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1.
Int. j. morphol ; 42(1): 82-85, feb. 2024. ilus, tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1528837

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Hand size is part of the anthropometric parameters that are assessed in swimmers to select elite athletes, as certain anthropometric relationships involving hand measurements are significantly correlated with sports performance in various swimming disciplines. The authors present the results of the anthropometric study carried out on the hands of 15 elite male Italian swimmers from to the Italian national open water swimming team. All swimmers participated at least once in World Cup and Absolute Italian Championships, winning at least one medal in their sporting career. In particular, the sample includes a medallist at the World Championships, a winner of the World Cup ultra swim marathon circuit and medallists at the European Championships. The sample consisted of 15 elite male swimmers with a mean age of 28.93 years. The following anthropometric measurements were taken on each athlete: Stature; weight; seven dimensions on each hand: hand length; hand breadth metacarpal; palm length; middle finger length; index finger length; thumb distance; and the distance from the thumb root to first flexure line of the index finger - trigger length. The size of the hands is an important factor in the swimmer's propulsion and push as a larger hand allows for greater support in the water and consequently generates more resistance. The anthropometric characteristics of the hands of Italian swimmers are missing from the anthropometric data already reported in the literature and can be used to make comparisons with elite athletes from other nations. Furthermore, anthropometric measurements could be used as predictors to estimate the swimmers' chance of success.


El tamaño de la mano es uno de los parámetros antropométricos que se evalúan en los nadadores para seleccionar a los deportistas de élite. Los autores presentan los resultados de un estudio antropométrico realizado en las manos de 15 nadadores italianos masculinos de élite pertenecientes al equipo nacional de natación en aguas abiertas. Todos los nadadores participaron al menos una vez en Copas del Mundo y Campeonatos de Italia, ganando al menos una medalla en su carrera deportiva. En concreto, la muestra incluye un medallista en los Campeonatos del Mundo, un ganador de la Copa del Mundo del circuito de ultra maratón de natación y medallistas en los Campeonatos de Europa. La muestra consta de 15 nadadores masculinos de élite con una edad media de 28,93 años. Se tomaron las siguientes medidas antropométricas a cada atleta: estatura; peso; siete dimensiones en cada mano: longitud de la mano, anchura de la mano en el metacarpiano, longitud de la palma, longitud del primer, segundo y tercer dedo, distancia entre la raíz del primer dedo y la primera línea de flexión del segundo dedo. El tamaño de las manos es un factor importante para la propulsión y el empuje del nadador, ya que una mano más grande permite un mayor apoyo en el agua y, en consecuencia, genera más resistencia. Las características antropométricas de las manos de los nadadores italianos faltan en los datos antropométricos recolectados en la literatura y pueden utilizarse para hacer comparaciones con los atletas de élite de otras naciones. Además, las medidas antropométricas podrían utilizarse como predictores para estimar las posibilidades de éxito de los nadadores.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Adult , Swimming , Anthropometry , Hand/anatomy & histology , Italy
2.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 30: e2023002, 2023.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1430466

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo analisa a maneira como o anarquismo e os seus adeptos foram compreendidos na obra do médico Alexandre Lacassagne L'assassinat du président Carnot (1894). Poucos meses antes da circulação do livro, em junho, o presidente da França, Sadi Carnot, foi morto pelo anarquista italiano Sante Geronimo Caserio. Em razão desse atentado, Lacassagne foi convocado para realizar a autópsia do corpo de Carnot e um exame psiquiátrico de Caserio. Os resultados dessas duas análises foram publicados na referida obra. As suas observações sobre o ácrata estavam inseridas nos debates criminológicos promovidos no final do século XIX, os quais não se restringiram unicamente aos autores da criminologia italiana.


Abstract This article analyzes the way anarchism and its followers were understood in L'assassinat du président Carnot, by the French physician Alexandre Lacassagne. A few months before the book was published, in June 1894, the president of France, Sadi Carnot, had been killed by the Italian anarchist Sante Geronimo Caserio. Lacassagne was called upon to perform the autopsy of Carnot's body and a psychiatric examination of Caserio. The results of these two analyses were published in the aforementioned book. He made his observations on the anarchist in the broader context of criminological debates pursued in the late nineteenth century, which were not restricted solely to the authors of Italian criminology.


Subject(s)
Politics , Psychiatry , Crime , Criminology , History, 19th Century , Italy
3.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(2): 481-500, abr.-jun. 2022.
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385070

ABSTRACT

Resumo O artigo apresenta um diálogo entre as experiências brasileiras, canadenses e italianas quanto aos desafios colocados por avaliações éticas "externas" (feitas por comitês de ética e órgãos correlatos) e "internas" (resultante dos debates dos/as próprios/as pesquisadores/as) à história oral. Pretende demonstrar as diferentes maneiras de lidar com as imposições estranhas à área, revelar as estratégias de ação colocadas em prática e destacar questões centrais para o trabalho responsável com história oral. O espírito que anima a escrita é o de repensar as próprias experiências e de aprender com as alheias.


