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Int. j. morphol ; 40(3): 657-661, jun. 2022. tab
Article in English | LILACS-Express | LILACS | ID: biblio-1385668


SUMMARY: Anthropometry is essential to understand the predisposition of an athlete to practice a specific sporting activity, to assess their fitness, and in association with functional parameters, to identify any correlations between their anthropometric profile and their sport performance. Here, we present the anthropometric profiles of athletes of the Italian national teams, who represented Italy in the 2019-2020 competitive season in the following sports: artistic (n=4) and rhythmic (n=12) gymnastics; distance swimming (speciality: 100 m freestyle) (n=14); synchronized swimming (n=10); and basketball (n=6). We also consider a group of sedentary women (n=22) for comparisons. The following anthropometric measurements were taken for each woman: stature; anterior trunk height (i.e., suprasternal- symphysion distance); chest circumference passing through the mesosternal point; biacromial diameter (i.e., akromion-akromion distance); wrist circumference; abdominal circumference passing through the omphalion and the lumbale; hip circumference; height of lower limb (i.e., epitrochanter-planta distance). Height was a selective factor in both basketball, which requires tall athletes, and artistic gymnastics, where in contrast, well-muscled athletes of small stature are required. In aquatic sports, the constitutional habitus is characterized by good development of the upper body compared to the lower limbs. The selection of elite athletes takes place primarily through anthropometric analyses, although other functional and psychological factors also influence their sports performance.

RESUMEN: La evaluación antropométrica de un atleta es fundamental para conocer su predisposición en la práctica de un determinado deporte, evaluar su estado de forma y, junto a los parámetros funcionales, identificar posibles relaciones entre el perfil antropométrico y el rendimiento. A continuación, presentamos el perfil antropométrico de las atletas de los Equipos Nacionales que representaron a Italia en la temporada 2019-2020 en las siguientes disciplinas deportivas: gimnasia rítmica (n=12), gimnasia artística (n=4), nado sincronizado (n=10), natación (especialidad: 100 m estilo libre) (n=14), baloncesto (n=6). A cada atleta le fueron efectuadas las siguientes mediciones: altura, altura anterior del torso (distancia supraesternal-symphysion), circunferencia torácica en el punto mesosternal, diámetro biacromial (distancia acromion-acromion), circunferencia de la muñeca, circunferencia abdominal a nivel umbilical, circunferencia pélvica, altura del miembro inferior (distancia epitrocantérea-planta). La altura es el factor selectivo en el baloncesto, que exige atletas altas, así como en la gimnasia artística que, al contrario, requiere atletas no muy altas y con una buena musculatura. En los deportes acuáticos, el rasgo característico es un buen desarrollo de la parte superior del cuerpo respecto a la parte inferior. La selección de los atletas de elite se realiza en primer lugar a través de estudios antropométricos, aunque el rendimiento depende también de otros factores funcionales y psicológicos.

Humans , Female , Adolescent , Young Adult , Sports , Anthropometry , Athletic Performance , Athletes , Aptitude , Italy
Ciênc. rural (Online) ; 52(10): e20210421, 2022. graf
Article in English | LILACS, VETINDEX | ID: biblio-1375121


Dog bite is one of the major public health problems involving people worldwide. Although, several studies have investigated this phenomenon in different countries, little information about the incidence of dog bite episodes in Italy is available. We analysed data about dog biting events between 2010 and 2019 provided by the CRIUV, the Regional Reference Centre for Veterinary Urban Hygiene in the largest city of Southern Italy, namely. Naples. We observed severe and profound inconsistencies in the data collection that reveal structural and significant weaknesses of the current data collection system. Given the multifactorial nature of dog bite, we highlight the need to improve the gathering of all the information related to the factors affecting the occurrence of biting episodes for an accurate assessment of the biting phenomenon.

A mordida de cães é um dos maiores problemas de saúde pública que envolve pessoas em todo o mundo. Embora vários estudos tenham investigado esse fenômeno em diferentes países, poucas informações sobre a incidência de episódios de mordidas por cães na Itália estão disponíveis. Analisamos dados sobre eventos de mordidas de cães entre 2010 e 2019 fornecidos pelo CRIUV, Centro de Referência Regional para Higiene Veterinária Urbana na maior cidade do sul da Itália, Nápoles. Observamos inconsistências graves e profundas na coleta de dados que revelam fragilidades estruturais e significativas do sistema de coleta de dados atual. Dada a natureza multifatorial da mordida canina, destaca-se a necessidade de melhorar a coleta de todas as informações relacionadas aos fatores que afetam a ocorrência de episódios de mordida para uma avaliação precisa deste fenômeno.

