated patients consecutively admitted to a tertiary hospital with acute ischemic stroke or transient ischemic attack. Subjects were divided into an original set (admissions from May 2009 to October 2010) and a validation set (admissions from November 2010 to April 2013). The study was designed as a cohort, with clinical and echocardiographic findings compared between patients with and without atrial fibrillation. A multivariable model was built, and independent predictive factors were used to produce a predictive grading score for atrial fibrillation (Acute Stroke AF Score-ASAS). RESULTS: A total of 257 patients were evaluated from May 2009 to October 2010 and included in the original set. Atrial fibrillation was diagnosed in 17.5% of these patients. Significant predictors of atrial fibrillation in the multivariate analysis included age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scores, and the presence of left atrial enlargement. These predictors were used in the final logistic model. For this model, the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.79. The score derived from the logistic regression analysis was The model developed from the original data set was then applied to the validation data set, showing the preserved discriminatory ability of the model (c statistic = 0.76). CONCLUSIONS: Our risk score suggests that the individual risk for atrial fibrillation in patients with acute ischemic stroke can be assessed using simple data, including age, National Institutes of Health Stroke Scores at admission, and the presence of left atrial enlargement. .


Subject(s)
Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Atrial Fibrillation/complications , Atrial Fibrillation/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Risk Assessment/methods , Stroke/etiology , Age Factors , Atrial Fibrillation/physiopathology , Brazil , Echocardiography , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Multivariate Analysis , Monitoring, Physiologic/methods , Reproducibility of Results , Risk Factors , Sensitivity and Specificity , Stroke/physiopathology , Tertiary Care Centers
8.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 70(8): 609-616, Aug. 2012. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-645373

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the neuroprotection of mild hypothermia, applied in different moments, in temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats. METHODS: Rats was divided into Control (C), Sham (S), Ischemic-control(IC), Pre-ischemic Hypothermia (IH1), Intra-ischemic Hypothermia (IH2), and Post-ischemic Hypothermia (IH3) groups. Morphometry was performed using the KS400 software (Carl Zeiss®) in coronal sections stained by Luxol Fast Blue. Ischemic areas and volumes were obtained. RESULTS: Statistically, blue areas showed difference for C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 and IC vs. IH2 (p=0.0001; p=0.01; p=0.03), and no difference between C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 and IH vs. IH2 (p=0.39; p=0.85; p=0.63). Red areas showed difference between C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 and IC vs. IH2 (p=0.0001; p=0.009; p=0.03), and no difference between C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 and IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0.48; p=0.27; p=0.68). Average ischemic areas and ischemic volumes showed difference between IC vs. IH1 and IC vs. IH2 (p=0.0001 and p=0.0011), and no difference between IC vs. IH3 and IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0.57; p=0.79). CONCLUSION: Pre-ischemic and intra-ischemic hypothermia were shown to be similarly neuroprotective, but this was not true for post-ischemic hypothermia.


OBJETIVO: Avaliar a neuroproteção da hipotermia leve, aplicada em diferentes momentos, durante isquemia cerebral focal temporária em ratos. MÉTODOS: Ratos foram divididos em grupos: Controle (C), Sham (S), Controle-isquêmico (IC), Hipotermia Pré-isquêmica (IH1), Hipotermia Intra-isquêmica (IH2) e Hipotermia Pós-isquêmica (IH3). A morfometria foi realizada em secções coronais coradas por Luxol Fast Blue através do programa KS400 (Carl Zeiss®). Foram calculados áreas e volumes isquêmicos. RESULTADOS: Estatisticamente, áreas azuis demonstraram diferença entre os grupos C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 e IC vs. IH2 (p=0,0001; p=0,01; p=0,03), e nenhuma diferença entre C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 e IH vs. IH2 (p=0,39; p=0,85; p=0,63). Áreas vermelhas demonstraram diferença entre C vs. IC, IC vs. IH1 e IC vs. IH2 (p=0,0001; p=0,009; p=0,03), e nenhuma diferença entre C vs. S, IC vs. IH3 e IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0,48; p=0,27; p=0,68). Áreas isquêmicas médias e volumes isquêmicos demonstraram diferença entre os grupos IC vs. IH1 e IC vs. IH2 (p=0,0001 and p=0,0011), e nenhuma diferença entre IC vs. IH3 and IH1 vs. IH2 (p=0,57; p=0,79). CONCLUSÃO: Hipotermias pré-isquêmica e intra-isquêmica demonstraram neuroproteção em grau semelhante, o que não ocorreu com hipotermia pós-isquêmica.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Ischemic Attack, Transient/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Analysis of Variance , Arterial Occlusive Diseases/complications , Body Temperature , Disease Models, Animal , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/prevention & control , Rats, Wistar , Reperfusion/methods , Sodium Chloride , Statistics, Nonparametric , Time Factors
9.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-73187

