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Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 73(3): 631-638, May-June 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1278371


The objective of this study was to determine changes on intraocular pressure (IOP) and pupil diameter (PD) in healthy cats anesthetized with isoflurane, and premedicated with acepromazine alone or in combination with tramadol. Thirty cats were allocated in two groups (n=15/each) and were treated with acepromazine (AG) or acepromazine/tramadol (ATG). PD and IOP were assessed before and following 30 (PM1), and 40 minutes (PM2) of treatments. Anesthesia was induced with propofol, and IOP and DP were recorded (A10) at 10 minute intervals until the end of anesthesia (A40). IOP decreased in AG and ATG, when comparing baseline with PM1. IOP decreased only in AG, in comparisons between baseline and PM2. During anesthesia, IOP did not change within and between groups. Comparisons between baseline with those recorded at PM1 and 2 showed that PD increased in the ATG. During anesthesia, PD decreased significantly in AG and ATG. Both protocols maintained the IOP within the reference range to perform corneal or intraocular surgery in healthy cats but did not sustain pre-anesthetic pupil dilation observed in ATG.(AU)

O objetivo do presente artigo é determinar possíveis alterações na pressão intraocular (PIO) e no diâmetro pupilar (DP) em gatos saudáveis anestesiados com isoflurano e pré-medicados com acepromazina isolada ou em combinação com acepromazina/tramadol. Trinta gatos saudáveis foram distribuídos aleatoriamente em dois grupos (n=15/cada) e tratados com acepromazina (GA) ou acepromazina/tramadol (GAT). DP e PIO foram avaliadas antes (basal) e após 30 (PM1) e 40 minutos (PM2) dos tratamentos. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol, e a PIO e o DP foram registrados (A10) a cada 10 minutos até o final da anestesia com isoflurano (A40). Ao se compararem os valores obtidos no basal com PM1, a PIO diminuiu em GA e GAT; com PM2, a PIO reduziu apenas no GA. Durante a anestesia, a PIO não diferiu dentro e entre os grupos. Comparações entre os valores basais e os registrados em PM1 e em PM2 mostraram que a DP aumentou significativamente no GAT. Durante a anestesia, o DP diminuiu significativamente em GA e GAT. Ambos os protocolos mantêm a PIO dentro dos valores de referência para realizar cirurgias corneanas ou intraoculares em gatos saudáveis, mas não sustentam a dilatação pupilar pré-anestésica observada em GAT.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Mydriasis/veterinary , Pupil/drug effects , Intraocular Pressure , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Acepromazine/administration & dosage , Tonometry, Ocular/veterinary , Anesthetics, General/administration & dosage
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 72(3): 843-852, May-June, 2020. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-1129488


Foi comparada a ventilação controlada à pressão com ou sem pressão positiva expiratória final (PEEP), em coelhos, distribuídos em três grupos, denominados GP (grupo ventilação ciclada à pressão), GPP (grupo ventilação ciclada à pressão com PEEP) e GE (grupo ventilação espontânea - grupo controle). Os animais foram anestesiados com isoflurano, em circuito com reinalação de gases, durante duas horas. As médias de pressão arterial média (PAM) e pressão arterial sistólica (PAS) permaneceram discretamente abaixo dos valores normais em todos os grupos. Houve diminuição significativa da PAM e da PAS no grupo submetido à PEEP (GPP) ao longo do tempo. A pressão parcial de dióxido de carbono arterial (PaCO2) foi maior no GPP quando comparado aos outros grupos no último momento, gerando acidemia respiratória após uma hora de procedimento. A concentração de dióxido de carbono ao final da expiração (ETCO2) apresentou médias discretamente elevadas no grupo não tratado com PEEP (GP) e no grupo controle, enquanto o GPP apresentou maiores médias, possivelmente, relacionadas à diminuição do volume corrente neste grupo. Com base nesses resultados, foi possível concluir que a utilização da PEEP levou à acidemia, que se agravou ao longo do tempo anestésico. Ademais, a anestesia prolongada com isoflurano promove depressão cardiorrespiratória, independentemente do modo ventilatório empregado.(AU)

Pressure controlled ventilation with or without positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) was compared in rabbits, which were divided into three groups denominated GP (pressure cycled ventilation group), GPP (pressure cycled ventilation with PEEP group) and GE (spontaneous ventilation group - control group). The animals were anesthetized with isoflurane in a gas rebreathing circuit for two hours. The means of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) remained slightly below normal values ​​in all groups. There was a significant decrease in MAP and SBP in the group submitted to PEEP (GPP) over time. The partial pressure of arterial carbon dioxide (PaCO2) was higher in GPP when compared to the other groups, inducing respiratory acidosis after one hour. The end-expired carbon dioxide concentration (ETCO2) presented slightly elevated means in the GP, while the GPP presented higher means, possibly related to the decrease in tidal volume in this group. Based on these results it was concluded that the use of PEEP led to acidemia that worsened over anesthetic time. In addition, prolonged isoflurane anesthesia promotes cardiorespiratory depression, regardless the ventilatory mode employed.(AU)

Animals , Rabbits , Positive-Pressure Respiration , Pulmonary Ventilation , Hemodynamics , Isoflurane , Tidal Volume , Anesthesia
Chinese Medical Journal ; (24): 344-352, 2020.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-877885


BACKGROUND@#Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) is a promising method for the study of brain function. Typically, rs-fMRI is performed on anesthetized animals. Although different functional connectivity (FC) in various anesthetics on whole brain have been studied, few studies have focused on different FC in the aged brain. Here, we measured FC under three commonly used anesthesia methods and analyzed data to determine if the FC in whole brain analysis were similar among groups.@*METHODS@#Twenty-four male aged Wistar rats were randomly divided into three groups (n = 8 in each group). Anesthesia was performed under either isoflurane (ISO), combined ISO + dexmedetomidine (DEX) or α-chloralose (AC) according to the groups. Data of rs-fMRI was analyzed by FC in a voxel-wise way. Differences in the FC maps between the groups were analyzed by one-way analysis of variance and post hoc two-sample t tests.@*RESULTS@#Compared with ISO + DEX anesthesia, ISO anesthesia caused increased FC in posterior brain and decreased FC in the middle brain of the aged rat. AC anesthesia caused global suppression as no increase in FC was observed.@*CONCLUSION@#ISO could be used as a substitute for ISO + DEX in rat default mode network studies if the left temporal association cortex is not considered important.