Humans , Animals , Dogs , Bites and Stings/veterinary , Human-Animal Bond , Aggression , Risk , Retrospective Studies , Italy
Braz. j. biol ; 82: e233567, 2022. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1249220


Abstract This research was carried out aiming at evaluating the effects of nitrate and ammonium ions on nutrient accumulation, biochemical components and yield of Italian zucchini (cv. Caserta) grown in a hydroponic system under salt stress conditions. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse utilizing an experimental design in randomized blocks, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with 4 replications. The treatments consisted of two forms of nitrogen (nitrate - NO3- and ammonium - NH4+) and 5 electrical conductivity levels of irrigation water (ECw) (0.5, 2.0, 3.5, 5.0 and 6.5 dS m-1). The analysis of the results indicated that supply of N exclusively in NH4+ form promotes greater damage to the leaf membrane and reduction in accumulation of macronutrients and higher Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ and Na+/Mg++ ratios in the shoots of zucchini plants. Electrical conductivity of irrigation water above 2.0 dS m-1 reduces the accumulation of nutrients in shoot and yield of Italian zucchini plant. The toxicity of NH4+ under Italian zucchini plants overlap the toxicity of the salinity, since its fertilization exclusively with this form of nitrogen inhibits its production, being the NO3- form the most suitable for the cultivation of the species.

Resumo Este trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos dos íons nitrato e amônio sobre o acúmulo de nutrientes e produção da abobrinha italiana (cv. Caserta) cultivada em sistema hidropônico sob estrese salino. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação utilizando o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, arranjados em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de duas formas de nitrogênio (nitrato - NO3- e amônio - NH4+) e cinco níveis de condutividade elétrica da água de irrigação (CEa) (0,5; 2,0; 3,5; 5,0 e 6,5 dS m-1). As análises dos resultados indicaram que suprimento de N exclusivamente em forma de NH4+ promove maiores danos na membrana foliar e redução no acúmulo de macronutrientes e maiores relações Na+/K+, Na+/Ca++ e Na+/Mg++ na parte aérea das plantas de abobrinha. A irrigação com água a cima de 2,0 dS m-1 reduz o acúmulo de nutrientes na parte aérea das plantas e a produção de abobrinha. A toxicidade do NH4+ sob abobrinha italiana sobrepõe-se à toxicidade da salinidade, pois a fertilização exclusiva com esta forma de nitrogênio inibe sua produção, sendo a forma NO3- a mais adequada para o cultivo da espécie.

Ammonium Compounds , Nitrogen , Plant Roots/chemistry , Salt Stress , Homeostasis , Italy , Nitrates
Arq. neuropsiquiatr ; 79(4): 346-349, Apr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1278379


ABSTRACT The longstanding study of gross anatomy experienced a considerable improvement with the advent of the microscope in the early 17th century. The representative personality of this new era certainly was Marcello Malpighi, seen as "founder of microscopic anatomy". He studied, with a rudimentary compound microscope, numerous tissues and organs of several classes of animals, as well as plants. He described, for the first time, the microscopic structure of the nervous system, identifying in the gray matter of its various levels minute elements he took as "glands". It should be reminded that the concept of "cell" (and "nerve cell") was unknown at his time. Many researchers followed, performing microscopic studies, but without better results, and Malpighi's view was maintained until the beginning of the 19th century, when new histological processing and staining techniques appeared, as well as improved microscopes.

RESUMO O estudo de longa data da anatomia macroscópica experimentou um incremento considerável com o advento do microscópio no início do século 17. A personalidade representativa dessa nova era foi, certamente, Marcello Malpighi, considerado "fundador da anatomia microscópica". Ele estudou, com um microscópio composto rudimentar, numerosos tecidos e órgãos de diversas classes de animais, assim como plantas. Descreveu, pela primeira vez, a estrutura microscópica do sistema nervoso, identificando na substância cinzenta dos vários níveis elementos de minúsculas dimensões, que denominou "glândulas". Deve-se lembrar que o conceito de "célula" (e de "célula nervosa") era desconhecido naquele tempo. Muitos pesquisadores seguiram realizando estudos microscópicos, mas sem resultados melhores, e o entendimento de Malpighi foi mantido até o início do século 19, quando apareceram técnicas histológicas novas de processamento e de coloração, assim como microscópios mais aprimorados.

Animals , History, 17th Century , Nervous System , Neurons , Staining and Labeling , Cerebral Cortex , Gray Matter , Italy
Rev. medica electron ; 43(2): 3047-3060, mar.-abr. 2021. tab, graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS, CUMED | ID: biblio-1251925


RESUMEN Introducción: la neumonía por covid-19 es la enfermedad infecciosa que ha revolucionado al mundo en los últimos meses. El diagnóstico pasa por varios momentos: el cuadro clínico, la analítica sanguínea y las imágenes. La estratificación del riesgo de muerte es muy importante para optimizar los recursos. Objetivos: validar un modelo matemático cubano predictivo de mortalidad en pacientes ingresados por covid-19. Materiales y métodos: estudio de cohorte con 191 pacientes, que ingresaron graves en el Hospital Mayor de Crema, en la provincia de Cremona, región de Lombardía (Italia), en el período de abril a mayo de 2020. El universo estuvo constituido por 191 pacientes, y no se tomó muestra alguna. Las variables fueron: edad, estado del paciente, niveles de creatinina plasmática, frecuencia respiratoria, frecuencia cardiaca, presión arterial, niveles de oxígeno y de dióxido de carbono en sangre, valor del sodio y de hemoglobina. Resultados: mortalidad del 22 % en pacientes graves y críticos, con media de la edad (grupo 1: 59 años) (grupo 2: 73 años); t-Student = 0,00. Test de Hosmer-Lemenshow (0,766) con elevado ajuste. Sensibilidad = 93 %. Área bajo la curva = 0,957. Porcentaje de aciertos en la regresión logística de 86,4 % y en la red neuronal de 91,2 %. Media del modelo por grupos (grupo 1: 4 458) (grupo 2: 2 911) t-Student = 0,00. Conclusiones: el modelo demostró ser muy útil en el flujograma de pacientes atendidos con la covid-19. Permitió detectar tempranamente (a los cinco días del ingreso) los pacientes con alto riesgo de muerte y discriminar aquellos que no tendrían este riesgo, de manera que pudieran ser tratados en unidades de cuidados mínimos (AU).

