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1.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(5): e202000503, 2020. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130645

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on colonic anastomosis healing with and without ischemia in rats. Methods Forty female rats underwent segmental resection of 1 cm of the left colon followed by end-to-end anastomosis. They were randomly assigned to four groups (n=10 each), a sham group; two groups were submitted to Hyperbaric Oxygen therapy (HBOT) with and without induced ischemia and the induced ischemia group without HBOT. The HBOT protocol evaluated was 100% O2 at 2.4 Atmosphere absolute pressure (ATA) for 60 minutes, two sessions before as a preconditioning protocol and three sessions after the operation. Clinical course and mortality were monitored during all experiment and on the day of euthanasia on the fourth day after laparotomy. Macroscopic appearance of the abdominal cavity were assessed and samples for breaking strength of the anastomosis and histopathological parameters were collected. Results There was no statistically significant difference in mortality or anastomosis leak between the four experimental groups. Anastomosis breaking strength was similar across groups. Conclusion The HBOT protocol tested herein at 2.4 ATA did not affect histopathological and biomechanical parameters of colonic anastomotic healing, neither the clinical outcomes death and anastomosis leak on the fourth day after laparotomy.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Wound Healing , Colon/surgery , Colon/blood supply , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Hyperbaric Oxygenation/methods , Ischemia/pathology , Postoperative Period , Rats, Inbred Lew , Time Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Anastomosis, Surgical , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Colon/pathology , Ischemia/prevention & control
2.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(4): e202000402, 2020. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1130629

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of bradykinin on reperfusion injury in an experimental intestinal ischemia reperfusion model. Methods We used 32 Wistar-Albino rats. We composed 4 groups each containing 8 rats. Rats in sham group were sacrified at 100 minutes observation after laparotomy. Thirty minutes reperfusion was performed following 50 minutes ischaemia in control group after observing 20 minutes. Ischaemic preconditioning was performed in one group of the study. We performed the other study group pharmacologic preconditioning by infusional administration of 10 μg/kg/minute bradykinin intravenously. We sacrified all of the rats by taking blood samples to evaluate the lactate and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) after resection of jejunum for detecting tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results Lactate and LDH levels were significantly higher in control and study groups than the sham group (P<0.001). There is no difference between the study groups statistically. (P>0.05). The results were the same for MPO levels. Although definitive cell damage was determinated in the control group by hystopatological evaluation, the damage in the study groups observed was lower in different levels. However, there was no significant difference between the study groups statistically (P>0.05). Conclusion Either ischeamic preconditioning or pharmacologic preconditioning made by bradykinin reduced the ischemia reperfusion injury at jejunum.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Vasodilator Agents/pharmacology , Bradykinin/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Disease Models, Animal , Intestine, Small/drug effects , Reference Values , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Peroxidase/analysis , Laparotomy
3.
Acta cir. bras ; 35(2): e202000203, 2020. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1100882

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic conditioning associated to N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on testicular ischemia∕reperfusion (I∕R) injury in rats. Methods Twenty-five adult male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into five experimental groups (n=5), as follows: Sham, I∕R, Perconditioning (PER), NAC and PER+NAC. Two-hour ischemia was induced by rotating the left testis 720° to clockwise direction, followed by 4 hours of reperfusion. Perconditioning was performed by three I/R cycles of 10 min each on the left limb, 30 min before reperfusion. N-acetylcysteine (150 mg∕kg) was administered 30 min before reperfusion. Results Statistical differences were observed in MDA levels between I/R group with all groups (p<0.01), in addition there was statistical difference between PER and Sham, and PER+ NAC groups (p<0.05) in plasma. Conclusions The protective effect of perconditioning isolated in the reduction of lipid peroxidation related to oxidative stress was demonstrated. However, when Perconditioning was associated with NAC, there was no protective effect against testicular injury of ischemia and reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Acetylcysteine/pharmacology , Testis/blood supply , Reperfusion Injury , Free Radical Scavengers/pharmacology , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Testis/drug effects , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity
4.
Rev. cuba. anestesiol. reanim ; 18(1): e489, ene.-abr. 2019. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1093094