Anesthesia , Animals , Brain/diagnostic imaging , Brain Mapping , Isoflurane , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Male , Rats , Rats, Wistar
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-828859


OBJECTIVE@#To study the protective effect of isoflurane preconditioning on hepatic ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury mediated by the noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.@*METHODS@#Thirty C57BL/6 mice were randomly divided into sham-operated group, isoflurane group and I/R group, and in the latter two groups, hepatic I/R injury was induced by clamping the portal vein for 30 min. In isoflurane group, the mice were pretreated with 1.4% isoflurane 30 min before the surgery. The protective effect of isoflurane preconditioning against hepatic I/R injury was evaluated by assessing the pathological score of HE staining of the liver tissue and serum ALT and AST levels. Serum IL-1β and IL-18 levels and the protein expression of GSDMS were detected by ELISA and Western blotting to evaluate the inhibitory effect of isoflurane preconditioning on pyroptosis. Western blotting and immunofluroescence were used to detect the protein expression of caspase-11 in the liver tissues to evaluate the inhibitory effect of isoflurane preconditioning on noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.@*RESULTS@#The Suzuki's score of the liver tissue was significantly higher in I/R group than in the sham group ( < 0.05), while the score in the isoflurane group was significantly lower than that in the I/R group ( < 0.05). Serum ALT and AST levels significantly increased in the sham group ( < 0.05), and were significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The serum levels of IL-1β and IL-18 were significantly higher in I/R group than in sham group ( < 0.05), and were significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The expression of GSDMD in the I/R group was significantly higher than that in sham group, and was significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05). The hepatic expression of caspase-11 was significantly higher in I/R group than in sham group ( < 0.05), and was significantly lower in isoflurane group than in I/R group ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Isoflurane preconditioning has protective effect against hepatic I/R injury, which is related to the inhibition of the noncanonical pyroptosis pathway.

Animals , Caspases, Initiator , Ischemic Preconditioning , Isoflurane , Liver , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pyroptosis , Reperfusion Injury
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(6): 1846-1852, Nov.-Dec. 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1055133


This study aimed to evaluate comparatively the effects of propofol or isoflurane on hemodynamic variables in piglets that received inspired oxygen fraction (FIO2) of 0.5 under spontaneous ventilation. Therefore, sixteen piglets weighing 16±1.1kg, were randomly divided into two groups: GI (Isoflurane and FIO2 of 0.5) and GP (Propofol and FIO2 of 0.5). Heart rate (HR), systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure (SAP, DAP and MAP), central venous pressure (CVP), cardiac output (CO), mean pulmonary arterial pressure (mPAP) and mean capillary pulmonary pressure (mCPP) were assessed 40 minutes after anesthetic induction (T0), followed by 15 minutes intervals (from T15 to T60). The variables cardiac index (CI), stroke volume (SV), stroke index (SI), total peripheral resistance (TPR), total peripheral resistance index (TPRI), pulmonary vascular resistance (PVR), and pulmonary vascular resistance index (PVRI) were calculated. SAP and TPRI were significantly different between groups at T30 and T60 (P< 0.05) with higher GP values being recorded. There were no differences in the other variables, however, GP presented mean closer to normality on most of the analyzed variables. Therefore, we conclude that total intravenous anesthesia with propofol presented greater stability of the hemodynamic variables evaluated.(AU)

O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar comparativamente os efeitos do propofol ou do isoflurano sobre as variáveis hemodinâmicas em leitões que receberam fração inspirada de oxigênio (FIO2) de 0,5 sob ventilação espontânea. Dezesseis leitões, pesando 16±1,1kg, foram divididos aleatoriamente em dois grupos: GI (isoflurano e FIO2 de 0,5) e GP (propofol e FIO2 de 0,5). A frequência cardíaca (FC), a pressão arterial sistólica, a diastólica e a média (PAS, PAD e PAM), a pressão venosa central (PVC), o débito cardíaco (DC),a pressão média da artéria pulmonar (PAPm) e a pressão média capilar pulmonar (PCPm) foram avaliados 40 minutos após a indução anestésica (T0), seguida por intervalos de 15 minutos (de T15 a T60). As variáveis índice cardíaco (IC), volume sistólico (VS), índice sistólico (SI), resistência periférica total (RPT), índice de resistência periférica total (IRPT), resistência vascular pulmonar (RVP) e índice de resistência vascular pulmonar (IRVP) foram calculadas. PAS e IRPT foram significativamente diferentes entre os grupos em T30 e T60 (P<0,05) com maiores valores de GP sendo registrados. Não houve diferenças nas demais variáveis, entretanto o GP apresentou médias próximas da normalidade na maioria das variáveis analisadas. Portanto, concluiu-se que a anestesia intravenosa total com propofol apresentou maior estabilidade das variáveis hemodinâmicas avaliadas.(AU)

Animals , Swine/blood , Propofol/administration & dosage , Hemodynamics , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Anesthetics, Inhalation , Heart Rate , Anesthesia, Intravenous
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(5): 1558-1564, set.-out. 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1038680


The aim of this study was to assess the effects of chemical restraint, general anesthesia and opioid treatment on hematological components in Cuniculus paca. Eight healthy, adult, captivity female animals , underwent three laparoscopic procedures with a 15-day interval were evaluated. After physical restraint, an association of ketamine (25mg/kg) and midazolam (0.5mg/kg) was administered intramuscularly for chemical restraint. Posteriorly, anesthesia was induced and maintained with isoflurane; and randomly administered methadone (0.5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) or saline-placebo (0,1mL/kg) intramuscularly. After pharmacological restraint and in the final laparoscopy stage, venous blood samples were obtained for complete blood count, total plasma protein (TP), creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), sodium, potassium, chloride and ionized calcium analysis. During general anesthesia, hemoglobin, TP concentration and lymphocytes decreased (P=0.029; <0.001; 0.022 respectively), whereas the potassium levels increased (P=0.034). In conclusion, chemical restraint with ketamine/midazolam association causes a slight decrease in blood cellular components. Isoflurane anesthesia for laparoscopic procedure lead to decrease in hemoglobin, lymphocytes and protein concentrations, while potassium increased, without any influence from the tramadol or methadone treatment. However, these alterations were transient, and its hematologic values can collaborate in carrying out epidemiological, pathophysiological or case studies in the Cuniculus paca.(AU)

