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1.
Rev. bras. med. esporte ; 27(2): 207-211, Apr.-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1280070

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Introduction: Ischemic preconditioning (IPC) has been described in the literature as a resource capable of improving physical performance. Objective: The purpose of this randomized double-blind study was to evaluate the influence of IPC on the neuromuscular performance of trained individuals. Methods: Twenty-four (24) resistance training participants (6 of them women) with a mean age of 25.8 ± 4.6 years were selected and divided into two groups: the upper limb group (ULG) composed of 12 individuals (4 women) and the lower limb group (LLG) composed of 12 individuals (2 women). The maximum repetitions test was applied in the bench press for the ULG and in the 45° leg press for the LLG, with 50% of the one-repetition maximum under control, placebo and IPC conditions, at a random interval of 72 hours between tests. The IPC was applied four hours before the tests by means of an analog sphygmomanometer cuff inflated to 220 mmHg on the arm for the ULG and on the thigh for LLG, with three cycles of five minutes each of ischemia and reperfusion, alternating between the right and left sides. For the placebo, the cuff was inflated to 40 mmHg without causing ischemia. The significance level for the Wilcoxon test was p <0.017, due to the Bonferroni correction. The effect size (ES) was also analyzed. Results: With IPC, the ULG performed 34.8 ± 4.8 repetitions, representing an improvement of 11.29% (IPC vs. control, ES = 0.68 and p = 0.002) and the LLG performed 40.5 ± 15.7 repetitions, representing an improvement of 37.47% (IPC vs. control, ES = 0.84 and p = 0.002). No significant improvements were observed for the placebo in either group. Conclusion: Our data showed that IPC positively influenced neuromuscular performance of both the upper and lower limbs. Level of evidence II; Therapeutic studies investigating the results of treatment (Prospectived comparative studye).


RESUMEN Introducción: El preacondicionamiento isquémico (PCI) ha sido descrito en la literatura como un recurso capaz de mejorar el desempeño físico. Objetivo: El objetivo de este estudio aleatorio doble ciego fue evaluar la influencia del PCI en el desempeño neuromuscular de individuos entrenados. Métodos: Fueron seleccionados 24 individuos (6 mujeres) con promedio de edad de 25,8 ± 4,6 años, practicantes de entrenamiento resistido, divididos en dos grupos, siendo un grupo de miembros superiores (GMS) compuesto por 12 individuos (4 mujeres) y grupo de miembros inferiores (GMI) compuesto por 12 individuos (2 mujeres). El test de repeticiones máximas fue aplicado en el ejercicio de supino para el GMS y en el leg press 45° para el GMI con 50% de una repetición máxima, en las condiciones de control, placebo y PCI, de forma aleatoria con intervalo de 72 horas entre los tests. El PCI fue aplicado cuatro horas antes de los tests mediante un manguito de esfigmomanómetro analógico inflado a 220 mmHg en el brazo para el GMS y en el muslo para el GMI, siendo tres ciclos de cinco minutos de isquemia y cinco minutos de reperfusión, alternando los lados derecho e izquierdo. Para el placebo, el manguito quedó en 40 mmHg, sin provocar isquemia. El nivel de significancia del test de Wilcoxon fue p <0,017, debido a la corrección de Bonferroni. El tamaño del efecto (TE) también fue analizado. Resultados: Con el PCI, el GMS realizó 34,8 ± 4,8 repeticiones, representando mejora de 11,29% (PCI vs control, TE = 0,68 y p = 0,002) y el GMI realizó 40,5 ± 15,7 repeticiones, representando mejora de 37,47% (PCI vs control, TE = 0,84 y p = 0,002). Con el placebo, ambos grupos no mostraron mejora. Conclusión: Nuestros datos mostraron que el PCI influenció positivamente el desempeño neuromuscular tanto de miembros superiores como inferiores. Nivel de evidencia II; Estudios terapéuticos: investigación de los resultados del tratamiento (estudio comparativo prospectivo).