Abstract This article presents a dialogue between the experiences of Brazil, Canada, and Italy in addressing the challenges posed by ethical evaluations, both "external" (by ethics committees and related bodies) and "internal" (in debates among researchers themselves), of oral history. It attempts to demonstrate the different ways impositions from outside the area have been handled, the action strategies adopted, and issues central to responsible work in the sphere of oral history. It is written with the spirit of rethinking one's own experiences and learning from those of others.


Subject(s)
Interviews as Topic , Ethics Committees, Research , Ethics, Research , Brazil , Canada , Italy
4.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 657-661, jun. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385668

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY: Anthropometry is essential to understand the predisposition of an athlete to practice a specific sporting activity, to assess their fitness, and in association with functional parameters, to identify any correlations between their anthropometric profile and their sport performance. Here, we present the anthropometric profiles of athletes of the Italian national teams, who represented Italy in the 2019-2020 competitive season in the following sports: artistic (n=4) and rhythmic (n=12) gymnastics; distance swimming (speciality: 100 m freestyle) (n=14); synchronized swimming (n=10); and basketball (n=6). We also consider a group of sedentary women (n=22) for comparisons. The following anthropometric measurements were taken for each woman: stature; anterior trunk height (i.e., suprasternal- symphysion distance); chest circumference passing through the mesosternal point; biacromial diameter (i.e., akromion-akromion distance); wrist circumference; abdominal circumference passing through the omphalion and the lumbale; hip circumference; height of lower limb (i.e., epitrochanter-planta distance). Height was a selective factor in both basketball, which requires tall athletes, and artistic gymnastics, where in contrast, well-muscled athletes of small stature are required. In aquatic sports, the constitutional habitus is characterized by good development of the upper body compared to the lower limbs. The selection of elite athletes takes place primarily through anthropometric analyses, although other functional and psychological factors also influence their sports performance.


RESUMEN: La evaluación antropométrica de un atleta es fundamental para conocer su predisposición en la práctica de un determinado deporte, evaluar su estado de forma y, junto a los parámetros funcionales, identificar posibles relaciones entre el perfil antropométrico y el rendimiento. A continuación, presentamos el perfil antropométrico de las atletas de los Equipos Nacionales que representaron a Italia en la temporada 2019-2020 en las siguientes disciplinas deportivas: gimnasia rítmica (n=12), gimnasia artística (n=4), nado sincronizado (n=10), natación (especialidad: 100 m estilo libre) (n=14), baloncesto (n=6). A cada atleta le fueron efectuadas las siguientes mediciones: altura, altura anterior del torso (distancia supraesternal-symphysion), circunferencia torácica en el punto mesosternal, diámetro biacromial (distancia acromion-acromion), circunferencia de la muñeca, circunferencia abdominal a nivel umbilical, circunferencia pélvica, altura del miembro inferior (distancia epitrocantérea-planta). La altura es el factor selectivo en el baloncesto, que exige atletas altas, así como en la gimnasia artística que, al contrario, requiere atletas no muy altas y con una buena musculatura. En los deportes acuáticos, el rasgo característico es un buen desarrollo de la parte superior del cuerpo respecto a la parte inferior. La selección de los atletas de elite se realiza en primer lugar a través de estudios antropométricos, aunque el rendimiento depende también de otros factores funcionales y psicológicos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sports , Anthropometry , Athletic Performance , Athletes , Aptitude , Italy
5.
Hist. ciênc. saúde-Manguinhos ; 29(supl.1): 79-92, 2022.
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421603

ABSTRACT

Abstract As it spread across Italy, psychoanalysis captured the interest of Italian psychologists, namely Vittorio Benussi (1878-1927) and Cesare Musatti (1897-1989). Benussi, who was trained as an experimental psychologist according to the Gegenstandstheorie School of Graz in 1919, came to Italy and became a full professor of experimental psychology in Padua. He undertook a program of study called "psychological reality" that comprised hypnosuggestion and psychoanalysis. This article shows that Benussi's hypnosuggestion experiments and Musatti's theorization of the reality of fantasy were attempts to upgrade the study of psychological phenomena to the level of physical phenomena in a theoretical context in which psychoanalysis was considered part of a general psychology.


Resumen A medida que se extendía por Italia, el psicoanálisis captó el interés de los psicólogos italianos Vittorio Benussi (1878-1927) y Cesare Musatti (1897-1989). Benussi, se formó como psicólogo experimental según la Escuela Gegenstandstheorie de Graz en 1919, llegó a Italia y se convirtió en profesor titular de psicología experimental en Padua. Realizó un programa de estudio llamado "realidad psicológica" que comprendía hipnosugestión y psicoanálisis. Este artículo muestra que los experimentos de hipnosugestión de Benussi y la teorización de la realidad de la fantasía de Musatti fueron intentos de elevar el estudio de los fenómenos psicológicos al nivel de los fenómenos físicos en un contexto teórico en el que se consideraba el psicoanálisis parte de una psicología general.


