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1.
Rev. paul. pediatr ; 33(1): 12-18, Jan-Mar/2015. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-744696

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To assess the knowledge and practice of pediatricians about infants with physiological reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease. METHODS: 140 pediatricians were interviewed during two scientific events in 2009 and 2010. The questions referred to two clinical cases of infants. One with symptoms of infant regurgitation (physiological reflux) and another with gastroesophageal reflux disease. RESULTS: Among 140 pediatricians, 11.4% (n=16) and 62.1% (n=87) would require investigation tests, respectively for infant regurgitation (physiological reflux) and gastroesophageal reflux disease. A series of upper gastrointestinal exams would be the first requested with a higher frequency. Medication would be prescribed by 18.6% (n=6) in the case of physiological reflux and 87.1% (n=122) in the case of gastroesophageal reflux disease. Prokinetic drugs would be prescribed more frequently than gastric acid secretion inhibitors. Sleeping position would be recommended by 94.2% (n=132) and 92.9% (n=130) of the respondents, respectively for the case of physiological reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease; however, about half of the respondents would recommend the prone position. Only 10 (7.1%) of the pediatricians would exclude the cow's milk protein from the infants' diet. CONCLUSIONS: Approaches different from the international guidelines are often considered appropriate, especially when recommending a different position other than the supine and prescription of medication. In turn, the interviews enable us to infer the right capacity of the pediatricians to distinguish physiologic reflux and gastroesophageal reflux disease correctly. .


OBJETIVO: Avaliar o conhecimento e a prática de pediatras brasileiros na assistência ao lactente com refluxo fisiológico e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. MÉTODOS: Foram entrevistados 140 médicos pediatras em dois eventos científicos em 2009 e 2010. As perguntas referiam-se a dois casos clínicos de lactentes, um com quadro compatível com regurgitação do lactente (refluxo fisiológico) e outro com doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. RESULTADOS: Dos 140 participantes, 11,4% (n=16) e 62,1% (n=87) solicitariam exame para lactentes, respectivamente, com refluxo fisiológico e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. O primeiro exame solicitado com maior frequência seria a radiografia contrastada de esôfago, estômago e duodeno. Medicação seria prescrita por 18,6% (n=26) para o caso de refluxo fisiológico e 87,1% (n=122) para o caso de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. Procinéticos seriam prescritos com maior frequência do que os redutores da secreção ácida gástrica. Prescrição de posição para dormir fez parte das recomendações de 94,2% (n=132) e 92,9% (n=130) dos entrevistados, respectivamente, para os casos de refluxo fisiológico e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. Entretanto, cerca da metade dos entrevistados não recomendaria o decúbito dorsal. Prescrição de dieta de exclusão do leite de vaca para um lactente com quadro de doença do refluxo gastroesofágico seria feita por apenas 10 (7,1%) dos participantes. CONCLUSÕES: Condutas diferentes das diretrizes internacionais são frequentemente consideradas adequadas, especialmente quanto à recomendação de posição diferente do decúbito dorsal e prescrição de medicamentos. As respostas permitem inferir a capacidade de correta diferenciação entre refluxo fisiológico e doença do refluxo gastroesofágico. .


Subject(s)
Humans , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Carbonic Anhydrases/metabolism , Pyrimidines/chemistry , Pyrroles/chemistry , Sulfonamides/pharmacology , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/chemistry , Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors/chemical synthesis , Dose-Response Relationship, Drug , Drug Screening Assays, Antitumor , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Molecular Structure , Structure-Activity Relationship , Sulfonamides/chemistry , Sulfonamides/chemical synthesis
2.
Rev. méd. Chile ; 143(3): 320-328, mar. 2015. tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-745629

ABSTRACT

Background: Suicide mortality rates are increasing among teenagers. Aim: To study the prevalence and predictive factors of suicide attempts among Chilean adolescents. Material and Methods: A random sample of 195 teenagers aged 16 ± 1 years (53% males) answered an anonymous survey about their demographic features, substance abuse, the Osaka suicidal ideation questionnaire, Smilksten familial Apgar. Beck hopelessness scale, Beck depression scale and Coppersmith self-esteem inventory. Results: Twenty five percent of respondents had attempted suicide at least in one occasion during their lives. These attempts were significantly associated with female gender, absent parents, family dysfunction, drug abuse, smoking, low self-esteem, hopelessness, depression and recent suicidal ideation. A logistic regression analysis accepted female gender, smoking and recent suicidal ideation as significant independent predictors of suicide attempt. Conclusions: Suicide attempted is common among teenagers and its predictors are female sex, smoking and previous suicidal ideation.