RESUMO Introdução: O pré-condicionamento isquêmico (PCI) tem sido descrito na literatura como um recurso capaz de melhorar o desempenho físico. Objetivo: O objetivo deste estudo randomizado duplo cego foi avaliar a influência do PCI no desempenho neuromuscular de indivíduos treinados. Métodos: Foram selecionados 24 indivíduos (6 mulheres) com média de idade de 25,8 ± 4,6 anos, praticantes de treinamento resistido, divididos em dois grupos, sendo um grupo de membros superiores (GMS), composto por 12 indivíduos (4 mulheres) e grupo de membros inferiores (GMI), composto por 12 indivíduos (2 mulheres). O teste de repetições máximas foi aplicado no exercício de supino para o GMS e no leg press 45° para o GMI com 50% de uma repetição máxima, nas condições de controle, placebo e PCI, de forma aleatória com intervalo de 72 horas entre os testes. O PCI foi aplicado quatro horas antes dos testes por meio de um manguito de esfigmomanômetro analógico inflado a 220 mmHg no braço para o GMS e na coxa para o GMI, sendo três ciclos de cinco minutos de isquemia e cinco minutos de reperfusão, alternando os lados direito e esquerdo. Para o placebo, o manguito ficou em 40 mmHg, sem provocar isquemia. O nível de significância do teste de Wilcoxon foi de p < 0,017, devido à correção de Bonferroni. O tamanho do efeito (TE) também foi analisado. Resultados: Com o PCI, o GMS realizou 34,8 ± 4,8 repetições, representando melhora de 11,29% (PCI vs. controle, TE = 0,68 e p = 0,002) e o GMI realizou 40,5 ± 15,7 repetições, representando melhora de 37,47% (PCI vs. controle, TE = 0,84 e p = 0,002). Com o placebo, ambos os grupos não apresentaram melhora. Conclusão: Nossos dados mostraram que o PCI influenciou positivamente o desempenho neuromuscular tanto de membros superiores quanto inferiores. Nível de evidência II; Estudos terapêuticos-Investigação dos resultados do tratamento (Estudo prospectivo comparativo).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Young Adult , Ischemic Preconditioning , Muscle Strength/physiology , Athletic Performance/physiology , Endurance Training/methods , Muscles/blood supply , Tensile Strength , Double-Blind Method , Exercise Test/methods
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 36(1): e360101, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1152694

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Purpose: The aim of this study is to compare the hepatic protective effect of both remote and local postconditioning (POS). Methods: Twenty-eight Wistar rats were assigned into four groups: sham group(SHAM), ischemia-reperfusion group (IR), local ischemic POS group (lPOS) and remote ischemic POS group (rPOS). Animals were subjected to liver ischemia for 30 min. Local ischemic POS group consisted of four cycles of 5 min liver ischemia, followed by 5 min reperfusion (40 min). Remote ischemic POS group consisted of four cycles of 5 min hind limb ischemia, followed by 5 min hind limb perfusion after the main liver ischemia period. After 190 minutes median and left liver lobes were harvested for biochemical and histopathology analysis. Results: All the conditioning techniques were able to increase the level of bothglutathione reductase and peroxidase, showing higher values in the rPOS group when compared to the lPOS. Also, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were higher in all intervention groups when compared to SHAM, but rPOS had the lower rates of increase, showing the best result. The histopathology analysis showed that all groups had worst injury levels than SHAM, but rPOS had lower degrees of damage when compared to the lPOS, although it was not statistically significant. Conclusion: Remote postconditioning is a promising technique to reduce liver ischemia-reperfusion injury, once it increased antioxidants substances and reduced the damage.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning , Ischemic Postconditioning , Rats, Wistar
3.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828859