O objetivo do presente estudo foi avaliar os efeitos de contenção química, anestesia geral e tratamento com opiáceos nos parâmetros hematológicos em Cuniculus paca. Foram avaliados oito animais saudáveis, fêmeas, adultas, de cativeiro, que foram submetidas a três procedimentos laparoscópicos, com intervalo de 15 dias. Após a contenção física, uma associação de cetamina (25mg/kg) e midazolam (0,5mg/kg) foi administrada por via intramuscular para contenção química. Posteriormente, a anestesia foi induzida e mantida com isoflurano, e administrou-se aleatoriamente metadona (0,5mg/kg), tramadol (5mg/kg) ou placebo salina por via intramuscular. Após a contenção farmacológica e em estágio final da laparoscopia, foram obtidas amostras de sangue venoso para contagem sanguínea completa, proteína de plasma total (TP), creatinina, alanina aminotransferase (ALT), cálcio, sódio, potássio e cloreto ionizado. Durante a anestesia geral, a concentração de hemoglobina, TP e linfócitos diminuiu (P= 0,029;< 0,001; 0,022, respectivamente), enquanto os níveis de potássio aumentaram (P= 0,034). Em conclusão, a contenção química com associação de cetamina/midazolam promove uma ligeira diminuição dos componentes celulares do sangue. A anestesia com isoflavano para o procedimento laparoscópico levou a uma diminuição das concentrações de hemoglobina, linfócitos e proteínas, enquanto o potássio aumentou, sem qualquer influência do tratamento com tramadol ou metadona. No entanto, essas alterações foram transitórias, e os seus valores hematológicos obtidos podem colaborar na realização de estudos epidemiológicos, fisiopatológicos ou casuísticas para Cuniculus paca.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cuniculidae/surgery , Cuniculidae/blood , Anesthesia/veterinary , Anesthetics/blood , Tramadol/administration & dosage , Midazolam/administration & dosage , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Ketamine/administration & dosage , Methadone/administration & dosage
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 39(8): 655-662, Aug. 2019. tab, graf
Article in English | ID: biblio-1040731


This study aimed to determine and evaluate whether there are differences in values of MAC in wildlife captured guan (Penelope obscura) under different conditions of social stress. This study used 27 bird species guan (P. obscura), divided into two groups: animals kept in the same enclosure (Collective Group) and animals kept in individual cages (Individual Group). The research was conducted at the Advanced Research Base of IBAMA, Painel/SC, and at the Clinical Veterinary Hospital of the "Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina", Lages/SC. The birds were captured using network trap with manual disarmament and transported to the Veterinary Hospital in cages. The animals were fasted for 2 to 6 hours before the procedure; anesthetic induction was performed with isoflurane for instrumentation. The isoflurane CAM was placed in the target value 1.3v% in the first animal of each group, and waited 15 minutes for the nociceptive (electric) stimulus, in the value of 50 hertz and 50mA, held in faradic form (3 consecutive simple stimuli, followed by 2 continuous stimuli). The stimulus was performed on the lateral side of the left pelvic limb in the tibiotarsal region, and the electrodes were fixed with a 22G needle at a distance of 5cm between them. The bird's responses to the stimulus were considered positive (wing movements, head or vocalization) or negative (not presented movements of wings, head or vocalization) and the MAC value of the animal was recorded. Negative responses reduced next birds' MAC value by about 10%, and MAC positive responses increased by about 10%. Statistical analysis was done by methods up and down and analyze quantal for MAC and paired t-test for equivalent or t-test for variances not equal variances for the physiological variables. At the end of the experiment, the birds were reintroduced in the same capture area. The MAC value of isoflurane in the Collective Group was 1.4v% and the Individual Group 1.9v% to 0.903atm. It is observed that guan (P. obscura) in the Collective Group showed lesser anesthetic resistance to isoflurane than the birds in the Individual Group, showing that some levels of social stress can influence the MAC values of the isoflurane.(AU)

Este estudo teve como objetivo determinar e avaliar se há diferença nos valores de CAM em jacus (Penelope obscura) capturados em vida livre e submetidos a diferentes condições de estresse social. Foram utilizadas 27 aves da espécie jacu (P. obscura) de vida livre, que depois de capturados foram alocados em dois grupos: 10 animais que permaneceram em grupo no mesmo recinto (Grupo Coletivo) e 17 animais que permaneceram em gaiolas individuais (Grupo Individual). A pesquisa foi realizada na Base de Pesquisa Avançada do IBAMA, Painel/SC, e no Hospital de Clínica Veterinária da Universidade do Estado de Santa Catarina, Lages/SC. A captura foi realizada utilizando armadilha de rede com desarmamento manual e as aves foram transportadas para o Hospital Veterinário em gaiolas. Os animais foram submetidos a um jejum alimentar de 2 a 6 horas antes do procedimento, a indução anestésica foi realizada com isoflurano para instrumentação. A CAM de isoflurano foi colocada no valor alvo 1,3v% no primeiro animal de cada grupo, e esperado 15 minutos para realização do estímulo nociceptivo (elétrico), no valor de 50 hertz e 50mA, realizado de forma farádica (3 estímulos simples consecutivos, seguidos de 2 estímulos contínuos). O estímulo foi realizado na face lateral do membro pélvico esquerdo na região tibiotársica, e os eletrodos fixados com agulha 22G a uma distância de 5cm entre elas. A resposta da ave ao estímulo foi considerada positiva (movimentos de asas, cabeça ou vocalização) ou negativa (não apresentou movimentos de asas, cabeça ou vocalização) e o valor de CAM do animal foi registrado. Para resultados negativos, a CAM da próxima ave foi reduzida em torno de 10%, para positivos a CAM foi aumentada em torno de 10%. A análise estatística foi feita pelos métodos up and down e análise quantal para a CAM e teste t de pareado para variâncias equivalentes ou teste t para variâncias não equivalentes para as variáveis fisiológicas. Ao final do experimento as aves utilizadas foram reintroduzidas na mesma área de captura. O valor da CAM de isoflurano no Grupo Coletivo foi de 1,4v% e no Grupo Individual a CAM de 1,9v% a 0,903atm, sendo o valor do Grupo Coletivo significativamente menor que o Grupo Individual. Observa-se assim que os jacus (P. obscura) que permaneceram em recinto coletivo apresentaram uma menor resistência anestésica ao isoflurano que as aves que permaneceram em recintos individuais, mostrando que alguns níveis de estresse social como os observados aqui podem influenciar sobre os valores da CAM do isoflurano.(AU)