ABSTRACT Introduction: COVID-19 pneumonia is an infectious disease that has revolutionized the world in the last months. The diagnosis goes thought several moments: clinical features, blood analytic and images. Death risk stratification is very important to optimize resources. Objective: to validate the Cuban mathematic predictive model of mortality in patients admitted due to COVID-19. Materials and methods: cohort study with 191 seriously-ill patients who were admitted to Maggiore di Crema Hospital, Cremona, Lombardy region, Italy, in the period April-May 2020. The universe were 191 patients and no sample was chosen. The variables were: age; patient's status; plasma creatinine levels; respiratory rate; heart rate; arterial pressure; blood oxygen and carbon dioxide levels; values of sodium and hemoglobin. Results: 22 % of mortality in seriously-ill and critical patients, with average age in Group 1: 59 years, in Group 2: 73 years; t-Student = 0.00. Hosmer-Lemenshow test (0.766) with high adjustment. Sensitivity= 93 %. Area below the curve=0.957. Success percentage in logistic regression of 86.4 % and 91.2 % in the neuronal net. Model media per groups: Group 1= 4 458; Group 2= 2 911, t-Student = 0.00. Conclusions: the model showed to be very useful in the flow chart of patients attended with COVID-19. It allowed to early detect the patients at high death risk five days from admission and discriminating those who were not at risk, in a way that they could be treated in minimal care units (AU).

Humans , Male , Female , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Patient Acuity , Forecasting/methods , Patients , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Aftercare/methods , Italy , Medical Missions
Epidemiol. serv. saúde ; 30(1): e2020513, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English, Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154140


Objetivo: Descrever as medidas de contenção de tipo lockdown e a incidência da COVID-19 em sete países: África do Sul, Alemanha, Brasil, Espanha, Estados Unidos, Itália e Nova Zelândia. Métodos: Estudo ecológico descritivo, com dados da incidência diária dos casos confirmados de COVID-19 entre 22 de fevereiro e 31 de agosto de 2020, e informações sobre medidas de lockdown implementadas pelo governo de cada país. Resultados: Os países que implementaram lockdown tiveram diminuição da incidência diária de COVID-19 (casos por milhão de habitantes) no período de três semanas, a contar do início da medida: África do Sul (3,7 a 1,7), Alemanha (37,5 a 33,7), Espanha (176,3 a 82,0), Itália (92,0 a 52,1) e Nova Zelândia (7,5 a 1,7). O Brasil e os Estados Unidos, que não implementaram lockdown, não apresentaram uma diminuição considerável. Conclusão: Após a implementação de lockdown, houve uma diminuição considerável do número de casos confirmados.

Objetivo: Describir las medidas de contención tipo lockdown y la incidencia de COVID-19 en los países de Sudáfrica, Alemania, Brasil, España, Estados Unidos, Italia y Nueva Zelanda. Métodos: Estudio ecológico descriptivo con datos de la incidencia diaria de los casos confirmados de COVID-19, del 22 de febrero al 31 de agosto de 2020 e informaciones sobre medidas de contención lockdown implementadas por los gobiernos de cada uno de los países. Resultados: Los países que implementaron lockdown, desde el inicio de su implementación hasta tres semanas después, tuvieron una disminución en la incidencia diaria (casos por millón de habitantes): Sudáfrica (3,7 a 1,7), Alemania (37,5 a 33,7), España (176,3 a 82,0), Italia (92,0 a 52,1) y Nueva Zelanda (7,5 a 1,7). Brasil y Estados Unidos, que no implementaron lockdown, no tuvieron una disminución considerable Conclusión: Luego de la implementación del lockdown, hubo una disminución considerable en el número de casos confirmados.

Objective: To describe lockdown-type containment measures and COVID-19 incidence in South Africa, Germany, Brazil, Spain, United States, Italy and New Zealand. Methods: This is a descriptive ecological study with data on daily incidence of confirmed COVID-19 cases from February 22 to August 31 2020, as well as information on lockdown measures implemented by the governments of each country. Results: Daily COVID-19 incidence (cases per 1 million inhabitants) decreased within three weeks after lockdown started in the countries that implemented it: South Africa (3.7 to 1.7), Germany (37.5 to 33.7) Spain (176.3 to 82.0), Italy (92.0 to 52.1) and New Zealand (7.5 to 1.7). As for Brazil and the United States, which did not implement lockdown, there was no considerable decrease. Conclusion: After lockdown implementation, there was a considerable decrease in the number of confirmed cases.