ABSTRACT

Introducción: Una serie de breves períodos de isquemias a distancia, previo al evento isquémico mayor, pueden limitar el daño miocárdico producido por la isquemia/reperfusión. Objetivo: Evaluar la utilidad del condicionamiento isquémico a distancia, en pacientes programados para procedimientos quirúrgicos de revascularización coronaria. Métodos: Se realizó un estudio cuasiexperimental, explicativo, comparativo con control histórico, en dos grupos de 247 pacientes, propuestos para revascularización coronaria. Se colocó un torniquete en el brazo derecho, en el grupo estudio, alternando 3 insuflaciones con 3 desinsuflaciones con una presión de 200 mmHg, manteniéndola 5 min cada una. Este proceder se realizó previo, durante y después del evento isquémico mayor, provocado por el pinzamiento de la arteria coronaria. Resultados: Se logró una disminución significativa de los parámetros enzimáticos. No se encontraron diferencias significativas (p>0,05) según un conjunto de variables que representan el estado inicial de los pacientes(AU)


Introduction: A series of short periods of distant ischemia, prior to the major ischemic event, can limit the myocardial damage produced by ischemia or reperfusion. Objective: To evaluate the usefulness of remote ischemic conditioning in patients scheduled for surgical procedures of coronary revascularization. Methods: A quasi-experimental, explanatory, comparative study with historical control was conducted in two groups of 247 patients proposed for coronary revascularization. A tourniquet was placed in the right arm in the study group, alternating 3 insufflations with 3 dessufflations with a pressure of 200 mmHg, keeping each for 5 minutes. This procedure was performed before, during and after the major ischemic event, caused by the impingement of the coronary artery. Results: A significant decrease in enzymatic parameters was achieved. No significant differences were found (p>0.05) according to a set of variables that represent the initial state of the patients(AU)


Subject(s)
Humans , Surgical Procedures, Operative/ethics , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Myocardial Revascularization/methods , Non-Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Anesthesia, Inhalation/methods
5.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(5): e201900501, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1010875

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To analyze the effects of ischemic preconditioning (IPC) in the expression of apoptosis-related genes in rat small intestine subjected to ischemia and reperfusion. Methods: Thirty anesthetized rats underwent laparotomy and were drive into five groups: control (CG); ischemia (IG); ischemia and reperfusion (IRG); IPC and ischemia (IG+IPC); IPC and ischemia and reperfusion (I/RG+IPC). Intestinal ischemia was performed by clamping the superior mesenteric artery for 60 minutes, whereas reperfusion lasted for 120 minutes. IPC was carried out by one cycle of 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion prior to the prolonged 60-minutes-ischemia and 120-minutes-reperfusion. Thereafter, the rats were euthanized and samples of small intestine were processed for histology and gene expression. Results: Histology of myenteric plexus showed a higher presence of neurons presenting pyknotic nuclei and condensed chromatin in the IG and IRG. IG+IPC and I/RG+IPC groups exhibited neurons with preserved volume and nuclei, along with significant up-regulation of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl2l1 and down-regulation of pro-apoptotic genes. Moreover, Bax/Bcl2 ratio was lower in the groups subjected to IPC, indicating a protective effect of IPC against apoptosis. Conclusion: Ischemic preconditioning protect rat small intestine against ischemia/reperfusion injury, reducing morphologic lesions and apoptosis.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Apoptosis/genetics , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/analysis , Jejunum/blood supply , Jejunum/pathology , Reference Values , Random Allocation , Down-Regulation , Gene Expression , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Mesenteric Artery, Superior , Constriction , Endothelial Cells/pathology , Apoptosis Regulatory Proteins/genetics , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mesenteric Ischemia/genetics , Mesenteric Ischemia/pathology
6.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(8): e201900805, 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038124