Subject(s)
Psychoanalysis/history , Psychology/education , Laboratories , History, 20th Century , Italy
6.
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233567, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1249220

ABSTRACT

This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of nitrate and ammonium ions on nutrient accumulation, biochemical components and yield of Italian zucchini (cv. Caserta) grown in a hydroponic system under salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing an experimental design in randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of two forms of nitrogen (nitrate - NO3 - and ammonium - NH4 + ) and 5 electrical conductivity levels of irrigation water (ECw) (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1). The analysis of the results indicated that supply of N exclusively in NH4 + form promotes greater damage to the leaf membrane and reduction in accumulation of macronutrients and higher Na+ /K+ , Na+ /Ca++ and Na+ /Mg++ ratios in the shoots of zucchini plants. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water above 2.0 dS m-1 reduces the accumulation of nutrients in shoot and yield of Italian zucchini plant. The toxicity of NH4 + under Italian zucchini plants overlap the toxicity of the salinity, since its fertilization exclusively with this form of nitrogen inhibits its production, being the NO3 - form the most suitable for the cultivation of the species.


Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos íons nitrato e amônio sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes e produção da abobrinha italiana (cv. Caserta) cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob estrese salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas formas de nitrogênio (nitrato - NO3 - e amônio - NH4 + ) e cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa ) (0,5; 2,0; 3,5; 5,0 e 6,5 dS m-1). As análises dos resultados indicaram que suprimento de N exclusivamente em forma de NH4 + promove maiores danos na membrana foliar e redução no acúmulo de macronutrientes e maiores relações Na+ /K+ , Na+ /Ca++ e Na+ /Mg++ na parte aérea das plantas de abobrinha. A irrigação com água a cima de 2,0 dS m-1 reduz o acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e a produção de abobrinha. A toxicidade do NH4 + sob abobrinha italiana sobrepõe-se à toxicidade da salinidade, pois a fertilização exclusiva com esta forma de nitrogênio inibe sua produção, sendo a forma NO3 - a mais adequada para o cultivo da espécie.


Subject(s)
Ammonium Compounds , Nitrogen , Plant Roots/chemistry , Salt Stress , Homeostasis , Italy , Nitrates
7.
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210421, 2022. graf
Article in English | VETINDEX, LILACS | ID: biblio-1375121

ABSTRACT

Dog bite is one of the major public health problems involving people worldwide. Although, several studies have investigated this phenomenon in different countries, little information about the incidence of dog bite episodes in Italy is available. We analysed data about dog biting events between 2010 and 2019 provided by the CRIUV, the Regional Reference Centre for Veterinary Urban Hygiene in the largest city of Southern Italy, namely. Naples. We observed severe and profound inconsistencies in the data collection that reveal structural and significant weaknesses of the current data collection system. Given the multifactorial nature of dog bite, we highlight the need to improve the gathering of all the information related to the factors affecting the occurrence of biting episodes for an accurate assessment of the biting phenomenon.


A mordida de cães é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública que envolve pessoas em todo o mundo. Embora vários estudos tenham investigado esse fenômeno em diferentes países, poucas informações sobre a incidência de episódios de mordidas por cães na Itália estão disponíveis. Analisamos dados sobre eventos de mordidas de cães entre 2010 e 2019 fornecidos pelo CRIUV, Centro de Referência Regional para Higiene Veterinária Urbana na maior cidade do sul da Itália, Nápoles. Observamos inconsistências graves e profundas na coleta de dados que revelam fragilidades estruturais e significativas do sistema de coleta de dados atual. Dada a natureza multifatorial da mordida canina, destaca-se a necessidade de melhorar a coleta de todas as informações relacionadas aos fatores que afetam a ocorrência de episódios de mordida para uma avaliação precisa deste fenômeno.


Subject(s)
Humans , Animals , Dogs , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Human-Animal Bond , Aggression , Risk , Retrospective Studies , Italy
8.
J. Phys. Educ. (Maringá) ; 33: e3339, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1421884

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The present study investigated the beneficial effects induced on dancers by the two types of stretching protocol: static and dynamic stretching, in order to elevate the aesthetics of the figures and body positions to the highest level. The subjects were 20 young female dancers divided into two groups: Group DS (n=10), which performed dynamic stretching, and Group SS (n=10), a static stretching, both for six months. A survey, with the aim of assessing perceptions about the benefits induced by the type of stretching performed, and a Sit and Reach Test were administered to the dancers to assess both qualitative and quantitative aspects of flexibility. An independent samples t-test was performed to assess the differences in flexibility between DS and SS group before and after six months, and a Fisher's exact test to analyse their perceptions on the benefits induced by two training protocols. Result was statistically significant after six months and four associations were found (P <0.05). Dynamic stretching brought greater benefits both qualitatively and quantitatively. From the results of the study, it was possible to state that dancers in terms of induced benefits and satisfaction with the performance result achieved, preferred dynamic stretching.