Animals , Stress, Psychological , Birds/physiology , Galliformes/physiology , Isoflurane/administration & dosage , Animals, Wild
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 71(3): 944-952, May-June 2019. tab
Article in English | ID: biblio-1011295


It is important to identify the best inspired fraction of oxygen in a variety of situations, including sevoflurane or isoflurane anesthesia, in spontaneously breathing rabbits. For this, 64 rabbits were assigned to eight groups: GI100 (FiO2= 1,0 + isoflurane), GS100 (FiO2= 1,0 + sevoflurane), GI80 (FiO2= 0,8 + isoflurane), GS80 (FiO2= 0,8 + sevoflurane), GI60 (FiO2= 0,6 + isoflurane), GS60 (FiO2= 0,6 + sevoflurane), GI21 (FiO2= 0,21 + isoflurane), GS21 (FiO2= 0,21 + sevoflurane). The induction was performed with (2.5MAC) of the anesthetic. The vaporizer was setted at 1.5 MAC and FiO2 as attributed for each group. After the induction, the concentration was changed to 1 MAC. Measurements of parameters were performed 30 minutes after induction (T0), and then at 15 minute intervals (from T15 to T60). The arterial partial pressures of oxygen (PaO2), alveolar oxygen partial pressure (PAO2) and alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient [P(A-a)O2] were higher with the use of high FiO2. The GI80 showed higher levels of PaO2 FiO2 ratio and respiratory index (RI). In conclusion, the FiO2 of 0.21 is not indicated, because it causes hypoxemia. The isoflurane determines better ventilation when compared to sevoflurane, but isoflurane associated with 80% of oxygen promotes intrapulmonary shunt increase.(AU)

Tornou-se importante identificar a melhor fração inspirada de oxigênio em variadas situações, incluindo anestesia pelo sevoflurano ou isoflurano, em coelhos respirando espontaneamente. Para isso, 64 coelhos foram distribuídos em oito grupos: GI100 (FiO 2 = 1,0 + isoflurano), GS100 (FiO 2 = 1,0 + sevoflurano), GI80 (FiO 2 = 0,8 + isoflurano), GS80 (FiO 2 = 0,8 + sevoflurano), GI60 (FiO 2 = 0,6 + isoflurano), GS60 (FiO 2 = 0,6 + sevoflurano), GI21 (FiO 2 = 0,21 + isoflurano) e GS21 (FiO 2 = 0,21 + sevoflurano). A indução foi com 2,5 CAM do anestésico. Ajustou-se o vaporizador para 1,5 CAM, e a FiO 2 foi atribuída a cada grupo. Em seguida, a CAM foi reajustada para 1,0. Iniciaram-se as mensurações 30 minutos após a indução (M0), seguidas em intervalos de 15 minutos (de M15 a M60). As pressões parciais de oxigênio (PaO 2 ), a pressão parcial alveolar de oxigênio (P A O 2 ) e a diferença alvéolo-arterial de oxigênio [P(A-a)O 2 ] foram maiores com o emprego de altas FiO 2 . O GI80 apresentou maiores valores na relação entre PaO 2 e FiO 2 e índice respiratório (IR). Conclui-se que a FiO 2 0,21 não é indicada, pois provoca hipoxemia. No entanto, utilizada com isoflurano, determina melhor ventilação quando comparado ao sevoflurano, porém seu uso, associado a 80% de oxigênio, promove maior formação de shunt intrapulmonar.(AU)

Animals , Rabbits/surgery , Oxygenation/methods , Anesthesia, Inhalation/veterinary , Isoflurane
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-761898


BACKGROUND: Thin or damaged endometrium causes uterine factor-derived infertility resulting in a failure of embryonic implantation. Regeneration of endometrium is a major issue in gynecology and reproductive medicine. Various types of cells and scaffolds were studied to establish an effective therapeutic strategy. For this type of investigations, production of optimal animal models is indispensable. In this study, we tried to establish various murine uterine damage models and compared their features. METHODS: Three to ten-week-old C57BL/6 female mice were anesthetized using isoflurane. Chemical and mechanical methods using ethanol (EtOH) at 70 or 100% and copper scraper were compared to determine the most efficient condition. Damage of uterine tissue was induced either by vaginal or dorsal surgical approach. After 7-10 days, gross and microscopic morphology, safety and efficiency were compared among the groups. RESULTS: Both chemical and mechanical methods resulted in thinner endometrium and reduced number of glands. Gross morphology assessment revealed that the damaged regions of uteri showed various shapes including shrinkage or cystic dilatation of uterine horns. The duration of anesthesia significantly affected recovery after procedure. Uterine damage was most effectively induced by dorsal approach using 100% EtOH treatment compared to mechanical methods. CONCLUSION: Taken together, murine uterine damage models were most successfully established by chemical treatment. This production protocols could be applied further to larger animals such as non-human primate.