Subject(s)
Animals , Female , Humans , Mice , Pregnancy , Acetaldehyde/metabolism , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase/genetics , Aldehyde Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Embryo, Mammalian/metabolism , Ethanol/toxicity , Fanconi Anemia Complementation Group A Protein/genetics , Fanconi Anemia/pathology , Animals, Newborn , Acetaldehyde/toxicity , Disease Models, Animal , DNA Damage , Embryo, Mammalian/embryology , Genome , Hematopoietic Stem Cells/metabolism , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Retinal Dehydrogenase/genetics , Retinal Dehydrogenase/metabolism
3.
Ciênc. saúde coletiva ; 20(2): 449-460, 02/2015. tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-742218

ABSTRACT

O objetivo deste trabalho foi analisar os motivos das faltas às consultas odontológicas em Unidades de Saúde da Família (USF) e implementar estratégias para sua redução por meio da pesquisa-ação. O estudo foi realizado em 12 USF de Piracicaba/SP, de 01 de janeiro a 31 de dezembro de 2010. A amostra se consistiu de 385 usuários, entrevistados por telefone, sobre os motivos das faltas, além de 12 cirurgiões-dentistas e 12 enfermeiras. Realizaram-se duas oficinas com os profissionais: uma para problematização dos dados coletados nas entrevistas e elaboração de estratégias; e outra após 4 meses, para avaliação. O maior motivo de faltas foi a coincidência do horário de funcionamento das unidades com o de trabalho dos usuários. Dentre as estratégias ressaltou-se a realização de palestras sobre saúde bucal, educação permanente nas reuniões de equipe, capacitação dos Agentes Comunitários de Saúde, participação em grupos terapêuticos e parcerias entre Equipe de Saúde Bucal e equipamentos sociais da comunidade. A adoção de prontuário único foi a estratégia desafiadora encontrada pelos profissionais. Concluiu-se que as estratégias implementadas levaram à diminuição das faltas em 66,6% e o caráter motivador das oficinas possibilitou a reflexão crítica para o redirecionamento da prática em saúde.


The aim of this study was to analyze the reasons for missed appointments in dental Family Health Units (FHU) and implement strategies to reduce same through action research. This is a study conducted in 12 FHUs in Piracicaba in the State of São Paulo from January, 1 to December, 31 2010. The sample was composed of 385 users of these health units who were interviewed over the phone and asked about the reasons for missing dental appointments, as well as 12 dentists and 12 nurses. Two workshops were staged with professionals: the first to assess the data collected in interviews and develop strategy, and the second for evaluation after 4 months. The primary cause for missed appointments was the opening hours of the units coinciding with the work schedule of the users. Among the strategies suggested were lectures on oral health, ongoing education in team meetings, training of Community Health Agents, participation in therapeutic groups and partnerships between Oral Health Teams and the social infrastructure of the community. The adoption of the single medical record was the strategy proposed by professionals. The strategies implemented led to a 66.6% reduction in missed appointments by the units and the motivating nature of the workshops elicited critical reflection to redirect health practices.


Subject(s)
Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Enzyme Precursors/metabolism , Plant Proteins/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Biocatalysis , Computer Simulation , Cysteine Endopeptidases/chemistry , Cysteine Endopeptidases/genetics , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/chemistry , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/metabolism , Cysteine Proteinase Inhibitors/pharmacology , Enzyme Activation , Enzyme Precursors/antagonists & inhibitors , Enzyme Precursors/chemistry , Enzyme Precursors/genetics , Hot Temperature , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Hydrolysis , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/chemistry , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kinetics , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Leucine/chemistry , Leucine/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Models, Molecular , Molecular Sequence Data , Protein Conformation , Protein Folding , Protein Stability , Plant Proteins/antagonists & inhibitors , Plant Proteins/chemistry , Plant Proteins/genetics , Recombinant Proteins/chemistry , Recombinant Proteins/metabolism
4.
Korean Journal of Urology ; : 515-518, 2015.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-171068

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: It is well known that testicular germ cell tumors arise with increased frequency in patients with cryptorchidism. In addition, intratubular germ cell neoplasia (ITGCN) is a precursor lesion to testicular germ cell tumor. Approximately 50% of patients with ITGCN will develop an invasive of testicular germ cell tumors within 5 years. Therefore, we evaluated that the incidence of ITGCN in postpubertal cryptorchidism. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between January 2002 and August 2012, orchiectomy specimens from 31 postpubertalpatients (aged 12 or over) with cryptorchid testis were reviewed. The specimens were evaluated for ITGCN using immunohistochemical stains of placental-like alkaline phosphatase and Oct 3/4 with routine hematoxylin-eosin stain. Additionally, the degree of spermatogenesis was assessed using the Johnsen score. RESULTS: Mean age was 34 years (range, 17 to 74 years) at surgery. All patients were diagnosed as unilateral cryptorchidism. One patient (3.2%) of 20-year-old had ITGCN in surgical specimen with all positive markers. Histological assessment of spermatogenesis showed that mean Johnsen score was 3.42 (range, 1 to 9). Majority of patients (27 of 31) presented impaired spermatogenesis with low Johnsen score lesser than 5. CONCLUSIONS: Considering the risk of malignancy and low spermatogenesis, we should perform immunohistochemical stains and discuss preventative orchiectomy for the postpubertal cryptorchidism.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Biomarkers, Tumor/metabolism , Carcinoma in Situ/diagnosis , Cryptorchidism/complications , Disease Progression , Humans , Infertility, Male/etiology , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms, Germ Cell and Embryonal/diagnosis , Orchiectomy , Puberty , Retrospective Studies , Spermatogenesis , Testicular Neoplasms/diagnosis , Young Adult
5.
J. bras. nefrol ; 36(4): 542-544, Oct-Dec/2014. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731142