RESUMO O presente estudo investigou os efeitos benéficos induzidos em dançarinos pelos dois tipos de protocolo de alongamento:: alongamento estático e dinâmico, a fim de elevar a estética das figuras e posições corporais ao mais alto nível. Os sujeitos foram 20 jovens bailarinas divididas em dois grupos: Grupo DS (n = 10), que realizou alongamento dinâmico, e Grupo SS (n = 10), alongamento estático, ambos por seis meses. Uma pesquisa, com o objetivo de avaliar as percepções sobre os benefícios induzidos pelo tipo de alongamento realizado, e um Teste Sentar e Alcançar, foram administrados às bailarinas para avaliar aspectos qualitativos e quantitativos da flexibilidade. Um teste t de amostras independentes foi realizado para avaliar as diferenças na flexibilidade entre os grupos DS e SS antes e depois de seis meses, e um teste exato de Fisher para analisar suas percepções sobre os benefícios induzidos por dois protocolos de treinamento. O resultado foi estatisticamente significativo após seis meses e quatro associações foram encontradas (P <0,05). O alongamento dinâmico trouxe maiores University of Salerno (UNISA), Fisciano-SA, Italy benefícios tanto qualitativa quanto quantitativamente. A partir dos resultados do estudo, foi possível afirmar que os bailarinos em termos de benefícios induzidos e satisfação com o resultado de desempenho alcançado, preferem o alongamento dinâmico.


Subject(s)
Humans , Female , Muscle Stretching Exercises , Athletes , Women , Pliability , Dancing , Mentoring , Italy
9.
Int. j. morphol ; 40(2): 327-333, 2022. ilus, tab
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385612

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN: El objetivo de este estudio fue analizar la configuración morfológica de los jugadores de fútbol de un equipo de la primera división italiana y compararlo con las investigaciones publicadas en las últimas décadas. Un total de 23 jugadores fueron evaluados a mitad de temporada, mediante el método de campo antropométrico y tratados los valores con el software KINBIA®. Se estableció que el somatotipo de la muestra es ecto-mesomorfo (1,52 - 4,7 - 2,63) y no se hallaron diferencias significativas entre las posiciones de juego. Se realizó una representación gráfica de los somatotipos por posición de juego y la migración del somatotipo de las investigaciones de fútbol de las últimas décadas. Se concluye que el futbolista de élite actual ha reducido más el componente endomórfico y que, en el mismo equipo, existen diferencias no significativas en el somatotipo según la posición de juego que desempeñen. El territorio de influencia de estos deportistas en la somatocarta ha ido evolucionando en las dos últimas décadas desplazándose desde la mesomorfia balanceada hacia la ecto-mesomorfia.


SUMMARY: The aim of this study was to analyze the morphological configuration of soccer players of an Italian first division team and to compare it with research published in recent decades. A total of 23 players were evaluated at mid-season, using the anthropometric field method and the values were processed with the KINBIA® software. It was established that the somatotype of the sample is ecto-mesomorphic (1,52 - 4,7 - 2,63) and no significant differences were found between playing positions. A graphical representation of the somatotypes by playing position and somatotype migration from soccer researches of the last decades was made. It is concluded that the current elite soccer player has reduced the endomorphic component and there are non-significant differences in somatotype according to the playing position. The territory of influence of these athletes in the somatochart has been evolving over the last two decades, shifting from balanced mesomorphy to ecto-mesomorphy.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Soccer , Somatotypes , Reference Values , Anthropometry , Cross-Sectional Studies , Italy
10.
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3047-3060, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251925

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN Introducción: la neumonía por covid-19 es la enfermedad infecciosa que ha revolucionado al mundo en los últimos meses. El diagnóstico pasa por varios momentos: el cuadro clínico, la analítica sanguínea y las imágenes. La estratificación del riesgo de muerte es muy importante para optimizar los recursos. Objetivos: validar un modelo matemático cubano predictivo de mortalidad en pacientes ingresados por covid-19. Materiales y métodos: estudio de cohorte con 191 pacientes, que ingresaron graves en el Hospital Mayor de Crema, en la provincia de Cremona, región de Lombardía (Italia), en el período de abril a mayo de 2020. El universo estuvo constituido por 191 pacientes, y no se tomó muestra alguna. Las variables fueron: edad, estado del paciente, niveles de creatinina plasmática, frecuencia respiratoria, frecuencia cardiaca, presión arterial, niveles de oxígeno y de dióxido de carbono en sangre, valor del sodio y de hemoglobina. Resultados: mortalidad del 22 % en pacientes graves y críticos, con media de la edad (grupo 1: 59 años) (grupo 2: 73 años); t-Student = 0,00. Test de Hosmer-Lemenshow (0,766) con elevado ajuste. Sensibilidad = 93 %. Área bajo la curva = 0,957. Porcentaje de aciertos en la regresión logística de 86,4 % y en la red neuronal de 91,2 %. Media del modelo por grupos (grupo 1: 4 458) (grupo 2: 2 911) t-Student = 0,00. Conclusiones: el modelo demostró ser muy útil en el flujograma de pacientes atendidos con la covid-19. Permitió detectar tempranamente (a los cinco días del ingreso) los pacientes con alto riesgo de muerte y discriminar aquellos que no tendrían este riesgo, de manera que pudieran ser tratados en unidades de cuidados mínimos (AU).