ABSTRACT

We investigated the persistence of viable Orientia tsutsugamushi in patients who had recovered from scrub typhus. Blood specimens were available from six patients with scrub typhus who were at 1 to 18 months after the onset of the illness. The EDTA-treated blood specimens were inoculated into ECV304 cells, and cultures were maintained for 7 months. Sequencing of the 56-kDa type-specific antigen gene of O. tsutsugamushi was performed to ascertain the homology of isolates. O. tsutsugamushi was isolated from all six patients, and nucleotide sequences of isolates serially collected from each patient were identical in all five patients in whom nucleotide sequences were compared. One patient relapsed 2 days after completion of antibiotic therapy; two patients complained of weakness for 1 to 2.5 months after the illness; one patient underwent coronary angioplasty 6 months later; and one patient suffered from a transient ischemic attack 8 months later. This finding suggests that O. tsutsugamushi causes chronic latent infection, which may be associated with certain clinical illnesses, preceded by scrub typhus. Antibiotic therapy abates the symptoms of scrub typhus, but does not eradicate O. tsutsugamushi from the human body.


Subject(s)
Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antigens, Bacterial/genetics , Bacterial Proteins/genetics , Base Sequence , Case-Control Studies , Chronic Disease , Coronary Artery Disease/etiology , DNA, Bacterial/genetics , Female , Genes, Bacterial , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Male , Membrane Proteins/genetics , Middle Aged , Muscle Weakness/etiology , Orientia tsutsugamushi/genetics , Recurrence , Scrub Typhus/complications , Time Factors
11.
Rev. Méd. Clín. Condes ; 20(3): 282-287, mayo 2009. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-525331

ABSTRACT

Las crisis o accidentes isquémicos transitorios cerebrales (AIT) han debido evolucionar desde una definición puramente clínica y temporal, a una basada en el compromiso del tejido cerebral, en especial porque las imágenes de difusión por resonancia nuclear magnética cerebral (dRNM), han permitido identificar AIT clínicamente típicas, con infartos cerebrales subyacentes, lo que ha llevado al concepto de AIT con infarto. Las AIT pueden ser producidas por diferentes mecanismos y existen varios tipos etiológicos, principalmente las por bajo flujo en grandes arterias, las embólicas y las de vasos penetrantes (lacunares), todo lo cual tiene implicancias terapéuticas. El diagnóstico y estudio urgente de las AIT es vital, siendo recomendado su hospitalización dentro de las 48 horas, lo cual permitirá un mejor y adecuado tratamiento. La antiagregación plaquetaria sigue siendo el pilar fundamental en el manejo de las AIT no cardioembólicas.