ABSTRACT

Introduction: When faced with violet, purple or purplish-blue urine, clinicians should consider urinary tract infection in their differential diagnosis. Case report: A 60-year-old woman with end-stage kidney disease and non-adherence to renal replacement therapy was admitted to our hospital for placement of hemodialysis catheter. During her hospitalization she had purple urine, and purple urine bag syndrome (PUBS) was diagnosed. She was effectively treated with antibiotics and her urine returned to a dark yellow color. Discussion: Although this condition is often easily treated, diagnosing PUBS in chronic renal patients probably means an increased serum concentration of indoxyl sulfate, metabolite that is involved in the progression of both CKD and cardiovascular disease. Conclusion: Hence, in the context of our renal patients, perhaps PUBS is not as benign as supposed. .


Subject(s)
Animals , Rats , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Membrane Glycoproteins/metabolism , Protein Kinase C/metabolism , Proteoglycans/metabolism , Amino Acid Sequence , Molecular Sequence Data , Phosphorylation , Protein Kinase C-alpha , Protein Kinase C-delta
6.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 21(4): 1467-1473, Oct-Dec/2014.
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: lil-732502

ABSTRACT

El artículo busca presentar el contexto y aproximación preliminares necesarios para comprender y abordar el debate sobre el control natal en Colombia en las décadas de 1960 y 1970. Recoge las principales posturas en conflicto en dicho período, y los discursos y lógicas que permearon la llegada de los programas de planificación norteamericanos a América Latina como forma de control político de los movimientos revolucionarios.


The article seeks to present the necessary context and a preliminary approach to understanding and addressing the birth control debate in Colombia in the 1960s and 1970s. It covers the main conflicting positions during that period and the discourses and logics permeating the arrival of North American family planning programs to Latin America as a form of political control of revolutionary movements.


Subject(s)
Animals , Humans , Mice , Colonic Neoplasms/enzymology , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Neoplasm Metastasis , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Colonic Neoplasms/metabolism , Colonic Neoplasms/pathology , Enzyme Activation , Membrane Proteins , Metalloendopeptidases/metabolism , Neoplasm Invasiveness , Prostaglandins/biosynthesis , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Sulindac/pharmacology , Tumor Cells, Cultured
7.
Braz. dent. j ; 25(5): 420-424, Sep-Oct/2014. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-731056

ABSTRACT

The present study aimed to evaluate the influence of the following irrigating solutions on the microhardness of root canal dentin: 2% sodium hypochlorite (2NaOCl), 5% sodium hypochlorite (5NaOCl), super-oxidized water (400 ppm Sterilox - Sx) and 17% EDTA (E). Eighty roots from bovine incisors were randomly divided into 8 groups (n=10): 2NaOCl, 5NaOCl, Sx, and 2NaOCl + E, 5NaOCl + E, Sx + E (associated with E as final irrigant for 5 min), E solely and distilled water (dH2O) as the negative control. Root canal preparation was performed by hand instruments, using one of the irrigation protocols for 30 min. Then, 5 mm of the cervical root third were cut out from each sample and subjected to the Vickers microhardness test, at two points, one at approximately 500-1000 µm from the root canal lumen (distance 1), and the other at approximately 500-1000 µm from the external root surface (distance 2). Data were analyzed by Wilcoxon and Kruskal-Wallis tests at 5% significance level. Microhardness values at distance 1 were significantly lower than those at distance 2 for all groups, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E groups (p>0.05). EDTA showed the lowest microhardness values. However, no statistically significant difference was detected among groups at distance 1 and EDTA was significantly different only from Sx at distance 2. In conclusion, all tested solutions showed lower microhardness at the most superficial root canal dentin layer compared to the one found near the external root surface, except 5NaOCl and 5NaOCl + E; EDTA promoted lower microhardness values in comparison to Sterilox at this site.