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose To investigate the effect of sevoflurane preconditioning on ischemia/reperfusion (I/R)-induced pulmonary/hepatic injury Methods Fifty-one Wistar rats were randomly grouped into sham, I/R, and sevoflurane groups. After reperfusion, the structural change of the lung was measured by Smith score, the wet and dry weights (W/D) were determined, malondialdehyde (MDA) myeloperoxidase (MPO) content was determined colorimetrically and by fluorescence, respectively, and matrix metalloprotein-9 (MMP-9) mRNA was quantified by RT-PCR. Biopsy and morphological analyses were performed on liver tissue, activities of aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) were determined, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) level was determined. Results The sham group showed no changes in tissue structure. Structural lesions in the sevoflurane and I/R groups were mild and severe, respectively. Smith score, W/D, MDA, MPO, and MMP mRNA showed the same trend, and were increased in the I/R group and recovered in the sevoflurane group, compared with the sham group (both P<0.05). AST and ALT were significantly increased compared to the sham group (AST: 655±52.06 vs . 29±9.30 U/L; ALT: 693±75.56 vs . 37±6.71 U/L; P<0.05). In the sevoflurane group, AST and ALT levels were significantly decreased (464±47.71 and 516±78.84 U/L; P<0.001). TNF-α presented similar results. Conclusion The protection of lung and liver by sevoflurane may be mediated by inhibited leukocyte recruitment and MMP-9 secretion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Anesthetics, Inhalation/therapeutic use , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Liver/blood supply , Lung/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Reperfusion Injury/drug therapy , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/blood , Peroxidase/analysis , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Disease Models, Animal , Sevoflurane/therapeutic use , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/drug effects , Liver/pathology , Lung/drug effects , Lung/pathology , Malondialdehyde/analysis
7.
Acta cir. bras ; 34(7): e201900707, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1038118

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of splenic ischemic preconditioning (sIPC) on oxidative stress induced by hepatic ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Methods: Fifteen male Wistar rats were equally divided into 3 groups: SHAM, IRI and sIPC. Animals from IRI group were subjected to 45 minutes of partial liver ischemia (70%). In the sIPC group, splenic artery was clamped in 2 cycles of 5 min of ischemia and 5 min of reperfusion (20 min total) prior to hepatic ischemia. SHAM group underwent the same surgical procedures as in the remaining groups, but no liver ischemia or sIPC were induced. After 1h, hepatic and splenic tissue samples were harvested for TBARS, CAT, GPx and GSH-Rd measurement. Results: sIPC treatment significantly decreased both hepatic and splenic levels of TBARS when compared to IRI group (p<0.01). Furthermore, the hepatic and splenic activities of CAT, GPx and GSH- Rd were significantly higher in sIPC group than in IRI group. Conclusion: sIPC was able to attenuate hepatic and splenic IRI-induced oxidative stress.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Liver/blood supply , Liver Diseases/prevention & control , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/physiology , Liver Diseases/physiopathology
8.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(12): 1095-1102, Dec. 2018. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-973485

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the gene expression related to inflammation on mice subjected to intestinal ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) and treated with ischemic preconditioning (IPC). Methods: Thirty rats (EPM-Wistar), distributed in five groups of six animals each, were underwent anesthesia and laparotomy. The ischemia time was standardized in 60 minutes and the reperfusion time 120 minutes. IPC was standardized in 5 minutes of ischemia followed by 10 minutes of reperfusion accomplished before I/R. The control group was submitted only to anesthesia and laparotomy. The other groups were submitted to ischemia, I/R, ischemia + IPC and I/R + IPC. It was collected a small intestine sample to analyses by Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction in real Time (RT-qPCR) and histological analyses. It was studied 27 genes. Results: The groups that received IPC presented downregulation of genes, observed in of genes in IPC+ischemia group and IPC+I/R group. Data analysis by clusters showed upregulation in I/R group, however in IPC groups occurred downregulation of genes related to inflammation. Conclusion: The ischemia/reperfusion promoted upregulation of genes related to inflammation, while ischemic preconditioning promoted downregulation of these genes.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Gene Expression/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Inflammation/prevention & control , Intestine, Small/blood supply , Reference Values , Time Factors , Reperfusion Injury/genetics , Down-Regulation/physiology , Up-Regulation/physiology , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Mesenteric Ischemia/genetics , Mesenteric Ischemia/prevention & control , Inflammation/genetics
9.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(8): 723-735, Aug. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949372

ABSTRACT

Abstract It is well known that during hepatic operative procedures, it is often critical that the irrigation is interrupted to avoid possible bleeding, blood transfusions, variable intensities, and their short and long-term consequences. It was believed in the past that the flow interruption should not exceed 20 minutes, which limited the use of this maneuver. However, it has been postulated that ischemia could be maintained for more than 60 minutes in healthy livers. The present paper review includes: 1) A brief introduction to justify the rationale of the review design; 2) Aspects of the pathophysiology of the three stages of the liver ischemia-reperfusion injury; 3) The innate and acquired immunity; 4) Oxidative stress; 5) Apoptosis and autophagy, Some essential biomarkers (Tumor Necrosis Factor-α, nitric oxide, metalloproteinases); and, finally; 6) Preventive ("cheating") strategies, non-pharmacological and pharmacological options to treat the liver IR injury.