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of isoflurane preconditioning on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury mediated by the noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.@*METHODS@#Thirty C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, isoflurane group and I/R group, and in the latter two groups, hepatic I/R injury was induced by clamping the portal vein for 30 min. In isoflurane group, the mice were pretreated with 1.4% isoflurane 30 min before the surgery. The protective effect of isoflurane preconditioning against hepatic I/R injury was evaluated by assessing the pathological score of HE staining of the liver tissue and serum ALT and AST levels. Serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels and the protein expression of GSDMS were detected by ELISA and Western blotting to evaluate the inhibitory effect of isoflurane preconditioning on pyroptosis. Western blotting and immunofluroescence were used to detect the protein expression of caspase-11 in the liver tissues to evaluate the inhibitory effect of isoflurane preconditioning on noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.@*RESULTS@#The Suzuki's score of the liver tissue was significantly higher in I/R group than in the sham group ( < 0.05), while the score in the isoflurane group was significantly lower than that in the I/R group ( < 0.05). Serum ALT and AST levels significantly increased in the sham group ( < 0.05), and were significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly higher in I/R group than in sham group ( < 0.05), and were significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The expression of GSDMD in the I/R group was significantly higher than that in sham group, and was significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The hepatic expression of caspase-11 was significantly higher in I/R group than in sham group ( < 0.05), and was significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Isoflurane preconditioning has protective effect against hepatic I/R injury, which is related to the inhibition of the noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.


Subject(s)
Animals , Caspases, Initiator , Ischemic Preconditioning , Isoflurane , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pyroptosis , Reperfusion Injury
4.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(5): e202000503, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130645

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on colonic anastomosis healing with and without ischemia in rats. Methods Forty female rats underwent segmental resection of 1 cm of the left colon followed by end-to-end anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10 each), a sham group; two groups were submitted to Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy (HBOT) with and without induced ischemia and the induced ischemia group without HBOT. The HBOT protocol evaluated was 100% O2 at 2.4 Atmosphere absolute pressure (ATA) for 60 minutes, two sessions before as a preconditioning protocol and three sessions after the operation. Clinical course and mortality were monitored during all experiment and on the day of euthanasia on the fourth day after laparotomy. Macroscopic appearance of the abdominal cavity were assessed and samples for breaking strength of the anastomosis and histopathological parameters were collected. Results There was no statistically significant difference in mortality or anastomosis leak between the four experimental groups. Anastomosis breaking strength was similar across groups. Conclusion The HBOT protocol tested herein at 2.4 ATA did not affect histopathological and biomechanical parameters of colonic anastomotic healing, neither the clinical outcomes death and anastomosis leak on the fourth day after laparotomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Wound Healing , Colon/surgery , Colon/blood supply , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Ischemia/pathology , Postoperative Period , Rats, Inbred Lew , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Anastomosis, Surgical , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Colon/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(4): e202000402, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130629

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of bradykinin on reperfusion injury in an experimental intestinal ischemia reperfusion model. Methods We used 32 Wistar-Albino rats. We composed 4 groups each containing 8 rats. Rats in sham group were sacrified at 100 minutes observation after laparotomy. Thirty minutes reperfusion was performed following 50 minutes ischaemia in control group after observing 20 minutes. Ischaemic preconditioning was performed in one group of the study. We performed the other study group pharmacologic preconditioning by infusional administration of 10 μg/kg/minute bradykinin intravenously. We sacrified all of the rats by taking blood samples to evaluate the lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after resection of jejunum for detecting tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results Lactate and LDH levels were significantly higher in control and study groups than the sham group (P<0.001). There is no difference between the study groups statistically. (P>0.05). The results were the same for MPO levels. Although definitive cell damage was determinated in the control group by hystopatological evaluation, the damage in the study groups observed was lower in different levels. However, there was no significant difference between the study groups statistically (P>0.05). Conclusion Either ischeamic preconditioning or pharmacologic preconditioning made by bradykinin reduced the ischemia reperfusion injury at jejunum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Laparotomy
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(2): e202000203, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic conditioning associated to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on testicular ischemia∕reperfusion (I∕R) injury in rats. Methods Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (n=5), as follows: Sham, I∕R, Perconditioning (PER), NAC and PER+NAC. Two-hour ischemia was induced by rotating the left testis 720° to clockwise direction, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Perconditioning was performed by three I/R cycles of 10 min each on the left limb, 30 min before reperfusion. N-acetylcysteine (150 mg∕kg) was administered 30 min before reperfusion. Results Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (p<0.01), in addition there was statistical difference between PER and Sham, and PER+ NAC groups (p<0.05) in plasma. Conclusions The protective effect of perconditioning isolated in the reduction of lipid peroxidation related to oxidative stress was demonstrated. However, when Perconditioning was associated with NAC, there was no protective effect against testicular injury of ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Testis/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
7.
CorSalud ; 11(2): 139-145, abr.-jun. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1089725