O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a influência das seguintes soluções irrigadoras na microdureza da dentina do canal radicular: hipoclorito de sódio a 2% (NaOCl2), hipoclorito de sódio a 5% (NaOCl5), água superoxidada (Sterilox(r) 400 ppm - Sx) e EDTA a 17% (E). Oitenta raízes de incisivos bovinos foram divididas aleatoriamente em 8 grupos (n=10): NaOCl2, NaOCl5, Sx e NaOCl2 + E, NaOCl5 + E, Sx + E (associados ao E como irrigante final por 5 min), E isolado e água destilada (H2Od), como controle negativo. O preparo dos canais radiculares foi realizado com instrumentos manuais, usando um dos protocolos de irrigação por 30 min. A seguir, 5 mm do terço cervical de cada amostra foram cortados perpendicularmente e submetidos ao teste de microdureza de Vickers, em dois pontos, um aproximadamente 500-1000 µm da luz do canal radicular (distância 1), e o outro aproximadamente 500-1000 µm da superfície externa da raiz (distância 2). Os dados foram analisados pelos testes de Wilcoxon e Kruskal-Wallis com um nível de significância de 5%. Os valores de microdureza na distância 1 foram significativamente menores do que na distância 2 para todos os grupos, exceto NaOCl5 e NaOCl5 +E (p>0,05). O EDTA mostrou os menores valores de microdureza. No entanto, não foi detectada diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos na distância 1 e o EDTA foi significativamente diferente apenas do Sx na distância 2. Pode-se concluir que todas as soluções testadas mostraram menor microdureza na camada de dentina mais superficial do canal radicular em comparação aos valores encontrados próximo à superfície radicular externa, exceto NaOCl5 e NaOCl5 + E; o EDTA promoveu menor microdureza em comparação ao Sterilox(r) neste ponto.


Subject(s)
Humans , Anti-Inflammatory Agents, Non-Steroidal/pharmacology , Antineoplastic Agents/pharmacology , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/drug therapy , Mouth Neoplasms/drug therapy , Receptors, Cytoplasmic and Nuclear/metabolism , Sulindac/analogs & derivatives , Sulindac/pharmacology , Transcription Factors/metabolism , Apoptosis/drug effects , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/genetics , Carcinoma, Squamous Cell/metabolism , Cell Cycle/drug effects , Cell Division/drug effects , Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors/pharmacology , DNA Primers/chemistry , Flow Cytometry , Immunoenzyme Techniques , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Membrane Proteins , Mouth Neoplasms/genetics , Mouth Neoplasms/metabolism , Oligonucleotides, Antisense/pharmacology , Prostaglandin-Endoperoxide Synthases/metabolism , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Tumor Cells, Cultured/drug effects , Up-Regulation
8.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-56424

ABSTRACT

To investigate 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 regulation of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) protein expression during osteoclast formation and differentiation, receptor activator of nuclear factor kappaB ligand (RANKL) and macrophage colony-stimulating factor (M-CSF) were administered to induce the differentiation of RAW264.7 cells into osteoclasts. The cells were incubated with different concentrations of 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 during culturing, and cell proliferation was measured using the methylthiazol tetrazolium method. Osteoclast formation was confirmed using tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) staining and assessing bone lacunar resorption. MMP-9 protein expression levels were measured with Western blotting. We showed that 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 inhibited RAW264.7 cell proliferation induced by RANKL and M-CSF, increased the numbers of TRAP-positive osteoclasts and their nuclei, enhanced osteoclast bone resorption, and promoted MMP-9 protein expression in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings indicate that 1alpha,25-(OH)2D3 administered at a physiological relevant concentration promoted osteoclast formation and could regulate osteoclast bone metabolism by increasing MMP-9 protein expression during osteoclast differentiation.


Subject(s)
Acid Phosphatase/metabolism , Animals , Blotting, Western , Calcitriol/pharmacology , Calcium Channel Agonists/pharmacology , Cell Differentiation , Cell Line , Cell Proliferation , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic/drug effects , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Matrix Metalloproteinase 9/genetics , Mice , Osteoclasts/cytology , Tetrazolium Salts , Thiazoles
9.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2013 Apr; 50(2): 126-138
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-147296

ABSTRACT

Abiotic stress causes abrupt increase in the expression of stress-associated proteins, which provide tolerance by modulating the defense mechanism of plants. Small heat shock proteins (sHSPs) and anti-oxidant enzymes are important for environmental stress tolerance of the plants. In this study, two full-length cDNAs encoding small heat shock protein (sHSP) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), designated as TasHSP and SODI were identified and characterized from C-306 (thermotolerant) and PBW343 (thermosusceptible) cultivars of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). An alpha crystalline domain was observed in TasHSP and manganese/iron binding domain in case of SODI. Quantitative real-time PCR showed very high transcript level of TasHSP and SOD in C-306 compared to PBW343 at different stages of growth and against differential heat stress (HS). Under differential HS at milky-dough stage, the fold change in transcript of both TasHSP and SOD was observed maximum in C-306, compared to PBW343. Protein profiling and isoenzymes analysis showed the expression of several heat-stable proteins and prominent isoenzymes of SOD in C-306, compared to PBW343. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of starch granules showed globular, well-shaped and more numbers of endospermic cells in C-306, compared to defragmented, irregular shaped and shrunken granules in case of PBW343 under HS treatment (42°C for 2 h). Diurnal change in soluble starch synthase (SSS) activity showed an increase in the activity during afternoon (35°C), compared to morning (29°C) and evening (32°C) in both the cultivars. Under heat stress (42°C for 2 h), a drastic decrease in the SSS activity was observed, due to the thermal denaturation of the enzyme. Thermotolerance capacity analyzed using cell membrane stability (CMS) showed significantly higher CMS in case of C-306, compared to PBW343 at different stages of growth. Findings suggest that abundance of TasHSP and SODI during milky-dough stage plays a very important role in starch granule biosynthesis. The mechanism may be further exploited to develop tolerant wheat cultivar with high quality seeds.