ABSTRACT Introduction: COVID-19 pneumonia is an infectious disease that has revolutionized the world in the last months. The diagnosis goes thought several moments: clinical features, blood analytic and images. Death risk stratification is very important to optimize resources. Objective: to validate the Cuban mathematic predictive model of mortality in patients admitted due to COVID-19. Materials and methods: cohort study with 191 seriously-ill patients who were admitted to Maggiore di Crema Hospital, Cremona, Lombardy region, Italy, in the period April-May 2020. The universe were 191 patients and no sample was chosen. The variables were: age; patient's status; plasma creatinine levels; respiratory rate; heart rate; arterial pressure; blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels; values of sodium and hemoglobin. Results: 22 % of mortality in seriously-ill and critical patients, with average age in Group 1: 59 years, in Group 2: 73 years; t-Student = 0.00. Hosmer-Lemenshow test (0.766) with high adjustment. Sensitivity= 93 %. Area below the curve=0.957. Success percentage in logistic regression of 86.4 % and 91.2 % in the neuronal net. Model media per groups: Group 1= 4 458; Group 2= 2 911, t-Student = 0.00. Conclusions: the model showed to be very useful in the flow chart of patients attended with COVID-19. It allowed to early detect the patients at high death risk five days from admission and discriminating those who were not at risk, in a way that they could be treated in minimal care units (AU).


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Patient Acuity , Forecasting/methods , Patients , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Aftercare/methods , Italy , Medical Missions
11.
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 346-349, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278379

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT The longstanding study of gross anatomy experienced a considerable improvement with the advent of the microscope in the early 17th century. The representative personality of this new era certainly was Marcello Malpighi, seen as "founder of microscopic anatomy". He studied, with a rudimentary compound microscope, numerous tissues and organs of several classes of animals, as well as plants. He described, for the first time, the microscopic structure of the nervous system, identifying in the gray matter of its various levels minute elements he took as "glands". It should be reminded that the concept of "cell" (and "nerve cell") was unknown at his time. Many researchers followed, performing microscopic studies, but without better results, and Malpighi's view was maintained until the beginning of the 19th century, when new histological processing and staining techniques appeared, as well as improved microscopes.


RESUMO O estudo de longa data da anatomia macroscópica experimentou um incremento considerável com o advento do microscópio no início do século 17. A personalidade representativa dessa nova era foi, certamente, Marcello Malpighi, considerado "fundador da anatomia microscópica". Ele estudou, com um microscópio composto rudimentar, numerosos tecidos e órgãos de diversas classes de animais, assim como plantas. Descreveu, pela primeira vez, a estrutura microscópica do sistema nervoso, identificando na substância cinzenta dos vários níveis elementos de minúsculas dimensões, que denominou "glândulas". Deve-se lembrar que o conceito de "célula" (e de "célula nervosa") era desconhecido naquele tempo. Muitos pesquisadores seguiram realizando estudos microscópicos, mas sem resultados melhores, e o entendimento de Malpighi foi mantido até o início do século 19, quando apareceram técnicas histológicas novas de processamento e de coloração, assim como microscópios mais aprimorados.


Subject(s)
Animals , History, 17th Century , Nervous System , Neurons , Staining and Labeling , Cerebral Cortex , Gray Matter , Italy
13.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1287496

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objective: To evaluate the reliability of infrared (IR) thermal camera connected to smartphones, already used in medicine for diagnostic purposes, as an easy tool for access screening to pediatric dentistry services. Material and Methods: After the preventive telephone triage, thirty orthodontic patients (7-13 years) underwent temperature measurement in the office with two no-contact IR devices: forehead digital thermometer and thermal-camera connected to a smartphone (reference areas: forehead, inner canthi, ears). Measurements were compared and differences were statistically investigated with T student's test (p<0.01). Results: Forehead digital thermometer temperatures were superimposable to those recorded in ear areas and inner canthi with the thermal camera connected to a smartphone. Differences were not statistically significant even in comparison between the sexes. Forehead temperature values detected with a thermal camera are lower than those detected with a digital forehead thermometer. Conclusion: Thermal camera on a smartphone could be reliable in measuring body temperature. Mobile thermographic values of ears and inner canthi areas can be used as an alternative to forehead digital thermometer measurements. Further applications in pediatric dentistry of thermography on smartphones should be examined.