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: Breves períodos de isquemia a distancia pueden limitar el daño miocárdico producido por la isquemia/reperfusión. Objetivos: Identificar el efecto del condicionamiento isquémico a distancia con fines de protección renal y hepática, relacionado al comportamiento postoperatorio de los niveles de creatinina y transaminasas glutámico-purúvica y glutámico-oxalacética en la revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica. Método: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, explicativo, comparativo con control histórico, en dos grupos de 247 pacientes cada uno, propuestos para revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica. Se colocó un torniquete en el brazo derecho, en el grupo estudio, alternando 3 insuflaciones (con una presión de 200 mmHg) con 3 desinsuflaciones, durante cinco minutos cada una. Este procedimiento se realizó previo, durante y después de la mayor isquemia inducida, provocada por el pinzamiento de la arteria coronaria. Resultados: Se logró una disminución significativa en los valores de creatinina (p<0,001), transaminasa glutámico-purúvica (p<0,001) y transaminasa glutámico-oxalacética (p<0,05). Conclusiones: El condicionamiento isquémico a distancia es una importante herramienta a tener en cuenta para la protección renal y hepática en la revascularización miocárdica quirúrgica.


ABSTRACT Introduction: Short periods of distant ischemia can limit myocardial damage caused by ischemia/reperfusion. Objective: To identify the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning in relation to the postoperative behavior of creatinine, glutamic transaminase, puruvic and oxalacetic levels. Method: A quasi-experimental, explanatory, comparative study with historical control was carried out in two groups of 247 patients each; all candidates for coronary artery bypass grafting. A blood-pressure cuff was placed on the right arm in the study group alternating three inflations with three deflations of five minutes at 200 mmHg. This procedure was performed prior to during and after the major ischemic episode caused by the coronary artery impingement. Results: A significant decrease in the values ​​of creatinine, puruvic glutamic transaminase and glutamic oxalacetic transaminase was achieved. Conclusions: Remote ischemic conditioning is an important tool to take into account for renal and hepatic protection in coronary artery bypass grafting.


Subject(s)
Ischemic Preconditioning , Reperfusion Injury , Creatinine , Enzymes , Transaminases , Myocardial Revascularization
8.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(1): e489, ene.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093094

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una serie de breves períodos de isquemias a distancia, previo al evento isquémico mayor, pueden limitar el daño miocárdico producido por la isquemia/reperfusión. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del condicionamiento isquémico a distancia, en pacientes programados para procedimientos quirúrgicos de revascularización coronaria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, explicativo, comparativo con control histórico, en dos grupos de 247 pacientes, propuestos para revascularización coronaria. Se colocó un torniquete en el brazo derecho, en el grupo estudio, alternando 3 insuflaciones con 3 desinsuflaciones con una presión de 200 mmHg, manteniéndola 5 min cada una. Este proceder se realizó previo, durante y después del evento isquémico mayor, provocado por el pinzamiento de la arteria coronaria. Resultados: Se logró una disminución significativa de los parámetros enzimáticos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p>0,05) según un conjunto de variables que representan el estado inicial de los pacientes(AU)