Subject(s)
Amino Acid Sequence , Base Sequence , Cell Membrane/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , DNA, Complementary/metabolism , Gene Expression Profiling , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Heat-Shock Proteins/metabolism , Hot Temperature , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Microscopy, Electron, Scanning , Models, Biological , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Starch/metabolism , Starch Synthase/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Triticum/metabolism
10.
Rev. salud pública ; 16(3): 361-370, 2012. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: lil-729647

ABSTRACT

Objetivo Visando conhecer o impacto das demandas judiciais sobre a organização dos serviços públicos de saúde, realizou-se uma revisáo sistemática com enfoque na "judicialização da saúde" para fornecimento de medicamentos. Métodos Foram analisados artigos originais publicados no período de 2007 a 2011, na literatura nacional e internacional, resultando no total de 49239 artigos disponíveis nas bases de dados Science Direct e BIREME. Resultados A pesquisa indicou predominância da bibliografia proveniente do Brasil, principalmente do sudeste, bem como de estudo realizado na Colômbia. Discursáo Dentre os pleitos, configuraram-se como principais agravos relatados as doenças crônicas, podendo-se citar: diabetes, hipertensáo, cânceres e artrite reumatóide. Por serem afecções parte de programas específicos do Sistema Único de Saúde, a dificuldade de acesso a esses fármacos e consequente judicialização da saúde demonstrou a fragilidade das políticas públicas existentes. Conclusão Por fim, conclui-se que a via judicial, apesar de ser uma estratégia para garantir o acesso ao medicamento, apresenta inabilidade para lidar com o julgamento das ações e gera, dessa forma, distorções no fluxo dos sistemas públicos.


Objective A systematic review, focusing on the judicialisation of health regarding gaining access to medicines, was aimed at understanding the impact of lawsuits on the organisation of public health services. Method Original articles published between 2007 and 2011 in the pertinent national and international literature were analysed, resulting in 49,239 articles being found in Science Direct and BIREME databases. Results The survey indicated a predominance of literature from Brazil, mainly the southeast, as well as a study from Colombia. Discussion The aforementioned chronic disease-related claims involved diabetes, high blood pressure, cancer and rheumatoid arthritis. Forming part of specific Unified Healthcare System programmes highlighted the difficulty in gaining access to the appropriate medicine and consequent health judicialisation demonstrated the fragility of existing public policy. Conclusion It was concluded that the courts (despite being a strategy for ensuring access to medicine) were unable to deal with the current spate of lawsuits, thereby leading to disruption regarding the flow of public systems.


Objetivo El estudio tiene como objetivo evaluar el impacto de las demandas judiciales sobre la organización de los servicios públicos de salud, mediante la realización de una revisión sistemática centrada en el uso de los tribunales para el suministro de medicamentos. Método Fueron identificados 49239 artículos en las bases de datos Science Direct e BIREME. Resultado El estudio indicó que la mayor parte de la bibliografía es de Brasil, con uno estudio en Colombia. Discusión Aparecen como los principales trastornos de salud relatados a las enfermedades crónicas, se pueden citar: la diabetes, la hipertensión, el cáncer y la artritis reumatoide. Debido a que son parte de los programas específicos de lo sistema de salud, la dificultad de acceso a estos fármacos y la consiguiente judicialización de la salud de manifiesto la fragilidad de las políticas públicas existentes. Conclusiones Por último, está la conclusión de que los tribunales, a pesar de ser una estrategia para garantizar el acceso a la medicina, presenta incapacidad para hacer frente al juicio de las acciones y por lo tanto genera distorsiones en el flujo de los sistemas públicos.