Anesthesia , Animals , Copper , Dilatation , Endometrium , Ethanol , Female , Gynecology , Horns , Humans , Infertility , Isoflurane , Mice , Models, Animal , Primates , Regeneration , Reproductive Medicine , Uterus
Asian Spine Journal ; : 967-975, 2019.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-785489


STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled study.PURPOSE: To compare clonidine and pregabalin with placebo for the attenuation of postoperative pain after thoracolumbar spinal surgery and instrumentationOVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Spine surgery is associated with moderate to severe postoperative pain that needs to be controlled to improve patient’s outcome. Alpha 2 agonists (e.g., clonidine) and gabapentenoids (e.g., pregabalin) are successfully used as part of a multimodal analgesic regimen.METHODS: Total 75 patients were enrolled and randomly allocated into three groups. Group P received pregabalin (150 mg), group C received clonidine (150 mcg), and group N received placebo 90 minutes preoperatively. A standard anesthesia protocol comprising fentanyl, thiopentone, vecuronium, nitrous oxide, and oxygen in isoflurane was used for all patients. Postoperative recovery profile, pain, time for first analgesic, 24-hour analgesic requirement, sedation, and hemodynamic parameters were noted.RESULTS: Recovery profile was similar in all three groups; however, the patients in group P and C were more sedated (p<0.05). Group N patients had a higher Visual Analog Scale (VAS) score (p<0.05) and the time for first analgesic was also lower (p=0.02). Postoperative (24-hour) analgesic requirement was maximum in group N, followed by that in group C and group P. The VAS score was highest in the control group; however, after 12 hours, it was similar in all groups.CONCLUSIONS: Postoperative pain and analgesic requirement is significantly attenuated by preoperative administration of a single dose of clonidine (150 mcg) or pregabalin (150 mg); pregabalin was more effective. Thus, their use offers a reasonable strategy for pain management in patients undergoing spine surgery.

Analgesics , Anesthesia , Clonidine , Fentanyl , Hemodynamics , Humans , Isoflurane , Nitrous Oxide , Oxygen , Pain Management , Pain, Postoperative , Pregabalin , Prospective Studies , Spine , Thiopental , Vecuronium Bromide , Visual Analog Scale
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-773522


OBJECTIVE@#To investigate the effect of ulinastatin pretreatment on isoflurane-induced mitochondria-dependent neuronal apoptosis in the hippocampus of rats.@*METHODS@#Thirty-six male SD rats were randomly assigned into control group, isoflurane group and ulinastatin group. In the latter two groups, the rats were subjected to acute exposure to 0.75% isoflurane for 6 h and pretreated with 50 000 U/kg of ulinastatin before isoflurane exposure, respectively. After the treatments, apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons was detected using TUNEL assay, and the mitochondrial membrane potential (△ ψm) was measured using JC-1 mitochondrial membrane potential kit; cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activity were examined with Western blotting, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) was detected using the fluorescent probe H2DCFDA.@*RESULTS@#Compared with those in the control group, the rats with acute exposure to isoflurane showed markedly increased TUNEL-positive cells in the hippocampus ( < 0.05), which were obviously reduced by ulinastatin pretreatment ( < 0.05). The △ψm of the hippocampal neurons was significantly reduced after isoflurane exposure ( < 0.05), and was partly recovered by ulinastatin pretreatment ( < 0.05). Acute exposure to isoflurane resulted in obviously increased cellular ROS, cytochrome C release and caspase-3 activity in the hippocampal neurons ( < 0.05), and these changes were significantly inhibited by ulinastatin pretreatment ( < 0.05).@*CONCLUSIONS@#Ulinastatin pretreatment provides neuroprotection against isoflurane-induced apoptosis of the hippocampal neurons in rats possibly by inhibiting mitochondria-dependent apoptosis pathway.

Animals , Apoptosis , Glycoproteins , Hippocampus , Isoflurane , Male , Rats , Rats, Sprague-Dawley
Acta cir. bras ; 34(12): e201901205, 2019. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1054687


Abstract Purpose To investigate the effects of huperzine A (HupA) on hippocampal inflammatory response and neurotrophic factors in aged rats after anesthesia. Methods Thirty-six Sprague Dawley rats (20-22 months old) were randomly divided into control, isofluran, and isoflurane+HupA groups; 12 rats in each group. The isoflurane+HupA group was intraperitoneally injected with 0.2 mg/kg of HupA. After 30 min, isoflurane inhalation anesthesia was performed in the isoflurane and isoflurane+HupA groups. After 24 h from anesthesia, Morris water maze experiment and open-field test were performed. Hippocampal inflammatory and neurotrophic factors were determined. Results Compared with isoflurane group, in isofluran+HupA group the escape latency of rats was significantly decreased (P < 0.05), the original platform quadrant residence time and traversing times were significantly increased (P < 0.05), the central area residence time was significantly increased (P < 0.05), the hippocampal tumor necrosis factor α, interleukin 6 and interleukin 1β levels were significantly decreased (P < 0.05), and the hippocampal nerve growth factor, brain derived neurotrophic factor and neurotrophin-3 levels were significantly increased (P < 0.05). Conclusion HupA may alleviate the cognitive impairment in rats after isoflurane anesthesia by decreasing inflammatory factors and increasing hippocampal neurotrophic factors in hippocampus tissue.

Humans , Animals , Male , Sesquiterpenes/pharmacology , Neuroprotective Agents/pharmacology , Anesthetics, Inhalation/adverse effects , Alkaloids/pharmacology , Hippocampus/drug effects , Nerve Growth Factors/drug effects , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Random Allocation , Reproducibility of Results , Interleukin-6/analysis , Rats, Sprague-Dawley , Maze Learning , Interleukin-1beta/analysis , Hippocampus/metabolism , Isoflurane/adverse effects , Anesthesia/adverse effects , Nerve Growth Factors/analysis
Pesqui. vet. bras ; 38(2): 315-319, fev. 2018. ilus
Article in English | ID: biblio-895564