Humans , Psychological Distance , Quarantine/methods , Communicable Disease Control/statistics & numerical data , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , South Africa/epidemiology , Spain/epidemiology , United States/epidemiology , Brazil/epidemiology , Incidence , Ecological Studies , Pandemics/prevention & control , Germany/epidemiology , Health Policy/trends , Italy/epidemiology , New Zealand/epidemiology
Article in English | WPRIM | ID: wpr-922192


OBJECTIVES@#In this article, we aim to share our experience in the hospital reorganization made to conduct the SARS-CoV-2 vaccination campaign, based on the principles of flexibility and adaptability.@*STUDY DESIGN@#A descriptive study.@*METHODS@#The data concerning the organization of the vaccination campaign were taken from the operative protocol developed by the hospital dedicated task force, composed by experts in hygiene, public health, occupational medicine, pharmacists, nurses, hospital quality, and disaster managers. Data about the numbers of vaccine administered daily were collected by the Innovation and Development Operative Unit database.@*RESULTS@#Vaccinations against COVID-19 started across the EU on the 27th of December 2020. The first phase of the vaccination campaign carried out in our hospital was directed to healthcare workers immunization including medical residents, social care operators, administrative staff and technicians, students of medicine, and health professions trainees. The second phase was enlarged to the coverage of extremely fragile subjects. Thanks to the massive employment of healthcare workers and the establishment of dynamic pathways, it was possible to achieve short turnaround times and a large number of doses administered daily, with peaks of 870 vaccines per day. From the 27th of December up to the 14th of March a total of 26,341 doses of Pfizer have been administered. 13,584 were first doses and 12,757 were second doses. From the 4th to the 14th of March, 296 first doses of Moderna were dispensed. It was necessary to implement adequate spaces and areas adopting anti-contagion safety measures: waiting area for subjects to be vaccinated, working rooms for the dilution of the vaccine and the storage of the material, vaccination rooms, post-vaccination observation areas, room for observation, and treatment of any adverse reactions, with an emergency cart available in each working area.@*CONCLUSIONS@#The teaching hospital of Pisa faced the beginning of the immunization campaign readjusting its spaces, planning an adequate hospital vaccination area and providing an organization plan to ensure the achievement of the targets of the campaign. This represented a challenge due to limited vaccine doses supplied and the multisectoral teams of professionals to coordinate in the shortest time and the safest way possible. The organizational model adopted proved to be adequate and therefore exploited also for the second phase aimed to extremely fragile subjects.

2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Hospitals, Teaching/organization & administration , Humans , Immunization Programs/organization & administration , Italy/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology
Article in Chinese | WPRIM | ID: wpr-942214


OBJECTIVE@#To analyze the recent severity of COVID-19 in various countries.@*METHODS@#Data were ollected on the epidemic situation of COVID-19 in various countries as of January 16, 2021, and the scale and overall trend of the epidemic were retrospectively described; combined with the recent trend of newly confirmed cases, from January 10 to 16 (the 54th week) and the newly confirmed cases indexes, such as the number and incidence density the severity of the epidemic was classified. Feasible suggestions were put forward based on the variation of the virus, actual data of vaccine research and development and possible existence in many countries.@*RESULTS@#Up to January 16, 2021, there were 92 510 419 confirmed cases worldwide; 4 849 301 new confirmed cases were confirmed in the 54th week, and they were still growing. Among all the continents, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in Europe, North America, and Asia has exceeded 21 million, and the number of new confirmed cases in a single week in North America, South America and Asia were all increasing. Among the countries, the cumulative number of confirmed cases in 18 countries including the United States, India, and Brazil was more than 1 million, accounting for 77.04% of the total number of cumulative confirmed cases in the world. Eleven countries including the United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia, The United Kingdom, Russia, Germany, South Africa, Italy, and India are at higher risk of the epidemic; The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, and Colombia were still experiencing new confirmed cases and increasing status, the risk of the epidemic was greater. Novel coronavirus mutates frequently, up to February 2021, there had been 3 931 mutant genotypes in the world. At the same time, a total of 11 vaccines were successfully launched, however we were still facing some troubles, such as the global shortage of vaccines, the public's willingness to vaccinate needed to be improved, and equity in the distribution of vaccines.@*CONCLUSION@#The global epidemic situation is still getting worse, with repeated epidemics in all the continents and countries, and has not been fundamentally controlled. At the continent level, North America, South America, and Europe have the most severe epidemics; at the national level, The United States, Brazil, France, Spain, Colombia and other countries have higher epidemic risks. Focusing on the severely affected countries will help bring the global epidemic under control as soon as possible. Under the premise of ensuring the safety and effectiveness of the vaccines, it is a key and feasible direction to improve the yield and vaccination rate of the vaccines, shorten the onset time of the vaccines and prolong the immune persistence.