Subject(s)
Humans , Male , Female , Child , Body Temperature , Thermography/instrumentation , Pediatric Dentistry , Differential Thermal Analysis/instrumentation , COVID-19 , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Smartphone , Italy/epidemiology
14.
Salud colect ; 17: e3231, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252144

ABSTRACT

RESUMEN En Italia, la aplicación de la obligatoriedad de las vacunas infantiles en 2017 ha sido una consecuencia de la consolidación de la reticencia a la vacunación, un fenómeno que se ha difundido en mayor medida a partir del despliegue de las redes sociales. Este artículo plantea la gestión y percepción del riesgo sobre las vacunaciones infantiles a través del análisis de los contenidos online compartidos por parte de los movimientos de reticencia italianos, realizado entre diciembre de 2019 y abril de 2020. Los resultados señalan que estos movimientos actúan una reinterpretación del riesgo, de la evidencia científica y de la responsabilidad parental sobre todo a través de una presupuesta correlación entre vacuna antisarampión y autismo. Las limitaciones de las decisiones políticas en tema de vacunas se deben a la aplicación de estrategias de carácter punitivo, como sanciones administrativas y exclusión del registro de médicos, que expresan ideas "no vax", factores que pueden aumentar la desconfianza en la clase política y la medicina.


ABSTRACT In Italy, the passing of mandatory pediatric vaccinations in 2017 was a consequence of increasing vaccine hesitancy in the country, a phenomenon that has largely spread on social networks. This article examines risk management and risk perception regarding pediatric vaccinations through an analysis of online content shared by Italian vaccine hesitancy movements between December of 2019 and April of 2020. Results show that these movements carry out a reinterpretation of risk, scientific evidence, and parental responsibility, especially with regard to the alleged correlation between the measles vaccine and autism. The limitations of political decisions surrounding vaccines are due to the application of punitive measures such as administrative penalties and licensing bans for doctors who express "anti-vax" ideas, aspects which may increase distrust towards the political establishment and the medical profession.


Subject(s)
Humans , Child , Vaccines/adverse effects , Perception , Risk Management , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Italy
15.
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6002, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154091

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To carry out a scoping review of the meta-analyses published regarding about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), evaluating their main characteristics, publication trends and methodological quality. Methods: A bibliometric search was performed in PubMed®, Scopus and Web of Science, focusing on meta-analyses about COVID-2019 disease. Bibliometric and descriptive data for the included articles were extracted and the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses was evaluated using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of 348 meta-analyses were considered eligible. The first meta-analysis about COVID-19 disease was published on February 26, 2020, and the number of meta-analyses has grown rapidly since then. Most of them were published in infectious disease and virology journals. The greatest number come from China, followed by the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. On average, these meta-analyses included 23 studies and 15,200 participants. Overall quality was remarkably low, and only 8.9% of them could be considered as of high confidence level. Conclusion: Although well-designed meta-analyses about COVID-19 disease have already been published, the majority are of low quality. Thus, all stakeholders playing a role in COVID-19 deseases, including policy makers, researchers, publishers and journals, should prioritize well-designed meta-analyses, performed only when the background information seem suitable, and discouraging those of low quality or that use suboptimal methods.


RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de escopo das metanálises publicadas sobre a doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), avaliando suas principais características, tendências de publicação e qualidade metodológica. Métodos: Uma busca bibliométrica foi realizada em PubMed®, Scopus e Web of Science, com foco em metanálises sobre a doença pelo COVID-19. Foram extraídos dados bibliométricos e descritivos dos artigos incluídos, e a qualidade metodológica foi avaliada usando a ferramenta A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Resultados: Um total de 348 metanálises foram consideradas elegíveis. A primeira delas foi publicada em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, e, desde então, o número dessas publicações cresceu rapidamente. A maioria foi publicada em periódicos de infectologia e virologia. Grande parte é proveniente da China, seguida dos Estados Unidos, da Itália e do Reino Unido. Em média, as metanálises incluíram 23 estudos e 15.200 participantes. Em geral, a qualidade metodológica foi baixa, e apenas 8,9% delas podem ser consideradas de algum grau de confiabilidade Conclusão: Embora algumas metanálises bem conduzidas sobre a doença pelo COVID-19 tenham sido publicadas, a maioria apresenta baixa qualidade. Todos os envolvidos na abordagem da doença pelo COVID-19, incluindo formuladores de políticas, pesquisadores, editoras e periódicos, devem dar prioridade a metanálises de alta qualidade, realizadas apenas quando os dados são viáveis, e desencorajar as de baixa qualidade ou conduzidas com métodos subótimos.


Subject(s)
Humans , Bibliometrics , COVID-19 , United States , China , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United Kingdom , Italy
16.
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154140

ABSTRACT

Objetivo: Descrever as medidas de contenção de tipo lockdown e a incidência da COVID-19 em sete países: África do Sul, Alemanha, Brasil, Espanha, Estados Unidos, Itália e Nova Zelândia. Métodos: Estudo ecológico descritivo, com dados da incidência diária dos casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 22 de fevereiro e 31 de agosto de 2020, e informações sobre medidas de lockdown implementadas pelo governo de cada país. Resultados: Os países que implementaram lockdown tiveram diminuição da incidência diária de COVID-19 (casos por milhão de habitantes) no período de três semanas, a contar do início da medida: África do Sul (3,7 a 1,7), Alemanha (37,5 a 33,7), Espanha (176,3 a 82,0), Itália (92,0 a 52,1) e Nova Zelândia (7,5 a 1,7). O Brasil e os Estados Unidos, que não implementaram lockdown, não apresentaram uma diminuição considerável. Conclusão: Após a implementação de lockdown, houve uma diminuição considerável do número de casos confirmados.