Introduction: A series of short periods of distant ischemia, prior to the major ischemic event, can limit the myocardial damage produced by ischemia or reperfusion. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of remote ischemic conditioning in patients scheduled for surgical procedures of coronary revascularization. Methods: A quasi-experimental, explanatory, comparative study with historical control was conducted in two groups of 247 patients proposed for coronary revascularization. A tourniquet was placed in the right arm in the study group, alternating 3 insufflations with 3 dessufflations with a pressure of 200 mmHg, keeping each for 5 minutes. This procedure was performed before, during and after the major ischemic event, caused by the impingement of the coronary artery. Results: A significant decrease in enzymatic parameters was achieved. No significant differences were found (p>0.05) according to a set of variables that represent the initial state of the patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/ethics , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anesthesia, Inhalation/methods
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900707, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038118

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of splenic ischemic preconditioning (sIPC) on oxidative stress induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were equally divided into 3 groups: SHAM, IRI and sIPC. Animals from IRI group were subjected to 45 minutes of partial liver ischemia (70%). In the sIPC group, splenic artery was clamped in 2 cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion (20 min total) prior to hepatic ischemia. SHAM group underwent the same surgical procedures as in the remaining groups, but no liver ischemia or sIPC were induced. After 1h, hepatic and splenic tissue samples were harvested for TBARS, CAT, GPx and GSH-Rd measurement. Results: sIPC treatment significantly decreased both hepatic and splenic levels of TBARS when compared to IRI group (p<0.01). Furthermore, the hepatic and splenic activities of CAT, GPx and GSH- Rd were significantly higher in sIPC group than in IRI group. Conclusion: sIPC was able to attenuate hepatic and splenic IRI-induced oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Liver/blood supply , Liver Diseases/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/physiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900501, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010875

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the expression of apoptosis-related genes in rat small intestine subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Thirty anesthetized rats underwent laparotomy and were drive into five groups: control (CG); ischemia (IG); ischemia and reperfusion (IRG); IPC and ischemia (IG+IPC); IPC and ischemia and reperfusion (I/RG+IPC). Intestinal ischemia was performed by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 minutes, whereas reperfusion lasted for 120 minutes. IPC was carried out by one cycle of 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion prior to the prolonged 60-minutes-ischemia and 120-minutes-reperfusion. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and samples of small intestine were processed for histology and gene expression. Results: Histology of myenteric plexus showed a higher presence of neurons presenting pyknotic nuclei and condensed chromatin in the IG and IRG. IG+IPC and I/RG+IPC groups exhibited neurons with preserved volume and nuclei, along with significant up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2l1 and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes. Moreover, Bax/Bcl2 ratio was lower in the groups subjected to IPC, indicating a protective effect of IPC against apoptosis. Conclusion: Ischemic preconditioning protect rat small intestine against ischemia/reperfusion injury, reducing morphologic lesions and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Apoptosis/genetics , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/analysis , Jejunum/blood supply , Jejunum/pathology , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Constriction , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mesenteric Ischemia/genetics , Mesenteric Ischemia/pathology
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900805, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced pulmonary/hepatic injury Methods Fifty-one Wistar rats were randomly grouped into sham, I/R, and sevoflurane groups. After reperfusion, the structural change of the lung was measured by Smith score, the wet and dry weights (W/D) were determined, malondialdehyde (MDA) myeloperoxidase (MPO) content was determined colorimetrically and by fluorescence, respectively, and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR. Biopsy and morphological analyses were performed on liver tissue, activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was determined. Results The sham group showed no changes in tissue structure. Structural lesions in the sevoflurane and I/R groups were mild and severe, respectively. Smith score, W/D, MDA, MPO, and MMP mRNA showed the same trend, and were increased in the I/R group and recovered in the sevoflurane group, compared with the sham group (both P<0.05). AST and ALT were significantly increased compared to the sham group (AST: 655±52.06 vs . 29±9.30 U/L; ALT: 693±75.56 vs . 37±6.71 U/L; P<0.05). In the sevoflurane group, AST and ALT levels were significantly decreased (464±47.71 and 516±78.84 U/L; P<0.001). TNF-α presented similar results. Conclusion The protection of lung and liver by sevoflurane may be mediated by inhibited leukocyte recruitment and MMP-9 secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Anesthetics, Inhalation/therapeutic use , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Liver/blood supply , Lung/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Peroxidase/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sevoflurane/therapeutic use , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1095-1102, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gene expression related to inflammation on mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and treated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Methods: Thirty rats (EPM-Wistar), distributed in five groups of six animals each, were underwent anesthesia and laparotomy. The ischemia time was standardized in 60 minutes and the reperfusion time 120 minutes. IPC was standardized in 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion accomplished before I/R. The control group was submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy. The other groups were submitted to ischemia, I/R, ischemia + IPC and I/R + IPC. It was collected a small intestine sample to analyses by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in real Time (RT-qPCR) and histological analyses. It was studied 27 genes. Results: The groups that received IPC presented downregulation of genes, observed in of genes in IPC+ischemia group and IPC+I/R group. Data analysis by clusters showed upregulation in I/R group, however in IPC groups occurred downregulation of genes related to inflammation. Conclusion: The ischemia/reperfusion promoted upregulation of genes related to inflammation, while ischemic preconditioning promoted downregulation of these genes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Gene Expression/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Inflammation/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Down-Regulation/physiology , Up-Regulation/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mesenteric Ischemia/genetics , Mesenteric Ischemia/prevention & control , Inflammation/genetics
13.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(10): 924-934, Oct. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973470