Subject(s)
Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/genetics , Cacao/enzymology , Leucine/analogs & derivatives , Seeds/enzymology , Amino Acid Sequence , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/drug effects , Aspartic Acid Endopeptidases/metabolism , Cloning, Molecular , Cacao/genetics , Coumarins/pharmacology , DNA, Complementary/chemistry , DNA, Complementary/genetics , DNA, Complementary/isolation & purification , Gene Expression Regulation, Enzymologic , Gene Expression Regulation, Plant , Hydrogen-Ion Concentration , Isoenzymes/drug effects , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Leucine/pharmacology , Molecular Sequence Data , Phylogeny , Pepstatins/pharmacology , Plant Proteins/genetics , Plant Proteins/metabolism , RNA, Messenger/genetics , RNA, Messenger/metabolism , Sequence Analysis, DNA , Sequence Homology, Amino Acid , Seeds/genetics , Yarrowia/genetics , Yarrowia/metabolism
11.
Clinics ; 66(5): 903-909, 2011. ilus, graf, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-593858

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To determine the molecules involved in extracellular matrix remodeling and to identify and quantify heparanase isoforms present in herniated and degenerative discs. INTRODUCTION: Heparanase is an endo-beta-glucuronidase that specifically acts upon the heparan sulfate chains of proteoglycans. However, heparanase expression in degenerative intervertebral discs has not yet been evaluated. Notably, previous studies demonstrated a correlation between changes in the heparan sulfate proteoglycan pattern and the degenerative process associated with intervertebral discs. METHODS: Twenty-nine samples of intervertebral degenerative discs, 23 samples of herniated discs and 12 samples of non-degenerative discs were analyzed. The expression of both heparanase isoforms (heparanase-1 and heparanase-2) was evaluated using immunohistochemistry and real-time RT-PCR analysis. RESULTS: Heparanase-1 and heparanase-2 expression levels were significantly higher in the herniated and degenerative discs in comparison to the control tissues, suggesting a possible role of these proteins in the intervertebral degenerative process. CONCLUSION: The overexpression of heparanase isoforms in the degenerative intervertebral discs and the herniated discs suggests a potential role of both proteins in the mediation of inflammatory processes and in extracellular matrix remodeling. The heparanase-2 isoform may be involved in normal metabolic processes, as evidenced by its higher expression in the control intervertebral discs relative to the expression of heparanase-1.


Subject(s)
Adolescent , Adult , Humans , Young Adult , Extracellular Matrix/metabolism , Glucuronidase/metabolism , Intervertebral Disc Degeneration/enzymology , Intervertebral Disc Displacement/enzymology , Case-Control Studies , Immunohistochemistry , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
12.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2010 Feb; 47(1): 13-19
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135237

ABSTRACT

Isoforms of arginase in the liver and kidney tissues of the ureotelic frog (Rana tigerina) and uricotelic lizard (Calotes versicolor) were fractionated by DEAE-cellulose chromatography (pH 8.3). Four molecular forms, designated as A’1, A2, A3 and A4 based on the KCl concentration required for their elution from the ion-exchange column, were detected in lizard liver, while only two forms were found in lizard kidney (A3 and A4) and frog liver and kidney (A2 and A3). No major differences were found in the pH optimum, substrate affinity and molecular weight of the isoenzymes. The isoforms in lizard tissues were either totally unaffected or only partially immunoprecipitated by antibodies raised against rat liver and beef liver arginases, but those in frog tissues were significantly activated by the two antibodies. While the physiological importance of the presence of four isoforms in lizard liver remains enigmatic, different sets of isoenzymes were present in the liver of the two ureotelic vertebrates, rat and frog. Hence, it appeared that a given mode of nitrotelism was not associated with a specific set of isoenzymes. Also, the data were not consistent with the generally held view that a basic isoform of arginase served as a component of the urea cycle in liver and a neutral/slightly acidic form functions in the synthesis of proline, glutamate and polyamines in extra-hepatic tissues. The isoforms appeared to show considerable functional overlap.


Subject(s)
Animals , Arginase/metabolism , Chromatography, Ion Exchange , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Lizards , Ranidae
13.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-135906

ABSTRACT

Paraoxonases (PONs) i.e. PON1, PON2, PON3 are basically lactonases. Of these, PON1 in addition has an efficient esterase activity and can hydrolyze organophosphates. The PONs prevent low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) from peroxidation, thereby preventing atherosclerosis. The PON1 is exclusively associated with high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and its antioxidant activity is largely attributed to PON1 located on it. At present, PON1 status i.e. its activity and concentration, is considered to be more important than polymorphism alone, in prevention of coronary artery disease (CAD). Its activity has been found to be affected by a number of pharmacological agents, diet and other factors, thereby becoming a promising target for pharmacological intervention. The PON2 prevents cell mediated lipid peroxidation. However, little is known about the role of PON3. This review describes the structure, gene polymorphism, and factors affecting the activity of PONs, and their role in prevention of CAD.