Subject(s)
Humans , Reperfusion Injury/physiopathology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemia/physiopathology , Ischemia/therapy , Liver/blood supply , Time Factors , Mitochondria, Liver/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/metabolism , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism , Cell Death/physiology , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Matrix Metalloproteinases/metabolism , Ischemia/metabolism , Nitric Oxide/metabolism
10.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(7): 597-608, July 2018. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949363

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To compare early- and late-effect remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) by analysing the microcirculatory, hemodynamic and histological changes in partial liver ischemia-reperfusion of rats. Methods: 60-minute partial liver ischemia followed by 120-minute reperfusion was performed without (Control group, n=7) or with preconditioning. In RIPC groups a tourniquet was applied around the left thigh using 3 cycles of 10-minute ischemia/10-minute reperfusion, one (RIPC-1, n=7) or twenty-four hours (RIPC-24, n=7) before I/R. Hemodynamic and microcirculatory measurements were performed before and after ischemia and in 30th, 60th and 120th minute of reperfusion and histological examination at the end of reperfusion. Results: Blood pressure decreased in all groups followed by biphasic changes in Control group. In RIPC groups R120 values returned almost to normal. Heart rate increased in Control and RIPC-1 groups at R120, while RIPC-24 did not show significant changes. Microcirculation of non-ischemic liver stayed constant in Control and showed significant changes in RIPC-24 group, while in ischemic liver elevated by R120 in all groups. RIPC didn't reduce histological alterations. Conclusion: Considering the survival and the results, both remote ischemic preconditioning protocols had beneficial effect in hepatic ischemia-reperfusion, however the histopathological findings were controversial.


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemia/prevention & control , Liver/blood supply , Microcirculation/physiology , Temperature , Time Factors , Blood Pressure/physiology , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Laser-Doppler Flowmetry , Disease Models, Animal , Respiratory Rate/physiology , Liver/pathology
11.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(5): 396-407, May 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-949345

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether combining hypothermia and remote ischemic preconditioning (RIPC) results in protection from ischemia-reperfusion (IR). Methods: Thirty-two Wistar rats underwent right nephrectomy and were randomly assigned to four experimental protocols on the left kidney: warm ischemia (group 1), cold ischemia (group 2), RIPC followed by warm ischemia (group 3), and RIPC followed by cold ischemia (group 4). After 240 minutes of reperfusion, histological changes in the left kidney, as well as lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme activity, were analyzed. The right kidney was used as the control. Serum creatinine was collected before and after the procedures. Results: RIPC combined with hypothermia during IR experiments revealed no differences on interventional groups regarding histological changes (p=0.722). Oxidative stress showed no significant variations among the groups. Lower serum creatinine at the end of the procedure was seen in animals exposed to hypothermia (p<0.001). Conclusions: Combination of RIPC and local hypothermia provides no renal protection in IR injury. Hypothermia preserves renal function during ischemic events. Furthermore, RIPC followed by warm IR did not show benefits compared to warm IR alone or controls in our experimental protocol.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Oxidative Stress/physiology , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Kidney/blood supply , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Combined Modality Therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Cold Ischemia , Warm Ischemia , Kidney/pathology
12.
Acta cir. bras ; 33(3): 238-249, Mar. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886269

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To investigate the effect of ozone oxidative preconditioning (OzoneOP) on inflammation and oxidative stress injury in rat model of renal transplantation. Methods: Thirty six male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups. Sham group: rats were treated with opening and closing abdomen. Kidney transplantation group (KT group): SD rat received the donor's left kidney derived from another SD rat. Ozone oxidative preconditioning and kidney transplantation (OOP+KT group): donor SD rats received OzoneOP treatments by transrectal insufflations before kidney transplantation. After transplantation, parameters of renal function of recipients were determined. Morphology and pathological changes of renal allograft were examined. Expression of NF-κBp65, HMGB-1 were also determined by Western-blot. Results: Compared to KT group, the morphology and pathological damages of renal allograft were less serious in OOP+KT group. Meanwhile, levels of SOD and GSH-Px of renal allograft in OOP+KT group were higher than those in KT group respectively. Western-blot showed that the expressions of NF-κBp65 and HMGB-1 in OOP+KT group were obviously less than those in KT group. Conclusion: Ozone oxidative preconditioning could attenuate the inflammatory reaction and oxidative stress injury in renal allograft, which might be related with the enhancement of anti-oxidative system and suppression of inflammatory reaction.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Ozone/administration & dosage , Kidney Transplantation/methods , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Inflammation/prevention & control , Oxidation-Reduction/drug effects , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Blotting, Western , Kidney Transplantation/adverse effects , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Oxidative Stress/drug effects , Models, Animal , Inflammation/etiology
13.
Rev. bras. cir. cardiovasc ; 33(1): 72-81, Jan.-Feb. 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897980