The transient ischemic attacks (TIA) had evolved from a purely clinical and temporary definition, to one based on brain tissue effects, especially because the diffusion-weighted images on nuclear magnetic cerebral resonance (DWI), has allowed to identify typical TIA, with cerebral underlying infarct, which has led to concept TIA with infarct. The AIT can be produced by different mechanisms and several etiologies, mainly TIA by large artery low flow, the embolic type and small-penetrating vessels (lacunar), all which has therapeutic implications. The early diagnosis and urgent study of the TIA are very important, being recommended TIA must hospitalized within the first 48 hours, what will allow a better and suitable treatment. The therapy antiplatelet continues as the mainstay in the treatment of the TIA noncardioembolic.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Endarterectomy, Carotid , Platelet Aggregation Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Prognosis
12.
Journal of Tehran Heart Center [The]. 2009; 4 (3): 185-188
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-137115

ABSTRACT

Stroke, one of the most important causes of morbidity and mortality in the world, is of great importance in young adults [15-45 years], amongst whom the causes of stroke and transient ischemic attack [TIA] are different from those in older ages and a significant portion of them have no known etiology. Patent foramen ovale [PFO] is considered a probable cause in this group. Patients between 15 and 45 years of age with TIA or stroke were examined and evaluated for causes of cerebrovascular accidents. Patients with no definite cause for stroke or TIA, except for PFO, despite our extensive evaluations were categorized as cyptogenic. The controls wee comprised of those between 15 and 45 years old who underwent transesophageal echocardiography [TEE] for reasons other than stroke. The frequency of PFO and its characteristics were compared between the two groups. The case group comprised 48 patients with cryptogenic stroke [n=31] and TIA [n=17], and the control group consisted of 57 patients. The age distribution of the groups was normal, and there was no significant difference between eh age and gender of the two groups. The frequency of PFO in the case and control groups was 52% and 25% respectively [p value= 0.003, odds ration= 3.33, confidence interval= 1.46-7.63]. The exaggerated motion of the interatrial septum [IAS] in the case and control groups was 18.8% and 0%, respectively. Right-to-left shunt at rest in the case and control groups was 78% and 28%, respectively [significant differences]. The differences in terms of PFO size, number of bubbles, and atrial septal aneurysm were not significant between the two groups. PFO had a relation with stroke and TIA in the young adults, and right-to-left shunt at rest and exaggerated motion of the IAS could increase the possibility of paradoxical emboli. It seems that the presence of atrial septal aneurysm, number of bubbles, and PFO size did not increase the risk of cerebrovascular accidents


Subject(s)
Humans , Stroke/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Atrial Septum , Embolism, Paradoxical
13.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 64(2b): 353-358, jun. 2006.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-433270

ABSTRACT

PROPÓSITO DO ESTUDO: Investigar de forma preliminar a relevância da realização de angiografia digital (AD) adicionalmente a angioressonância (AR) na definição de etiologias de acidente vascular cerebral isquêmico (AVCI) em pacientes jovens. MÉTODO: ADs e ARs de 17 pacientes jovens com AVCIs não-lacunares foram analisadas. Avaliamos o impacto destes exames no manejo clínico dos casos. RESULTADOS: Em 12/17 casos, as etiologias dos AVCIs de acordo com os resultados de AD ou de AR foram idênticas. Em 15/17 pacientes, nenhuma mudança de conduta terapêutica seria realizada, independentemente da modalidade de exame considerada. CONCLUSÃO: Estes resultados preliminares sugerem que os resultados da AD podem ser redundantes em relação à AR em até dois terços dos pacientes jovens com AVCI. Estudos prospectivos maiores são necessários para otimizar o estabelecimento de indicações de AD nesta faixa etária.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Angiography, Digital Subtraction , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Stroke/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient , Reproducibility of Results , Stroke/etiology , Stroke
14.
Acta méd. costarric ; 48(1): 5-11, ene.-mar. 2006. ilus
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-432762