This paper pretends to demonstrate the effect of the combination of transversus abdominis plane block (TAP block) and Serratus plane block (SP block) techniques in analgesia of 4 dogs undergoing total unilateral mastectomy. Dogs were premedicated with methadone ( intramuscularly. Anesthesia was induced with propofol ( and midazolam ( and maintained with isoflurane. SP and TAP block were performed unilaterally using ultrasound by the injection of bupivacaine 0.25% (0.3mL kg-1) diluted with NaCl solution 1:1. Heart rate (HR), respiratory rate (f), non-invasive arterial pressure, esophageal temperature (T), oxygen saturation (SpO2) and electrocardiogram were monitored continuously. Animals were monitored for two and four hours after extubation for pain by using the Canine Acute Pain Scale from Colorado State University. Two hours after extubation, tramadol ( and dipyrone ( was administered to all dogs. It was not observed any alteration on cardiac rhythm. HR, f, T and mean arterial pressure remained below the preincisional values for all dogs. No dog required intraoperative rescue analgesia. Recovery from anesthesia was without any complication. All animals scored 0 (0/5) at pain scale, two and four hours after extubation and none of them expressed concern over the surgical wound. Dogs were able to walk before two hours after extubation. The combination of both techniques is effective in anesthetic blocking the thoracic and abdominal walls and it is suggested both may be included in the multimodal analgesia protocols for this type of surgery.(AU)

Este trabalho pretende demonstrar o efeito analgésico da combinação das técnicas de bloqueio do plano transverso abdominal (TAP block) e bloqueio do plano serrátil (SP block) em 4 cadelas submetidas à mastectomia unilateral total. Os animais foram pré-medicados com metadona (0, por via intramuscular. A anestesia foi induzida com propofol ( e midazolam (0, e mantida com isoflurano. Os bloqueios SP e TAP foram realizados unilateralmente, utilizando ultrassonografia, pela injeção de bupivacaína a 0,25% (0,, diluída com solução de NaCl a 1:1. A frequência cardíaca (FC), frequência respiratória (f), pressão arterial não invasiva, temperatura esofágica (T), saturação de oxigênio (SpO2) e eletrocardiograma foram monitorados continuamente. Os animais foram monitorizados durante duras e quatro horas após a extubação para a dor usando a Escala de Dor Aguda Canina da Universidade Estadual do Colorado. Duas horas após a extubação, tramadol ( e dipirona ( foram administrados a todos os cães. Não foi observada qualquer alteração no ritmo cardíaco. HR, f, T e pressão arterial média permaneceram abaixo dos valores basais para todos os cães. Nenhum cão requereu resgate analgésico intra-operatório. Não houve complicações na recuperação anestésica. Todos os animais apresentaram escore 0 (0/5) na escala de dor, duras e 4 quatro horas após a extubação e nenhum expressou desconforto com a ferida cirúrgica. Todos os cães foram capazes de caminhar antes de duas horas após extubação. A combinação de ambas as técnicas é eficaz no bloqueio anestésico das paredes torácica e abdominal e sugere-se que ambos podem ser incluídos nos protocolos de analgesia multimodal para este tipo de cirurgia.(AU)

Animals , Female , Dogs , Abdominal Muscles/drug effects , Anesthesia, Conduction/veterinary , Anesthetics, Local/analysis , Isoflurane/therapeutic use , Mastectomy/veterinary , Midazolam/therapeutic use , Propofol/therapeutic use
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-758811


This study compared effects of isoflurane inhalation (ISO) and propofol-remifentanil combined total intravenous anesthesia (TIVA) on oxygenation during thoracoscopic lung lobectomy with 30-min one-lung ventilation (1LV). Thoracoscopic right middle lung lobectomy was performed in ten dogs divided into ISO and TIVA groups, and cardiopulmonary parameters were measured with blood gas analysis. Throughout the study, isoflurane was inhaled up to 1.5%, and the infusion rates of propofol and remifentanil were 0.2 to 0.4 mg/kg/min and 6 to 11 µg/kg/h, respectively. Cardiac index was not affected in the ISO group, but it increased during 1LV in the TIVA group. There were significant alterations in arterial oxygen pressure, arterial oxygen saturation, oxygen content, and shunt fraction associated with 1LV in each group. However, oxygen delivery did not decrease significantly due to open chest condition, 1LV, or surgical maneuver in either group, rather it increased during 1LV in the TIVA group. All parameters showed no significant difference between groups. Pulmonary vascular resistant index was unaffected in both groups, and there was no difference between groups except in re-ventilation phase. Accordingly, the effect of both anesthetic regimens on oxygenation was not different between groups and can be used with short-term 1LV for thoracoscopic lung lobectomy in dogs.

Anesthesia , Anesthesia, Intravenous , Animals , Arterial Pressure , Blood Gas Analysis , Dogs , Inhalation , Isoflurane , Lung , One-Lung Ventilation , Oxygen , Propofol , Thorax
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-764872


BACKGROUND: Isoflurane, a common anesthetic for cardiac surgery, reduced myocardial contractility in many experimental studies, few studies have determined isoflurane's direct impact on the left ventricular (LV) contractile function during cardiac surgery. We determined whether isoflurane dose-dependently reduces the peak systolic velocity of the lateral mitral annulus in tissue Doppler imaging (S′) in patients undergoing cardiac surgery. METHODS: During isoflurane-supplemented remifentanil-based anesthesia for patients undergoing cardiac surgery with preoperative LV ejection fraction greater than 50% (n = 20), we analyzed the changes of S′ at each isoflurane dose increment (1.0, 1.5, and 2.0 minimum alveolar concentration [MAC]: T1, T2, and T3, respectively) with a fixed remifentanil dosage (1.0 μg/min/kg) by using transesophageal echocardiography. RESULTS: Mean S′ values (95% confidence interval [CI]) at T1, T2, and T3 were 10.5 (8.8–12.2), 9.5 (8.3–10.8), and 8.4 (7.3–9.5) cm/s, respectively (P < 0.001 in multivariate analysis of variance test). Their mean differences at T1 vs. T2, T2 vs. T3, and T1 vs. T3 were −1.0 (−1.6, −0.3), −1.1 (−1.7, −0.6), and −2.1 (−3.1, −1.1) cm/s, respectively. Phenylephrine infusion rates were significantly increased (0.26, 0.22, and 0.47 μg/kg/min at T1, T2, and T3, respectively, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: Isoflurane increments (1.0–2.0 MAC) dose-dependently reduced LV systolic long-axis performance during cardiac surgeries with a preserved preoperative systolic function.