Asia , Brazil , COVID-19 , Europe , France , Humans , India , Italy , North America , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Spain , United Kingdom , United States
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e210028, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351224


ABSTRACT Objective To evaluate the accuracy of three different digital bracket positioning systems, comparing vertical, mesiodistal and buccolingual accuracy. Material and Methods The same case was sent to Orapix, Insignia, and Orthocad systems and the brackets were bonded to the malocclusion models.Damon 3 MX brackets were used with all systems and the brackets were bonded to the models with the same bonding protocol and materials. The comparison of the position of each single bracket was made with digital photography, and ImageJ software was used to find the length in pixels and then convert it to hundredths of a mm for vertical, mesiodistal and buccolingual displacement, compared to the setup. Results Insignia System reported the average higher vertical displacement (0.28 mm), compared with the other two appliances (0.22-0.23 mm), and showed the lowest average displacement for the mesiodistal and buccolingual positioning (0.14 and 0.07 mm, respectively).However, these slight bracket positioning variations between these bonding systems were not statistically different (p>0.05). Conclusion The three systems analyzed were shown to be accurate in positioning the brackets, and none of them was statistically better.

Humans , Adult , Orthodontics, Corrective/instrumentation , Orthodontic Brackets , Computer-Aided Design/instrumentation , Data Accuracy , Malocclusion , Analysis of Variance , Statistics, Nonparametric , Photography, Dental/instrumentation , Italy
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0032, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351223


ABSTRACT Objective: To investigate the effectiveness of Suresmile® lingual therapy on torque, tip, and rotations measures through digital evaluation of planning and post-treatment digital models. Material and Methods: A sample of 12 Caucasian adult patients (4 men; mean age 30.6 years ± 3.9 and 8 women; mean age 31.4 years ± 4.5) treated with the Suresmile® lingual orthodontic technique was retrospectively selected, regardless of the type of malocclusion. Digital planning was performed with Suresmile® software, while lingual therapy was accomplished with interactive self-ligating lingual brackets and customized Suresmile® arches. First, digital models of planning and post-treatment digital models were compared using VAM software (and the discrepancies were analyzed through MANOVA and four multivariate. Then, Tukey and Bonferroni's post-hoc tests are performed. Results: The accuracy average values are 60.11 ± 27.67% for torque, 53.52 ± 27.37% for tip and 59.19 ± 26.42% for rotation, while for inaccuracy values are 2.72° ± 2.23° for torque, 2.98° ± 2.16°for tip and 3.58° ± 3.29° for rotation. No significant differences have been recorded evaluating different sectors of both arches. Conclusion: This retrospective preliminary study highlight how overcorrections, especially in the Suresmile lingual technique, should be performed during orthodontic planning. Moreover, the study gets bases for further, more structured future studies that should involve larger and more homogeneous samples.

Humans , Female , Adult , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Occlusion , Esthetics, Dental , Orthodontic Appliances, Fixed , Malocclusion , Pilot Projects , Multivariate Analysis , Retrospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Italy
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0021, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1351222


ABSTRACT Objective To perform a morphological evaluation concerning the extent of interproximal enamel reduction (IPR) with different manual instruments in different types of teeth and a qualitative analysis of enamel surface characteristics at the contact point before and after IPR. Material and Methods 40 freshly extracted, caries-free, and intact human teeth were used for the study (20 bicuspids and 20 incisors) and performed IPR just on the mesial surface. The morphological variation of contact point was evaluated by superimposed the stl file, obtained thanks to an extraoral scanner, at T0 and T1 for each tooth. Two types of strip were used, Intensiv Manual Ortho Strips Coarse/Medium and Steelcarbo Horico Strips. Teeth were then cut lengthwise, removed the most apical root portion and the mesial and distal halves were gilded and observed at different magnifications. Results The morphological variation following stripping mainly depends on the extent of the stripping, while the diameter, the type of strip and the shape of the tooth itself do not appear to be relevant. The 500X and 1500X magnifications allowed to appreciate better the characteristics of the surface of the stripped enamel and the differences with the intact enamel. All teeth treated, independently from the kind of strip used, shows deep marks and grooves in the direction of stripping. In both cases, the enamel appears significantly damaged at great magnifications. Conclusion Stripping always and inevitably leads to a change in the shape of the contact point and is directly correlated to the amount of stripping performed. The use of polishing after the removal of enamel interproximal is necessary in all cases.

Male , Female , Orthodontics/instrumentation , In Vitro Techniques , Dental Arch , Dentition , Malocclusion/etiology , Regression Analysis , Longitudinal Studies , Dental Enamel , Evaluation Studies as Topic , Italy/epidemiology
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346674


ABSTRACT Objective: To assess the scientific evidence on direct and indirect bonding techniques to analyse the differences related to treatment time, number of appointments and number of bracket detachments. Material and Methods: The MEDLINE and Cochrane Library databases were searched through to March 2021. Reference lists from the retrieved publications were also examined. The following article types that described data on the different types of direct and indirect bonding techniques in orthodontics were included: prospective and retrospective cohort studies, case-control studies and randomized controlled clinical trials (RCCTs). Two review authors independently assessed eligibility, extracted data, and ascertained the quality of the studies. Results: The search strategy initially resulted in 824 articles, and after a careful selection comprising the inclusion criteria, 12 articles were picked for the final review, specifically 2 cohort studies, 4 case-control studies and 6 RCCTs. The methodological quality was low in 4 studies, medium in 2, and high in 6 articles. Conclusion: The evidence currently available suggests that the use of computer-aided bonding is related to a reduction in treatment time and the number of appointments compared to direct and manual indirect bonding. However, the total bonding time for computer-aided bonding technique, including digital bracket placement, was longer than for direct bonding. Further high-quality RCTs on the differences between direct and indirect bonding are necessary to determine more precise data, as well as additional advantages and disadvantages.