ABSTRACT

La enfermedad vascular cerebral es la principal causa de hospitalización neurológica en el mundo. Costa Rica no es la excepción; en nuestros hospitales cada día es más frecuente el número de pacientes que ingresan con infartos cerebrales isquémicos. Esta común enfermedad obedece a la prevalencia de enfermedades crónicas con la hipertensión arterial, diabetes mellitus, dislipidemias, tabaquismo y la alta expectativa de vida de los costarricenses, todos considera dos factores de riesgo. Aproximadamente un 80 por ciento de los infartos cerebrales son isquémicos secundarios a la oclusión arterial aguda de un territorio vascular específico, el restante 20 por ciento corresponde a la variante hemorrágica. Las secuelas neurológicas secudarias a esta entidad son la principal causa de discapacidad crónica en los pacientes y conlleva una alta morbilidad y mortalidad. Aunque muchos sufren el infarto cerebral isquémico en forma aguda, otro grupo de pacientes experimenta uno o varios episodios previos de isquemia cerebral transitoria, lo cual los pone en riesgo de sufrir un infarto cerebral isquémico durante un periodo corto, es decir son pacientes vulnerables. Esta revisión pretende actualizar los conocimientos médicos, especialmente para aquellos que trabajan en la atención primaria y en los servicios de urgencias hospitalarias, que reconozcan a este grupo de pacientes y les brinden la atención médica necesaria para de prevenir un infarto cerebral isquémico. La isquemia cerebral transitoria debe ser considerada como una emergencia neurológica. Descriptores: Isquemia cerebral transitoria, emergencia neurológica, infarto cerebral isquémico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnosis , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/physiopathology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/drug therapy , Ischemic Attack, Transient/therapy , Cerebral Infarction , Risk Groups , Costa Rica
15.
Annals of Saudi Medicine. 2006; 26 (1): 43-45
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-75942

ABSTRACT

Previous reports have suggested that 6% to 39% of ischemic strokes are caused by cardiogenic emboli [1] Thrombus formation associated with atrial fibrillation has been reported as one of the most important cardiac sources of embolism[2] Using transesophageal echocardiography [TEE], other possible sources of embolism, including atrial septal aneurysm,[3] patent foramen ovale [PFO],[4] aortic atherosclerotic plaque,[5] annular calcification of the mitral valve,[6] mitral valve prolapse [MVP],[7] prosthetic cardiac valves and endocarditis,[8] mural thrombi,[9] cardiac tumors[10], and cardiac transplants[11] have been reported as risk factors for ischemic stroke. TEE is considered more sensitive than transthoracic echocardiography [TTE] in detecting cardiac abnormalities in patients with stroke and transient ischemic attacks [12] As there is no data available in Iran regarding TEE findings after embolic cerebrovascular accident [CVA], this study was undertaken to assess the prevalence of cardiac abnormalities by the TEE technique in patients with stroke


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Cerebrovascular Disorders/etiology , Embolism/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Electrocardiography , Cerebral Infarction , Intracranial Embolism
16.
Iranian Journal of Radiology. 2006; 3 (2): 107-111
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-77100

ABSTRACT

Moyamoya [a Japanese term, meaning 'hazy things'] was first described by Takeuchi In 1963. Two forms of this disease have been distinguished: 1-Primary moyamoya, or moyamoya disease, with a strong hereditary predisposition and girls are more frequently affected. 2-Secondary moyamoya, or moyamoya syndrome, which is caused by a variety of underlying diseases. The Japanese scientists have classified moyamoya into four types: hemorrhagic, epileptic, infarct, and transient ischemic attack. Herein, we introduce an 8-years-old girl with the chief complaint of speech disorder. In her physical examination, we detected expressive aphasia. and right-sided central facial palsy. After a few days, right hemiplegia and cortical blindness appeared as well. Gradually she was totally unable to move and was transferred to the ICU because of loss of consciousness. MRI showed diffuse hyper signal lesions in the left temporoparietal and bilateral occipital area. MRA showed narrowing of the internal carotid artery and abnormal collaterals [moyamoya vessels]. After indirect bypass surgery [EDAS], she Is now able to sit, walk, run and speak. There are rare angiographically proven moyamoya cases. To our knowledge this was the first EDAS in Iran and a rare case of moyamoya with a dramatic response to operation