Subject(s)
Aryldialkylphosphatase/genetics , Aryldialkylphosphatase/metabolism , Cholesterol, HDL/metabolism , Cholesterol, LDL/metabolism , Coronary Artery Disease/enzymology , Coronary Artery Disease/genetics , Humans , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Polymorphism, Genetic
14.
Biol. Res ; 42(2): 137-146, 2009. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-524883

ABSTRACT

The present work aims to study a new NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase (cb5r) from Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305. A cDNA coding for cb s r was isolated from a Mucor racemosus PTCC 5305 cDNA library. The nucleotide sequence of the cDNA including coding and sequences flanking regions was determined. The open reading frame starting from ATG and ending with TAG stop codon encoded 228 amino acids and displayed the closest similarity (73 percent) with Mortierella alpina cb s r. Lack of hydrophobic residues in the N-terminal sequence was apparent, suggesting that the enzyme is a soluble isoform. The coding sequence was then cloned in the pET16b transcription vector carrying an N-terminal-linked His-Tag® sequence and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The enzyme was then homogeneously purified by a metal affinity column. The recombinant Mucor enzyme was shown to have its optimal activity at pH and temperature of about 7.5 and 40 °C, respectively. The apparent Km value was calculated to be 13 μM for ferricyanide. To our knowledge, this is the first report on cloning and expression of a native fungal soluble isoform of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase in E. coli.


Subject(s)
/genetics , DNA, Complementary/genetics , Escherichia coli/genetics , Genetic Vectors/genetics , Mucor/enzymology , Base Sequence , Cloning, Molecular , /metabolism , Gene Library , Isoenzymes/genetics , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Molecular Sequence Data , Open Reading Frames , Transcription, Genetic
15.
Braz. j. med. biol. res ; 41(7): 600-609, July 2008. ilus, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: lil-489518

ABSTRACT

Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) is important in calcification and its expression seems to be associated with the inflammatory process. We investigated the in vitro acute effects of compounds used for the prevention or treatment of cardiovascular diseases on total ALP activity from male Wistar rat heart homogenate. ALP activity was determined by quantifying, at 410 nm, the p-nitrophenol released from p-nitrophenylphosphate (substrate in Tris buffer, pH 10.4). Using specific inhibitors of ALP activity and the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, we showed that the rat heart had high ALP activity (31.73 ± 3.43 nmol p-nitrophenol·mg protein-1·min-1): mainly tissue-nonspecific ALP but also tissue-specific intestinal ALP type II. Both ALP isoenzymes presented myocardial localization (striated pattern) by immunofluorescence. ALP was inhibited a) strongly by 0.5 mM levamisole, 2 mM theophylline and 2 mM aspirin (91, 77 and 84 percent, respectively) and b) less strongly by 2 mM L-phenylalanine, 100 mL polyphenol-rich beverages and 0.5 mM progesterone (24, 21 to 29 and 11 percent, respectively). â-estradiol and caffeine (0.5 and 2 mM) had no effect; 0.5 mM simvastatin and 2 mM atenolol activated ALP (32 and 36 percent, respectively). Propranolol (2 mM) tended to activate ALP activity and corticosterone activated (18 percent) and inhibited (13 percent) (0.5 and 2 mM, respectively). We report, for the first time, that the rat heart expresses intestinal ALP type II and has high total ALP activity. ALP activity was inhibited by compounds used in the prevention of cardiovascular pathology. ALP manipulation in vivo may constitute an additional target for intervention in cardiovascular diseases.


Subject(s)
Animals , Male , Rats , Alkaline Phosphatase/metabolism , Enzyme Inhibitors/pharmacology , Myocardium/enzymology , Alkaline Phosphatase/antagonists & inhibitors , Fluorescent Antibody Technique , Isoenzymes/antagonists & inhibitors , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Rats, Wistar , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
16.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-52233

ABSTRACT

Extracellular ATP (exATP) has been known to be a critical ligand regulating skeletal muscle differentiation and contractibility. ExATP synthesis was greatly increased with the high level of adenylate kinase 1 (AK1) and ATP synthase beta during C2C12 myogenesis. The exATP synthesis was abolished by the knock-down of AK1 but not by that of ATP synthase beta in C2C12 myotubes, suggesting that AK1 is required for exATP synthesis in myotubes. However, membrane-bound AK1beta was not involved in exATP synthesis because its expression level was decreased during myogenesis in spite of its localization in the lipid rafts that contain various kinds of receptors and mediate cell signal transduction, cell migration, and differentiation. Interestingly, cytoplasmic AK1 was secreted from C2C12 myotubes but not from C2C12 myoblasts. Taken together all these data, we can conclude that AK1 secretion is required for the exATP generation in myotubes.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Triphosphate/biosynthesis , Adenylate Kinase/metabolism , Animals , Cell Line , Extracellular Space/metabolism , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Mice , Muscles/cytology
17.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2007 Feb; 44(1): 31-7
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27635

ABSTRACT

To assess the role of antioxidant defense system on exposure to ultra-violet-B (UV-B) radiation, the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX), glutathione reductase (GR) and guaiacol peroxidase (GPX), as well as the level of antioxidants ascorbic acid (AA) and alpha-tocopherol were monitored in cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. var long green) cotyledons. UV-B enhanced the activity of antioxidant enzymes as well as AA content, but decreased the level of alpha-tocopherol. Significant increase was observed in the activities of SOD and GPX. Analysis of isoforms of antioxidant enzymes by native-PAGE and activity staining revealed three isoforms of GPX in unexposed dark-grown cotyledons (control), and their intensity was enhanced by UV-B exposure. In addition, four new isoforms of GPX were observed in cotyledons after UV-B exposure. Although no new isoforms were observed for the other antioxidant enzymes, the activities of their existing isoforms were enhanced by UV-B.