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To develop a new 24 hour extended liver ischemia and reperfusion (LIR) model analyzing the late biochemical and histopathological results of the isolated and combined application of recognized hepatoprotective mechanisms. In addition, we used a new stratification with zoning to classify the histological lesion. Methods: A modified animal model of severe hepatic damage produced through 90 minutes of segmental ischemia (70% of the organ) and posterior observation for 24 hours of reperfusion, submitted to ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and topical hypothermia (TH) at 26ºC, in isolation or in combination, during the procedure. Data from intraoperative biometric parameters, besides of late biochemical markers and histopathological findings, both at 24 hours evolution time, were compared with control (C) and normothermic ischemia (NI) groups. Results: All groups were homogeneous with respect to intraoperative physiological parameters. There were no losses once the model was stablished. Animals subjected to NI and IPC had worse biochemical (gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, direct bilirubin, and total bilirubin) and histopathological scores (modified Suzuki score) compared to those of control groups and groups with isolated or associated TH (p < 0.05). Conclusion: The new extended model demonstrates liver ischemia and reperfusion at 24 hour of evolution and, in this extreme scenario, only the groups subjected to topical hypothermia, combined with ischemic preconditioning or alone, had better outcomes than those subjected to only ischemic preconditioning and normothermic ischemia, reaching similar biochemical and histopathological scores to those of the control group.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Ischemic Preconditioning , Ischemia/pathology , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Hypothermia, Induced , Ischemia/etiology , Liver/physiopathology , Liver/blood supply , Liver/pathology
14.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 723-735, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949372