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging/statistics & numerical data , Cerebral Angiography , Magnetic Resonance Angiography
17.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 63(4): 1047-1053, dez. 2005. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-419018

ABSTRACT

OBJETIVO: Avaliar a freqüência de forame oval patente (FOP) em pacientes com acidente cerebrovascular isquêmico (AVCI) criptogênico ou de causa definida, investigados com doppler transcraniano (DTC) e ecocardiograma transesofágico. Paralelamente, examinar a validade diagnóstica do primeiro, comparado ao segundo método. MÉTODO: Retrospectivamente, foram estudados 124 pacientes (< 51 anos), vítimas de AVCI, submetidos a DTC e ou ecocardiograma transesofágico. Os pacientes foram classificados em dois grupos: com ou sem AVCI criptogênico. RESULTADOS: Encontramos importante associação entre AVCI criptogênico e FOP (razão de chance de 4,3; IC95 por cento 1,7 -10,7). Foram diagnosticados apenas 5 casos de aneurisma do septo interatrial entre aqueles com FOP, todos classificados como AVCI criptogênico. Tanto a sensibilidade, especificidade e os valores preditivos positivo e negativo exibiram valores superiores a 85 por cento, semelhantes, pelo menos com base nos intervalos de confiança. CONCLUSÃO: Constatamos, pela primeira vez em nosso meio, forte associação entre AVCI criptogênico e FOP. O DTC é importante recurso diagnóstico nesse contexto, já que sua validade foi considerada muito boa, podendo ser útil no rastreamento de fontes emboligênicas, particularmente alterações do septo atrial. Uma investigação minuciosa desses casos se impõe, notadamente pela perspectiva de fechamento do shunt intracardíaco.


Subject(s)
Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Brain Ischemia/etiology , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Epidemiologic Methods , Heart Septal Defects, Atrial/complications , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Transcranial
18.
RMJ-Rawal Medical Journal. 2005; 30 (1): 32-33
in English | IMEMR | ID: emr-74601

ABSTRACT

Transient ischemic attacks [TIAs] result from large or small vessel disease, cardiogenic embolic events or hematological abnormalities. Every patient presenting with a TIA should have total blood count, electrocardiogram, and a brain imaging study. Noninvasive carotid testing, usually by carotid duplex ultrasonography, magnetic resonance angiography [MRA] or a conventional arteriogram may be required. In general, a TIA should be considered as a warning of impending stroke that requires rapid and efficient investigations to define and remedy the reasons for the cerebral ischemic events


Subject(s)
Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Ischemic Attack, Transient/diagnostic imaging , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Magnetic Resonance Angiography , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Duplex
20.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-44410

ABSTRACT

Behcet's disease ( BD ) is a systemic inflammatory vascular disease with variable clinical manifestations and numerous clinical masquerades. The venous involvement may affect veins of different size with tendency for thrombosis. BD is the commonest cause of cerebral venous thrombosis in some Middle Eastern countries. However, in Thailand, this clinical entity has been rarely described as a cause of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. A 38 year-old man presented with recurrent attacks of transient ischemic attack (TIA) for 9 months. Two months after the TIA, he developed right hemiparesis and persistent diffuse headache. He had a 10 year history of recurrent oral and genital ulcers. Physical examination revealed bilateral uveitis, right hemiparesis, bilateral sixth cranial nerve paresis and bilateral papilloedema. Pathergy skin test showed positive result. Neuroimaging demonstrated empty delta sign on CT-scan and thrombosis of the posterior part of superior saggital sinus, transverse sinus, straight sinus and internal jugular vein on magnetic resonance venography (MRV). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis revealed increased intracranial pressure and aseptic CSF profiles. Prednisolone, chlorambucil and anticoagulant had been prescribed. The clinical course improved gradually.


Subject(s)
Adult , Behcet Syndrome/complications , Cerebral Veins , Humans , Ischemic Attack, Transient/etiology , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Recurrence , Venous Thrombosis/etiology
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