Subject(s)
Antioxidants/metabolism , Cotyledon/enzymology , Cucumis sativus/enzymology , Glutathione Reductase/metabolism , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Peroxidase/metabolism , Peroxidases/metabolism , Superoxide Dismutase/metabolism , Ultraviolet Rays
18.
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-88688

ABSTRACT

An elderly lady with amylase-rich ascites is presented, whose isoenzyme estimation revealed salivary type amylase. Tumour hyperamylasemia is an important group among the nonpancreatic causes of elevated amylase.


Subject(s)
Amylases/metabolism , Ascites/diagnosis , Ascitic Fluid/enzymology , Diagnosis, Differential , Female , Humans , Hyperamylasemia/diagnosis , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Middle Aged , Ovarian Neoplasms/diagnosis , Saliva/enzymology
19.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-96564

ABSTRACT

Phosphoinositide-specific phospholipase C-gamma1 (PLC-gamma1) has two pleckstrin homology (PH) domains: an amino-terminal domain (PH1) and a split PH domain (PH2). Here, we show that overlay assay of bovine brain tubulin pool with glutathione-S-transferase (GST)-PLC-gamma1 PH domain fusion proteins, followed by matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), identified 68-kDa neurofilament light chain (NF-L) as a binding protein of amino-terminal PH domain of PLC-gamma1. NF-L is known as a component of neuronal intermediate filaments, which are responsible for supporting the structure of myelinated axons in neuron. PLC-gamma1 and NF-L colocalized in the neurite in PC12 cells upon nerve growth factor stimulation. In vitro binding assay and immunoprecipitation analysis also showed a specific interaction of both proteins in differentiated PC12 cells. The phosphatidylinositol 4, 5-bisphosphate [PI(4,5)P2] hydrolyzing activity of PLC-gamma1 was slightly decreased in the presence of purified NF-L in vitro, suggesting that NF-L inhibits PLC-gamma1. Our results suggest that PLC-gamma1-associated NF-L sequesters the phospholipid from the PH domain of PLC-gamma1.


Subject(s)
Spectrometry, Mass, Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization , Rats , Protein Interaction Mapping , Protein Biosynthesis/drug effects , Protein Binding/drug effects , Phosphoproteins/chemistry , Phospholipase C gamma/antagonists & inhibitors , Phosphatidylinositol 4,5-Diphosphate/metabolism , Peptides/chemistry , PC12 Cells , Neurofilament Proteins/chemistry , Nerve Growth Factor/pharmacology , Molecular Weight , Molecular Sequence Data , Microtubules/metabolism , Microscopy, Fluorescence , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Glutathione Transferase/metabolism , Blotting, Far-Western , Blood Proteins/chemistry , Binding Sites , Animals , Amino Acid Sequence
20.
Indian J Biochem Biophys ; 2005 Dec; 42(6): 345-9
Article in English | IMSEAR | ID: sea-27399

ABSTRACT

The activities of malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes viz., cytosolic and mitochondrial aspartate aminotransferase (c- and m-AsAT) and malate dehydrogenase (c- and m-MDH) were measured in liver and kidney of ad libitum (AL) and dietary-restricted (DR) mice and also on triiodothyronine (T3) treatment. The results show that the activity (U/mg protein) of c-AsAT is increased significantly in liver and the activities of c-MDH and m-AsAT are increased significantly in kidney during DR. On T3 treatment, the activities of both the isoenzymes (c- and m-) of MDH and AsAT are increased significantly in the liver of AL- and DR-fed mice. In the kidney, m-MDH showed no effect by T3 treatment, however, c-MDH increased significantly in both AL- and DR-fed mice. In contrast, m-AsAT is increased significantly in the kidney in AL-fed mice, but was not affected in DR-fed animals. In vitro reconstitution of malate-aspartate shuttle showed a higher activity in the liver and kidney of DR-fed mice, as compared to AL-fed ones and also in the T3-treated mice, compared to untreated ones. These findings suggest that malate-aspartate shuttle enzymes are differentially regulated during DR in mice, in order to adapt to the metabolic need of liver and kidney. T3 potentially regulates the shuttle enzymes, albeit to a varying degree in the liver and kidney of AL- and DR-fed mice.


Subject(s)
Animals , Aspartate Aminotransferases/metabolism , Aspartic Acid/metabolism , Caloric Restriction , Cytosol/drug effects , Diet , Isoenzymes/metabolism , Kidney/drug effects , Liver/drug effects , Malate Dehydrogenase/metabolism , Malates/metabolism , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mitochondria, Liver/drug effects , Triiodothyronine/pharmacology
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