ABSTRACT

Abstract Introduction: Reperfusion injury leads to systemic morphological and functional pathological alterations. Some techniques are already estabilished to attenuate the damage induced by reperfusion. Ischemic preconditioning is one of the standard procedures. In the last 20 years, several experimental trials demonstrated that the ischemic postconditioning presents similar effectiveness. Recently experimental trials demonstrated that statins could be used as pharmacological preconditioning. Methods: 41 Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus albinus) were distributed in 5 groups: Ischemia and Reperfusion (A), Ischemic Postconditioning (B), Statin (C), Ischemic Postconditioning + Statins (D) and SHAM (E). After euthanasia, lungs, liver, kidneys and ileum were resected and submitted to histopathological analysis. Results: The average of lung parenchymal injury was A=3.6, B=1.6, C=1.2, D=1.2, E=1 (P=0.0029). The average of liver parenchymal injury was A=3, B=1.5, C=1.2, D=1.2, E = 0 (P<0.0001). The average of renal parenchymal injury was A=4, B=2.44, C=1.22, D=1.11, E=1 (P<0.0001). The average of intestinal parenchymal injury was A=2, B=0.66, C=0, D=0, E=0 (P=0.0006). The results were submitted to statistics applying Kruskal-Wallis test, estabilishing level of significance P<0.05. Conclusion: Groups submitted to ischemic postconditioning, to pre-treatment with statins and both methods associated demonstrated less remote reperfusion injuries, compared to the group submitted to ischemia and reperfusion without protection.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Atorvastatin/therapeutic use , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal
14.
Clinics ; 73: e113, 2018. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-952803

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The objective of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of pre-conditioning treatment with laser light on hepatic injury in rats submitted to partial ischemia using mitochondrial function and liver fatty acid binding protein as markers. METHODS: Rats were divided into four groups (n=5): 1) Control, 2) Control + Laser, 3) Partial Ischemia and 4) Partial Ischemia + Laser. Ischemia was induced by clamping the hepatic pedicle of the left and middle lobes of the liver for 60 minutes. Laser light at 660 nm was applied to the liver immediately prior to the induction of ischemia at 22.5 J/cm2, with 30 seconds of illumination at five individual points. The animals were sacrificed after 30 minutes of reperfusion. Blood and liver tissues were collected for analysis of mitochondrial function, determination of malondialdehyde and analysis of fatty acid binding protein expression by Western blot. RESULTS: Mitochondrial function decreased in the Partial Ischemia group, especially during adenosine diphosphate-activated respiration (state 3), and the expression of fatty acid binding protein was also reduced. The application of laser light prevented bioenergetic changes and restored the expression of fatty acid binding protein. CONCLUSION: Prophylactic application of laser light to the livers of rats submitted to partial ischemia was found to have a protective effect in the liver, with normalization of both mitochondrial function and fatty acid binding protein tissue expression.


Subject(s)
Animals , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Low-Level Light Therapy/methods , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/metabolism , Liver/radiation effects , Liver/blood supply , Aspartate Aminotransferases/blood , Blotting, Western , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Alanine Transaminase/blood , Mitochondrial Membranes/drug effects , Fatty Acid-Binding Proteins/analysis , Liver/metabolism , Malondialdehyde/analysis , Malondialdehyde/radiation effects , Mitochondrial Swelling/radiation effects
15.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(11): 949-955, Nov. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886182