Dental Bonding/instrumentation , Orthodontic Brackets , Dental Materials , Methods , Retrospective Studies , Italy
Salud colect ; 17: e3231, 2021. graf
Article in Spanish | LILACS | ID: biblio-1252144


RESUMEN En Italia, la aplicación de la obligatoriedad de las vacunas infantiles en 2017 ha sido una consecuencia de la consolidación de la reticencia a la vacunación, un fenómeno que se ha difundido en mayor medida a partir del despliegue de las redes sociales. Este artículo plantea la gestión y percepción del riesgo sobre las vacunaciones infantiles a través del análisis de los contenidos online compartidos por parte de los movimientos de reticencia italianos, realizado entre diciembre de 2019 y abril de 2020. Los resultados señalan que estos movimientos actúan una reinterpretación del riesgo, de la evidencia científica y de la responsabilidad parental sobre todo a través de una presupuesta correlación entre vacuna antisarampión y autismo. Las limitaciones de las decisiones políticas en tema de vacunas se deben a la aplicación de estrategias de carácter punitivo, como sanciones administrativas y exclusión del registro de médicos, que expresan ideas "no vax", factores que pueden aumentar la desconfianza en la clase política y la medicina.

ABSTRACT In Italy, the passing of mandatory pediatric vaccinations in 2017 was a consequence of increasing vaccine hesitancy in the country, a phenomenon that has largely spread on social networks. This article examines risk management and risk perception regarding pediatric vaccinations through an analysis of online content shared by Italian vaccine hesitancy movements between December of 2019 and April of 2020. Results show that these movements carry out a reinterpretation of risk, scientific evidence, and parental responsibility, especially with regard to the alleged correlation between the measles vaccine and autism. The limitations of political decisions surrounding vaccines are due to the application of punitive measures such as administrative penalties and licensing bans for doctors who express "anti-vax" ideas, aspects which may increase distrust towards the political establishment and the medical profession.

Humans , Child , Vaccines/adverse effects , Perception , Risk Management , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Vaccination , Italy
Rev. bras. estud. popul ; 38: e0172, 2021. tab, graf
Article in Portuguese | LILACS | ID: biblio-1341119


Em consonância com os estudos em Demografia Histórica e História da Família, este artigo visa a resgatar aspectos relativos à nupcialidade vivenciada pelos italianos e seus descendentes no município de Franca, interior do estado de São Paulo. A reflexão é corroborada pela historiografia recente que aponta a expansão da economia cafeeira no interior paulista como responsável por alterações no panorama demográfico por meio da atração de uma imigração internacional em massa, cujos impactos foram sentidos em diferentes espaços de ação, na família, nas relações matrimoniais, na etnicidade e integração desses grupos na sociedade brasileira entre o final do século XIX e as primeiras décadas do século XX. Combinando metodologias seriais e de microanálise para explorar os dados disponíveis nos registros de matrícula da Hospedaria de Imigrantes de São Paulo e assentos de casamento do Registro Paroquial do Arquivo da Cúria Diocesana de Franca (1885-1930), abre-se caminho para enriquecer o universo de interpretações sobre a nupcialidade nos municípios atingidos pela imigração internacional de italianos. Esse artigo examina os impactos das variáveis imigratórias nos padrões de casamento dos italianos no município e resgata aspectos da endogamia desse grupo, favorecida pelos respectivos contextos e bagagens culturais que conduziram o processo imigratório por eles vivenciado.

In line with studies in Demographic History and Family History, this article aims to rescue aspects related to nuptiality experienced by Italians and their descendants in the municipality of Franca, in the interior of the state of São Paulo. The reflection is corroborated by recent historiography research pointing to the expansion of the coffee-based economy in the interior of São Paulo as responsible for demographic changes through the attraction of mass international immigration. This affected different areas, including family, matrimonial relations, ethnicity and integration of these groups in Brazilian society at the turn of the 20th century. A combination of serial and microanalysis methodologies to explore the data available in the registration records of the São Paulo Immigrant Inn and wedding seats in the Parish Records of the Diocesan Archive of Franca (1885-1930), paves the way to expand the universe of interpretations on nuptiality in municipalities affected by Italian immigration. This article examines the impacts of immigration variables on Italians' marriage patterns in the municipality and retrieves aspects of this groups' inbreeding, favored by the respective cultural contexts and backgrounds that led to the immigration process they experienced.