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is well known that during hepatic operative procedures, it is often critical that the irrigation is interrupted to avoid possible bleeding, blood transfusions, variable intensities, and their short and long-term consequences. It was believed in the past that the flow interruption should not exceed 20 minutes, which limited the use of this maneuver. However, it has been postulated that ischemia could be maintained for more than 60 minutes in healthy livers. The present paper review includes: 1) A brief introduction to justify the rationale of the review design; 2) Aspects of the pathophysiology of the three stages of the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury; 3) The innate and acquired immunity; 4) Oxidative stress; 5) Apoptosis and autophagy, Some essential biomarkers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, nitric oxide, metalloproteinases); and, finally; 6) Preventive ("cheating") strategies, non-pharmacological and pharmacological options to treat the liver IR injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Liver/blood supply , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 597-608, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To compare early- and late-effect remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) by analysing the microcirculatory, hemodynamic and histological changes in partial liver ischemia-reperfusion of rats. Methods: 60-minute partial liver ischemia followed by 120-minute reperfusion was performed without (Control group, n=7) or with preconditioning. In RIPC groups a tourniquet was applied around the left thigh using 3 cycles of 10-minute ischemia/10-minute reperfusion, one (RIPC-1, n=7) or twenty-four hours (RIPC-24, n=7) before I/R. Hemodynamic and microcirculatory measurements were performed before and after ischemia and in 30th, 60th and 120th minute of reperfusion and histological examination at the end of reperfusion. Results: Blood pressure decreased in all groups followed by biphasic changes in Control group. In RIPC groups R120 values returned almost to normal. Heart rate increased in Control and RIPC-1 groups at R120, while RIPC-24 did not show significant changes. Microcirculation of non-ischemic liver stayed constant in Control and showed significant changes in RIPC-24 group, while in ischemic liver elevated by R120 in all groups. RIPC didn't reduce histological alterations. Conclusion: Considering the survival and the results, both remote ischemic preconditioning protocols had beneficial effect in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, however the histopathological findings were controversial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/blood supply , Microcirculation/physiology , Temperature , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Disease Models, Animal , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Liver/pathology
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 396-407, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether combining hypothermia and remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) results in protection from ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and were randomly assigned to four experimental protocols on the left kidney: warm ischemia (group 1), cold ischemia (group 2), RIPC followed by warm ischemia (group 3), and RIPC followed by cold ischemia (group 4). After 240 minutes of reperfusion, histological changes in the left kidney, as well as lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity, were analyzed. The right kidney was used as the control. Serum creatinine was collected before and after the procedures. Results: RIPC combined with hypothermia during IR experiments revealed no differences on interventional groups regarding histological changes (p=0.722). Oxidative stress showed no significant variations among the groups. Lower serum creatinine at the end of the procedure was seen in animals exposed to hypothermia (p<0.001). Conclusions: Combination of RIPC and local hypothermia provides no renal protection in IR injury. Hypothermia preserves renal function during ischemic events. Furthermore, RIPC followed by warm IR did not show benefits compared to warm IR alone or controls in our experimental protocol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Kidney/blood supply , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Cold Ischemia , Warm Ischemia , Kidney/pathology
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 238-249, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886269