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in liver ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: 25 male rats (Wistar) were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of liver ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during liver ischemia; Hypertonic saline solution group (HSS) treated with hypertonic saline solution (4ml/kg); Remote ischemic perconditioning + Hypertonic saline solution group (Per+HSS) with both treatments. Results: Per+HSS group showed a lower degree of liver dysfunction in relation to I/R group, whereas the technique of remote ischemic perconditioning isolated or associated with saline solution significantly improved liver function and reduced histological damage. Conclusion: Remote ischemic perconditioning associated or not to saline solution promoted reduction of acute liver injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Liver/blood supply , Serum Albumin/analysis , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Statistics, Nonparametric , Disease Models, Animal , Liver/drug effects
16.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(10): 816-826, Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886169

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: Topical hypothermia and local ischemic preconditioning have been shown to reduce renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury individually. We examined whether combination of both strategies lessens renal I/R injury. Methods: Post right nephrectomy, 40 male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to five experimental protocols performed in the left kidney: topical hypothermia without ischemia (TH), warm ischemia (IR), ischemic preconditioning followed by warm ischemia (IPC+IR), cold ischemia (TH+IR), and ischemic preconditioning followed by cold ischemia (IPC+TH+IR). Eight randomly assigned right kidneys constituted the control group. After 240 min of reperfusion, the left kidney was retrieved to evaluate histological changes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity. Serum was collected to evaluate urea and creatinine. Results: IPC+TH+IR group revealed no difference to any other group subjected to ischemia in relation to histological changes, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzymes activity. Creatinine was lower in IPC+TH+IR group compared with IPC+IR, but showed no difference compared to TH+IR group. Conclusions: Combination of local ischemic preconditioning (IPC) and topical hypothermia conferred no protection in renal I/R injury. Moreover, local IPC solely followed by warm ischemia impaired renal function more than warm ischemia alone.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Hypothermia, Induced/methods , Kidney/pathology , Lipid Peroxidation , Reperfusion Injury/pathology , Reperfusion Injury/blood , Random Allocation , Rats, Wistar , Disease Models, Animal , Kidney/blood supply , Kidney/chemistry , Nephrectomy
17.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(8): 599-606, Aug. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886224

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate if combination of perconditioning and postconditioning provides improved renal protection compared to perconditioning alone in a model of renal reperfusion injury. Methods: Thirty rats were assigned into 6 groups: normality; sham; ischemia and reperfusion; postconditioning; perconditioning; perconditioning + postconditioning. Animals were subjected to right nephrectomy and left renal ischemia for 30 minutes. Postconditioning consisted of 3 cycles of 5 min renal perfusion followed by 5 min of renal ischemia after major ischemic period. Perconditioning consisted of 3 cycles of 5 min hindlimb ischemia followed by 5 min of hindlimb perfusion contemporaneously to renal major ischemic period. After 24 hours, kidney was harvested and blood collected to measure urea and creatinine. Results: Perconditioning obtained better values for creatinine and urea level than only postconditioning (p<0.01); performing both techniques contemporaneously had no increased results (p>0.05). Regarding tissue structure, perconditioning was the only technique to protect the glomerulus and tubules (p<0.05), while postconditioning protected only the glomerulus (p<0.05). Combination of both techniques shows no effect on glomerulus or tubules (p>0.05). Conclusions: Perconditioning had promising results on ischemia and reperfusion induced kidney injury, enhanced kidney function and protected glomerulus and tubules. There was no additive protection when postconditioning and perconditioning were combined.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Ischemic Postconditioning/methods , Ischemia/prevention & control , Kidney/blood supply , Time Factors , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Rats, Wistar , Models, Animal , Kidney/pathology
18.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(7): 550-558, July 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-886220

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate whether low energy shock wave preconditioning could reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion. Methods: The right kidneys of 64 male Sprague Dawley rats were removed to establish an isolated kidney model. The rats were then divided into four treatment groups: Group 1 was the sham treatment group; Group 2, received only low-energy (12 kv, 1 Hz, 200 times) shock wave preconditioning; Group 3 received the same low-energy shock wave preconditioning as Group 2, and then the left renal artery was occluded for 45 minutes; and Group 4 had the left renal artery occluded for 45 minutes. At 24 hours and one-week time points after reperfusion, serum inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1), creatinine (Cr), and cystatin C (Cys C) levels were measured, malondialdehyde (MDA) in kidney tissue was detected, and changes in nephric morphology were evaluated by light and electron microscopy. Results: Twenty-four hours after reperfusion, serum iNOS, NGAL, Cr, Cys C, and MDA levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4; light and electron microscopy showed that the renal tissue injury in Group 3 was significantly lighter than that in Group 4. One week after reperfusion, serum NGAL, KIM-1, and Cys C levels in Group 3 were significantly lower than those in Group 4. Conclusion: Low-energy shock wave preconditioning can reduce renal ischemic reperfusion injury caused by renal artery occlusion in an isolated kidney rat model.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Renal Artery Obstruction/complications , Short-Wave Therapy/methods , Reperfusion Injury/etiology , Reperfusion Injury/therapy , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Kidney/blood supply , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Disease Models, Animal
19.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 211-218, Mar. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837686