En línea con los estudios en Demografía histórica e Historia familiar, este artículo tiene como objetivo rescatar aspectos relacionados con la nupcialidad vivida por los italianos y sus descendientes en el municipio de Franca, en el interior del estado de San Pablo. La reflexión es corroborada por la historiografía reciente, que apunta a la expansión de la economía cafetera en el interior del estado como responsable de cambios en el panorama demográfico mediante la atracción de la inmigración internacional masiva, cuyos impactos se sintieron en diferentes espacios de acción, en la familia, en las relaciones matrimoniales, en la etnicidad y en la integración de estos grupos en la sociedad brasileña entre fines del siglo XIX y las primeras décadas del XX. Al combinar metodologías seriadas y de microanálisis para explorar los datos disponibles en los registros de la Posada de Inmigrantes de San Pablo y en los asientos de boda del Registro Parroquial del Archivo de la Curia Diocesana de Franca (1885-1930) se abre el camino para enriquecer el universo de interpretaciones sobre nupcialidad en los municipios afectados por la inmigración internacional de italianos. Este artículo examina los impactos de las variables de inmigración en los patrones matrimoniales de los italianos en el municipio y recupera aspectos de la endogamia de este grupo, favorecida por los respectivos contextos culturales y antecedentes que llevaron al proceso de inmigración que vivieron.

Humans , Marriage , Demography , Emigrants and Immigrants , Brazil/ethnology , Ethnicity , Family/history , Records , Inbreeding , Italy/ethnology
Einstein (Säo Paulo) ; 19: eAO6002, 2021. graf
Article in English | LILACS | ID: biblio-1154091


ABSTRACT Objective: To carry out a scoping review of the meta-analyses published regarding about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), evaluating their main characteristics, publication trends and methodological quality. Methods: A bibliometric search was performed in PubMed®, Scopus and Web of Science, focusing on meta-analyses about COVID-2019 disease. Bibliometric and descriptive data for the included articles were extracted and the methodological quality of the included meta-analyses was evaluated using A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Results: A total of 348 meta-analyses were considered eligible. The first meta-analysis about COVID-19 disease was published on February 26, 2020, and the number of meta-analyses has grown rapidly since then. Most of them were published in infectious disease and virology journals. The greatest number come from China, followed by the United States, Italy and the United Kingdom. On average, these meta-analyses included 23 studies and 15,200 participants. Overall quality was remarkably low, and only 8.9% of them could be considered as of high confidence level. Conclusion: Although well-designed meta-analyses about COVID-19 disease have already been published, the majority are of low quality. Thus, all stakeholders playing a role in COVID-19 deseases, including policy makers, researchers, publishers and journals, should prioritize well-designed meta-analyses, performed only when the background information seem suitable, and discouraging those of low quality or that use suboptimal methods.

RESUMO Objetivo: Realizar uma revisão de escopo das metanálises publicadas sobre a doença pelo coronavírus 2019 (COVID-19), avaliando suas principais características, tendências de publicação e qualidade metodológica. Métodos: Uma busca bibliométrica foi realizada em PubMed®, Scopus e Web of Science, com foco em metanálises sobre a doença pelo COVID-19. Foram extraídos dados bibliométricos e descritivos dos artigos incluídos, e a qualidade metodológica foi avaliada usando a ferramenta A Measurement Tool to Assess Systematic Reviews. Resultados: Um total de 348 metanálises foram consideradas elegíveis. A primeira delas foi publicada em 26 de fevereiro de 2020, e, desde então, o número dessas publicações cresceu rapidamente. A maioria foi publicada em periódicos de infectologia e virologia. Grande parte é proveniente da China, seguida dos Estados Unidos, da Itália e do Reino Unido. Em média, as metanálises incluíram 23 estudos e 15.200 participantes. Em geral, a qualidade metodológica foi baixa, e apenas 8,9% delas podem ser consideradas de algum grau de confiabilidade Conclusão: Embora algumas metanálises bem conduzidas sobre a doença pelo COVID-19 tenham sido publicadas, a maioria apresenta baixa qualidade. Todos os envolvidos na abordagem da doença pelo COVID-19, incluindo formuladores de políticas, pesquisadores, editoras e periódicos, devem dar prioridade a metanálises de alta qualidade, realizadas apenas quando os dados são viáveis, e desencorajar as de baixa qualidade ou conduzidas com métodos subótimos.

Humans , Bibliometrics , COVID-19 , United States , China , Meta-Analysis as Topic , Databases, Bibliographic , Systematic Reviews as Topic , United Kingdom , Italy
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0020, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346688


ABSTRACT Objective: To exploit 3D measurement technology to determine any correlation between neonatal palate morphology and occlusal outcomes at five years in patients receiving surgery for unilateral cleft lip and palate (CLP). Material and Methods: Twenty-nine neonatal and 5-year models treated by the same surgeon using the same protocol for CLP correction were scanned using a high-resolution structured-light scanner and stored in stl format. Dedicated software was used to make linear and surface area measurements on the neonatal models, and each digitized 5-year model was assigned a Five-Year-Old (5YO) index score on three separate occasions by the same investigator. Results: Minimum, maximum, mean, standard deviation and standard error were calculated for each variable considered, and the Pearson coefficient was used to identify any correlations between neonatal variables and 5YO scores. Linear regression analysis showed that the only variable to approach significance was the posterior width of the cleft, which showed an R2 equal to 0.111, indicating that it accounts for 11% of the variability of the 5YO index. There was no other appreciable correlation between linear measurements, surface areas, or their inter-relationships. Conclusion: There is no correlation between neonatal morphological characteristics and occlusal outcomes at 5 years in CLP patients treated via the surgical protocol considered.