Objetivo: Describir las medidas de contención tipo lockdown y la incidencia de COVID-19 en los países de Sudáfrica, Alemania, Brasil, España, Estados Unidos, Italia y Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Estudio ecológico descriptivo con datos de la incidencia diaria de los casos confirmados de COVID-19, del 22 de febrero al 31 de agosto de 2020 e informaciones sobre medidas de contención lockdown implementadas por los gobiernos de cada uno de los países. Resultados: Los países que implementaron lockdown, desde el inicio de su implementación hasta tres semanas después, tuvieron una disminución en la incidencia diaria (casos por millón de habitantes): Sudáfrica (3,7 a 1,7), Alemania (37,5 a 33,7), España (176,3 a 82,0), Italia (92,0 a 52,1) y Nueva Zelanda (7,5 a 1,7). Brasil y Estados Unidos, que no implementaron lockdown, no tuvieron una disminución considerable Conclusión: Luego de la implementación del lockdown, hubo una disminución considerable en el número de casos confirmados.


Objective: To describe lockdown-type containment measures and COVID-19 incidence in South Africa, Germany, Brazil, Spain, United States, Italy and New Zealand. Methods: This is a descriptive ecological study with data on daily incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases from February 22 to August 31 2020, as well as information on lockdown measures implemented by the governments of each country. Results: Daily COVID-19 incidence (cases per 1 million inhabitants) decreased within three weeks after lockdown started in the countries that implemented it: South Africa (3.7 to 1.7), Germany (37.5 to 33.7) Spain (176.3 to 82.0), Italy (92.0 to 52.1) and New Zealand (7.5 to 1.7). As for Brazil and the United States, which did not implement lockdown, there was no considerable decrease. Conclusion: After lockdown implementation, there was a considerable decrease in the number of confirmed cases.


Subject(s)
Humans , Psychological Distance , Quarantine/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Health Policy/trends , Italy/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
17.
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1155013

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the types of dental emergencies that occurred during the lockdown period in Italy (12th March-4th May) and to investigate future therapeutic preferences related to the use of different types of appliances. Material and Methods: A questionnaire dedicated to assessing dental emergencies during the lockdown period and surveying the resumption of orthodontic practice was submitted to clinicians in digital form. The first part of the questionnaire, focused on the orthodontic emergencies that were encountered in relation to the different types of orthodontic appliances and how these were resolved. The second part of the questionnaire was devoted to the resumption of clinical practice; in particular, it was designed to assess whether and what percentage of clinicians are willing to change the duration of appointments in relation to the different types of appliance used, asking them whether their approach to orthodontic treatment would change in the coming months as compared to the pre-COVID-19 era. Results: Results show that in most cases (82%), the percentage of patients who experienced a dental emergency was less than 5% and that far fewer emergencies were attributable to removable (5.7%) than to fixed appliances (94.3%). Looking ahead, clinicians expressed a greater preference for using removable (60.8%) rather than fixed appliances (39.2%). Conclusion: During the lockdown, there relatively few orthodontic emergencies, many of which were handled by telephone consultation. However, a far lower percentage of emergencies were generated by removable (e.g., clear aligners) as opposed to fixed appliances (e.g., multibracket equipment), likely influencing the decision of the majority of clinicians to opt for removable appliances in the wake of the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Orthodontic Appliances , Orthodontic Appliances, Removable/microbiology , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , COVID-19/virology , Italy/epidemiology , Surveys and Questionnaires , Emergencies/epidemiology
18.
Environmental Health and Preventive Medicine ; : 99-99, 2021.
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922192