Anesthesia , Echocardiography , Echocardiography, Transesophageal , Heart Function Tests , Heart Valves , Humans , Isoflurane , Multivariate Analysis , Phenylephrine , Thoracic Surgery
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-742003


OBJECTIVES: The insulin-like growth factor binding proteins (IGFBP) regulate the bioavailability and bioactivity of insulin-like growth factor. We aimed to evaluate whether the IGFBP-3 level undergo major changes during perioperative periods according to the different kind of anesthetic agents. METHODS: Eighteen adults scheduled for elective total abdominal hysterectomy were enrolled. The patients were randomly assigned to have either propofol or isoflurane for maintenance of general anesthesia. A venous sample was taken for analysis of IGFBP-3 at the following time points: before induction, at the time of peritoneal closure, 1 hour after extubation at recovery room, and 2 and 5 postoperative days. The samples were analyzed by enzyme linked immunosolvent assay. RESULTS: Demographic data were similar between groups. In the both groups, the IGFBP-3 concentration decreased after anesthesia induction, reaching a nadir at the time of peritoneal closure without a significant difference between groups. In analysis between groups, the IGFBP-3 concentration in the isoflurane group on the postoperative 5th day was recovered to preoperative value and significantly higher than that in the propofol group (P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: This is the first study to show that the anesthetics used for general anesthesia affect the IGFBP-3 level during perioperative periods. The decrease of IGFBP-3 level following anesthesia induction in the isoflurane group was recovered to preoperative value, whereas that observed in the propofol group was not recovered on the postoperative 5th day. Further study is needed to establish the definitive effect of general anesthetics on IGFBP-3 and provide a comprehensive interpretation.

Adult , Anesthesia , Anesthesia, General , Anesthetics , Anesthetics, General , Biological Availability , Humans , Hysterectomy , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 3 , Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Proteins , Isoflurane , Perioperative Period , Propofol , Recovery Room
National Journal of Andrology ; (12): 272-276, 2018.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-689764


The safety of occupational exposure to inhaled anesthetics remains a concern among the medical staff in hospitals. Few reports are seen about the impact of inhaled anesthetics on the reproductive system, particularly that of males. Several clinical and basic studies on isoflurane and others suggest that inhaled anesthetics affect the reproductive system of rodents by decreasing the sperm count, inducing sperm morphological abnormality, reducing sperm motility, and changing the levels of reproductive hormones, the underlying mechanisms of which are mainly associated with the alteration of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis and DNA damage and apoptosis of reproductive cells. This article reviews the main impacts of inhaled anesthetics on the male reproductive system and the possible mechanisms.

Anesthetics, Inhalation , Pharmacology , Apoptosis , DNA Damage , Genitalia, Male , Humans , Isoflurane , Pharmacology , Male , Occupational Exposure , Sperm Count , Sperm Motility , Spermatozoa
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(6): 1521-1528, nov.-dez. 2017. tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-910439


Objetivou-se comparar as alterações cardiorrespiratórias e a analgesia pós-operatória promovidas pela dexmedetomidina e pelo tramadol, quando associados ao midazolam, em felinas. Para tal, foram selecionadas 18 gatas hígidas, divididas em dois grupos randomizados: GDM, tratadas com dexmedetomidina (10µg/kg) e GTM, tratadas com tramadol (2mg/kg), ambos associados a midazolam (0,2mg/kg,) IM. Após 15 minutos, procedeu-se à indução anestésica com propofol (1,46±0,79mL), mantendo-se a anestesia com isoflurano. As felinas foram submetidas à ovário-histerectomia, registrando-se as variáveis cardiorrespiratórias 15 minutos após a MPA (M0), 15 minutos após a indução (M15) e sequencialmente a cada cinco minutos, até o término do procedimento cirúrgico (M20, M25, M30, M35 e M40). A avaliação da dor iniciou-se 30 minutos após o término do procedimento cirúrgico (MP30) e sequencialmente em intervalos de 30 minutos (MP60, MP90, MP120). A partir do MP120, as avaliações foram registradas a cada hora (MP180, MP240 e MP360). A associação dexmedetomidina-midazolam infere diminuição inicial de frequência cardíaca (FC) sem significado clínico e está relacionada à sedação mais pronunciada, à analgesia menor e menos duradoura e a episódios de êmese, quando comparada à associação tramadol-midazolam. Ambos os protocolos denotaram estabilidade cardiorrespiratória e podem ser considerados seguros em felinas submetidas à ovário-histectomia.(AU)

The aim of this study was to compare cardiorespiratory changes and post-operative analgesia provided by dexmedetomidine or tramadol, associated with midazolam, in female cats. For that purpose, 18 healthy cats were assigned to two randomized groups: GDM, which received dexmedetomidine (10 µg/kg) and GTM, which received tramadol (2 mg/kg), both associated with midazolam (0.2 mg/kg) IM. After 15 minutes, anesthesia was induced with propofol (1.46±0.79 mL) and maintained with isofluorane. Ovariohysterectomy was performed and cardiorespiratory variables were registered 15 minutes after pre-anesthetic medication (M0), 15 minutes after anesthetic induction (M15), and every five minutes until the end of the surgical procedure (M20, M25, M30, M35 e M40). Pain evaluation started 30 minutes after the surgery (MP30) and sequentially at thirty-minute intervals (MP60, MP90, MP120). After MP120, each evaluation was registered at every hour (MP180, MP240 e MP360). Dexmedetomidine-midazolam association results in decreases on initial heart rate (HR) without clinical relevance and it is related to pronounced sedation, poor and less durable antinociception and vomiting events, when compared to tramadol-midazolam association. Both protocols indicate cardiorespiratoy stability and safety in cats undergoing ovariohysterectomy.(AU)

Animals , Female , Cats , Dexmedetomidine/analysis , Isoflurane/therapeutic use , Midazolam/analysis , Tramadol/analysis , Anesthetics, Combined/therapeutic use , Hysterectomy/veterinary , Ovariectomy/veterinary , Respiratory Rate
Arq. bras. med. vet. zootec. (Online) ; 69(5): 1139-1144, set.-out. 2017. ilus, tab
Article in Portuguese | ID: biblio-877301


Objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos do pneumoperitônio e da posição de Trendelenburg sobre o fluxo de saída do ventrículo esquerdo em gatos anestesiados. Quatorze gatos foram alocados aleatoriamente em dois grupos, ambos submetidos ao pneumoperitônio com 10mmHg de dióxido de carbono (CO2). No grupo controle (GC n=7), os animais foram submetidos apenas ao pneumoperitônio e, no grupo Trendelenburg (GTREN n=7), os animais foram colocados em cefalodeclive 20° após o pneumoperitônio. A indução anestésica foi realizada com isoflurano, utilizando-se caixa de indução. Posteriormente, os animais foram mantidos sob anestesia inalatória com o mesmo fármaco. Foram avaliados a velocidade do fluxo de saída do ventrículo esquerdo (VFSVE), os gradientes máximo (GmáxSVE) e médio (GmédSVE) de pressão e a integral velocidade-tempo (IVT). Os parâmetros foram mensurados nos momentos T0 (basal), antes da insuflação; T5 (cinco), T15 (quinze) e T30 (trinta) minutos após a insuflação. Os resultados mostraram um aumento da VFSVE no GC, em T15 e T30 (P=0,024), e um aumento do GmáxSVE no GC, em T30 (P=0,045). As variáveis não se alteraram significativamente em nenhum momento no GTREN. Dessa forma, conclui-se que a posição de Trendelenburg favoreceu o sistema cardiovascular, preservando os índices de fluxo sanguíneo na saída do ventrículo esquerdo.(AU)

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of pneumoperitoneum and Trendelenburg position on the left ventricular outflow in anesthetized cats. Fourteen cats were randomly divided into two groups, both submitted to pneumoperitoneum of 10 mmHg with carbon dioxide (CO2), and in the control group (GC n = 7) the animals were subjected only to pneumoperitoneum and the Trendelenburg group (n = 7 GTREN) the animals were placed in cefalodeclive 20° after pneumoperitoneum. Anesthesia of the animals was performed with isoflurane using induction box, keeping the animals under inhalation anesthesia with the same drug. We evaluated the speed of the left ventricular outflow (VFSVE), the maximum pressure gradient (GmáxSVE), mean pressure gradient (GmédSVE) and velocity-time integrals (IVT). The parameters were measured in time, T0 (baseline), before the insufflation; T5 (five); T15 (fifteen) and T30 (thirty) minutes after inflation. The results showed an increase in VFSVE in GC, T15 and T30 (p = 0,024) and an increase in GmáxSVE in GC in T30 (p = 0,045). The variables did not change significantly at any time in GTREN. Thus, it is concluded that the Trendelenburg position favored the cardiovascular system, preserving blood flow rates in the left ventricular outflow.(AU)

Animals , Cats , Carbon Dioxide/physiology , Head-Down Tilt , Heart Ventricles , Isoflurane/therapeutic use , Pneumoperitoneum/veterinary , Anesthesia, Local/veterinary , Ultrasonography, Doppler, Pulsed/veterinary
Rev. bras. anestesiol ; 67(5): 516-520, Sept-Oct. 2017. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-897762


Abstract Background and objectives Occupational exposure to waste anesthetic gases in operating room without active scavenging system has been associated with adverse health effects. Thus, this study aimed to compare the trace concentrations of the inhalational anesthetics isoflurane and sevoflurane in operating room with and without central scavenging system. Method Waste concentrations of isoflurane and sevoflurane were measured by infrared analyzer at different locations (near the respiratory area of the assistant nurse and anesthesiologist and near the anesthesia station) and at two times (30 and 120 min after the start of surgery) in both operating room types. Results All isoflurane and sevoflurane concentrations in unscavenged operating room were higher than the US recommended limit (2 parts per million), regardless of the location and time evaluated. In scavenged operating room, the average concentrations of isoflurane were within the limit of exposure, except for the measurements near the anesthesia station, regardless of the measurement times. For sevoflurane, concentrations exceeded the limit value at all measurement locations and at both times. Conclusions The exposure to both anesthetics exceeded the international limit in unscavenged operating room. In scavenged operating room, the concentrations of sevoflurane, and to a lesser extent those of isoflurane, exceeded the recommended limit value. Thus, the operating room scavenging system analyzed in the present study decreased the anesthetic concentrations, although not to the internationally recommended values.

Resumo Justificativa e objetivos A exposição ocupacional aos resíduos de gases anestésicos em salas de operação (SO) sem sistema ativo de exaustão tem sido associada a efeitos adversos à saúde. Assim, o objetivo do estudo foi comparar os resíduos dos anestésicos inalatórios isoflurano e sevoflurano em SO com e sem sistema de exaustão. Método Concentrações residuais de isoflurano e sevoflurano foram mensuradas por analisador infravermelho em diferentes locais (próximo à área respiratória do auxiliar de enfermagem e do anestesiologista e próximo à estação de anestesia) e em dois momentos (30 e 120 min após o início da cirurgia) em ambos os tipos de SO. Resultados Todas as concentrações de isoflurano e sevoflurano nas SO sem sistema de exaustão foram mais elevadas em relação ao valor limite recomendado pelos EUA (2 partes por milhão), independentemente do local e momento avaliados. Nas SO com sistema de exaustão, as concentrações médias de isoflurano ficaram dentro do limite de exposição, exceto para as mensurações próximas à estação de anestesia, independentemente dos momentos avaliados. Para o sevoflurano, as concentrações excederam o valor limite em todos locais de medição e nos dois momentos. Conclusões A exposição a ambos os anestésicos excedeu o limite internacional nas SO sem sistema de exaustão. Nas SO com sistema de exaustão, as concentrações de sevoflurano, e em menor extensão, as de isoflurano excederam o valor limite recomendado. Dessa forma, o sistema de exaustão das SO analisado no presente estudo diminuiu as concentrações dos anestésicos, embora não tenha reduzido a valores internacionalmente recomendados.

Gas Scavengers , Air Pollution, Indoor/analysis , Anesthetics, Inhalation/analysis , Sevoflurane/analysis , Isoflurane/analysis , Operating Rooms , Brazil , Hospitals, University