Humans , Male , Female , Child, Preschool , Orthodontics , Child , Cleft Palate/pathology , Jaw Abnormalities , Linear Models , Clinical Protocols , Italy
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0030, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346687


ABSTRACT Objective: To obtain reference values for tip, torque and in-out from digital models of Italian and Mozambican subjects in ideal occlusion using a repeatable and validated method and to compare these measurements with previously reported values. Material and Methods: Dental parameters were acquired from digital models of each subject, categorized to one of two groups: Italians (23 males, 27 females; mean age 28.3 years, ±5.7 years) and Mozambicans (14 males, 15 females; mean age, 23.4 years, ±5.9), using VAM software. All subjects had ideal occlusion, permanent dentition and no previous orthodontic treatment, fillings or prostheses. After normality of data was assumed (p<0.05), a paired t-test was performed to detect any statistical differences between the two groups (p<0.05). Then, classical inference (t-test and power analysis) was used to compare our data to those reported by other authors. Results: Mozambicans' incisors were more proclined, while their upper molars appeared to be more prominent regarding Italians'. Italians shown greater tip values, especially at the upper first premolars and lower first molars. In-out values were comparable between the two groups, except for the upper molars (more prominent in Mozambicans) and lower first molar (more prominent in Italians). Unlike other reports, upper second molars displayed negative tip in our samples. Conclusion: Pre-adjusted appliances with standard prescription should not be expected to guarantee optimal outcomes. Prescriptions specific for ethnicities are recommended and reference values should be reconsidered.

Humans , Male , Female , Adolescent , Adult , Orthodontic Appliances , Dentition, Permanent , Torque , Dental Occlusion , Italy , Mozambique , Orthodontics , Statistics, Nonparametric
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0029, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1346686


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate the accuracy of Virtual Surgical Planning (VSP) comparing VSPs and post-operative CBCT scans in patients undergoing bimaxillary orthognathic surgery of severe Skeletal Class III malocclusion. Material and Methods: Twenty-three patients (9 males and 14 females, mean age 24.1 ± 7.0 years) were selected and submitted to bimaxillary orthognathic surgery. Pre-operative VSPs and post-operative CBCTs were compared using both linear (taking into account four skeletal and six dental landmarks, each one described by the respective coordinates) and angular measures (seven planes in total). The threshold discrepancies for post-operative clinical acceptable results were set at ≤2 mm for liner and ≤4° for angular discrepancies. The mean difference values and its 95% confidence interval were identified, comparing which planned and which obtained in absolute value. Results: There were significant statistical differences for all absolute linear measures investigated, although only two overcome the linear threshold value of 2mm in both X and Y-linear dimensions. Linear deviations in Z-linear dimension do not reach statistical significance. All 12 angular measures reach the statistical significance, although none overcome the threshold angular value of 4°. Angular deviation for roll register the higher accuracy in contrast to pitch and yaw. Conclusion: Virtual surgical planning is a reliable planning method to be used in orthognathic surgery field; as a matter of fact, although some discrepancies between the planned on the obtained are evident, most of them meet the tolerability range.

Humans , Male , Female , Adult , Aged , Epidemiologic Studies , Retrospective Studies , Orthognathic Surgery , Malocclusion/pathology , Malocclusion, Angle Class III/pathology , Data Interpretation, Statistical , Italy
Pesqui. bras. odontopediatria clín. integr ; 21(supl.1): e0019, 2021. tab, graf
Article in English | LILACS, BBO | ID: biblio-1340343


ABSTRACT Objective: To evaluate how the lower arch spontaneously change after upper rapid palatal expansion in a group of patients with transversal skeletal deficit. Material and Methods: Twenty-four patients treated by the same orthodontist with a rapid palatal expander (RPE) bounded on a deciduous molar have been selected. The sample was divided into two groups: no treatment was provided for group one, while group two was treated using a lip bumper or Schwarz appliance. For each patient, dental casts were collected when the RPE was bounded (T0) and at the end of treatment, 9 months ± 3 months later (T1). Each outcome was analyzed, providing descriptive statistics, main effects significance tests and post-hoc analyses with the objective to evaluate the variations between pre-treatment (TO) and post-treatment (T1) of each of them. Results: If the linear measurements are considered, a significant beneficial effect on both arches is observed. However, the upper arch always shows a major increase of all values at T1 with respect to the lower arch. Even though the post-hoc tables indicate that time differences are all statistically significant across considered partitions, the lower arch's increase is more pronounced in group two, where patients were treated in both arches. If the angular measurements are concerned, the increase of lingual crown inclination was found in all patients, independently from the type of treatment in lower arch. Conclusion: All patients show normalization of upper diameters, regardless of whether the lower arch was treated or not.

Humans , Male , Female , Orthodontics , Palatal Expansion Technique/instrumentation , Extraoral Traction Appliances , Orthodontists , Malocclusion, Angle Class III , Prospective Studies , Statistics, Nonparametric , Italy