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES@#In this article, we aim to share our experience in the hospital reorganization made to conduct the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign, based on the principles of flexibility and adaptability.@*STUDY DESIGN@#A descriptive study.@*METHODS@#The data concerning the organization of the vaccination campaign were taken from the operative protocol developed by the hospital dedicated task force, composed by experts in hygiene, public health, occupational medicine, pharmacists, nurses, hospital quality, and disaster managers. Data about the numbers of vaccine administered daily were collected by the Innovation and Development Operative Unit database.@*RESULTS@#Vaccinations against COVID-19 started across the EU on the 27th of December 2020. The first phase of the vaccination campaign carried out in our hospital was directed to healthcare workers immunization including medical residents, social care operators, administrative staff and technicians, students of medicine, and health professions trainees. The second phase was enlarged to the coverage of extremely fragile subjects. Thanks to the massive employment of healthcare workers and the establishment of dynamic pathways, it was possible to achieve short turnaround times and a large number of doses administered daily, with peaks of 870 vaccines per day. From the 27th of December up to the 14th of March a total of 26,341 doses of Pfizer have been administered. 13,584 were first doses and 12,757 were second doses. From the 4th to the 14th of March, 296 first doses of Moderna were dispensed. It was necessary to implement adequate spaces and areas adopting anti-contagion safety measures: waiting area for subjects to be vaccinated, working rooms for the dilution of the vaccine and the storage of the material, vaccination rooms, post-vaccination observation areas, room for observation, and treatment of any adverse reactions, with an emergency cart available in each working area.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The teaching hospital of Pisa faced the beginning of the immunization campaign readjusting its spaces, planning an adequate hospital vaccination area and providing an organization plan to ensure the achievement of the targets of the campaign. This represented a challenge due to limited vaccine doses supplied and the multisectoral teams of professionals to coordinate in the shortest time and the safest way possible. The organizational model adopted proved to be adequate and therefore exploited also for the second phase aimed to extremely fragile subjects.


Subject(s)
Humans , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hospitals, Teaching/organization & administration , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
19.
Journal of Peking University(Health Sciences) ; (6): 536-542, 2021.
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942214

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the recent severity of COVID-19 in various countries.@*METHODS@#Data were ollected on the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in various countries as of January 16, 2021, and the scale and overall trend of the epidemic were retrospectively described; combined with the recent trend of newly confirmed cases, from January 10 to 16 (the 54th week) and the newly confirmed cases indexes, such as the number and incidence density the severity of the epidemic was classified. Feasible suggestions were put forward based on the variation of the virus, actual data of vaccine research and development and possible existence in many countries.@*RESULTS@#Up to January 16, 2021, there were 92 510 419 confirmed cases worldwide; 4 849 301 new confirmed cases were confirmed in the 54th week, and they were still growing. Among all the continents, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in Europe, North America, and Asia has exceeded 21 million, and the number of new confirmed cases in a single week in North America, South America and Asia were all increasing. Among the countries, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in 18 countries including the United States, India, and Brazil was more than 1 million, accounting for 77.04% of the total number of cumulative confirmed cases in the world. Eleven countries including the United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia, The United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, South Africa, Italy, and India are at higher risk of the epidemic; The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, and Colombia were still experiencing new confirmed cases and increasing status, the risk of the epidemic was greater. Novel coronavirus mutates frequently, up to February 2021, there had been 3 931 mutant genotypes in the world. At the same time, a total of 11 vaccines were successfully launched, however we were still facing some troubles, such as the global shortage of vaccines, the public's willingness to vaccinate needed to be improved, and equity in the distribution of vaccines.@*CONCLUSION@#The global epidemic situation is still getting worse, with repeated epidemics in all the continents and countries, and has not been fundamentally controlled. At the continent level, North America, South America, and Europe have the most severe epidemics; at the national level, The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia and other countries have higher epidemic risks. Focusing on the severely affected countries will help bring the global epidemic under control as soon as possible. Under the premise of ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines, it is a key and feasible direction to improve the yield and vaccination rate of the vaccines, shorten the onset time of the vaccines and prolong the immune persistence.


Subject(s)
Humans , Asia , Brazil , COVID-19 , Europe , France , India , Italy , North America , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , United Kingdom , United States
20.
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351222

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACT Objective To perform a morphological evaluation concerning the extent of interproximal enamel reduction (IPR) with different manual instruments in different types of teeth and a qualitative analysis of enamel surface characteristics at the contact point before and after IPR. Material and Methods 40 freshly extracted, caries-free, and intact human teeth were used for the study (20 bicuspids and 20 incisors) and performed IPR just on the mesial surface. The morphological variation of contact point was evaluated by superimposed the stl file, obtained thanks to an extraoral scanner, at T0 and T1 for each tooth. Two types of strip were used, Intensiv Manual Ortho Strips Coarse/Medium and Steelcarbo Horico Strips. Teeth were then cut lengthwise, removed the most apical root portion and the mesial and distal halves were gilded and observed at different magnifications. Results The morphological variation following stripping mainly depends on the extent of the stripping, while the diameter, the type of strip and the shape of the tooth itself do not appear to be relevant. The 500X and 1500X magnifications allowed to appreciate better the characteristics of the surface of the stripped enamel and the differences with the intact enamel. All teeth treated, independently from the kind of strip used, shows deep marks and grooves in the direction of stripping. In both cases, the enamel appears significantly damaged at great magnifications. Conclusion Stripping always and inevitably leads to a change in the shape of the contact point and is directly correlated to the amount of stripping performed. The use of polishing after the removal of enamel interproximal is necessary in all cases.


Subject(s)
Male , Female , Orthodontics/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques , Dental Arch , Dentition , Malocclusion/etiology , Regression Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Dental Enamel , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Italy/epidemiology
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