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effects of hypertonic saline solution associated to remote ischemic perconditioning in renal ischemia/reperfusion injury in rats. Methods: Twenty five male rats (Wistar) underwent right nephrectomy and were distributed into five groups: Sham group (S); Ischemia/Reperfusion group (I/R) with 30 minutes of renal ischemia; Remote ischemic perconditioning group (Per) with three cycles of 10 minutes of I/R performed during kidney ischemia; Hypertonic saline solution group (HSS) treated with hypertonic saline solution (4ml/kg); remote ischemic perconditioning + Hypertonic saline solution group (Per+HSS) with both treatments. After reperfusion, blood samples were collected for BUN and creatinine serum levels analyzes. TBARS were evaluated in plasma and renal tissue to assess oxidative stress. Kidney histopathological examination were performed. Results: Per+HSS group showed a lower degree of renal dysfunction in relation to I/R group, whereas the technique of remote ischemic perconditioning isolated or associated with saline solution significantly reduced oxidative stress and histological damage. Conclusion: Remote ischemic perconditioning associated or not to saline solution promoted reduction of acute renal injury induced by ischemia/reperfusion.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Saline Solution, Hypertonic/pharmacology , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Protective Agents/pharmacology , Ischemia/prevention & control , Kidney/blood supply , Thiobarbiturates/analysis , Time Factors , Blood Urea Nitrogen , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Rats, Wistar , Oxidative Stress , Creatinine/blood , Kidney/physiopathology , Kidney/pathology , Kidney/chemistry , Kidney Function Tests , Necrosis
20.
Acta cir. bras ; 32(3): 236-242, Mar. 2017. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-837688

ABSTRACT

Abstract Purpose: To evaluate the effect of remote ischemic preconditioning (r-IPC) administered to pregnant rats, in the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation. Methods: We used three pregnant rats and their newborn rats distributed in three groups: 1) Control (C) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention; 2) Hypoxia-Reoxygenation (H/R) - Newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which did not undergo any intervention, and were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation; 3) Remote Ischemic Preconditioning (r-IPC) - newborn rats born from a pregnant rat which was subjected to remote ischemic preconditioning twenty-four hours before giving birth and the newborn rats were subjected to hypoxia-reoxygenation. Segments of ileum were prepared for histological analysis by HE and immunohistochemistry by the Ki67 to evaluate cell proliferation, crypt depth and villus height and evaluation of apoptosis by cleaved caspase-3. Results: The intensity of the lesions was lower in the r-IPC than in the H/R group, showing significant difference (p<0.01). The r-IPC group showed a higher proliferative activity compared to the H/R group (p<0.01), with deeper crypts (r-IPC > H/R - p < 0.05), and higher villi, showing significant difference (r-IPC > H/R - (p <0.01). The occurrence of apoptosis in the H/R group was lower in comparison to groups C and r-IPC, with significant difference (H/R < r-IPC; p<0.05). Conclusion: The remote ischemic preconditioning applied to the pregnant rat protected the ileum of newborn rats subjected to hypoxia and reoxygenation, with decreased intensity of the lesions in the ileum mucosa and preservation of proliferative activity, keeping the villus height and crypt depth similar to group C.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Rats , Ischemic Preconditioning/methods , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/prevention & control , Ileum/blood supply , Time Factors , Pregnancy , Immunohistochemistry , Reperfusion Injury/prevention & control , Cell Hypoxia , Reproducibility of Results , Treatment Outcome , Apoptosis , Ki-67 Antigen/analysis , Enterocolitis, Necrotizing/pathology , Disease Models, Animal , Caspase 3/analysis , Ileum/pathology , Intestinal Mucosa/blood supply , Animals, Newborn
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