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) on inflammation and oxidative stress injury in rat model of renal transplantation. Methods: Thirty six male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups. Sham group: rats were treated with opening and closing abdomen. Kidney transplantation group (KT group): SD rat received the donor's left kidney derived from another SD rat. Ozone oxidative preconditioning and kidney transplantation (OOP+KT group): donor SD rats received OzoneOP treatments by transrectal insufflations before kidney transplantation. After transplantation, parameters of renal function of recipients were determined. Morphology and pathological changes of renal allograft were examined. Expression of NF-κBp65, HMGB-1 were also determined by Western-blot. Results: Compared to KT group, the morphology and pathological damages of renal allograft were less serious in OOP+KT group. Meanwhile, levels of SOD and GSH-Px of renal allograft in OOP+KT group were higher than those in KT group respectively. Western-blot showed that the expressions of NF-κBp65 and HMGB-1 in OOP+KT group were obviously less than those in KT group. Conclusion: Ozone oxidative preconditioning could attenuate the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress injury in renal allograft, which might be related with the enhancement of anti-oxidative system and suppression of inflammatory reaction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ozone/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Inflammation/prevention & control , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Blotting, Western , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Inflammation/etiology
18.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 72-81, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Reperfusion injury leads to systemic morphological and functional pathological alterations. Some techniques are already estabilished to attenuate the damage induced by reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning is one of the standard procedures. In the last 20 years, several experimental trials demonstrated that the ischemic postconditioning presents similar effectiveness. Recently experimental trials demonstrated that statins could be used as pharmacological preconditioning. Methods: 41 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were distributed in 5 groups: Ischemia and Reperfusion (A), Ischemic Postconditioning (B), Statin (C), Ischemic Postconditioning + Statins (D) and SHAM (E). After euthanasia, lungs, liver, kidneys and ileum were resected and submitted to histopathological analysis. Results: The average of lung parenchymal injury was A=3.6, B=1.6, C=1.2, D=1.2, E=1 (P=0.0029). The average of liver parenchymal injury was A=3, B=1.5, C=1.2, D=1.2, E = 0 (P<0.0001). The average of renal parenchymal injury was A=4, B=2.44, C=1.22, D=1.11, E=1 (P<0.0001). The average of intestinal parenchymal injury was A=2, B=0.66, C=0, D=0, E=0 (P=0.0006). The results were submitted to statistics applying Kruskal-Wallis test, estabilishing level of significance P<0.05. Conclusion: Groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning, to pre-treatment with statins and both methods associated demonstrated less remote reperfusion injuries, compared to the group submitted to ischemia and reperfusion without protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Clinics ; 73: e113, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of pre-conditioning treatment with laser light on hepatic injury in rats submitted to partial ischemia using mitochondrial function and liver fatty acid binding protein as markers. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups (n=5): 1) Control, 2) Control + Laser, 3) Partial Ischemia and 4) Partial Ischemia + Laser. Ischemia was induced by clamping the hepatic pedicle of the left and middle lobes of the liver for 60 minutes. Laser light at 660 nm was applied to the liver immediately prior to the induction of ischemia at 22.5 J/cm2, with 30 seconds of illumination at five individual points. The animals were sacrificed after 30 minutes of reperfusion. Blood and liver tissues were collected for analysis of mitochondrial function, determination of malondialdehyde and analysis of fatty acid binding protein expression by Western blot. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function decreased in the Partial Ischemia group, especially during adenosine diphosphate-activated respiration (state 3), and the expression of fatty acid binding protein was also reduced. The application of laser light prevented bioenergetic changes and restored the expression of fatty acid binding protein. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic application of laser light to the livers of rats submitted to partial ischemia was found to have a protective effect in the liver, with normalization of both mitochondrial function and fatty acid binding protein tissue expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Liver/radiation effects , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/analysis , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Malondialdehyde/radiation effects , Mitochondrial Swelling/radiation effects
20.
Article in Korean | WPRIM | ID: wpr-715400

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC), induced by repeated bouts of ischemia followed by reperfusion of the arm or leg is a noninvasive strategy to protect a target organ against oxidative stress and injury caused by ischemia and reperfusion. Interestingly, recent evidence suggests that RIPC may also improve exercise performance by increasing maximal oxygen consumption, but such finding remain equivocal. As such, the purpose of the study was to examine the effect of RIPC on exercise performance in healthy individuals. METHODS: In a randomized cross-over design, 17 healthy male participants (age, 23±3 years) were exposed to either a sham control (six cycles of 5 minutes bilateral thigh cuff occlusion at 20 mm Hg) or RIPC (six cycles of 5 minutes bilateral thigh cuff occlusion at 180 mm Hg) an hour before a maximal exercise test. We measured maximal oxygen consumption, power output, heat rate, blood pressure, and blood lactate as exercise performance parameters during a maximal exercise test performed on an upright bicycle. RESULTS: Compared with the sham control, RIPC improved maximal oxygen consumption (7.4%, p=0.025) and maximal power output (11.5%, p=0.010), whereas other exercise performance parameters remained unchanged with RIPC (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Taken together, the improvements in maximal oxygen consumption and maximal power output induced by RIPC may suggest that RIPC should be considered as a method for improving exercise performance.


Subject(s)
Arm , Blood Circulation , Blood Pressure , Cross-Over Studies , Exercise Test , Exercise Tolerance , Hot Temperature , Humans , Ischemia , Ischemic Preconditioning , Lactic Acid , Leg , Male , Methods , Oxidative Stress , Oxygen Consumption , Reperfusion , Thigh , Young Adult
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